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Sample records for scpb-lmb intergenic region

  1. Intergenic disease-associated regions are abundant in novel transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonicek, N; Clark, M B; Quek, X C; Torpy, J R; Pritchard, A L; Maag, J L V; Gloss, B S; Crawford, J; Taft, R J; Hayward, N K; Montgomery, G W; Mattick, J S; Mercer, T R; Dinger, M E

    2017-12-28

    Genotyping of large populations through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has successfully identified many genomic variants associated with traits or disease risk. Unexpectedly, a large proportion of GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and associated haplotype blocks are in intronic and intergenic regions, hindering their functional evaluation. While some of these risk-susceptibility regions encompass cis-regulatory sites, their transcriptional potential has never been systematically explored. To detect rare tissue-specific expression, we employed the transcript-enrichment method CaptureSeq on 21 human tissues to identify 1775 multi-exonic transcripts from 561 intronic and intergenic haploblocks associated with 392 traits and diseases, covering 73.9 Mb (2.2%) of the human genome. We show that a large proportion (85%) of disease-associated haploblocks express novel multi-exonic non-coding transcripts that are tissue-specific and enriched for GWAS SNPs as well as epigenetic markers of active transcription and enhancer activity. Similarly, we captured transcriptomes from 13 melanomas, targeting nine melanoma-associated haploblocks, and characterized 31 novel melanoma-specific transcripts that include fusion proteins, novel exons and non-coding RNAs, one-third of which showed allelically imbalanced expression. This resource of previously unreported transcripts in disease-associated regions ( http://gwas-captureseq.dingerlab.org ) should provide an important starting point for the translational community in search of novel biomarkers, disease mechanisms, and drug targets.

  2. Species identification of medicinal pteridophytes by a DNA barcode marker, the chloroplast psbA-trnH intergenic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin-Ye; Xie, Cai-Xiang; Liu, Chang; Song, Jing-Yuan; Yao, Hui; Luo, Kun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Gao, Ting; Pang, Xiao-Hui; Qian, Jun; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal pteridophytes are an important group used in traditional Chinese medicine; however, there is no simple and universal way to differentiate various species of this group by morphological traits. A novel technology termed "DNA barcoding" could discriminate species by a standard DNA sequence with universal primers and sufficient variation. To determine whether DNA barcoding would be effective for differentiating pteridophyte species, we first analyzed five DNA sequence markers (psbA-trnH intergenic region, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, and matK) using six chloroplast genomic sequences from GeneBank and found psbA-trnH intergenic region the best candidate for availability of universal primers. Next, we amplified the psbA-trnH region from 79 samples of medicinal pteridophyte plants. These samples represented 51 species from 24 families, including all the authentic pteridophyte species listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia (2005 version) and some commonly used adulterants. We found that the sequence of the psbA-trnH intergenic region can be determined with both high polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification efficiency (94.1%) and high direct sequencing success rate (81.3%). Combined with GeneBank data (54 species cross 12 pteridophyte families), species discriminative power analysis showed that 90.2% of species could be separated/identified successfully by the TaxonGap method in conjunction with the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool 1 (BLAST1) method. The TaxonGap method results further showed that, for 37 out of 39 separable species with at least two samples each, between-species variation was higher than the relevant within-species variation. Thus, the psbA-trnH intergenic region is a suitable DNA marker for species identification in medicinal pteridophytes.

  3. Copy Number Variations in Candidate Genes and Intergenic Regions Affect Body Mass Index and Abdominal Obesity in Mexican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguete-García, Ana Isabel; Bonnefond, Amélie; Peralta-Romero, Jesús; Froguel, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Increase in body weight is a gradual process that usually begins in childhood and in adolescence as a result of multiple interactions among environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between copy number variants (CNVs) in five genes and four intergenic regions with obesity in Mexican children. Methods. We studied 1423 children aged 6–12 years. Anthropometric measurements and blood levels of biochemical parameters were obtained. Identification of CNVs was performed by real-time PCR. The effect of CNVs on obesity or body composition was assessed using regression models adjusted for age, gender, and family history of obesity. Results. Gains in copy numbers of LEPR and NEGR1 were associated with decreased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and risk of abdominal obesity, whereas gain in ARHGEF4 and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d and losses in INS were associated with increased BMI and WC. Conclusion. Our results indicate a possible contribution of CNVs in LEPR, NEGR1, ARHGEF4, and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d to the development of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity in Mexican children. PMID:28428959

  4. Identification of Dendrobium species by a candidate DNA barcode sequence: the chloroplast psbA-trnH intergenic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui; Song, Jing-Yuan; Ma, Xin-Ye; Liu, Chang; Li, Ying; Xu, Hong-Xi; Han, Jian-Ping; Duan, Li-Sheng; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2009-05-01

    DNA barcoding is a novel technology that uses a standard DNA sequence to facilitate species identification. Although a consensus has not been reached regarding which DNA sequences can be used as the best plant barcodes, the psbA-trnH spacer region has been tested extensively in recent years. In this study, we hypothesize that the psbA-trnH spacer regions are also effective barcodes for Dendrobium species. We have sequenced the chloroplast psbA-trnH intergenic spacers of 17 Dendrobium species to test this hypothesis. The sequences were found to be significantly different from those of other species, with percentages of variation ranging from 0.3 % to 2.3 % and an average of 1.2 %. In contrast, the intraspecific variation among the Dendrobium species studied ranged from 0 % to 0.1 %. The sequence difference between the psbA-trnH sequences of 17 Dendrobium species and one Bulbophyllum odoratissimum ranged from 2.0 % to 3.1 %, with an average of 2.5 %. Our results support the notion that the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer region could be used as a barcode to distinguish various Dendrobium species and to differentiate Dendrobium species from other adulterating species. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  5. Molecular characterization of a novel bat-associated circovirus with a poly-T tract in the 3' intergenic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aiwei; Jiang, Tinglei; Hu, Tingsong; Mi, Shijiang; Zhao, Zihan; Zhang, Fuqiang; Feng, Jiang; Fan, Quanshui; He, Biao; Tu, Changchun

    2018-05-02

    The family Circoviridae comprises a large group of small circular single-stranded DNA viruses with several members causing severe pig and poultry diseases. In recent years the number of new viruses within the family has had an explosive increase showing a high level of genetic diversity and a broad host range. In this report we describe two more circoviruses identified from bats in Yunnan and Heilongjiang provinces in China. Full genome sequencing has revealed that these bat associated circoviruses (bat ACV) should be classified as new species within the genus Circovirus based on the demarcation criteria of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The most striking result is the novel finding of a 21-28 nt polythymidine (poly-T) tract in the 3' terminal intergenic region of bat ACV isolates from Heilongjiang province. To understand its role in viral replication, a wild type bat ACV and a mutated version with the entire poly-T deleted were rescued through construction of infectious clones. Replication comparison in vitro showed that the poly-T is not essential for viral replication. Identification of additional bat ACV isolates and study of their biological characteristics will be the main task in future to understand the potential roles of bats in transmission of circoviruses to terrestrial mammals and humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Paenibacillus larvae 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions: DNA fingerprinting and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Douglas W

    2012-07-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood in honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae. PCR amplification of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplified DNA, was performed using genomic DNA collected from 134 P. larvae strains isolated in Connecticut, six Northern Regional Research Laboratory stock strains, four strains isolated in Argentina, and one strain isolated in Chile. Following electrophoresis of amplified DNA, all isolates exhibited a common migratory profile (i.e., ITS-PCR fingerprint pattern) of six DNA bands. This profile represented a unique ITS-PCR DNA fingerprint that was useful as a fast, simple, and accurate procedure for identification of P. larvae. Digestion of ITS-PCR amplified DNA, using mung bean nuclease prior to electrophoresis, characterized only three of the six electrophoresis bands as homoduplex DNA and indicating three true ITS regions. These three ITS regions, DNA migratory band sizes of 915, 1010, and 1474 bp, signify a minimum of three types of rrn operons within P. larvae. DNA sequence analysis of ITS region DNA, using P. larvae NRRL B-3553, identified the 3' terminal nucleotides of the 16S rRNA gene, 5' terminal nucleotides of the 23S rRNA gene, and the complete DNA sequences of the 5S rRNA, tRNA(ala), and tRNA(ile) genes. Gene organization within the three rrn operon types was 16S-23S, 16S-tRNA(ala)-23S, and l6S-5S-tRNA(ile)-tRNA(ala)-23S and these operons were named rrnA, rrnF, and rrnG, respectively. The 23S rRNA gene was shown by I-CeuI digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA to be present as seven copies. This was suggestive of seven rrn operon copies within the P. larvae genome. Investigation of the 16S-23S rDNA regions of this bacterium has aided the development of a diagnostic procedure and has helped genomic mapping investigations via characterization of the ITS regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  7. Bat white-nose syndrome: A real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura K Muller; Jeffrey M. Lorch; Daniel L. Lindner; Michael O' Connor; Andrea Gargas; David S. Blehert

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Geomyces destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has killed millions of North American hibernating bats. We describe a real-time TaqMan PCR test that detects DNA from G. destructans by targeting a portion of the multicopy intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene complex. The...

  8. Genome-wide Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA-DNA interactions are enriched in intergenic regions and gene promoters and correlate with infection-induced differential gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Stephen Dumler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular prokaryote, infects neutrophils and alters cardinal functions via reprogrammed transcription. Large contiguous regions of neutrophil chromosomes are differentially expressed during infection. Secreted A. phagocytophilum effector AnkA transits into the neutrophil or granulocyte nucleus to complex with DNA in heterochromatin across all chromosomes. AnkA binds to gene promoters to dampen cis-transcription and also has features of matrix attachment region (MAR-binding proteins that regulate three-dimensional chromatin architecture and coordinate transcriptional programs encoded in topologically-associated chromatin domains. We hypothesize that identification of additional AnkA binding sites will better delineate how A. phagocytophilum infection results in reprogramming of the neutrophil genome. Using AnkA-binding ChIP-seq, we showed that AnkA binds broadly throughout all chromosomes in a reproducible pattern, especially at: i intergenic regions predicted to be matrix attachment regions (MARs; ii within predicted lamina-associated domains; and iii at promoters ≤3,000 bp upstream of transcriptional start sites. These findings provide genome-wide support for AnkA as a regulator of cis-gene transcription. Moreover, the dominant mark of AnkA in distal intergenic regions known to be AT-enriched, coupled with frequent enrichment in the nuclear lamina, provides strong support for its role as a MAR-binding protein and genome re-organizer. AnkA must be considered a prime candidate to promote neutrophil reprogramming and subsequent functional changes that belie improved microbial fitness and pathogenicity.

  9. Genomic relationships of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains evaluated by ribotyping, sequence analysis of ribosomal intergenic regions, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the genomic relationship among 112 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains obtained throughout Europe and North America. HindIII ribotyping of the strains resulted in five ribotypes of high similarity (87-98%). Sequence analysis of the riboso......The aim of the present study was to examine the genomic relationship among 112 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains obtained throughout Europe and North America. HindIII ribotyping of the strains resulted in five ribotypes of high similarity (87-98%). Sequence analysis...... of the ribosomal intergenic region of strains representing each ribotype and each country showed no differences. A common ribotype was further characterized by PFGE of 12 strains representing all countries. The resultant five PFGE patterns of European strains showed a similarity of more than 91%, to which the two...

  10. Novel Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains and Their Differentiation by Sequence Analysis of 16S rDNA, 16S-23S and 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer Regions and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

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    Morteza Shojaei Moghadam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Six strains of bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum (TL1, RG11, RS5, UL4, RG14 and RI11 isolated from Malaysian foods were investigated for their structural bacteriocin genes. A new combination of plantaricin EF and plantaricin W bacteriocin structural genes was successfully amplified from all studied strains, suggesting that they were novel bacteriocin-producing L. plantarum strains. A four-base pair variable region was detected in the short 16S-23S intergenic spacer regions of the studied strains by a comparative analysis with 17 L. plantarum strains deposited in the GenBank, implying they were new genotypes. The studied L. plantarum strains were subsequently differentiated into four groups on the basis of the detected four-base pair variable region of the short 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Further analysis of the DNA sequence of 23S-5S intergenic spacer region revealed only one type of 23S-5S intergenic spacer region present in the studied strains, indicating it was highly conserved among the studied L. plantarum strains. Three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA experiments using three different combinations of arbitrary primers successfully differentiated the studied L. plantarum strains from each other, confirming they were different strains. In conclusion, the studied L. plantarum strains were shown to be novel bacteriocin producers and high level of strain discrimination could be achieved with a combination of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and the analysis of the variable region of short 16S-23S intergenic spacer region present in L. plantarum strains.

  11. The High Degree of Sequence Plasticity of the Arenavirus Noncoding Intergenic Region (IGR) Enables the Use of a Nonviral Universal Synthetic IGR To Attenuate Arenaviruses.

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    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Cubitt, Beatrice; Sullivan, Brian M; de la Torre, Juan C

    2016-01-06

    Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses (HFAs) pose important public health problems in regions where they are endemic. Concerns about human-pathogenic arenaviruses are exacerbated because of the lack of FDA-licensed arenavirus vaccines and because current antiarenaviral therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. We have recently shown that the noncoding intergenic region (IGR) present in each arenavirus genome segment, the S and L segments (S-IGR and L-IGR, respectively), plays important roles in the control of virus protein expression and that this knowledge could be harnessed for the development of live-attenuated vaccine strains to combat HFAs. In this study, we further investigated the sequence plasticity of the arenavirus IGR. We demonstrate that recombinants of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMVs), whose S-IGRs were replaced by the S-IGR of Lassa virus (LASV) or an entirely nonviral S-IGR-like sequence (Ssyn), are viable, indicating that the function of S-IGR tolerates a high degree of sequence plasticity. In addition, rLCMVs whose L-IGRs were replaced by Ssyn or S-IGRs of the very distantly related reptarenavirus Golden Gate virus (GGV) were viable and severely attenuated in vivo but able to elicit protective immunity against a lethal challenge with wild-type LCMV. Our findings indicate that replacement of L-IGR by a nonviral Ssyn could serve as a universal molecular determinant of arenavirus attenuation. Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses (HFAs) cause high rates of morbidity and mortality and pose important public health problems in regions where they are endemic. Implementation of live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) will represent a major step to combat HFAs. Here we document that the arenavirus noncoding intergenic region (IGR) has a high degree of plasticity compatible with virus viability. This observation led us to generate recombinant LCMVs containing nonviral synthetic IGRs. These r

  12. Exploring DNA methylation changes in promoter, intragenic, and intergenic regions as early and late events in breast cancer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Garth H.; Kresovich, Jacob K.; Poulin, Matthew; Yan, Liying; Macias, Virgilia; Mahmoud, Abeer M.; Al-Alem, Umaima; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Wiley, Elizabeth L.; Tonetti, Debra; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer formation is associated with frequent changes in DNA methylation but the extent of very early alterations in DNA methylation and the biological significance of cancer-associated epigenetic changes need further elucidation. Pyrosequencing was done on bisulfite-treated DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections containing invasive tumor and paired samples of histologically normal tissue adjacent to the cancers as well as control reduction mammoplasty samples from unaffected women. The DNA regions studied were promoters (BRCA1, CD44, ESR1, GSTM2, GSTP1, MAGEA1, MSI1, NFE2L3, RASSF1A, RUNX3, SIX3 and TFF1), far-upstream regions (EN1, PAX3, PITX2, and SGK1), introns (APC, EGFR, LHX2, RFX1 and SOX9) and the LINE-1 and satellite 2 DNA repeats. These choices were based upon previous literature or publicly available DNA methylome profiles. The percent methylation was averaged across neighboring CpG sites. Most of the assayed gene regions displayed hypermethylation in cancer vs. adjacent tissue but the TFF1 and MAGEA1 regions were significantly hypomethylated (p ≤0.001). Importantly, six of the 16 regions examined in a large collection of patients (105 – 129) and in 15-18 reduction mammoplasty samples were already aberrantly methylated in adjacent, histologically normal tissue vs. non-cancerous mammoplasty samples (p ≤0.01). In addition, examination of transcriptome and DNA methylation databases indicated that methylation at three non-promoter regions (far-upstream EN1 and PITX2 and intronic LHX2) was associated with higher gene expression, unlike the inverse associations between cancer DNA hypermethylation and cancer-altered gene expression usually reported. These three non-promoter regions also exhibited normal tissue-specific hypermethylation positively associated with differentiation-related gene expression (in muscle progenitor cells vs. many other types of normal cells). The importance of considering the exact DNA region analyzed and the

  13. Bat white-nose syndrome: a real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructanstructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Laura K.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; O'Connor, Michael; Gargas, Andrea; Blehert, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Geomyces destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has killed millions of North American hibernating bats. We describe a real-time TaqMan PCR test that detects DNA from G. destructans by targeting a portion of the multicopy intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene complex. The test is highly sensitive, consistently detecting as little as 3.3 fg of genomic DNA from G. destructans. The real-time PCR test specifically amplified genomic DNA from G. destructans but did not amplify target sequence from 54 closely related fungal isolates (including 43 Geomyces spp. isolates) associated with bats. The test was further qualified by analyzing DNA extracted from 91 bat wing skin samples, and PCR results matched histopathology findings. These data indicate the real-time TaqMan PCR method described herein is a sensitive, specific, and rapid test to detect DNA from G. destructans and provides a valuable tool for WNS diagnostics and research.

  14. 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region polymorphism of Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus raffinolactis and Lactococcus lactis as revealed by PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Pepe, Olimpia; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Andolfi, Rosamaria; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2002-12-01

    The intergenic spacer region (ISR) between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes was tested as a tool for differentiating lactococci commonly isolated in a dairy environment. 17 reference strains, representing 11 different species belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Leuconostoc, and 127 wild streptococcal strains isolated during the whole fermentation process of "Fior di Latte" cheese were analyzed. After 16S-23S rDNA ISR amplification by PCR, species or genus-specific patterns were obtained for most of the reference strains tested. Moreover, results obtained after nucleotide analysis show that the 16S-23S rDNA ISR sequences vary greatly, in size and sequence, among Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Lactococcus lactis as well as other streptococci from dairy environments. Because of the high degree of inter-specific polymorphism observed, 16S-23S rDNA ISR can be considered a good potential target for selecting species-specific molecular assays, such as PCR primer or probes, for a rapid and extremely reliable differentiation of dairy lactococcal isolates.

  15. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M J; Lewis, M A; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  16. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Su, Ying-Juan; Wang, Ting

    2011-04-13

    The rpoB-psbZ (BZ) region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes) has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i) a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii) the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS) of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii) the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv) ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS.

  17. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ying-Juan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rpoB-psbZ (BZ region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. Results A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Conclusions Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in different geographic regions and transmission cycles based on a microsatellite motif of the intergenic spacer of spliced leader genes✯

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, Carolina I.; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana M.; Duffy, Tomás; Burgos, Juan M.; Rodriguero, Marcela; Cardinal, Marta V.; Kjos, Sonia; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Blanchet, Denis; De Pablos, Luis M.; Tomasini, Nicolás; Silva, Alex Da; Russomando, Graciela; Cuba Cuba, Cesar A.; Aznar, Christine; Abate, Teresa; Levin, Mariano J.; Osuna, Antonio; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Diosque, Patricio; Solari, Aldo; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Schijman, Alejandro G.

    2011-01-01

    The intergenic region of spliced-leader (SL-IR) genes from 105 Trypanosoma cruzi I (Tc I) infected biological samples, culture isolates and stocks from 11 endemic countries, from Argentina to the USA were characterised, allowing identification of 76 genotypes with 54 polymorphic sites from 123 aligned sequences. On the basis of the microsatellite motif proposed by Herrera et al. (2007) to define four haplotypes in Colombia, we could classify these genotypes into four distinct Tc I SL-IR groups, three corresponding to the former haplotypes Ia (11 genotypes), Ib (11 genotypes) and Id (35 genotypes); and one novel group, Ie (19 genotypes). Genotypes harboring the Tc Ic motif were not detected in our study. Tc Ia was associated with domestic cycles in southern and northern South America and sylvatic cycles in Central and North America. Tc Ib was found in all transmission cycles from Colombia. Tc Id was identified in all transmission cycles from Argentina and Colombia, including Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, sylvatic Brazilian samples and human cases from French Guiana, Panama and Venezuela. Tc Ie gathered five samples from domestic Triatoma infestans from northern Argentina, nine samples from wild Mepraia spinolai and Mepraia gajardoi and two chagasic patients from Chile and one from a Bolivian patient with chagasic reactivation. Mixed infections by Tc Ia + Tc Id, Tc Ia + Tc Ie and Tc Id + Tc Ie were detected in vector faeces and isolates from human and vector samples. In addition, Tc Ia and Tc Id were identified in different tissues from a heart transplanted Chagas cardiomyopathy patient with reactivation, denoting histotropism. Trypanosoma cruzi I SL-IR genotypes from parasites infecting Triatoma gerstaeckeri and Didelphis virginiana from USA, T. infestans from Paraguay, Rhodnius nasutus and Rhodnius neglectus from Brazil and M. spinolai and M. gajardoi from Chile are to our knowledge described for the first time. PMID:20670628

  19. Suitability of the molecular subtyping methods intergenic spacer region, direct genome restriction analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Fischer, Markus; LaFon, Patti; Cooper, Kara; Jones, Jessica L

    2014-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of infectious illness associated with seafood consumption in the United States. Molecular fingerprinting of strains has become a valuable research tool for understanding this pathogen. However, there are many subtyping methods available and little information on how they compare to one another. For this study, a collection of 67 oyster and 77 clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed by three subtyping methods--intergenic spacer region (ISR-1), direct genome restriction analysis (DGREA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)--to determine the utility of these methods for discriminatory subtyping. ISR-1 analysis, run as previously described, provided the lowest discrimination of all the methods (discriminatory index [DI]=0.8665). However, using a broader analytical range than previously reported, ISR-1 clustered isolates based on origin (oyster versus clinical) and had a DI=0.9986. DGREA provided a DI=0.9993-0.9995, but did not consistently cluster the isolates by any identifiable characteristics (origin, serotype, or virulence genotype) and ∼ 15% of isolates were untypeable by this method. PFGE provided a DI=0.9998 when using the combined pattern analysis of both restriction enzymes, SfiI and NotI. This analysis was more discriminatory than using either enzyme pattern alone and primarily grouped isolates by serotype, regardless of strain origin (clinical or oyster) or presence of currently accepted virulence markers. These results indicate that PFGE and ISR-1 are more reliable methods for subtyping V. parahemolyticus, rather than DGREA. Additionally, ISR-1 may provide an indication of pathogenic potential; however, more detailed studies are needed. These data highlight the diversity within V. parahaemolyticus and the need for appropriate selection of subtyping methods depending on the study objectives.

  20. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  1. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  2. Rapid identification of 11 human intestinal Lactobacillus species by multiplex PCR assays using group- and species-specific primers derived from the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and its flanking 23S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Kato, N; Liu, C; Matsumiya, Y; Kato, H; Watanabe, K

    2000-06-15

    Rapid and reliable two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were established to identify human intestinal lactobacilli; a multiplex PCR was used for grouping of lactobacilli with a mixture of group-specific primers followed by four multiplex PCR assays with four sorts of species-specific primer mixtures for identification at the species level. Primers used were designed from nucleotide sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and its flanking 23S rRNA gene of members of the genus Lactobacillus which are commonly isolated from human stool specimens: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (ssp. bulgaricus and ssp. lactis), Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus paracasei (ssp. paracasei and ssp. tolerans), Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus salivarius (ssp. salicinius and ssp. salivarius). The established two-step multiplex PCR assays were applied to the identification of 84 Lactobacillus strains isolated from human stool specimens and the PCR results were consistent with the results from the DNA-DNA hybridization assay. These results suggest that the multiplex PCR system established in this study is a simple, rapid and reliable method for the identification of common Lactobacillus isolates from human stool samples.

  3. The identification of two Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes from domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles in Colombia based on a single polymerase chain reaction amplification of the spliced-leader intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Villa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A single polymerase chain reaction (PCR reaction targeting the spliced-leader intergenic region of Trypanosoma cruzi I was standardised by amplifying a 231 bp fragment in domestic (TcIDOM strains or clones and 450 and 550 bp fragments in sylvatic strains or clones. This reaction was validated using 44 blind coded samples and 184 non-coded T. cruzi I clones isolated from sylvatic triatomines and the correspondence between the amplified fragments and their domestic or sylvatic origin was determined. Six of the nine strains isolated from acute cases suspected of oral infection had the sylvatic T. cruzi I profile. These results confirmed that the sylvatic T. cruzi I genotype is linked to cases of oral Chagas disease in Colombia. We therefore propose the use of this novel PCR reaction in strains or clones previously characterised as T. cruzi I to distinguish TcIDOMfrom sylvatic genotypes in studies of transmission dynamics, including the verification of population selection within hosts or detection of the frequency of mixed infections by both T. cruzi I genotypes in Colombia.

  4. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in

  5. Intergenic and repeat transcription in human, chimpanzee and macaque brains measured by RNA-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augix Guohua Xu

    Full Text Available Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism's phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes' boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 20-28% of non-ribosomal transcripts correspond to annotated exons and 20-23% to introns. By contrast, transcripts originating within intronic and intergenic repetitive sequences constitute 40-48% of the total brain transcriptome. Notably, some repeat families show elevated transcription. In non-repetitive intergenic regions, we identify and characterize 1,093 distinct regions highly expressed in the human brain. These regions are conserved at the RNA expression level across primates studied and at the DNA sequence level across mammals. A large proportion of these transcripts (20% represents 3'UTR extensions of known genes and may play roles in alternative microRNA-directed regulation. Finally, we show that while transcriptome divergence between species increases with evolutionary time, intergenic transcripts show more expression differences among species and exons show less. Our results show that many yet uncharacterized evolutionary conserved transcripts exist in the human brain. Some of these transcripts may play roles in transcriptional regulation and contribute to evolution of human-specific phenotypic traits.

  6. [Identification of medicinal plant Dendrobium based on the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui; Yang, Pei; Zhou, Hong; Ma, Shuang-jiao; Song, Jing-yuan; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacers of 18 species of Dendrobium and their adulterants were amplified and sequenced, and then the sequence characteristics were analyzed. The sequence lengths of chloroplast psbK-psbI regions of Dendrobium ranged from 474 to 513 bp and the GC contents were 25.4%-27.6%. The variable sites were 71 while the informative sites were 46. The inter-specific genetic distances calculated by Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) of Dendrobium were 0.006 1-0.058 1, with an average of 0.028 4. The K2P genetic distances between Dendrobium species and Bulbophyllum odoratissimum were 0.093 2-0.120 4. The NJ tree showed that the Dendrobium species can be easily differentiated from each other and 6 samples of the inspected Dendrobium species were identified successfully through sequencing the psbK-psbI intergenic spacer. Therefore, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer can be used as a candidate marker to identify Dendrobium species and its adulterants.

  7. The Intergenic Recombinant HLA-B*46:01 Has a Distinctive Peptidome that Includes KIR2DL3 Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Hugo G.; McMurtrey, Curtis P.; Han, Alex S.

    2017-01-01

    HLA-B*46:01 was formed by an intergenic mini-conversion, between HLA-B*15:01 and HLA-C*01:02, in Southeast Asia during the last 50,000 years, and it has since become the most common HLA-B allele in the region. A functional effect of the mini-conversion was introduction of the C1 epitope into HLA-...

  8. Similar Ratios of Introns to Intergenic Sequence across Animal Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Warren R; Wörheide, Gert

    2017-06-01

    One central goal of genome biology is to understand how the usage of the genome differs between organisms. Our knowledge of genome composition, needed for downstream inferences, is critically dependent on gene annotations, yet problems associated with gene annotation and assembly errors are usually ignored in comparative genomics. Here, we analyze the genomes of 68 species across 12 animal phyla and some single-cell eukaryotes for general trends in genome composition and transcription, taking into account problems of gene annotation. We show that, regardless of genome size, the ratio of introns to intergenic sequence is comparable across essentially all animals, with nearly all deviations dominated by increased intergenic sequence. Genomes of model organisms have ratios much closer to 1:1, suggesting that the majority of published genomes of nonmodel organisms are underannotated and consequently omit substantial numbers of genes, with likely negative impact on evolutionary interpretations. Finally, our results also indicate that most animals transcribe half or more of their genomes arguing against differences in genome usage between animal groups, and also suggesting that the transcribed portion is more dependent on genome size than previously thought. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Identification and characterization of long intergenic noncoding RNAs in bovine mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chao; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhao, Lili; Ma, Junfei; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Zhao, Xin

    2017-06-19

    Mammary glands of dairy cattle produce milk for the newborn offspring and for human consumption. Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) play various functions in eukaryotic cells. However, types and roles of lincRNAs in bovine mammary glands are still poorly understood. Using computational methods, 886 unknown intergenic transcripts (UITs) were identified from five RNA-seq datasets from bovine mammary glands. Their non-coding potentials were predicted by using the combination of four software programs (CPAT, CNCI, CPC and hmmscan), with 184 lincRNAs identified. By comparison to the NONCODE2016 database and a domestic-animal long noncoding RNA database (ALDB), 112 novel lincRNAs were revealed in bovine mammary glands. Many lincRNAs were found to be located in quantitative trait loci (QTL). In particular, 36 lincRNAs were found in 172 milk related QTLs, whereas one lincRNA was within clinical mastitis QTL region. In addition, targeted genes for 10 lincRNAs with the highest fragments per kilobase of transcript per million fragments mapped (FPKM) were predicted by LncTar for forecasting potential biological functions of these lincRNAs. Further analyses indicate involvement of lincRNAs in several biological functions and different pathways. Our study has provided a panoramic view of lincRNAs in bovine mammary glands and suggested their involvement in many biological functions including susceptibility to clinical mastitis as well as milk quality and production. This integrative annotation of mammary gland lincRNAs broadens and deepens our understanding of bovine mammary gland biology.

  10. Intergenic mRNA molecules resulting from trans-splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finta, Csaba; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2002-02-22

    Accumulated recent evidence is indicating that alternative splicing represents a generalized process that increases the complexity of human gene expression. Here we show that mRNA production may not necessarily be limited to single genes, as human liver also has the potential to produce a variety of hybrid cytochrome P450 3A mRNA molecules. The four known cytochrome P450 3A genes in humans, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP3A43, share a high degree of similarity, consist of 13 exons with conserved exon-intron boundaries, and form a cluster on chromosome 7. The chimeric CYP3A mRNA molecules described herein are characterized by CYP3A43 exon 1 joined at canonical splice sites to distinct sets of CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 exons. Because the CYP3A43 gene is in a head-to-head orientation with the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes, bypassing transcriptional termination can not account for the formation of hybrid CYP3A mRNAs. Thus, the mechanism generating these molecules has to be an RNA processing event that joins exons of independent pre-mRNA molecules, i.e. trans-splicing. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the ratio of one CYP3A43/3A4 intergenic combination was estimated to be approximately 0.15% that of the CYP3A43 mRNAs. Moreover, trans-splicing has been found not to interfere with polyadenylation. Heterologous expression of the chimeric species composed of CYP3A43 exon 1 joined to exons 2-13 of CYP3A4 revealed catalytic activity toward testosterone.

  11. Genic and Intergenic SSR Database Generation, SNPs Determination and Pathway Annotations, in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Morad M; Adawy, Sami S; El-Assal, Salah El-Din S; Hussein, Ebtissam H A

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out aiming to use the bioinformatics tools in order to identify and characterize, simple sequence repeats within the third Version of the date palm genome and develop a new SSR primers database. In addition single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are located within the SSR flanking regions were recognized. Moreover, the pathways for the sequences assigned by SSR primers, the biological functions and gene interaction were determined. A total of 172,075 SSR motifs was identified on date palm genome sequence with a frequency of 450.97 SSRs per Mb. Out of these, 130,014 SSRs (75.6%) were located within the intergenic regions with a frequency of 499 SSRs per Mb. While, only 42,061 SSRs (24.4%) were located within the genic regions with a frequency of 347.5 SSRs per Mb. A total of 111,403 of SSR primer pairs were designed, that represents 291.9 SSR primers per Mb. Out of the 111,403, only 31,380 SSR primers were in the genic regions, while 80,023 primers were in the intergenic regions. A number of 250,507 SNPs were recognized in 84,172 SSR flanking regions, which represents 75.55% of the total SSR flanking regions. Out of 12,274 genes only 463 genes comprising 896 SSR primers were mapped onto 111 pathways using KEGG data base. The most abundant enzymes were identified in the pathway related to the biosynthesis of antibiotics. We tested 1031 SSR primers using both publicly available date palm genome sequences as templates in the in silico PCR reactions. Concerning in vitro validation, 31 SSR primers among those used in the in silico PCR were synthesized and tested for their ability to detect polymorphism among six Egyptian date palm cultivars. All tested primers have successfully amplified products, but only 18 primers detected polymorphic amplicons among the studied date palm cultivars.

  12. Inferring a role for methylation of intergenic DNA in the regulation of genes aberrantly expressed in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almamun, Md; Kholod, Olha; Stuckel, Alexei J; Levinson, Benjamin T; Johnson, Nathan T; Arthur, Gerald L; Davis, J Wade; Taylor, Kristen H

    2017-09-01

    A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of pre-B ALL is lacking. In this study, we integrated DNA methylation data and gene expression data to elucidate the impact of aberrant intergenic DNA methylation on gene expression in pre-B ALL. We found a subset of differentially methylated intergenic loci that were associated with altered gene expression in pre-B ALL patients. Notably, 84% of these regions were also bound by transcription factors (TF) known to play roles in differentiation and B-cell development in a lymphoblastoid cell line. Further, an overall downregulation of eRNA transcripts was observed in pre-B ALL patients and these transcripts were associated with the downregulation of putative target genes involved in B-cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. The identification of novel putative regulatory regions highlights the significance of intergenic DNA sequences and may contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of pre-B ALL.

  13. Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marzo Angelo M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation has been linked to genome regulation and dysregulation in health and disease respectively, and methods for characterizing genomic DNA methylation patterns are rapidly emerging. We have developed/refined methods for enrichment of methylated genomic fragments using the methyl-binding domain of the human MBD2 protein (MBD2-MBD followed by analysis with high-density tiling microarrays. This MBD-chip approach was used to characterize DNA methylation patterns across all non-repetitive sequences of human chromosomes 21 and 22 at high-resolution in normal and malignant prostate cells. Results Examining this data using computational methods that were designed specifically for DNA methylation tiling array data revealed widespread methylation of both gene promoter and non-promoter regions in cancer and normal cells. In addition to identifying several novel cancer hypermethylated 5' gene upstream regions that mediated epigenetic gene silencing, we also found several hypermethylated 3' gene downstream, intragenic and intergenic regions. The hypermethylated intragenic regions were highly enriched for overlap with intron-exon boundaries, suggesting a possible role in regulation of alternative transcriptional start sites, exon usage and/or splicing. The hypermethylated intergenic regions showed significant enrichment for conservation across vertebrate species. A sampling of these newly identified promoter (ADAMTS1 and SCARF2 genes and non-promoter (downstream or within DSCR9, C21orf57 and HLCS genes hypermethylated regions were effective in distinguishing malignant from normal prostate tissues and/or cell lines. Conclusions Comparison of chromosome-wide DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells revealed significant methylation of gene-proximal and conserved intergenic sequences. Such analyses can be easily extended for genome-wide methylation analysis in health and disease.

  14. Adaptation of the short intergenic spacers between co-directional genes to the Shine-Dalgarno motif among prokaryote genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Albert Pallejà; García-Vallvé, Santiago; Romeu, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In prokaryote genomes most of the co-directional genes are in close proximity. Even the coding sequence or the stop codon of a gene can overlap with the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence of the downstream co-directional gene. In this paper we analyze how the presence of SD may...... influence the stop codon usage or the spacing lengths between co-directional genes. RESULTS: The SD sequences for 530 prokaryote genomes have been predicted using computer calculations of the base-pairing free energy between translation initiation regions and the 16S rRNA 3' tail. Genomes with a large...... to the discussion of which factors affect the intergenic lengths, which cannot be totally explained by the pressure to compact the prokaryote genomes....

  15. Intergenic DNA sequences from the human X chromosome reveal high rates of global gene flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Jeffrey D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive efforts devoted to collecting human polymorphism data, little is known about the role of gene flow in the ancestry of human populations. This is partly because most analyses have applied one of two simple models of population structure, the island model or the splitting model, which make unrealistic biological assumptions. Results Here, we analyze 98-kb of DNA sequence from 20 independently evolving intergenic regions on the X chromosome in a sample of 90 humans from six globally diverse populations. We employ an isolation-with-migration (IM model, which assumes that populations split and subsequently exchange migrants, to independently estimate effective population sizes and migration rates. While the maximum effective size of modern humans is estimated at ~10,000, individual populations vary substantially in size, with African populations tending to be larger (2,300–9,000 than non-African populations (300–3,300. We estimate mean rates of bidirectional gene flow at 4.8 × 10-4/generation. Bidirectional migration rates are ~5-fold higher among non-African populations (1.5 × 10-3 than among African populations (2.7 × 10-4. Interestingly, because effective sizes and migration rates are inversely related in African and non-African populations, population migration rates are similar within Africa and Eurasia (e.g., global mean Nm = 2.4. Conclusion We conclude that gene flow has played an important role in structuring global human populations and that migration rates should be incorporated as critical parameters in models of human demography.

  16. Local repeat sequence organization of an intergenic spacer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The amplification yielded the same uniquely ``sequence-scrambled” product, whether the template used for PCR was total cellular DNA, chloroplast DNA or a plasmid clone DNA corresponding to that region. The PCR product, a ``unique” new sequence, had lost the repetitive organization of the template genome where it ...

  17. Ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequence in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. and its characterization and application to typing of foxtail millet landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kenji; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Taura, Satoru; Sato, Muneharu; Kawase, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    We determined the sequence of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) of foxtail millet isolated in our previous study, and identified subrepeats in the polymorphic region. We also developed a PCR-based method for identifying rDNA types based on sequence information and assessed 153 accessions of foxtail millet. Results were congruent with our previous works. This study provides new findings regarding the geographical distribution of rDNA variants. This new method facilitates analyses of numerous foxtail millet accessions. It is helpful for typing of foxtail millet germplasms and elucidating the evolution of this millet.

  18. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Duc

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the

  19. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  20. Effects of near-ultraviolet light on mutations, intragenic and intergenic recombinations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Isamu; Saeki, Tetsuya; Nakai, Sayaka

    1986-01-01

    The effects of far and near ultraviolet light on mutations, intragenic and intergenic recombinations were compared in diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At equivalent survival levels there was not much difference in the induction of nonsense and missense mutations between far- and near-UV radiations. However, frameshift mutations were induced more frequently by near-UV than by far-UV radiation. Near-UV radiation induced intragenic recombination as efficiently as far-UV radiation. A strikingly higher frequency was observed for the intergenic recombination induced by near-UV radiation than by far-UV radiation when compared at equivalent survival levels. Photoreactivation reduced the frequency only slightly in far-UV induced intergenic recombination and not at all in near-UV induction. These results indicate that near-UV damage involves strand breakage in addition to pyrimidine dimers and other lesions induced, whereas far-UV damage consists largely of photoreactivable lesions, pyrimidine dimers, and near-UV induced damage is more efficient for the induction of crossing-over. (Auth.)

  1. An improved PCR method for direct identification of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) using conchocelis based on a RUBISCO intergenic spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Dong, Dong; Wang, Guangce; Zhang, Baoyu; Peng, Guang; Xu, Pu; Tang, Xiaorong

    2009-09-01

    An improved method of PCR in which the small segment of conchocelis is amplified directly without DNA extraction was used to amplify a RUBISCO intergenic spacer DNA fragment from nine species of red algal genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta), including Porphyra yezoensis (Jiangsu, China), P. haitanensis (Fujian, China), P. oligospermatangia (Qingdao, China), P. katadai (Qingdao, China), P. tenera (Qingdao, China), P. suborboculata (Fujian, China), P. pseudolinearis (Kogendo, Korea), P. linearis (Devon, England), and P. fallax (Seattle, USA). Standard PCR and the method developed here were both conducted using primers specific for the RUBISCO spacer region, after which the two PCR products were sequenced. The sequencing data of the amplicons obtained using both methods were identical, suggesting that the improved PCR method was functional. These findings indicate that the method developed here may be useful for the rapid identification of species of Porphyra in a germplasm bank. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the RUBISCO spacer and partial rbcS sequence, and the results were in concordant with possible alternative phylogenies based on traditional morphological taxonomic characteristics, indicating that the RUBISCO spacer is a useful region for phylogenetic studies.

  2. RFLP of analyses of an intergenic spacer region of chloroplast DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... In this study, 11 wheat species of Triticum and. Aegilops were ... and a phenogram was constructed using SAHN clustering unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages.

  3. A diagnostic assay based on variable intergenic region distinguishes between Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chocholová, Eva; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2008), s. 75-78 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Leishmania * assay * diagnosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  4. RFLP of analyses of an intergenic spacer region of chloroplast DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... amplified with PCR and digested with 6 restriction endonucleases (Hpa II, Alu I, Hinc II, Ava III, Nde I and. Hae III). According to results ... the environment, but DNA based techniques represent reliable tools and do not have many of ... existence of some variations in gene content (Downie and Palmer, 1992).

  5. The Intergenic Recombinant HLA-B∗46:01 Has a Distinctive Peptidome that Includes KIR2DL3 Ligands

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    Hugo G. Hilton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available HLA-B∗46:01 was formed by an intergenic mini-conversion, between HLA-B∗15:01 and HLA-C∗01:02, in Southeast Asia during the last 50,000 years, and it has since become the most common HLA-B allele in the region. A functional effect of the mini-conversion was introduction of the C1 epitope into HLA-B∗46:01, making it an exceptional HLA-B allotype that is recognized by the C1-specific natural killer (NK cell receptor KIR2DL3. High-resolution mass spectrometry showed that HLA-B∗46:01 has a low-diversity peptidome that is distinct from those of its parents. A minority (21% of HLA-B∗46:01 peptides, with common C-terminal characteristics, form ligands for KIR2DL3. The HLA-B∗46:01 peptidome is predicted to be enriched for peptide antigens derived from Mycobacterium leprae. Overall, the results indicate that the distinctive peptidome and functions of HLA-B∗46:01 provide carriers with resistance to leprosy, which drove its rapid rise in frequency in Southeast Asia.

  6. Genome-wide CpG island methylation and intergenic demethylation propensities vary among different tumor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Tae; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2016-02-18

    The epigenetic landscape of cancer includes both focal hypermethylation and broader hypomethylation in a genome-wide manner. By means of a comprehensive genomic analysis on 6637 tissues of 21 tumor types, we here show that the degrees of overall methylation in CpG island (CGI) and demethylation in intergenic regions, defined as 'backbone', largely vary among different tumors. Depending on tumor type, both CGI methylation and backbone demethylation are often associated with clinical, epidemiological and biological features such as age, sex, smoking history, anatomic location, histological type and grade, stage, molecular subtype and biological pathways. We found connections between CGI methylation and hypermutability, microsatellite instability, IDH1 mutation, 19p gain and polycomb features, and backbone demethylation with chromosomal instability, NSD1 and TP53 mutations, 5q and 19p loss and long repressive domains. These broad epigenetic patterns add a new dimension to our understanding of tumor biology and its clinical implications. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Intergenic sequence between Arabidopsis caseinolytic protease B-cytoplasmic/heat shock protein100 and choline kinase genes functions as a heat-inducible bidirectional promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Grover, Anil

    2014-11-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the At1g74310 locus encodes for caseinolytic protease B-cytoplasmic (ClpB-C)/heat shock protein100 protein (AtClpB-C), which is critical for the acquisition of thermotolerance, and At1g74320 encodes for choline kinase (AtCK2) that catalyzes the first reaction in the Kennedy pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Previous work has established that the knockout mutants of these genes display heat-sensitive phenotypes. While analyzing the AtClpB-C promoter and upstream genomic regions in this study, we noted that AtClpB-C and AtCK2 genes are head-to-head oriented on chromosome 1 of the Arabidopsis genome. Expression analysis showed that transcripts of these genes are rapidly induced in response to heat stress treatment. In stably transformed Arabidopsis plants harboring this intergenic sequence between head-to-head oriented green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase reporter genes, both transcripts and proteins of the two reporters were up-regulated upon heat stress. Four heat shock elements were noted in the intergenic region by in silico analysis. In the homozygous transfer DNA insertion mutant Salk_014505, 4,393-bp transfer DNA is inserted at position -517 upstream of ATG of the AtClpB-C gene. As a result, AtCk2 loses proximity to three of the four heat shock elements in the mutant line. Heat-inducible expression of the AtCK2 transcript was completely lost, whereas the expression of AtClpB-C was not affected in the mutant plants. Our results suggest that the 1,329-bp intergenic fragment functions as a heat-inducible bidirectional promoter and the region governing the heat inducibility is possibly shared between the two genes. We propose a model in which AtClpB-C shares its regulatory region with heat-induced choline kinase, which has a possible role in heat signaling. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Differential effect of UV irradiation on induction of intragenic and intergenic recombination during commitment to meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, I.; Nakai, S.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the induction of intragenic and intergenic recombinations during meiosis in a wild-type diploid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under non-irradiated normal conditions, production of both intragenic and intergenic recombinants greatly increased in the cells with commitment to meiosis. The susceptibility of cells to the induction ob both the spontaneous intra- and intergenic recombinations in meiotic cells was similar. However, under condition of UV irradiation, there were striking differences between intra- and intergenic recombinations. Susceptibility to induction of intragenic recombination by UV irradiation was not enhanced at meiosis compared with mitosis, and was not altered through commitment to meiotic processes. In contrast, however, susceptibility to the induction of intergenic recombination by UV irradiation was enhanced markedly during commitment to meiosis compared with mitosis. Genetic analysis suggested that the enhanced susceptibility to recombination during meiosis is specifically concerned with reciprocal-type recombination (crossing-over) but not non-reciprocal-type recombination (gene conversion). Hence it is concluded that the meiotic that the meiotic process appears to be intimately concerned with the mechanism(s) of induction of recombination, especially reciprocal-type recombination. (orig.)

  9. Comparing Generative and Inter-generative Subjectivity in Post-Revolutionary Academic Generations in Iran

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    mehran Sohrabzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of different post-revolutionary generation has been broadly applied by social scientists; among them some believe there is a gulf between generations, while some others endorsing some small differences among generations, emphasis that this variety is natural. Avoiding being loyal to any of these two views, the present study attempts to compare three different post-revolutionary academic generations using theory of “generative objects” which explores generations’ view about their behaviors, Beliefs, and historical monuments. Sampling was carried among 3 generations; firstly ones who were student in 60s and now are experienced faculties in the university, secondly ones who are recently employed as faculty members, and finally who are now students in universities. Results show that in all 3 generations there are essential in-generation similarities, while comparatively there are some differentiations in inter-generative analysis.

  10. Optimisation of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis for the estimation of microbial diversity in fynbos soil

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    Karin Jacobs

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA has become a commonly used molecular technique for the study of microbial populations in environmental samples. The reproducibility and accuracy of ARISA, with and without the polymerase chain reaction (PCR are important aspects that influence the results and effectiveness of these techniques. We used the primer set ITS4/ITS5 for ARISA to assess the fungal community composition of two sites situated in the Sand Fynbos. The primer set proved to deliver reproducible ARISA profiles of the fungal community composition with little variation observed between ARISA-PCRs. Variation that occurred in a sample due to repeated DNA extraction is expected for ecological studies. This reproducibility made ARISA a useful tool for the assessment and comparison of diversity in ecological samples. In this paper, we also offered particular suggestions concerning the binning strategy for the analysis of ARISA profiles.

  11. Genome-wide identification, characterization and evolutionary analysis of long intergenic noncoding RNAs in cucumber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Hao

    Full Text Available Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs are intergenic transcripts with a length of at least 200 nt that lack coding potential. Emerging evidence suggests that lincRNAs from animals participate in many fundamental biological processes. However, the systemic identification of lincRNAs has been undertaken in only a few plants. We chose to use cucumber (Cucumis sativus as a model to analyze lincRNAs due to its importance as a model plant for studying sex differentiation and fruit development and the rich genomic and transcriptome data available. The application of a bioinformatics pipeline to multiple types of gene expression data resulted in the identification and characterization of 3,274 lincRNAs. Next, 10 lincRNAs targeted by 17 miRNAs were also explored. Based on co-expression analysis between lincRNAs and mRNAs, 94 lincRNAs were annotated, which may be involved in response to stimuli, multi-organism processes, reproduction, reproductive processes, and growth. Finally, examination of the evolution of lincRNAs showed that most lincRNAs are under purifying selection, while 16 lincRNAs are under natural selection. Our results provide a rich resource for further validation of cucumber lincRNAs and their function. The identification of lincRNAs targeted by miRNAs offers new clues for investigations into the role of lincRNAs in regulating gene expression. Finally, evaluation of the lincRNAs suggested that some lincRNAs are under positive and balancing selection.

  12. Long intergenic non-coding RNA TUG1 is overexpressed in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yonghua; Liu, Yuchen; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming

    2013-04-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression via chromatin reprogramming. Taurine Up-regulated Gene 1 (TUG1) is a lincRNA that is associated with chromatin-modifying complexes and plays roles in gene regulation. In this study, we determined the expression patterns of TUG1 and the cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induced by silencing TUG1 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The expression levels of TUG1 were determined using Real-Time qPCR in a total of 44 patients with bladder urothelial carcinomas. Bladder urothelial carcinoma T24 and 5637 cells were transfected with TUG1 siRNA or negative control siRNA. Cell proliferation was evaluated using MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined using ELISA assay. TUG1 was up-regulated in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared to paired normal urothelium. High TUG1 expression levels were associated with high grade and stage carcinomas. Cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were observed in TUG1 siRNA-transfected bladder urothelial carcinoma T24 and 5637 cells. Our data suggest that lincRNA TUG1 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of bladder urothelial carcinoma. TUG1 may have potential roles as a biomarker and/or a therapeutic target in bladder urothelial carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The evolutionary landscape of intergenic trans-splicing events in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yimeng; Zhou, Hongxia; Yu, Yao; Chen, Longxian; Hao, Pei; Li, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the landscape of intergenic trans-splicing events and characterize their functions and evolutionary dynamics, we conduct a mega-data study of a phylogeny containing eight species across five orders of class Insecta, a model system spanning 400 million years of evolution. A total of 1,627 trans-splicing events involving 2,199 genes are identified, accounting for 1.58% of the total genes. Homology analysis reveals that mod(mdg4)-like trans-splicing is the only conserved event that is consistently observed in multiple species across two orders, which represents a unique case of functional diversification involving trans-splicing. Thus, evolutionarily its potential for generating proteins with novel function is not broadly utilized by insects. Furthermore, 146 non-mod trans-spliced transcripts are found to resemble canonical genes from different species. Trans-splicing preserving the function of ‘breakup' genes may serve as a general mechanism for relaxing the constraints on gene structure, with profound implications for the evolution of genes and genomes. PMID:26521696

  14. A novel intergenic ETnII-β insertion mutation causes multiple malformations in polypodia mice.

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    Jessica A Lehoczky

    Full Text Available Mouse early transposon insertions are responsible for ~10% of spontaneous mutant phenotypes. We previously reported the phenotypes and genetic mapping of Polypodia, (Ppd, a spontaneous, X-linked dominant mutation with profound effects on body plan morphogenesis. Our new data shows that mutant mice are not born in expected Mendelian ratios secondary to loss after E9.5. In addition, we refined the Ppd genetic interval and discovered a novel ETnII-β early transposon insertion between the genes for Dusp9 and Pnck. The ETn inserted 1.6 kb downstream and antisense to Dusp9 and does not disrupt polyadenylation or splicing of either gene. Knock-in mice engineered to carry the ETn display Ppd characteristic ectopic caudal limb phenotypes, showing that the ETn insertion is the Ppd molecular lesion. Early transposons are actively expressed in the early blastocyst. To explore the consequences of the ETn on the genomic landscape at an early stage of development, we compared interval gene expression between wild-type and mutant ES cells. Mutant ES cell expression analysis revealed marked upregulation of Dusp9 mRNA and protein expression. Evaluation of the 5' LTR CpG methylation state in adult mice revealed no correlation with the occurrence or severity of Ppd phenotypes at birth. Thus, the broad range of phenotypes observed in this mutant is secondary to a novel intergenic ETn insertion whose effects include dysregulation of nearby interval gene expression at early stages of development.

  15. Annotating long intergenic non-coding RNAs under artificial selection during chicken domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Mei; Xu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Ming-Shan; Otecko, Newton Otieno; Ye, Ling-Qun; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2017-08-15

    Numerous biological functions of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified. However, the contribution of lincRNAs to the domestication process has remained elusive. Following domestication from their wild ancestors, animals display substantial changes in many phenotypic traits. Therefore, it is possible that diverse molecular drivers play important roles in this process. We analyzed 821 transcriptomes in this study and annotated 4754 lincRNA genes in the chicken genome. Our population genomic analysis indicates that 419 lincRNAs potentially evolved during artificial selection related to the domestication of chicken, while a comparative transcriptomic analysis identified 68 lincRNAs that were differentially expressed under different conditions. We also found 47 lincRNAs linked to special phenotypes. Our study provides a comprehensive view of the genome-wide landscape of lincRNAs in chicken. This will promote a better understanding of the roles of lincRNAs in domestication, and the genetic mechanisms associated with the artificial selection of domestic animals.

  16. Genomic Variability of Haemophilus influenzae Isolated from Mexican Children Determined by Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequences and PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-De-Leon, Patricia; Santos, Jose I.; Caballero, Javier; Gomez, Demostenes; Espinosa, Luz E.; Moreno, Isabel; Piñero, Daniel; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Genomic fingerprints from 92 capsulated and noncapsulated strains of Haemophilus influenzae from Mexican children with different diseases and healthy carriers were generated by PCR using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences. A cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages based on the overall similarity as estimated from the characteristics of the genomic fingerprints, was conducted to group the strains. A total of 69 fingerprint...

  17. Variation of 45S rDNA intergenic spacers in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlová, Kateřina; Dvořáčková, Martina; Peiro, Ramon; Abia, David; Mozgová, Iva; Vansáčová, Lenka; Gutierrez, Crisanto; Fajkus, Jiří

    2016-11-01

    Approximately seven hundred 45S rRNA genes (rDNA) in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome are organised in two 4 Mbp-long arrays of tandem repeats arranged in head-to-tail fashion separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS). These arrays make up 5 % of the A. thaliana genome. IGS are rapidly evolving sequences and frequent rearrangements inside the rDNA loci have generated considerable interspecific and even intra-individual variability which allows to distinguish among otherwise highly conserved rRNA genes. The IGS has not been comprehensively described despite its potential importance in regulation of rDNA transcription and replication. Here we describe the detailed sequence variation in the complete IGS of A. thaliana WT plants and provide the reference/consensus IGS sequence, as well as genomic DNA analysis. We further investigate mutants dysfunctional in chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1) (fas1 and fas2 mutants), which are known to have a reduced number of rDNA copies, and plant lines with restored CAF-1 function (segregated from a fas1xfas2 genetic background) showing major rDNA rearrangements. The systematic rDNA loss in CAF-1 mutants leads to the decreased variability of the IGS and to the occurrence of distinct IGS variants. We present for the first time a comprehensive and representative set of complete IGS sequences, obtained by conventional cloning and by Pacific Biosciences sequencing. Our data expands the knowledge of the A. thaliana IGS sequence arrangement and variability, which has not been available in full and in detail until now. This is also the first study combining IGS sequencing data with RFLP analysis of genomic DNA.

  18. Systematically profiling and annotating long intergenic non-coding RNAs in human embryonic stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xing; Hou, Mei; Ding, Yang; Li, Zhaohui; Ren, Lichen; Gao, Ge

    2013-01-01

    While more and more long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) were identified to take important roles in both maintaining pluripotency and regulating differentiation, how these lincRNAs may define and drive cell fate decisions on a global scale are still mostly elusive. Systematical profiling and comprehensive annotation of embryonic stem cells lincRNAs may not only bring a clearer big picture of these novel regulators but also shed light on their functionalities. Based on multiple RNA-Seq datasets, we systematically identified 300 human embryonic stem cell lincRNAs (hES lincRNAs). Of which, one forth (78 out of 300) hES lincRNAs were further identified to be biasedly expressed in human ES cells. Functional analysis showed that they were preferentially involved in several early-development related biological processes. Comparative genomics analysis further suggested that around half of the identified hES lincRNAs were conserved in mouse. To facilitate further investigation of these hES lincRNAs, we constructed an online portal for biologists to access all their sequences and annotations interactively. In addition to navigation through a genome browse interface, users can also locate lincRNAs through an advanced query interface based on both keywords and expression profiles, and analyze results through multiple tools. By integrating multiple RNA-Seq datasets, we systematically characterized and annotated 300 hES lincRNAs. A full functional web portal is available freely at http://scbrowse.cbi.pku.edu.cn. As the first global profiling and annotating of human embryonic stem cell lincRNAs, this work aims to provide a valuable resource for both experimental biologists and bioinformaticians.

  19. The music of trees: the intergenerative tie between primary care and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stories help us frame and understand complex ideas and challenges. Metaphors are particularly powerful linguistic devices that guide and extend our thinking by bridging conceptual domains, for example to consider the brain as a digital computer. Trees are widely used as metaphors for broad concepts like evolution, history, society, and even life itself, i.e. 'the tree of life'. Tree-like diagrams of roots and branches are used to demonstrate historical and cultural relationships, for example, between different species or different languages. In this paper, we describe a theatrical character called a tree doctor which is a living metaphor. A human being, namely the author, lectures, acts or dances as a tree and offers lessons to Homo Sapiens about 'holistic' ideas of health. The character teaches us to not only see the value of our relationships to trees, but the importance of seeing forests as well the individual trees. The metaphorical statement that we should not 'miss the forest for the trees' means we should learn to think of health embedded in systems and communities. In medicine, we too often focus on individual molecules, pharmaceuticals, or even patients and miss the bigger picture of public and environmental health. In a time of great ecological system change, the tree doctor points to broad ethical responsibility for each other and future generations of humans and other living creatures. The character embraces arts and particularly music as a powerful way of infusing purpose and improving the qualities of our lives together, especially as we age. The tree doctor knows the value of intergenerational relationships. But it also points to intergenerative innovations across many cultural domains, disciplines and professions. The tree doctor supports primary care and empowers the value of intergenerational relationships, art and music in the recommendations doctors make to patients to improve their health and well-being.

  20. TALEN-mediated single-base-pair editing identification of an intergenic mutation upstream of BUB1B as causative of PCS (MVA) syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Kanai, Akinori; Hosoba, Kosuke; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Kudo, Yoshiki; Asami, Keiko; Ogawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Akihiro; Kajii, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Matsuura, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-prone syndrome of premature chromatid separation with mosaic variegated aneuploidy [PCS (MVA) syndrome] is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by constitutional aneuploidy and a high risk of childhood cancer. We previously reported monoallelic mutations in the BUB1B gene (encoding BUBR1) in seven Japanese families with the syndrome. No second mutation was found in the opposite allele of any of the families studied, although a conserved BUB1B haplotype and a decreased transcript were identified. To clarify the molecular pathology of the second allele, we extended our mutational search to a candidate region surrounding BUB1B. A unique single nucleotide substitution, G > A at ss802470619, was identified in an intergenic region 44 kb upstream of a BUB1B transcription start site, which cosegregated with the disorder. To examine whether this is the causal mutation, we designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease–mediated two-step single-base pair editing strategy and biallelically introduced this substitution into cultured human cells. The cell clones showed reduced BUB1B transcripts, increased PCS frequency, and MVA, which are the hallmarks of the syndrome. We also encountered a case of a Japanese infant with PCS (MVA) syndrome carrying a homozygous single nucleotide substitution at ss802470619. These results suggested that the nucleotide substitution identified was the causal mutation of PCS (MVA) syndrome. PMID:24344301

  1. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Ganoderma lucidum.

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    Jianqin Li

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus best-known for its medicinal activities. We have previously sequenced its genome and annotated the protein coding genes. However, long non-coding RNAs in G. lucidum genome have not been analyzed. In this study, we have identified and characterized long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNA in G. lucidum systematically. We developed a computational pipeline, which was used to analyze RNA-Seq data derived from G. lucidum samples collected from three developmental stages. A total of 402 lincRNA candidates were identified, with an average length of 609 bp. Analysis of their adjacent protein-coding genes (apcGenes revealed that 46 apcGenes belong to the pathways of triterpenoid biosynthesis and lignin degradation, or families of cytochrome P450, mating type B genes, and carbohydrate-active enzymes. To determine if lincRNAs and these apcGenes have any interactions, the corresponding pairs of lincRNAs and apcGenes were analyzed in detail. We developed a modified 3' RACE method to analyze the transcriptional direction of a transcript. Among the 46 lincRNAs, 37 were found unidirectionally transcribed, and 9 were found bidirectionally transcribed. The expression profiles of 16 of these 37 lincRNAs were found to be highly correlated with those of the apcGenes across the three developmental stages. Among them, 11 are positively correlated (r>0.8 and 5 are negatively correlated (r<-0.8. The co-localization and co-expression of lincRNAs and those apcGenes playing important functions is consistent with the notion that lincRNAs might be important regulators for cellular processes. In summary, this represents the very first study to identify and characterize lincRNAs in the genomes of basidiomycetes. The results obtained here have laid the foundation for study of potential lincRNA-mediated expression regulation of genes in G. lucidum.

  2. Functional Characterization of MC1R-TUBB3 Intergenic Splice Variants of the Human Melanocortin 1 Receptor.

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    Cecilia Herraiz

    Full Text Available The melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R expressed in melanocytes is a major determinant of skin pigmentation. It encodes a Gs protein-coupled receptor activated by α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. Human MC1R has an inefficient poly(A site allowing intergenic splicing with its downstream neighbour Tubulin-β-III (TUBB3. Intergenic splicing produces two MC1R isoforms, designated Iso1 and Iso2, bearing the complete seven transmembrane helices from MC1R fused to TUBB3-derived C-terminal extensions, in-frame for Iso1 and out-of-frame for Iso2. It has been reported that exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR might promote an isoform switch from canonical MC1R (MC1R-001 to the MC1R-TUBB3 chimeras, which might lead to novel phenotypes required for tanning. We expressed the Flag epitope-tagged intergenic isoforms in heterologous HEK293T cells and human melanoma cells, for functional characterization. Iso1 was expressed with the expected size. Iso2 yielded a doublet of Mr significantly lower than predicted, and impaired intracellular stability. Although Iso1- and Iso2 bound radiolabelled agonist with the same affinity as MC1R-001, their plasma membrane expression was strongly reduced. Decreased surface expression mostly resulted from aberrant forward trafficking, rather than high rates of endocytosis. Functional coupling of both isoforms to cAMP was lower than wild-type, but ERK activation upon binding of αMSH was unimpaired, suggesting imbalanced signaling from the splice variants. Heterodimerization of differentially labelled MC1R-001 with the splicing isoforms analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation was efficient and caused decreased surface expression of binding sites. Thus, UVR-induced MC1R isoforms might contribute to fine-tune the tanning response by modulating MC1R-001 availability and functional parameters.

  3. Population genetic structure and phylogeographical pattern of a relict tree fern, Alsophila spinulosa (Cyatheaceae), inferred from cpDNA atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Guopei; Gu, Hongya

    2004-11-01

    Sequences of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB- rbcL intergenic spacers of individuals of a tree fern species, Alsophila spinulosa, collected from ten relict populations distributed in the Hainan and Guangdong provinces, and the Guangxi Zhuang region in southern China, were determined. Sequence length varied from 724 bp to 731 bp, showing length polymorphism, and base composition was with high A+T content between 63.17% and 63.95%. Sequences were neutral in terms of evolution (Tajima's criterion D=-1.01899, P>0.10 and Fu and Li's test D*=-1.39008, P>0.10; F*=-1.49775, P>0.10). A total of 19 haplotypes were identified based on nucleotide variation. High levels of haplotype diversity (h=0.744) and nucleotide diversity (Dij=0.01130) were detected in A. spinulosa, probably associated with its long evolutionary history, which has allowed the accumulation of genetic variation within lineages. Both the minimum spanning network and neighbor-joining trees generated for haplotypes demonstrated that current populations of A. spinulosa existing in Hainan, Guangdong, and Guangxi were subdivided into two geographical groups. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variation (93.49%, P<0.001) was partitioned among regions. Wright's isolation by distance model was not supported across extant populations. Reduced gene flow by the Qiongzhou Strait and inbreeding may result in the geographical subdivision between the Hainan and Guangdong + Guangxi populations (FST=0.95, Nm=0.03). Within each region, the star-like pattern of phylogeography of haplotypes implied a population expansion process during evolutionary history. Gene genealogies together with coalescent theory provided significant information for uncovering phylogeography of A. spinulosa.

  4. Diversity of insect trypanosomatids assessed from the spliced leader RNA and 5S rRNA genes and intergenic regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podlipaev, Sergei; Sturm, N. R.; Fiala, Ivan; Fernandes, O.; Westenberger, S. J.; Dollet, M.; Campbell, D. A.; Lukeš, Julius

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2004), s. 283-290 ISSN 1066-5234 Grant - others:European Community(XE) QLK 2-CT-2001-01810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Kinetoplastida * phylogeny * Trypanosomatidae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.403, year: 2004

  5. Methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer of rRNA genes in excised cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. (Zucchini) after hormone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, E.; Abdulova, G.; Grozdanov, P.; Karagyozov, L.

    2003-01-01

    High molecular mass genomic DNA was isolated from excised marrow cotyledons (Cucurbita pepo L. zucchini) treated with 6-benzyladenine (BA) of methyl ester of jasmonic acid (MeJA) for 24 h in darkness. DNA purified from contaminating polysaccharides with Celite column was completely digested with the restriction enzyme Eco RI and the changes in the methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer (IGS) of r RNA genes were studied after subsequent digestion with the couple of restriction enzymes-isoschizomers MSP I and Hpa II by the method of 'indirect end labelling'. As rDNA units probe a cloned 32 P-labelled Eco RI 2.1 kb fragment spanning in the most part of 18S r RNA gene from flax rDNA was used. Results showed heavy methylation of the rRNA genes. As judged from the almost total lack of digestion with HPA II, there were no methylation free regions in repeated rDNA units or little if any were observed. A hypo methylated Hps II site was detected near the promoter region in some of the repeats. Digestion with Msp I affected nearly 50% of the repeating units. The Msp digestion fragments of the 6.2 kb Eco RI fragment of r DNA were few in number and large in size (0.5 - 2.5 kb). This suggested that in addition with -CpG- sequences, methylation in -CpNpG- might not be random. Methylation pattern in IGS was not changed upon treatment of the cotyledons in vivo with BA and MeJA. Thus, previously observed hormone-mediated effects on the eactivity of rRNA gene expression were not accompanied by any significant changes of the methylation pattern in IGS. (authors)

  6. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences and the PCR to generate fingerprints of genomic DNAs from Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, I G; Chowdhury, M A; Huq, A; Jacobs, D; Martins, M T; Colwell, R R

    1995-08-01

    Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence polymorphism was studied in Vibrio Cholerae strains isolated before and after the cholera epidemic in Brazil (in 1991), along with epidemic strains from Peru, Mexico, and India, by PCR. A total of 17 fingerprint patterns (FPs) were detected in the V. cholerae strains examined; 96.7% of the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains and 100% of the O139 serogroup strains were found to belong to the same FP group comprising four fragments (FP1). The nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 also yielded four fragments but constituted a different FP group (FP2). A total of 15 different patterns were observed among the V. cholerae non-O1 strains. Two patterns were observed most frequently for V. cholerae non-01 strains, 25% of which have FP3, with five fragments, and 16.7% of which have FP4, with two fragments. Three fragments, 1.75, 0.79, and 0.5 kb, were found to be common to both toxigenic and nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains as well as to group FP3, containing V. cholerae non-O1 strains. Two fragments of group FP3, 1.3 and 1.0 kb, were present in FP1 and FP2 respectively. The 0.5-kb fragment was common to all strains and serogroups of V. cholerae analyzed. It is concluded from the results of this study, based on DNA FPs of environmental isolates, that it is possible to detect an emerging virulent strain in a cholera-endemic region. ERIC-PCR constitutes a powerful tool for determination of the virulence potential of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in surveillance programs and for molecular epidemiological investigations.

  7. Identification of virulence factors in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer genotyped Staphylococcus aureus isolated from water buffaloes and small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, P; Zottola, T; Locatelli, C; Pollera, C; Castiglioni, B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Moroni, P

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and animal pathogen, and is regarded as an important cause of intramammary infection (IMI) in ruminants. Staphylococcus aureus genetic variability and virulence factors have been well studied in veterinary medicine, especially in cows as support for control and management of IMI. The aim of the present study was to genotype 71 Staph. aureus isolates from the bulk tank and foremilk of water buffaloes (n=40) and from udder tissue (n=7) and foremilk (n=24) from small ruminants. The method used was previously applied to bovine Staph. aureus and is based on the amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The technique applied was able to identify different Staph. aureus genotypes isolated from dairy species other than the bovine species, and cluster the genotypes according to species and herds. Virulence gene distribution was consistent with genotype differentiation. The isolates were also characterized through determination of the presence of 19 virulence-associated genes by specific PCR. Enterotoxins A, C, D, G, I, J, and L were associated with Staph. aureus isolates from buffaloes, whereas enterotoxins C and L were linked to small ruminants. Genes coding for methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, exfoliative toxins A and B, and enterotoxins B, E, and H were undetected. These findings indicate that RNA template-specific PCR is a valid technique for typing Staph. aureus from buffaloes and small ruminants and is a useful tool for understanding udder infection epidemiology. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A ribosomal RNA gene intergenic spacer based PCR and DGGE fingerprinting method for the analysis of specific rhizobial communities in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, VM; Manfio, GP; Coutinho, HLD; Keijzer-Wolters, AC; van Elsas, JD

    A direct molecular method for assessing the diversity of specific populations of rhizobia in soil, based on nested PCR amplification of 16S-23S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences, was developed. Initial generic amplification of bacterial rDNA IGS sequences from soil DNA was

  9. A ribosomal RNA gene intergenic spacer based PCR and DGGE fingerprinting method for the analysis of specific rhizobial communities in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, de V.M.; Manfio, G.P.; Coutinho, H.L.D.; Keijzer-Wolters, A.C.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2006-01-01

    A direct molecular method for assessing the diversity of specific populations of rhizobia in soil, based on nested PCR amplification of 16S-23S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences, was developed. Initial generic amplification of bacterial rDNA IGS sequences from soil DNA was

  10. A New Intergenic α-Globin Deletion (α-αΔ125) Found in a Kabyle Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrathlal Rabbind; Lacan, Philippe; Cadet, Estelle; Bignet, Patricia; Dumesnil, Cécile; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Joly, Philippe; Rochette, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We have identified a deletion of 125 bp (α-α(Δ125)) (NG_000006.1: g.37040_37164del) in the α-globin gene cluster in a Kabyle population. A combination of singlex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays have been used to identify the molecular defect. Sequencing of the abnormal PCR amplification product revealed a novel α1-globin promoter deletion. The endpoints of the deletion were characterized by sequencing the deletion junctions of the mutated allele. The observed deletion was located 378 bp upstream of the α1-globin gene transcription initiation site and leaves the α2 gene intact. In some patients, the α-α(Δ125) deletion was shown to segregate with Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) and/or Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) or a β-thalassemic allele. The α-α(Δ125) deletion has no discernible effect on red cell indices when inherited with no other abnormal globin genes. The family study demonstrated that the deletion is heritable. This is the only example of an intergenic α2-α1 non coding DNA deletion, leaving the α2-globin gene and the α1 coding part intact.

  11. Evaluation of Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis for Bacterial Fingerprinting of Rumen Microbiome Compared to Pyrosequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Jami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian gut houses a complex microbial community which is believed to play a significant role in host physiology. In recent years, several microbial community analysis methods have been implemented to study the whole gut microbial environment, in contrast to classical microbiological methods focusing on bacteria which can be cultivated. One of these is automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA, an inexpensive and popular way of analyzing bacterial diversity and community fingerprinting in ecological samples. ARISA uses the natural variability in length of the DNA fragment found between the 16S and 23S genes in different bacterial lineages to infer diversity. This method is now being supplanted by affordable next-generation sequencing technologies that can also simultaneously annotate operational taxonomic units for taxonomic identification. We compared ARISA and pyrosequencing of samples from the rumen microbiome of cows, previously sampled at different stages of development and varying in microbial complexity using several ecological parameters. We revealed close agreement between ARISA and pyrosequencing outputs, especially in their ability to discriminate samples from different ecological niches. In contrast, the ARISA method seemed to underestimate sample richness. The good performance of the relatively inexpensive ARISA makes it relevant for straightforward use in bacterial fingerprinting analysis as well as for quick cross-validation of pyrosequencing data.

  12. Genetic Diversity in Salmonella Isolates from Ducks and their Environments in Penang, Malaysia using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Adzitey 1, Gulam Rusul Rahmat Ali2*, Nurul Huda2 and Rosma Ahmad3

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 107 Salmonella isolates (37 S. typhimurium, 26 S. hadar, 15 S. enteritidis, 15 S. braenderup, and 14 S. albany isolated from ducks and their environments in Penang, Malaysia were typed using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC to determine their genetic diversity. Analysis of the Salmonella strains by ERIC produced DNA fingerprints of different sizes for differentiation purposes. The DNA fingerprints or band sizes ranged from 14-8300bp for S. Typhimurium, 146-6593bp for S. hadar, 15-4929bp for S. enteritidis, 14-5142bp for S. braenderup and 7-5712bp for S. albany. Cluster analysis at a coefficient of 0.85 grouped the Salmonella strains into various clusters and singletons. S. typhimurium were grouped into 10 clusters and 6 singletons, S. Hadar were grouped into 3 clusters and 18 singletons, S. enteritidis were grouped into 3 clusters and 7 singletons, S. braenderup were grouped into 4 clusters and 7 singletons, and S. albany were grouped into 3 clusters and 7 singletons with discriminatory index (D ranging from 0.92-0.98. ERIC proved to be a useful typing tool for determining the genetic diversity of the duck Salmonella strains.

  13. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PlantRNA_Sniffer: A SVM-Based Workflow to Predict Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNAs in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Lucas Maciel; Grativol, Clicia; Thiebaut, Flavia; Carvalho, Thais G; Hardoim, Pablo R; Hemerly, Adriana; Lifschitz, Sergio; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes; Walter, Maria Emilia M T

    2017-03-04

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) constitute an important set of transcripts produced in the cells of organisms. Among them, there is a large amount of a particular class of long ncRNAs that are difficult to predict, the so-called long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs), which might play essential roles in gene regulation and other cellular processes. Despite the importance of these lincRNAs, there is still a lack of biological knowledge and, currently, the few computational methods considered are so specific that they cannot be successfully applied to other species different from those that they have been originally designed to. Prediction of lncRNAs have been performed with machine learning techniques. Particularly, for lincRNA prediction, supervised learning methods have been explored in recent literature. As far as we know, there are no methods nor workflows specially designed to predict lincRNAs in plants. In this context, this work proposes a workflow to predict lincRNAs on plants, considering a workflow that includes known bioinformatics tools together with machine learning techniques, here a support vector machine (SVM). We discuss two case studies that allowed to identify novel lincRNAs, in sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) and in maize ( Zea mays ). From the results, we also could identify differentially-expressed lincRNAs in sugarcane and maize plants submitted to pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms.

  15. PlantRNA_Sniffer: A SVM-Based Workflow to Predict Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNAs in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Maciel Vieira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs constitute an important set of transcripts produced in the cells of organisms. Among them, there is a large amount of a particular class of long ncRNAs that are difficult to predict, the so-called long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs, which might play essential roles in gene regulation and other cellular processes. Despite the importance of these lincRNAs, there is still a lack of biological knowledge and, currently, the few computational methods considered are so specific that they cannot be successfully applied to other species different from those that they have been originally designed to. Prediction of lncRNAs have been performed with machine learning techniques. Particularly, for lincRNA prediction, supervised learning methods have been explored in recent literature. As far as we know, there are no methods nor workflows specially designed to predict lincRNAs in plants. In this context, this work proposes a workflow to predict lincRNAs on plants, considering a workflow that includes known bioinformatics tools together with machine learning techniques, here a support vector machine (SVM. We discuss two case studies that allowed to identify novel lincRNAs, in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. and in maize (Zea mays. From the results, we also could identify differentially-expressed lincRNAs in sugarcane and maize plants submitted to pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms.

  16. Genome-wide identification of potato long intergenic noncoding RNAs responsive to Pectobacterium carotovorum subspecies brasiliense infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Stanford; Birch, Paul R J; Moleleki, Lucy N

    2016-08-11

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that are implicated in regulation of gene expression in both mammals and plants. While much progress has been made in determining the biological functions of lncRNAs in mammals, the functional roles of lncRNAs in plants are still poorly understood. Specifically, the roles of long intergenic nocoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in plant defence responses are yet to be fully explored. In this study, we used strand-specific RNA sequencing to identify 1113 lincRNAs in potato (Solanum tuberosum) from stem tissues. The lincRNAs are expressed from all 12 potato chromosomes and generally smaller in size compared to protein-coding genes. Like in other plants, most potato lincRNAs possess single exons. A time-course RNA-seq analysis between a tolerant and a susceptible potato cultivar showed that 559 lincRNAs are responsive to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense challenge compared to mock-inoculated controls. Moreover, coexpression analysis revealed that 17 of these lincRNAs are highly associated with 12 potato defence-related genes. Together, these results suggest that lincRNAs have potential functional roles in potato defence responses. Furthermore, this work provides the first library of potato lincRNAs and a set of novel lincRNAs implicated in potato defences against P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense, a member of the soft rot Enterobacteriaceae phytopathogens.

  17. Large Intergenic Non-coding RNA-RoR Inhibits Aerobic Glycolysis of Glioblastoma Cells via Akt Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; He, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Kai; Shi, Yu; Yao, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Xia; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Ping, Yi-Fang; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2018-01-01

    Reprogramming energy metabolism is a hallmark of malignant tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM). Aerobic glycolysis is often utilized by tumor cells to maintain survival and proliferation. However, the underlying mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis in GBM remain elusive. Herein, we demonstrated that large intergenic non-coding RNA-RoR (LincRNA-RoR) functioned as a critical suppressor to inhibit the aerobic glycolysis and viability of GBM cells. We found that LincRNA-RoR was markedly reduced in GBM tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues from 10 cases of GBM patients. Consistently, LincRNA-RoR expression in GBM cells was significantly lower than that in normal glial cells. The aerobic glycolysis of GBM cells, as determined by the measurement of glucose uptake and lactate production, was impaired by LincRNA-RoR overexpression. Mechanistically, LincRNA-RoR inhibited the expression of Rictor, the key component of mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2), to suppress the activity of Akt pathway and impair the expression of glycolytic effectors, including Glut1, HK2, PKM2 and LDHA. Finally, enforced expression of LincRNA-RoR reduced the proliferation of GBM cells in vitro, restrained tumor growth in vivo, and repressed the expression of glycolytic molecules in GBM xenografts. Collectively, our results underscore LincRNA-RoR as a new suppressor of GBM aerobic glycolysis with therapeutic potential. PMID:29581766

  18. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences and the PCR to generate fingerprints of genomic DNAs from Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1 strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, I G; Chowdhury, M A; Huq, A; Jacobs, D; Martins, M T; Colwell, R R

    1995-01-01

    Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence polymorphism was studied in Vibrio Cholerae strains isolated before and after the cholera epidemic in Brazil (in 1991), along with epidemic strains from Peru, Mexico, and India, by PCR. A total of 17 fingerprint patterns (FPs) were detected in the V. cholerae strains examined; 96.7% of the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains and 100% of the O139 serogroup strains were found to belong to the same FP group comprising four fragments (F...

  19. Long Intergenic Noncoding RNAs Mediate the Human Chondrocyte Inflammatory Response and Are Differentially Expressed in Osteoarthritis Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark J; Philp, Ashleigh M; Heward, James A; Roux, Benoit T; Walsh, David A; Davis, Edward T; Lindsay, Mark A; Jones, Simon W

    2016-04-01

    To identify long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), including long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), antisense RNAs, and pseudogenes, associated with the inflammatory response in human primary osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes and to explore their expression and function in OA. OA cartilage was obtained from patients with hip or knee OA following joint replacement surgery. Non-OA cartilage was obtained from postmortem donors and patients with fracture of the neck of the femur. Primary OA chondrocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion. LncRNA expression analysis was performed by RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Modulation of lncRNA chondrocyte expression was achieved using LNA longRNA GapmeRs (Exiqon). Cytokine production was measured with Luminex. RNAseq identified 983 lncRNAs in primary human hip OA chondrocytes, 183 of which had not previously been identified. Following interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation, we identified 125 lincRNAs that were differentially expressed. The lincRNA p50-associated cyclooxygenase 2-extragenic RNA (PACER) and 2 novel chondrocyte inflammation-associated lincRNAs (CILinc01 and CILinc02) were differentially expressed in both knee and hip OA cartilage compared to non-OA cartilage. In primary OA chondrocytes, these lincRNAs were rapidly and transiently induced in response to multiple proinflammatory cytokines. Knockdown of CILinc01 and CILinc02 expression in human chondrocytes significantly enhanced the IL-1-stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The inflammatory response in human OA chondrocytes is associated with widespread changes in the profile of lncRNAs, including PACER, CILinc01, and CILinc02. Differential expression of CILinc01 and CIinc02 in hip and knee OA cartilage, and their role in modulating cytokine production during the chondrocyte inflammatory response, suggest that they may play an important role in mediating inflammation-driven cartilage degeneration in

  20. Identification and Functional Analysis of Long Intergenic Non-coding RNAs Underlying Intramuscular Fat Content in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content is an important trait that can affect pork quality. Previous studies have identified many genes that can regulate IMF. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs are emerging as key regulators in various biological processes. However, lincRNAs related to IMF in pig are largely unknown, and the mechanisms by which they regulate IMF are yet to be elucidated. Here we reconstructed 105,687 transcripts and identified 1,032 lincRNAs in pig longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM of four stages with different IMF contents based on published RNA-seq. These lincRNAs show typical characteristics such as shorter length and lower expression compared with protein-coding genes. Combined with methylation data, we found that both the promoter and genebody methylation of lincRNAs can negatively regulate lincRNA expression. We found that lincRNAs exhibit high correlation with their protein-coding neighbors in expression. Co-expression network analysis resulted in eight stage-specific modules, gene ontology and pathway analysis of them suggested that some lincRNAs were involved in IMF-related processes, such as fatty acid metabolism and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, we identified hub lincRNAs and found six of them may play important roles in IMF development. This work detailed some lincRNAs which may affect of IMF development in pig, and facilitated future research on these lincRNAs and molecular assisted breeding for pig.

  1. [Phylogenetic relationships of the species of Oxytropis DC. subg. Oxytropis and Phacoxytropis (Fabaceae) from Asian Russia inferred from the nucleotide sequence analysis of the intergenic spacers of the chloroplast genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholina, A B; Kozyrenko, M M; Artyukova, E V; Sandanov, D V; Andrianova, E A

    2016-08-01

    The nucleotide sequence analysis of trnH–psbA, trnL–trnF, and trnS–trnG intergenic spacer regions of chloroplast DNA performed in the representatives of the genus Oxytropis from Asian Russia provided clarification of the phylogenetic relationships of some species and sections in the subgenera Oxytropis and Phacoxytropis and in the genus Oxytropis as a whole. Only the section Mesogaea corresponds to the subgenus Phacoxytropis, while the section Janthina of the same subgenus groups together with the sections of the subgenus Oxytropis. The sections Chrysantha and Ortholoma of the subgenus Oxytropis are not only closely related to each other, but together with the section Mesogaea, they are grouped into the subgenus Phacoxytropis. It seems likely that the sections Chrysantha and Ortholoma should be assigned to the subgenus Phacoxytropis, and the section Janthina should be assigned to the subgenus Oxytropis. The molecular differences were identified between O. coerulea and O. mandshurica from the section Janthina that were indicative of considerable divergence of their chloroplast genomes and the species independence of the taxa. The species independence of O. czukotica belonging to the section Arctobia was also confirmed.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships in Solanaceae and related species based on cpDNA sequence from plastid trnE-trnT region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Montewka Melotto-Passarin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergenic spacers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA are very useful in phylogenetic and population genetic studiesof plant species, to study their potential integration in phylogenetic analysis. The non-coding trnE-trnT intergenic spacer ofcpDNA was analyzed to assess the nucleotide sequence polymorphism of 16 Solanaceae species and to estimate its ability tocontribute to the resolution of phylogenetic studies of this group. Multiple alignments of DNA sequences of trnE-trnT intergenicspacer made the identification of nucleotide variability in this region possible and the phylogeny was estimated by maximumparsimony and rooted with Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatas, the most closely related family. Besides, this intergenic spacerwas tested for the phylogenetic ability to differentiate taxonomic levels. For this purpose, species from four other families wereanalyzed and compared with Solanaceae species. Results confirmed polymorphism in the trnE-trnT region at different taxonomiclevels.

  3. An intergenic risk locus containing an enhancer deletion in 2q35 modulates breast cancer risk by deregulating IGFBP5 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszynski, Asaf; Hong, Chi-Chen; Lam, Kristin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lytle, Christian; Yao, Song; Zhang, Yali; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Nevanlinna, Heli; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Wu, Anna H.; Van Den Berg, David; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Wong, Tien Y.; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Klevebring, Daniel; Czene, Kamila; Hooning, Maartje J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Darabi, Hatef; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cox, Angela; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Shah, Mitul; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Hamann, Ute; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Swerdlow, Anthony; Orr, Nick; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Bandera, Elisa; Amos, Chris; Ambrosone, Christine; Easton, Douglas F.; Cole, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in females. Previous association studies have identified variants on 2q35 associated with the risk of breast cancer. To identify functional susceptibility loci for breast cancer, we interrogated the 2q35 gene desert for chromatin architecture and functional variation correlated with gene expression. We report a novel intergenic breast cancer risk locus containing an enhancer copy number variation (enCNV; deletion) located approximately 400Kb upstream to IGFBP5, which overlaps an intergenic ERα-bound enhancer that loops to the IGFBP5 promoter. The enCNV is correlated with modified ERα binding and monoallelic-repression of IGFBP5 following oestrogen treatment. We investigated the association of enCNV genotype with breast cancer in 1,182 cases and 1,362 controls, and replicate our findings in an independent set of 62,533 cases and 60,966 controls from 41 case control studies and 11 GWAS. We report a dose-dependent inverse association of 2q35 enCNV genotype (percopy OR = 0.68 95%CI 0.55–0.83, P = 0.0002; replication OR = 0.77 95% CI 0.73-0.82, P = 2.1 × 10−19) and identify 13 additional linked variants (r2 > 0.8) in the 20Kb linkage block containing the enCNV (P = 3.2 × 10−15 − 5.6 × 10−17). These associations were independent of previously reported 2q35 variants, rs13387042/rs4442975 and rs16857609, and were stronger for ER-positive than ER-negative disease. Together, these results suggest that 2q35 breast cancer risk loci may be mediating their effect through IGFBP5. PMID:27402876

  4. Development and Validation of an Improved PCR Method Using the 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer for Detection of Rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks and Tissue Samples from Humans and Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley T; Meshnick, Steven R; Nicholson, William L; Apperson, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    A novel nested PCR assay was developed to detectRickettsiaspp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. Primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) ofRickettsiaspp. The newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic DNA from 11Rickettsiaspecies belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to otherRickettsia-specific PCR targets (ompA,gltA, and the 17-kDa protein gene). The new 23S-5S IGS nested PCR assay amplified all 11Rickettsiaspp., but the assays employing other PCR targets did not. The novel nested assay was sensitive enough to detect one copy of a cloned 23S-5S IGS fragment from "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii." Subsequently, the detection efficiency of the 23S-5S IGS nested assay was compared to those of the other three assays using genomic DNA extracted from 40 adultDermacentor variabilisticks. The nested 23S-5S IGS assay detectedRickettsiaDNA in 45% of the ticks, while the amplification rates of the other three assays ranged between 5 and 20%. The novel PCR assay was validated using clinical samples from humans and laboratory animals that were known to be infected with pathogenic species ofRickettsia The nested 23S-5S IGS PCR assay was coupled with reverse line blot hybridization with species-specific probes for high-throughput detection and simultaneous identification of the species ofRickettsiain the ticks. "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii,"R. montanensis,R. felis, andR. belliiwere frequently identified species, along with some potentially novelRickettsiastrains that were closely related toR. belliiandR. conorii. Copyright © 2016 Kakumanu et al.

  5. A one-step reaction for the rapid identification of Lactobacillus mindensis, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus frumenti using oligonucleotide primers designed from the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchichi, M; Valcheva, R; Prévost, H; Onno, B; Dousset, X

    2008-06-01

    Species-specific primers targeting the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer region (ISR) were designed to rapidly discriminate between Lactobacillus mindensis, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus frumenti species recently isolated from French sourdough. The 16S-23S ISRs were amplified using primers 16S/p2 and 23S/p7, which anneal to positions 1388-1406 of the 16S rRNA gene and to positions 207-189 of the 23S rRNA gene respectively, Escherichia coli numbering (GenBank accession number V00331). Clone libraries of the resulting amplicons were constructed using a pCR2.1 TA cloning kit and sequenced. Species-specific primers were designed based on the sequences obtained and were used to amplify the 16S-23S ISR in the Lactobacillus species considered. For all of them, two PCR amplicons, designated as small ISR (S-ISR) and large ISR (L-ISR), were obtained. The L-ISR is composed of the corresponding S-ISR, interrupted by a sequence containing tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala) genes. Based on these sequences, species-specific primers were designed and proved to identify accurately the species considered among 30 reference Lactobacillus species tested. Designed species-specific primers enable a rapid and accurate identification of L. mindensis, L. paralimentarius, L. panis, L. pontis and L. frumenti species among other lactobacilli. The proposed method provides a powerful and convenient means of rapidly identifying some sourdough lactobacilli, which could be of help in large starter culture surveys.

  6. Development and Validation of an Improved PCR Method Using the 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer for Detection of Rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks and Tissue Samples from Humans and Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley T.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Nicholson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    A novel nested PCR assay was developed to detect Rickettsia spp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. Primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) of Rickettsia spp. The newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic DNA from 11 Rickettsia species belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to other Rickettsia-specific PCR targets (ompA, gltA, and the 17-kDa protein gene). The new 23S-5S IGS nested PCR assay amplified all 11 Rickettsia spp., but the assays employing other PCR targets did not. The novel nested assay was sensitive enough to detect one copy of a cloned 23S-5S IGS fragment from “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii.” Subsequently, the detection efficiency of the 23S-5S IGS nested assay was compared to those of the other three assays using genomic DNA extracted from 40 adult Dermacentor variabilis ticks. The nested 23S-5S IGS assay detected Rickettsia DNA in 45% of the ticks, while the amplification rates of the other three assays ranged between 5 and 20%. The novel PCR assay was validated using clinical samples from humans and laboratory animals that were known to be infected with pathogenic species of Rickettsia. The nested 23S-5S IGS PCR assay was coupled with reverse line blot hybridization with species-specific probes for high-throughput detection and simultaneous identification of the species of Rickettsia in the ticks. “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii,” R. montanensis, R. felis, and R. bellii were frequently identified species, along with some potentially novel Rickettsia strains that were closely related to R. bellii and R. conorii. PMID:26818674

  7. Identification of clinically relevant nonhemolytic Streptococci on the basis of sequence analysis of 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and partial gdh gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Dargis, Rimtas

    2009-01-01

    Nonhemolytic streptococci (NHS) cause serious infections, such as endocarditis and septicemia. Many conventional phenotypic methods are insufficient for the identification of bacteria in this group to the species level. Genetic analysis has revealed that single-gene analysis is insufficient...

  8. High transcript abundance, RNA editing, and small RNAs in intergenic regions within the massive mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene noctiflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, Z.; Stone, James D.; Štorchová, Helena; Sloan, D.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, NOV 14 (2015), s. 938 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antisense RNA * Junk DNA * mtDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  9. Concerted evolution rapidly eliminates sequence variation in rDNA coding regions but not in intergenic spacers in Nicotiana tabacum allotetraploid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunerová Bedřichová, Jana; Renny-Byfield, S.; Matyášek, Roman; Leitch, A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 8 (2017), s. 1043-1060 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-11642S; GA ČR(CZ) GC16-02149J Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Concerted evolution * Immunomodulation * Neutrophils Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2016

  10. Identification of novel growth phase- and media-dependent small non-coding RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes M49 using intergenic tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patenge Nadja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs have attracted attention as a new class of gene regulators in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Genome-wide screening methods have been successfully applied in Gram-negative bacteria to identify sRNA regulators. Many sRNAs are well characterized, including their target mRNAs and mode of action. In comparison, little is known about sRNAs in Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we identified novel sRNAs in the exclusively human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes M49 (Group A Streptococcus, GAS M49, employing a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. GAS is an important pathogen that causes diseases ranging from mild superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes of the naso-pharynx, to severe toxic and invasive diseases. Results We identified 55 putative sRNAs in GAS M49 that were expressed during growth. Of these, 42 were novel. Some of the newly-identified sRNAs belonged to one of the common non-coding RNA families described in the Rfam database. Comparison of the results of our screen with the outcome of two recently published bioinformatics tools showed a low level of overlap between putative sRNA genes. Previously, 40 potential sRNAs have been reported to be expressed in a GAS M1T1 serotype, as detected by a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. Our screen detected 12 putative sRNA genes that were expressed in both strains. Twenty sRNA candidates appeared to be regulated in a medium-dependent fashion, while eight sRNA genes were regulated throughout growth in chemically defined medium. Expression of candidate genes was verified by reverse transcriptase-qPCR. For a subset of sRNAs, the transcriptional start was determined by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR analysis. Conclusions In accord with the results of previous studies, we found little overlap between different screening methods, which underlines the fact that a comprehensive analysis of s

  11. Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA 00511 Acts as an Oncogene in Non–small-cell Lung Cancer by Binding to EZH2 and Suppressing p57

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cao Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play crucial roles in carcinogenesis. However, the function and mechanism of lncRNAs in human non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC are still remaining largely unknown. Long intergenic noncoding RNA 00511 (LINC00511 has been found to be upregulated and acts as an oncogene in breast cancer, but little is known about its expression pattern, biological function and underlying mechanism in NSCLC. Herein, we identified LINC00511 as an oncogenic lncRNA by driving tumorigenesis in NSCLC. We found LINC00511 was upregulated and associated with oncogenesis, tumor size, metastasis, and poor prognosis in NSCLC. Moreover, LINC00511 affected cell proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, and apoptosis in multiple NSCLC cell lines. Mechanistically, LINC00511 bound histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 ((EZH2, the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2, a highly conserved protein complex that regulates gene expression by methylating lysine 27 on histone H3, and acted as a modular scaffold of EZH2/PRC2 complexes, coordinated their localization, and specified the histone modification pattern on the target genes, including p57, and consequently altered NSCLC cell biology. Thus, LINC00511 is mechanistically, functionally, and clinically oncogenic in NSCLC. Targeting LINC00511 and its pathway may be meaningful for treating patients with NSCLC.

  12. A ribosomal RNA gene intergenic spacer based PCR and DGGE fingerprinting method for the analysis of specific rhizobial communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; Manfio, Gilson Paulo; da Costa Coutinho, Heitor Luiz; Keijzer-Wolters, Anneke Christina; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2006-03-01

    A direct molecular method for assessing the diversity of specific populations of rhizobia in soil, based on nested PCR amplification of 16S-23S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences, was developed. Initial generic amplification of bacterial rDNA IGS sequences from soil DNA was followed by specific amplification of (1) sequences affiliated with Rhizobium leguminosarum "sensu lato" and (2) R. tropici. Using analysis of the amplified sequences in clone libraries obtained on the basis of soil DNA, this two-sided method was shown to be very specific for rhizobial subpopulations in soil. It was then further validated as a direct fingerprinting tool of the target rhizobia based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The PCR-DGGE approach was applied to soils from fields in Brazil cultivated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under conventional or no-tillage practices. The community fingerprints obtained allowed the direct analysis of the respective rhizobial community structures in soil samples from the two contrasting agricultural practices. Data obtained with both primer sets revealed clustering of the community structures of the target rhizobial types along treatment. Moreover, the DGGE profiles obtained with the R. tropici primer set indicated that the abundance and diversity of these organisms were favoured under NT practices. These results suggest that the R. leguminosarum-as well as R. tropici-targeted IGS-based nested PCR and DGGE are useful tools for monitoring the effect of agricultural practices on these and related rhizobial subpopulations in soils.

  13. Genotyping of virulent Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soma Sekhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize virulent Escherichia coli isolated from different poultry species and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR genotyping. Materials and Methods: Fecal swabs from different poultry species (n=150 and poultry farm workers (n=15 were analyzed for E. coli and screened for virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA by multiplex PCR. Virulent E. coli was serotyped based on their "O" antigen and then genotyped using ERIC-PCR. Results: A total of 134 E. coli isolates (122/150 from poultry and 12/15 from farm workers were recovered. Virulence genes were detected in a total of 12 isolates. Serological typing of the 12 virulent E. coli revealed nine different serotypes (O2, O49, O60, O63, O83, O101, O120, UT, and Rough. ERIC-PCR genotyping allowed discrimination of 12 virulent E. coli isolates into 11 ERIC-PCR genotypes. The numerical index of discrimination was 0.999. Conclusion: Our findings provide information about the wide genetic diversity and discrimination of virulent E. coli in apparently healthy poultry and poultry farm workers of Andhra Pradesh (India based on their genotype.

  14. Genome wide discovery of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and their expression in insecticide resistant strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etebari, Kayvan; Furlong, Michael J.; Asgari, Sassan

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in genomic imprinting, cancer, differentiation and regulation of gene expression. Here, we identified 3844 long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNA) in Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious pest of cruciferous plants that has developed field resistance to all classes of insecticides, including Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins. Further, we found that some of those lincRNAs may potentially serve as precursors for the production of small ncRNAs. We found 280 and 350 lincRNAs that are differentially expressed in Chlorpyrifos and Fipronil resistant larvae. A survey on P. xylostella midgut transcriptome data from Bt-resistant populations revealed 59 altered lincRNA in two resistant strains compared with the susceptible population. We validated the transcript levels of a number of putative lincRNAs in deltamethrin-resistant larvae that were exposed to deltamethrin, which indicated that this group of lincRNAs might be involved in the response to xenobiotics in this insect. To functionally characterize DBM lincRNAs, gene ontology (GO) enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes was extracted and showed over representation of protein, DNA and RNA binding GO terms. The data presented here will facilitate future studies to unravel the function of lincRNAs in insecticide resistance or the response to xenobiotics of eukaryotic cells. PMID:26411386

  15. Differentiation between Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus from Pure Culture and Aflatoxin-Contaminated Grapes Using PCR-RFLP Analysis of aflR-aflJ Intergenic Spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khoury, A.; Atoui, A.; Lebrihi, A.; Rizk, T.; Lteif, R.; Kallassy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) represent the most important single mycotoxin-related food safety problem in developed and developing countries as they have adverse effects on human and animal health. They are produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Both species have different aflatoxinogenic profile. In order to distinguish between A. flavus and A. parasiticus, gene-specific primers were designed to target the intergenic spacer (IGS) for the AF biosynthesis genes, aflJ and aflR. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis using BglII to look for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Our result showed that both species displayed different PCR-based RFLP (PCR-RFLP) profile. PCR products from A. flavus cleaved into 3 fragments of 362, 210, and 102 bp. However, there is only one restriction site for this enzyme in the sequence of A. parasiticus that produced only 2 fragments of 363 and 311 bp. The method was successfully applied to contaminated grapes samples. This approach of differentiating these 2 species would be simpler, less costly, and quicker than conventional sequencing of PCR products and/or morphological identification. (author)

  16. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Leonardoxa (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) inferred from chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, Carine; Gielly, Ludovic; McKey, Doyle

    2001-01-01

    The African genus LEONARDOXA: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) comprises two Congolean species and a group of four mostly allopatric subspecies principally located in Cameroon and clustered together in the L. africana complex. LEONARDOXA: provides a good opportunity to investigate the evolutionary history of ant-plant mutualisms, as it exhibits various grades of ant-plant interactions from diffuse to obligate and symbiotic associations. We present in this paper the first molecular phylogenetic study of this genus. We sequenced both the chloroplast DNA trnL intron (677 aligned base pairs [bp]) and trnL-trnF intergene spacer (598 aligned bp). Inferred phylogenetic relationships suggested first that the genus is paraphyletic. The L. africana complex is clearly separated from the two Congolean species, and the integrity of the genus is thus in question. In the L. africana complex, our data showed a lack of congruence between clades suggested by morphological and chloroplast characters. This, and the low level of molecular divergence found between subspecies, suggests gene flow and introgressive events in the L. africana complex.

  17. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Mechanisms of Action of Long Noncoding RNA Hox Transcript Antisense Intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in HeLa Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peng; Xiong, Qian; Wu, Ying; Chen, Ying; Chen, Zhuo; Fleming, Joy; Gao, Ding; Bi, Lijun; Ge, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which have emerged in recent years as a new and crucial layer of gene regulators, regulate various biological processes such as carcinogenesis and metastasis. HOTAIR (Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA), a lncRNA overexpressed in most human cancers, has been shown to be an oncogenic lncRNA. Here, we explored the role of HOTAIR in HeLa cells and searched for proteins regulated by HOTAIR. To understand the mechanism of action of HOTAIR from a systems perspective, we employed a quantitative proteomic strategy to systematically identify potential targets of HOTAIR. The expression of 170 proteins was significantly dys-regulated after inhibition of HOTAIR, implying that they could be potential targets of HOTAIR. Analysis of this data at the systems level revealed major changes in proteins involved in diverse cellular components, including the cytoskeleton and the respiratory chain. Further functional studies on vimentin (VIM), a key protein involved in the cytoskeleton, revealed that HOTAIR exerts its effects on migration and invasion of HeLa cells, at least in part, through the regulation of VIM expression. Inhibition of HOTAIR leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural alterations, suggesting a novel role of HOTAIR in maintaining mitochondrial function in cancer cells. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the function of HOTAIR in cancer cells. We expect that the methods used in this study will become an integral part of functional studies of lncRNAs. PMID:25762744

  18. Genome-wide identification and functional prediction of nitrogen-responsive intergenic and intronic long non-coding RNAs in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuanda; Liang, Zhikai; Ge, Min; Qi, Weicong; Zhang, Tifu; Lin, Feng; Peng, Zhaohua; Zhao, Han

    2016-05-11

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential and often limiting nutrient to plant growth and development. Previous studies have shown that the mRNA expressions of numerous genes are regulated by nitrogen supplies; however, little is known about the expressed non-coding elements, for example long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that control the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to nitrogen. LncRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs larger than 200 bp, which have emerged as key regulators in gene expression. In this study, we surveyed the intergenic/intronic lncRNAs in maize B73 leaves at the V7 stage under conditions of N-deficiency and N-sufficiency using ribosomal RNA depletion and ultra-deep total RNA sequencing approaches. By integration with mRNA expression profiles and physiological evaluations, 7245 lncRNAs and 637 nitrogen-responsive lncRNAs were identified that exhibited unique expression patterns. Co-expression network analysis showed that the nitrogen-responsive lncRNAs were enriched mainly in one of the three co-expressed modules. The genes in the enriched module are mainly involved in NADH dehydrogenase activity, oxidative phosphorylation and the nitrogen compounds metabolic process. We identified a large number of lncRNAs in maize and illustrated their potential regulatory roles in response to N stress. The results lay the foundation for further in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs' role in response to nitrogen stresses.

  19. Genome-wide characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) provides new insight into viral diseases in honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Jung, Je Won; Park, Doori; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Shin, Sang-Yoon; Shin, Chanseok; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-09-04

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNAs that do not encode proteins. Recently, lncRNAs have gained special attention for their roles in various biological process and diseases. In an attempt to identify long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and their possible involvement in honey bee development and diseases, we analyzed RNA-seq datasets generated from Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) and western honey bee (Apis mellifera). We identified 2470 lincRNAs with an average length of 1011 bp from A. cerana and 1514 lincRNAs with an average length of 790 bp in A. mellifera. Comparative analysis revealed that 5 % of the total lincRNAs derived from both species are unique in each species. Our comparative digital gene expression analysis revealed a high degree of tissue-specific expression among the seven major tissues of honey bee, different from mRNA expression patterns. A total of 863 (57 %) and 464 (18 %) lincRNAs showed tissue-dependent expression in A. mellifera and A. cerana, respectively, most preferentially in ovary and fat body tissues. Importantly, we identified 11 lincRNAs that are specifically regulated upon viral infection in honey bees, and 10 of them appear to play roles during infection with various viruses. This study provides the first comprehensive set of lincRNAs for honey bees and opens the door to discover lincRNAs associated with biological and hormone signaling pathways as well as various diseases of honey bee.

  20. Sequence analysis of two alleles reveals that intra-and intergenic recombination played a role in the evolution of the radish fertility restorer (Rfo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budar Françoise

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Land plant genomes contain multiple members of a eukaryote-specific gene family encoding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR motifs. Some PPR proteins were shown to participate in post-transcriptional events involved in organellar gene expression, and this type of function is now thought to be their main biological role. Among PPR genes, restorers of fertility (Rf of cytoplasmic male sterility systems constitute a peculiar subgroup that is thought to evolve in response to the presence of mitochondrial sterility-inducing genes. Rf genes encoding PPR proteins are associated with very close relatives on complex loci. Results We sequenced a non-restoring allele (L7rfo of the Rfo radish locus whose restoring allele (D81Rfo was previously described, and compared the two alleles and their PPR genes. We identified a ca 13 kb long fragment, likely originating from another part of the radish genome, inserted into the L7rfo sequence. The L7rfo allele carries two genes (PPR-1 and PPR-2 closely related to the three previously described PPR genes of the restorer D81Rfo allele (PPR-A, PPR-B, and PPR-C. Our results indicate that alleles of the Rfo locus have experienced complex evolutionary events, including recombination and insertion of extra-locus sequences, since they diverged. Our analyses strongly suggest that present coding sequences of Rfo PPR genes result from intragenic recombination. We found that the 10 C-terminal PPR repeats in Rfo PPR gene encoded proteins result from the tandem duplication of a 5 PPR repeat block. Conclusions The Rfo locus appears to experience more complex evolution than its flanking sequences. The Rfo locus and PPR genes therein are likely to evolve as a result of intergenic and intragenic recombination. It is therefore not possible to determine which genes on the two alleles are direct orthologs. Our observations recall some previously reported data on pathogen resistance complex loci.

  1. Genotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates from Different Sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Njie Ateba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003 and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I–VIII were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91% between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  2. Genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from different sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba, Collins Njie; Mbewe, Moses

    2014-05-30

    In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v) agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003) and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I-VIII) were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91%) between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  3. CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells by modulation of protein-encoding gene and long intergenic non-coding RNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yongyan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Ai, Zhiying [Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); College of Life Sciences, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Yao, Kezhen [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Cao, Lixia; Du, Juan; Shi, Xiaoyan [Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); College of Life Sciences, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Guo, Zekun, E-mail: gzk@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: zhylab@hotmail.com [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China)

    2013-10-15

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate indefinitely in vitro and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. These unique properties make them exceptionally valuable for drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the practical application of ESCs is limited because it is difficult to derive and culture ESCs. It has been demonstrated that CHIR99021 (CHIR) promotes self-renewal and enhances the derivation efficiency of mouse (m)ESCs. However, the downstream targets of CHIR are not fully understood. In this study, we identified CHIR-regulated genes in mESCs using microarray analysis. Our microarray data demonstrated that CHIR not only influenced the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by stabilizing β-catenin, but also modulated several other pluripotency-related signaling pathways such as TGF-β, Notch and MAPK signaling pathways. More detailed analysis demonstrated that CHIR inhibited Nodal signaling, while activating bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mESCs. In addition, we found that pluripotency-maintaining transcription factors were up-regulated by CHIR, while several developmental-related genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, we found that CHIR altered the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and long intergenic non-coding RNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR results were consistent with microarray data, suggesting that CHIR alters the expression pattern of protein-encoding genes (especially transcription factors), epigenetic regulatory genes and non-coding RNAs to establish a relatively stable pluripotency-maintaining network. - Highlights: • Combined use of CHIR with LIF promotes self-renewal of J1 mESCs. • CHIR-regulated genes are involved in multiple pathways. • CHIR inhibits Nodal signaling and promotes Bmp4 expression to activate BMP signaling. • Expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and lincRNAs is altered by CHIR.

  4. CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells by modulation of protein-encoding gene and long intergenic non-coding RNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yongyan; Ai, Zhiying; Yao, Kezhen; Cao, Lixia; Du, Juan; Shi, Xiaoyan; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate indefinitely in vitro and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. These unique properties make them exceptionally valuable for drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the practical application of ESCs is limited because it is difficult to derive and culture ESCs. It has been demonstrated that CHIR99021 (CHIR) promotes self-renewal and enhances the derivation efficiency of mouse (m)ESCs. However, the downstream targets of CHIR are not fully understood. In this study, we identified CHIR-regulated genes in mESCs using microarray analysis. Our microarray data demonstrated that CHIR not only influenced the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by stabilizing β-catenin, but also modulated several other pluripotency-related signaling pathways such as TGF-β, Notch and MAPK signaling pathways. More detailed analysis demonstrated that CHIR inhibited Nodal signaling, while activating bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mESCs. In addition, we found that pluripotency-maintaining transcription factors were up-regulated by CHIR, while several developmental-related genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, we found that CHIR altered the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and long intergenic non-coding RNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR results were consistent with microarray data, suggesting that CHIR alters the expression pattern of protein-encoding genes (especially transcription factors), epigenetic regulatory genes and non-coding RNAs to establish a relatively stable pluripotency-maintaining network. - Highlights: • Combined use of CHIR with LIF promotes self-renewal of J1 mESCs. • CHIR-regulated genes are involved in multiple pathways. • CHIR inhibits Nodal signaling and promotes Bmp4 expression to activate BMP signaling. • Expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and lincRNAs is altered by CHIR

  5. Cytomolecular analysis of ribosomal DNA evolution in a natural allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum and its putative ancestors – dissecting complex repetitive structure of intergenic spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borowska-Zuchowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon associated with nuclear 35S rRNA genes and consists in selective suppression of gene loci inherited from one of the progenitors in the allopolyploid. Our understanding of the exact mechanisms that determine this process is still fragmentary, especially in case of the grass species. This study aimed to shed some light on the molecular basis of this genome-specific inactivation of 35S rDNA loci in an allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum (2n=30, which arose from the interspecific hybridization between two diploid ancestors that were very similar to modern B. distachyon (2n=10 and B. stacei (2n=20. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with 25S rDNA and chromosome-specific BAC clones as probes we revealed that the nucleolar dominance is present not only in meristematic root-tip cells but also in differentiated cell fraction of B. hybridum. Additionally, the intergenic spacers (IGSs from both of the putative ancestors and the allotetraploid were sequenced and analyzed. The presumptive transcription initiation sites, spacer promoters and repeated elements were identified within the IGSs. Two different length variants, 2.3 kb and 3.5 kb, of IGSs were identified in B. distachyon and B. stacei, respectively, however only the IGS that had originated from B. distachyon-like ancestor was present in the allotetraploid. The amplification pattern of B. hybridum IGSs suggests that some genetic changes occurred in inactive B. stacei-like rDNA loci during the evolution of the allotetraploid. We hypothesize that their preferential silencing is an effect of structural changes in the sequence rather than just the result of the sole inactivation at the epigenetic level.

  6. Comparison of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques for analysing the influence of diet on ruminal bacterial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saro, Cristina; Molina-Alcaide, Eduarda; Abecia, Leticia; Ranilla, María José; Carro, María Dolores

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques for analysing the effects of diet on diversity in bacterial pellets isolated from the liquid (liquid-associated bacteria (LAB)) and solid (solid-associated bacteria (SAB)) phase of the rumen. The four experimental diets contained forage to concentrate ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 and had either alfalfa hay or grass hay as forage. Four rumen-fistulated animals (two sheep and two goats) received the diets in a Latin square design. Bacterial pellets (LAB and SAB) were isolated at 2 h post-feeding for DNA extraction and analysed by ARISA and DGGE. The number of peaks in individual samples ranged from 48 to 99 for LAB and from 41 to 95 for SAB with ARISA, and values of DGGE-bands ranged from 27 to 50 for LAB and from 18 to 45 for SAB. The LAB samples from high concentrate-fed animals tended (p forage-fed animals with ARISA, but no differences were identified with DGGE. The SAB samples from high concentrate-fed animals had lower (p forage diets with ARISA, but only a trend was noticed for these parameters with DGGE (p forage type on LAB diversity was detected by any technique. In this study, ARISA detected some changes in ruminal bacterial communities that were not detected by DGGE, and therefore ARISA was considered more appropriate for assessing bacterial diversity of ruminal bacterial pellets. The results highlight the impact of the fingerprinting technique used to draw conclusions on dietary factors affecting bacterial diversity in ruminal bacterial pellets.

  7. Overexpression of long intergenic noncoding RNA LINC00312 inhibits the invasion and migration of thyroid cancer cells by down-regulating microRNA-197-3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Huang, Wen; Yan, Dan-Qing; Luo, Qing; Min, Xiang

    2017-08-31

    The study evaluated the ability of long intergenic noncoding RNA LINC00312 (LINC00312) to influence the proliferation, invasion, and migration of thyroid cancer (TC) cells by regulating miRNA-197-3p. TC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected from 211 TC patients. K1 (papillary TC), SW579 (squamous TC), and 8505C (anaplastic TC) cell lines were assigned into a blank, negative control (NC), LINC00312 overexpression, miR-197-3p inhibitors, and LINC00312 overexpression + miR-197-3p mimics group. The expression of LINC00312, miR-197-3p , and p120 were measured using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cell proliferation was assessed via CCK8 assay, cell invasion through the scratch test, and cell migration via Transwell assay. In comparison with adjacent normal tissues, the expression of LINC00312 is down-regulated and the expression of miR-197-3p is up-regulated in TC tissues. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that P120 is a target of miR-197-3p The expression of LINC00312 and p120 was higher in the LINC00312 overexpression group than in the blank and NV groups. However, the expression of miR-197-3p was lower in the LINC00312 overexpression group than in the blank and NC groups. The miR-197-3p inhibitors group had a higher expression of miR-197-3p , but a lower expression of p120 than the blank and NC groups. The LINC00312 overexpression and miR-197-3p inhibitor groups had reduced cell proliferation, invasion and migration than the blank and NC groups. These results indicate that a LINC00312 overexpression inhibits the proliferation, invasion, and migration of TC cells and that this can be achieved by down-regulating miR-197-3p . © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Restrição do 16S-23S DNAr intergênico para avaliação da diversidade de Azospirillum amazonense isolado de Brachiaria spp. Restriction of 16S-23S intergenic rDNA for diversity evaluation of Azospirillum amazonense isolated from different Brachiaria spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Bueno dos Reis Junior

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade intra-específica de isolados de Azospirillum amazonense e estabelecer a possível influência de diferentes espécies de Brachiaria ssp. e diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. A caracterização da diversidade desses isolados foi conduzida, utilizando-se a análise de restrição da região intergênica 16S-23S DNAr. As estirpes estudadas separaram-se em dois grupos, definidos a 56% de similaridade. As espécies de Brachiaria ssp. influenciaram a diversidade de estirpes. A maioria dos isolados oriundos de B. decumbens e B. brizantha está inserida no primeiro grupo, enquanto os oriundos de B. humidicola concentram-se no segundo grupo.The aim of this work was to study the intra-specific diversity of Azospirillum amazonense isolates and to establish possible influences of different Brachiaria spp. and edaphoclimatic conditions. The characterization of the diversity among the isolates of A. amazonense studied was conducted using restriction analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region. The evaluated strains were separated in two groups, defined at 56% of similarity. Brachiaria spp. showed effects on strain diversity. Most part of the isolates from B. decumbens and B. brizantha are inserted in the first group, while B. humidicola isolates concentrate in the second group.

  9. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  10. The architecture of the chloroplast trnH-psbA non-coding region in angiosperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorchová, Helena; Olson, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 268, 1-4 (2007), s. 235-256 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Grant - others:ESPSCor Visiting Scholar Research Grant(US) NSF DEB 0317115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Chloroplast DNA * psbA-trnH intergenic region * Silene * deletions * insertions and inversions in stem-loop region * psbA 3´untranslated region * RNA secondary structure Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.492, year: 2007

  11. [Late-replicating regions in salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, T D; Andreenkova, N G; Beliaeva, E S; Goncharov, F P; Zykova, T Iu; Boldyreva, L V; Pokholkova, g V; Zhimulev, I F

    2013-01-01

    About 240 specific regions that are replicated at the very end of the S-phase have been identified in D. melanogaster polytene chromosomes. These regions have a repressive chromatine state, low gene density, long intergenic distances and are enriched in tissue specific genes. In polytene chromosomes, about a quarter of these regions have no enough time to complete replication. As a result, underreplication zones represented by fewer DNA copy number, appear. We studied 60 chromosome regions that demonstrated the most pronounced under-replication. By comparing the location of these regions on a molecular map with syntenic blocks found earlier for Drosophila species by von Grotthuss et al., 2010, we have shown that across the genus Drosophila, these regions tend to have conserved gene order. This forces us to assume the existence of evolutionary mechanisms aimed at maintaining the integrity of these regions.

  12. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba: diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba.

  13. Differentiation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and ribosomal intergenic regions, and development of a species specific oligonucleotide for in situ detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, Vivian; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    1998-01-01

    . The larger RIS's were different between the 3 species tested. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal gene was determined for 8 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. These sequences showed only minor base differences, indicating a close genetic relatedness of these serotypes within the species. An oligonucleotide DNA...... probe designed from the 16S rRNA gene sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae was specific for all strains of the target species and did not cross react with A. lignieresii, the closest known relative of A. pleuropneumoniae. This species-specific DNA probe labeled with fluorescein was used for in situ......The aims of this study were to characterize and determine intraspecies and interspecies relatedness of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Actinobacillus lignieresii and Actinobacillus suis by sequence analysis of the ribosomal operon and to find a species-specific area for in situ detection of A...

  14. Identification of Biomphalaria havanensis and Biomphalaria obstructa populations from Cuba using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, several Biomphalaria species have been reported such as B. orbignyi, B. schrammi, B. helophila, B. havanensis and B. peregrina; only the latter three are considered as potential hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The specific identification of Biomphalaria species is based on anatomical and morphological characters of genital organs and shells. The correct identification of these snails is complicated by the high variation in these characters, similarity among species and in some cases by the small size of the snails. In this paper, we reported the classical morphological identification, the use of PCR and RFLP analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA genes for molecular identification of seven snail populations from different localities in Cuba. Using morphological and molecular analysis, we showed that among the studied Cuban Biomphalaria populations only B. havanensis and B. obstructa species were found.

  15. Identification of a novel intergenic miRNA located between the human DDC and COBL genes with a potential function in cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoballa, Mohamad Hussein; Soltani, Bahram M; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Sheikhpour, Mojgan; Kay, Maryam

    2018-07-01

    Frequent abnormalities in 7p12 locus in different tumors like lung cancer candidate this region for novel regulatory elements. MiRNAs as novel regulatory elements encoded within the human genome are potentially oncomiRs or miR suppressors. Here, we have used bioinformatics tools to search for the novel miRNAs embedded within human chromosome 7p12. A bona fide stem loop (named mirZa precursor) had the features of producing a real miRNA (named miRZa) which was detected through RT-qPCR following the overexpression of its precursor. Then, endogenous miRZa was detected in human cell lines and tissues and sequenced. Consistent to the bioinformatics prediction, RT-qPCR as well as dual luciferase assay indicated that SMAD3 and IGF1R genes were targeted by miRZa. MiRZa-3p and miRZa-5p were downregulated in lung tumor tissue samples detected by RT-qPCR, and mirZa precursor overexpression in SW480 cells resulted in increased sub-G1 cell population. Overall, here we introduced a novel miRNA which is capable of targeting SMAD3 and IGF1R regulatory genes and increases the cell population in sub-G1 stage.

  16. Reemergence of rabies in the southern Han river region, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2014-07-01

    Recently, 11 cases of animal rabies were reported in the southern region (Suwon and Hwaseong cities) of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The cases were temporally separated into two cases in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in spring 2012 and nine cases in domestic animals and wildlife in winter 2012-13. All carcasses were submitted for histopathologic examination and viral antigen identification. Sequences of the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and glycoprotein-large polymerase protein intergenic noncoding loci of the 11 strains were determined and compared with published reference sequences. All rabies strains were closely related to the Gangwon strains isolated in 2008-09, suggesting that the rabies virus strains isolated in Gyeonggi were introduced from Gangwon Province.

  17. Expression of the Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) Gene and the Cell Cycle in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, the Gene Expression Omnibus, and Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong-Yue; Lin, Peng; Pang, Yu-Yan; Chen, Gang; He, Yun; Dang, Yi-Wu; Yang, Hong

    2018-05-05

    BACKGROUND Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a role in physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) gene and the cell cycle in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using database analysis including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). MATERIAL AND METHODS Expression levels of LINC00665 were compared between human tissue samples of HCC and adjacent normal liver, clinicopathological correlations were made using TCGA and the GEO, and qPCR was performed to validate the findings. Other public databases were searched for other genes associated with LINC00665 expression, including The Atlas of Noncoding RNAs in Cancer (TANRIC), the Multi Experiment Matrix (MEM), Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. RESULTS Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with gender, tumor grade, stage, and tumor cell type. Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (HR=1.47795%; CI: 1.046-2.086). Bioinformatics analysis identified 469 related genes and further analysis supported a hypothesis that LINC00665 regulates pathways in the cell cycle to facilitate the development and progression of HCC through ten identified core genes: CDK1, BUB1B, BUB1, PLK1, CCNB2, CCNB1, CDC20, ESPL1, MAD2L1, and CCNA2. CONCLUSIONS Overexpression of the lncRNA, LINC00665 may be involved in the regulation of cell cycle pathways in HCC through ten identified hub genes.

  18. Short communication: Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococcus species from goat milk with the API Staph identification test and with transfer RNA-intergenic spacer PCR combined with capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; De Visscher, A; Collar, C A; Bacon, D A C; Maga, E A; Murray, J D; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S; Haesebrouck, F; Rowe, J D; Nielen, M; van Werven, T

    2012-12-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most commonly isolated bacteria from goat milk, but they have often been identified with phenotypic methods, which may have resulted in misclassification. The aims of this paper were to assess the amount of misclassification of a phenotypic test for identifying CNS species from goat milk compared with transfer RNA intergenic spacer PCR (tDNA-PCR) followed by capillary electrophoresis, and to apply the tDNA-PCR technique on different capillary electrophoresis equipment. Milk samples were collected from 416 does in 5 Californian dairy goat herds on 3 occasions during lactation. In total, 219 CNS isolates were identified at the species level with tDNA-PCR and subjected to the API 20 Staph identification test kit (API Staph; bioMérieux, Durham, NC). If the same species was isolated multiple times from the same udder gland, only the first isolate was used for further analyses, resulting in 115 unique CNS isolates. According to the tDNA-PCR test, the most prevalent CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus caprae, and Staphylococcus simulans. Typeability with API staph was low (72%). Although the API Staph test was capable of identifying the majority of Staph. epidermidis and Staph. caprae isolates, sensitivity for identification of Staph. simulans was low. The true positive fraction was high for the 3 most prevalent species. It was concluded that the overall performance of API Staph in differentiating CNS species from goat milk was moderate to low, mainly because of the low typeability, and that genotypic methods such as tDNA-PCR are preferred. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  20. Enxertia intergenérica de cultivares de nespereira no porta-enxerto de marmeleiro 'japonês' Intergeneric grafting of loquat cultivars using 'Japonese' quince tree as rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, foram desenvolvidos alguns trabalhos pioneiros com a utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga Mill. como porta-enxertos para as nespereiras (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl.. O sucesso da utilização dessa enxertia intergenérica está relacionado, principalmente, à redução do porte da planta. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho estudar técnicas de enxertia de cultivares de nespereiras, utilizando-se o marmeleiro 'Japonês' (Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin Koehne como nova opção de porta-enxerto. Mudas de marmeleiro 'Japonês' com um ano de idade (altura próxima a 110 cm e diâmetro de 0,85 cm na região de enxertia, a 15 cm acima do colo, mantidos em sacos plásticos com dimensões de 18 x 30 cm (capacidade de 3 L, foram enxertados pelos métodos de borbulhia em placa e garfagem em fenda cheia, em duas diferentes épocas: outono (abril e inverno (julho. Utilizaram-se cinco cultivares de nespereira de importância econômica no Brasil: 'Mizuho', 'Néctar de Cristal' (IAC 866-7, 'Mizauto' (IAC 167-4, 'Mizumo' (IAC 1567-411 e 'Centenária' (IAC 1567-420. Pelo método de borbulhia, não houve nenhuma borbulha brotada quando esta foi realizada no outono, apenas duas borbulhas da 'Mizauto', 'Néctar de Cristal' e 'Centenária' brotaram quando esta foi realizada no inverno, no entanto, com baixo crescimento. Já, por garfagem, maiores porcentagens de brotação e crescimento dos enxertos foram obtidas quando a enxertia foi realizada no inverno, com destaque para as nespereiras 'Mizuho', 'Centenária' e 'Néctar de Cristal'.In Brazil, some pioneer studies were carried out using quince seedlings (Cydonia oblonga Mill. as rootstock for loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl.. The main advantage of this intergeneric grafting use is plant size reduction. The success of using this intergeneric grafting is related mainly to plant size reduction. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study grafting techniques of loquat cultivars using

  1. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  2. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  3. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  4. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  5. Genome-wide analysis of regions similar to promoters of histone genes

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhary, Rajesh

    2010-05-28

    Background: The purpose of this study is to: i) develop a computational model of promoters of human histone-encoding genes (shortly histone genes), an important class of genes that participate in various critical cellular processes, ii) use the model so developed to identify regions across the human genome that have similar structure as promoters of histone genes; such regions could represent potential genomic regulatory regions, e.g. promoters, of genes that may be coregulated with histone genes, and iii/ identify in this way genes that have high likelihood of being coregulated with the histone genes.Results: We successfully developed a histone promoter model using a comprehensive collection of histone genes. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation test, the model produced good prediction accuracy (94.1% sensitivity, 92.6% specificity, and 92.8% positive predictive value). We used this model to predict across the genome a number of genes that shared similar promoter structures with the histone gene promoters. We thus hypothesize that these predicted genes could be coregulated with histone genes. This hypothesis matches well with the available gene expression, gene ontology, and pathways data. Jointly with promoters of the above-mentioned genes, we found a large number of intergenic regions with similar structure as histone promoters.Conclusions: This study represents one of the most comprehensive computational analyses conducted thus far on a genome-wide scale of promoters of human histone genes. Our analysis suggests a number of other human genes that share a high similarity of promoter structure with the histone genes and thus are highly likely to be coregulated, and consequently coexpressed, with the histone genes. We also found that there are a large number of intergenic regions across the genome with their structures similar to promoters of histone genes. These regions may be promoters of yet unidentified genes, or may represent remote control regions that

  6. Multiple independent origins of mitochondrial control region duplications in the order Psittaciformes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Tavares, Erika S.; Gonzales, Lauren A.; Eberhard, Jessica R.; Miyaki, Cristina Y.; Sanchez, Juan J.; Hernandez, Alexis; Müeller, Heinrich; Graves, Gary R.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Wright, Timothy F.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are generally thought to be under selection for compactness, due to their small size, consistent gene content, and a lack of introns or intergenic spacers. As more animal mitochondrial genomes are fully sequenced, rearrangements and partial duplications are being identified with increasing frequency, particularly in birds (Class Aves). In this study, we investigate the evolutionary history of mitochondrial control region states within the avian order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos). To this aim, we reconstructed a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny of parrots, used PCR of three diagnostic fragments to classify the mitochondrial control region state as single or duplicated, and mapped these states onto the phylogeny. We further sequenced 44 selected species to validate these inferences of control region state. Ancestral state reconstruction using a range of weighting schemes identified six independent origins of mitochondrial control region duplications within Psittaciformes. Analysis of sequence data showed that varying levels of mitochondrial gene and tRNA homology and degradation were present within a given clade exhibiting duplications. Levels of divergence between control regions within an individual varied from 0–10.9% with the differences occurring mainly between 51 and 225 nucleotides 3′ of the goose hairpin in domain I. Further investigations into the fates of duplicated mitochondrial genes, the potential costs and benefits of having a second control region, and the complex relationship between evolutionary rates, selection, and time since duplication are needed to fully explain these patterns in the mitochondrial genome. PMID:22543055

  7. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  8. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  9. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  10. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  11. DNA Methylation of Regulatory Regions of Imprinted Genes at Birth and Its Relation to Infant Temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard F. Fuemmeler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions (DMRs of imprinted genes is relevant to neurodevelopment. METHODS DNA methylation status of the DMRs of nine imprinted genes in umbilical cord blood leukocytes was analyzed in relation to infant behaviors and temperament (n = 158. RESULTS MEG3 DMR levels were positively associated with internalizing ( β = 0.15, P = 0.044 and surgency ( β = 0.19, P = 0.018 behaviors, after adjusting for birth weight, gender, gestational age at birth, maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, parity, and a history of anxiety or depression. Higher methylation levels at the intergenic MEG3-IG methylation regions were associated with surgency ( β = 0.28, P = 0.0003 and PEG3 was positively related to externalizing ( β = 0.20, P = 0.01 and negative affectivity ( β = 0.18, P = 0.02. CONCLUSION While the small sample size limits inference, these pilot data support gene-specific associations between epigenetic differences in regulatory regions of imprinted domains at birth and later infant temperament.

  12. Genotypic Characterization of Bradyrhizobium Strains Nodulating Endemic Woody Legumes of the Canary Islands by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) and 16S-23S rDNA Intergenic Spacers, Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR Genomic Fingerprinting, and Partial 16S rDNA Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, Pablo; Rademaker, Jan L. W.; de Bruijn, Frans J.; Werner, Dietrich

    1998-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic analysis of nine strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus) and other endemic woody legumes of the Canary Islands, Spain. These and several reference strains were characterized genotypically at different levels of taxonomic resolution by computer-assisted analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs), 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) RFLPs, and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) genomic fingerprints with BOX, ERIC, and REP primers. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA restriction patterns with four tetrameric endonucleases grouped the Canarian isolates with the two reference strains, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110spc4 and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain (Centrosema) CIAT 3101, resolving three genotypes within these bradyrhizobia. In the analysis of IGS RFLPs with three enzymes, six groups were found, whereas rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed an even greater genotypic diversity, with only two of the Canarian strains having similar fingerprints. Furthermore, we show that IGS RFLPs and even very dissimilar rep-PCR fingerprints can be clustered into phylogenetically sound groupings by combining them with 16S rDNA RFLPs in computer-assisted cluster analysis of electrophoretic patterns. The DNA sequence analysis of a highly variable 264-bp segment of the 16S rRNA genes of these strains was found to be consistent with the fingerprint-based classification. Three different DNA sequences were obtained, one of which was not previously described, and all belonged to the B. japonicum/Rhodopseudomonas rDNA cluster. Nodulation assays revealed that none of the Canarian isolates nodulated Glycine max or Leucaena leucocephala, but all nodulated Acacia pendula, C. proliferus, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and Vigna unguiculata. PMID:9603820

  13. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  14. Local repeat sequence organization of an intergenic spacer in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii leads to DNA expansion and sequence ... The discovery of uniparentally inherited streptomycin resistant mutants ... resembles yeast, mitochondrial and phage recombination in that it is typically ...... Sager R and Lane D 1972 Molecular basis of maternal inheritance; Proc.

  15. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of intergenic spacers and small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phylogenetic analysis of test isolates included assessment of variation in sequences and length of IGS and SSU-rRNA genes with reference to 16 different microsporidian sequences. The results proved that IGS sequences have more variation than SSU-rRNA gene sequences. Analysis of phylogenetic trees reveal that ...

  16. Intergenic and intragenic conjugal transfer of multiple antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... antibiotic resistance determinants among bacteria in the aquatic ... loci of antibiotic resistant gene among bacteria in the surface water of Bangladesh. ..... bial communities is in assessing the risk of genetically engineered ...

  17. Intergenic and intragenic conjugal transfer of multiple antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjugation process was conducted to determine the means of transferring ... In this study, it was surprisingly observed that tetracycline resistant gene was ... among pathogenic bacteria, particularly since antibiotics are indiscriminately used in ...

  18. Characteristics of binding sites of intergenic, intronic and exonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... miR-1587). Such part of mRNA is very important for its regulation via several miRNA. Interaction of intronic miRNAs with mRNAs genes coding in-miRNA. Oncogenes (51) are host genes and target genes for in-. miRNAs. Majority of these in-miRNAs are encoded in intron. Five of the studied genes (ATF2, ...

  19. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  20. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  1. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  2. Variability among the Most Rapidly Evolving Plastid Genomic Regions is Lineage-Specific: Implications of Pairwise Genome Comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae) and Other Angiosperms for Marker Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Voskanyan, Hasmik; Allgaier, Martin; Borsch, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae)—a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC–trnV, trnR–atpA, ndhF–rpl32, psbM–trnD, and trnQ–rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters). Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid), Olea (asterids) and Cymbidium (monocots) showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF–rpl32 and trnK–rps16) were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations

  3. Variability among the most rapidly evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific: implications of pairwise genome comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae and other angiosperms for marker choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Korotkova

    Full Text Available Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae-a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC-trnV, trnR-atpA, ndhF-rpl32, psbM-trnD, and trnQ-rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters. Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid, Olea (asterids and Cymbidium (monocots showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF-rpl32 and trnK-rps16 were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations. Sequencing

  4. Staphylococcus nepalensis sp. nov., isolated from goats of the Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergser, Joachim; Wieser, Monika; Täubel, Martin; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon A; Rosengarten, Renate; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-11-01

    Four coagulase-negative, novobiocin-resistant cocci, designated CW1(T), PM34, MM3 and RW78, were isolated from the respiratory tract of goats kept in the Himalayan region. The four isolates were assigned to a single species on the basis of almost identical biochemical and physiological traits, protein profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE and identical genomic fingerprints generated after enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Strain CW1(T) showed highest 16S rDNA sequence similarities to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus ATCC 49330(T), Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus ATCC 15305(T), S. cohnii subsp. cohnii ATCC 29974(T), Staphylococcus arlettae ATCC 43957(T), Staphylococcus gallinarum ATCC 35539(T), Staphylococcus succinus ATCC 700337(T) and Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 29971(T) (99.0, 98.8, 98.8, 98.4, 98.2, 98.1 and 98.1 %, respectively), indicating its classification within the genus Staphylococcus. The polar lipid composition, fatty acid profiles, quinone systems and diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid were in agreement with the characteristics of the genus Staphylococcus. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related Staphylococcus species suggested that strain CW1(T) represents an as-yet unrecognized species. Based on these results, a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus is described, Staphylococcus nepalensis sp. nov. The type strain is CW1(T) (=DSM 15150(T)=CCM 7045(T)) and the most dissimilar strain is PM34 (=DSM 15151=CCM 7046).

  5. Rapid identification of probiotic Lactobacillus species by multiplex PCR using species-specific primers based on the region extending from 16S rRNA through 23S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yang, Eun-Hee; Yeon, Seung-Woo; Kang, Byoung-Hwa; Kim, Tae-Yong

    2004-10-15

    This study aimed to develop a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set for the identification of seven probiotic Lactobacillus species such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The primer set, comprising of seven specific and two conserved primers, was derived from the integrated sequences of 16S and 23S rRNA genes and their rRNA intergenic spacer region of each species. It was able to identify the seven target species with 93.6% accuracy, which exceeds that of the general biochemical methods. The phylogenetic analyses, using 16S rDNA sequences of the probiotic isolates, also provided further support that the results from the multiplex PCR assay were trustworthy. Taken together, we suggest that the multiplex primer set is an efficient tool for simple, rapid and reliable identification of seven Lactobacillus species.

  6. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  7. Non-coding genomic regions possessing enhancer and silencer potential are associated with healthy aging and exceptional survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyu; Welsh, David A; Myers, Leann; Cherry, Katie E; Wyckoff, Jennifer; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2015-02-28

    We have completed a genome-wide linkage scan for healthy aging using data collected from a family study, followed by fine-mapping by association in a separate population, the first such attempt reported. The family cohort consisted of parents of age 90 or above and their children ranging in age from 50 to 80. As a quantitative measure of healthy aging, we used a frailty index, called FI34, based on 34 health and function variables. The linkage scan found a single significant linkage peak on chromosome 12. Using an independent cohort of unrelated nonagenarians, we carried out a fine-scale association mapping of the region suggestive of linkage and identified three sites associated with healthy aging. These healthy-aging sites (HASs) are located in intergenic regions at 12q13-14. HAS-1 has been previously associated with multiple diseases, and an enhancer was recently mapped and experimentally validated within the site. HAS-2 is a previously uncharacterized site possessing genomic features suggestive of enhancer activity. HAS-3 contains features associated with Polycomb repression. The HASs also contain variants associated with exceptional longevity, based on a separate analysis. Our results provide insight into functional genomic networks involving non-coding regulatory elements that are involved in healthy aging and longevity.

  8. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  9. Regionalization: A Story Map Lesson on Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    This lesson introduces the concept of regionalization and types of regions. After a brief introductory activity, students explore a story map to learn the material. The teacher can project the story map on a screen for all students to follow or students may work individually on computers. Working individually will allow students to set their own…

  10. Identification of distal regulatory regions in the human alpha IIb gene locus necessary for consistent, high-level megakaryocyte expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Michael A; Zhang, Chunyan; Kowalska, Maria A; Poncz, Mortimer

    2002-11-15

    The alphaIIb/beta3-integrin receptor is present at high levels only in megakaryocytes and platelets. Its presence on platelets is critical for hemostasis. The tissue-specific nature of this receptor's expression is secondary to the restricted expression of alphaIIb, and studies of the alphaIIb proximal promoter have served as a model of a megakaryocyte-specific promoter. We have examined the alphaIIb gene locus for distal regulatory elements. Sequence comparison between the human (h) and murine (m) alphaIIb loci revealed high levels of conservation at intergenic regions both 5' and 3' to the alphaIIb gene. Additionally, deoxyribonuclease (DNase) I sensitivity mapping defined tissue-specific hypersensitive (HS) sites that coincide, in part, with these conserved regions. Transgenic mice containing various lengths of the h(alpha)IIb gene locus, which included or excluded the various conserved/HS regions, demonstrated that the proximal promoter was sufficient for tissue specificity, but that a region 2.5 to 7.1 kb upstream of the h(alpha)IIb gene was necessary for consistent expression. Another region 2.2 to 7.4 kb downstream of the gene enhanced expression 1000-fold and led to levels of h(alpha)IIb mRNA that were about 30% of the native m(alpha)IIb mRNA level. These constructs also resulted in detectable h(alpha)IIb/m(beta)3 on the platelet surface. This work not only confirms the importance of the proximal promoter of the alphaIIb gene for tissue specificity, but also characterizes the distal organization of the alphaIIb gene locus and provides an initial localization of 2 important regulatory regions needed for the expression of the alphaIIb gene at high levels during megakaryopoiesis.

  11. Regional Alternative Transportation Evaluation: Region 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-28

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Federal Lands Highway (FLH), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) have conducted regional alternative transportation evaluations (RATEs) in almost each of FWSs eight ...

  12. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  13. COMPETITIVENESS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA MĂDĂLINA OPRIȚESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and diversification of the economic activities, the stimulation of investments both in the public sector, but mainly in the private one, the reduction of unemployment, the improvement of living standards are just some of the concepts aimed at by the regional development. The main method which can lead to a balanced development of the regions is financing them differentially so that the underdeveloped regions would obtain proportionally more funds that the developed ones. At a region level, the main objective is represented by the more accelerated growth of the less developed regions, in an effort to diminish the inter-regional and intra-regional development disparities. A key role is played by the sustainable economic growth concept, while also analyzing the competitiveness at a regional level, as well as the main development factors.

  14. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policy is a policy of investment for economic development by supporting competitiveness, increasing the standards of living, improving the quality of life, creating new jobs. Regions and regional development policy occupies in recent decades an increasingly important position in the list of the economic and social factors being found on the agendas of governments, both central and local authorities, of political groups and civil society. Regional development and regional development policy in Romania are present both in the economic reform and in social one. Development Regions from Romania are set up in 1998 by Law number 151 and supported by their own institutional framework. The applicability of regional development in Romania must take into account the fundamental elements of the possibilities of Regional Development, meaning the major indicators of reference for measuring the level of disparities, GDP per capita and unemployment.

  15. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  16. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  17. Regional inequalities in mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Illsley, R; Le Grand, J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the hypothesis of sustained and persistent inequalities in health between British regions and to ask how far they are a consequence of using standardised mortality ratios as the tool of measurement. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Data are regional, age specific death rates at seven points in time from 1931 to 1987-89 for the British regions, reconstructed to make them comparable with the 1981 regional definitions. Log variance is used to measure inequality; regi...

  18. Regional manpower planning

    OpenAIRE

    G. Erens; P. Salamink; C.A. Van der Merwe CA

    2003-01-01

    Particular problems come to the fore when planning development at the regional level. These range from the complexities of the multifarious interactions between the sect oral and local components of the region to the necessity of achieving extensive participation of regional stakeholders in the planning process. In this paper a methodology for regional manpower planning is proposed. The methodology is designed to accommodate the full range of problems by applying a systems approach which is b...

  19. HRM: HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.

  20. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....

  1. Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Sponsored Work Regional Economic Development Technology Opportunities User Facilities About Us Metrics In the News Publications Policies Feynman Center » Deploying Innovation » Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to

  2. Biogeography of Deep-sea benthic bacteria at regional scale (LTER HAUSGARTEN, Fram Strait, Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Jacob

    Full Text Available Knowledge on spatial scales of the distribution of deep-sea life is still sparse, but highly relevant to the understanding of dispersal, habitat ranges and ecological processes. We examined regional spatial distribution patterns of the benthic bacterial community and covarying environmental parameters such as water depth, biomass and energy availability at the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site HAUSGARTEN (Eastern Fram Strait. Samples from 13 stations were retrieved from a bathymetric (1,284-3,535 m water depth, 54 km in length and a latitudinal transect (∼ 2,500 m water depth; 123 km in length. 454 massively parallel tag sequencing (MPTS and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA were combined to describe both abundant and rare types shaping the bacterial community. This spatial sampling scheme allowed detection of up to 99% of the estimated richness on phylum and class levels. At the resolution of operational taxonomic units (97% sequence identity; OTU3% only 36% of the Chao1 estimated richness was recovered, indicating a high diversity, mostly due to rare types (62% of all OTU3%. Accordingly, a high turnover of the bacterial community was also observed between any two sampling stations (average replacement of 79% of OTU3%, yet no direct correlation with spatial distance was observed within the region. Bacterial community composition and structure differed significantly with increasing water depth along the bathymetric transect. The relative sequence abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes decreased significantly with water depth, and that of Deferribacteres increased. Energy availability, estimated from phytodetrital pigment concentrations in the sediments, partly explained the variation in community structure. Overall, this study indicates a high proportion of unique bacterial types on relatively small spatial scales (tens of kilometers, and supports the sampling design of the LTER site HAUSGARTEN to

  3. The zitterbewegung region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Das, Abhishek

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with a precise description of the region of zitterbewegung below the Compton scale and the stochastic nature associated with it. We endeavor to delineate this particular region by means of Ito’s calculus and instigate certain features that are in sharp contrast with conventional physics. Interestingly, our work substantiates that the zitterbewegung region represents a pre-space-time region and from therein emerges the notion of our conventional space-time. Interestingly, this unique region engenders the relativistic and quantum mechanical aspects of space-time.

  4. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  5. Novel transcripts discovered by mining genomic DNA from defined regions of bovine chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberlein Annett

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Linkage analyses strongly suggest a number of QTL for production, health and conformation traits in the middle part of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6. The identification of the molecular background underlying the genetic variation at the QTL and subsequent functional studies require a well-annotated gene sequence map of the critical QTL intervals. To complete the sequence map of the defined subchromosomal regions on BTA6 poorly covered with comparative gene information, we focused on targeted isolation of transcribed sequences from bovine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones mapped to the QTL intervals. Results Using the method of exon trapping, 92 unique exon trapping sequences (ETS were discovered in a chromosomal region of poor gene coverage. Sequence identity to the current NCBI sequence assembly for BTA6 was detected for 91% of unique ETS. Comparative sequence similarity search revealed that 11% of the isolated ETS displayed high similarity to genomic sequences located on the syntenic chromosomes of the human and mouse reference genome assemblies. Nearly a third of the ETS identified similar equivalent sequences in genomic sequence scaffolds from the alternative Celera-based sequence assembly of the human genome. Screening gene, EST, and protein databases detected 17% of ETS with identity to known transcribed sequences. Expression analysis of a subset of the ETS showed that most ETS (84% displayed a distinctive expression pattern in a multi-tissue panel of a lactating cow verifying their existence in the bovine transcriptome. Conclusion The results of our study demonstrate that the exon trapping method based on region-specific BAC clones is very useful for targeted screening for novel transcripts located within a defined chromosomal region being deficiently endowed with annotated gene information. The majority of identified ETS represents unknown noncoding sequences in intergenic regions on BTA6 displaying a

  6. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  7. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  8. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  9. Approaching Regional Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Shah, Ali; Kazmi, Atia

    The report contains ideas on enhanced cooperation on both security and economy. It is a particular relevant read for regional political decision makers, institutions, private companies, and researchers that wish to gain insight into the present and future political and economic developments...... of Afghan-Pakistani relations and to the region in general. Military institutions, officers and officials facing deployment in the region as well as universities and scholars with ongoing research and programmes in the region will also benefit from output of the stabilization project that this report...

  10. Styringskapaciteten i regional arbejdsmarkedspolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Charlotte

    This book discovers the potential in regional labour market policy. It raises the question whether the regional labour market councils seek for and follows deliberative proces norms when they formulate the regional policy, and the more theoretical question about whether corporatism is compatible...... with deliberative proces norms at all. The conclusion is that if certain circumstances are fullfilled such as 1) competence to decide the policy, 2) trust from the central level and 3) an orientation towards a regional identity then there actually exists an institutional basis for deliberation....

  11. Tourism of Khmelnytskyi region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Шоробура

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of tourism in Khmelnytskyi region, its priority areas, types, including cultural-educational, environmental, sportrecreative and others have been revealed in the article. The basic tasks of tourism development in the region, aimed at the formation and protection of the tourism-recreational sector, market of competitive services, attraction of maximum number of tourists to the region, etc. have been cleared out. The attention is focused on the main tourist potential of Khmelnytskyi region, including National Nature Park «Podilski Tovtry», National historical-cultural nature reserve «Kamianets», «Samchyky», Medzhybizh regional historical-ethnographic museum-fortress, sanatorium-resort facilities based on mineral waters and others. The attention is paid to the increase in income from tourism. Traditional hospitality of the population of the region, especially in rural areas, provides the possibility to combine tourists’ accommodation with the study of rural customs and traditions directly in the villages. Tourism in Khmelnytskyi region will be attractive to all tourists who want to eat healthy food, to stay outdoors and enjoy the beauty of the region. Also the article tells us about the development of other directions and familiarizes tourists with other enticements of Khmelnytskyi region using the positive brand of Kamianets-Podilskyi. All three potential areas of tourism development (historical tourism in Kamianets-Podilskyi, recreational tourism on rivers, lakes and in the forests, as well as rural tourism can be combined within the global promotion of nature and traditions of the region. It is indicated that Khmelnytskyi is a promising tourist region of Ukraine. The main problems of the region are inadequate tourism infrastructure, accommodation facilities, food and roads. The experience of the tourism cluster «Oberih» (Protective Charm proves the perspectives of agritourism. Developing these two areas together, we

  12. On Austrian regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we

  13. The Wealth of Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistotskaya, Marina; Charron, Nicholas; Lapuente, Victor

    2015-01-01

    . Using original survey data on QoG from 172 regions in eighteen European Union countries, we find that regions where governments are perceived by their citizens as impartial and free from corruption have on average significantly more SMEs. We also find that in less corrupt countries the spatial...... distribution of SMEs is more even than in more corrupt countries...

  14. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  15. Regionalism, Devolution and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanor, Vernon

    1977-01-01

    Described are effects of political decentralization in the United Kingdom on political and social institutions, particularly education. The author concludes that regionalism could yield advantages of power decentralization, diversity of decision making, and educational systems which are more closely connected to regional and local traditions.…

  16. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  17. Politics, Planning and Regionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukosky, Jerome

    The concept of regionalism identifies the issues in public affairs pertaining to a region and develops structures through which citizens can participate in the decisionmaking process. This speech describes educational decisions in the State of New York as affected by local decentralization and by concentration of power at the State level. Relevant…

  18. The Scandinavian regional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Lidström, Anders; Røiseland, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This article maps how the sub-national regional levels of governance in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have changed from a high degree of institutional convergence to a pattern of institutional divergence. It analyses the similarities and differences in the changes in regional governance and discusses...

  19. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  20. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  1. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  2. Arkadien. Region og identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    Oldtidens Grækenland bestod af et mylder af bystater, grupperet i regioner, og grækerne mente, at de forskellige regioners beboere havde hver deres karakteristika. Bogen undersøger dette emne nærmere i forhold til Arkadien på Peloponnes: Hvad ville det sige at være arkader? Var det et geografisk...

  3. Connecting to Regional Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce the interdepend......Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce...... the interdependence of the then Soviet republics, while conflicting economic interests make cross-border cooperation difficult. Based on extensive fieldwork on infrastructure systems and firm export strategies, this paper identifies contemporary infrastructure and transportation issues within the Central Asian region...

  4. Crisis and Regional Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    , Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one. Could ‘crisis’ be a beginning of enhanced regional integration? This paper will try to look...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory....... This is the basis for two short case studies of African and European regional integration. The paper tentative answers to the question: will the crisis in Africa and Europe respectively further or block regional integration? With a ‘that depends’. But the use of Federalism theory and neo-functionalism is seen...

  5. The Regional Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global......Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...

  6. Bridging regional innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2013-01-01

    to assess the progress of integration in the regions, as well as the effect of cross-border innovation policies. Consequently, important questions are left unanswered, including the central research question of this paper: does the sudden removal of significant physical barriers directly impacts......The topics of regional innovation systems (RIS) and cross-border regions attract increasing attention, but few studies combine the themes. Further, the existing empirical studies of cross-border innovation and knowledge creation analyse one case at one point in time, thus, making it difficult...... collaboration activity in cross-border innovation systems? This paper examines regional integration in the Oresund Region over time. It deals with a specific part of the RIS, as it analyses research collaboration between actors from the Danish and Swedish sides, with a specific emphasis on the biotech industry...

  7. Short communication. Characterization of chloroplast region rrn16-rrn23S from the tropical timber tree Cedrela odorata L. and de novo construction of a transplastomic expression vector suitable for Meliaceae trees and other economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ochoa, L A; Apolinar-Hernández, M M; Peña-Ramírez, Y J

    2015-02-20

    The forest tree Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) is well-known for its high-value timber; however, this species is attacked by the shoot borer (Hypsipyla grandella) during its early years of development, resulting in branched stems and making the plants useless for high-quality wood production. The generation of resistant varieties expressing entomotoxic proteins may be an alternative to pesticide treatments. The use of plastid transformation rather than nuclear transformation should be used because it reduces the risk of transgene dissemination by pollen. Chloroplast transformation vectors require an expression cassette flanked by homologous plastid sequences to drive plastome recombination. Thus, C. odorata plastome sequences are a prerequisite. The rrn16-rrn23 plastome region was selected, cloned, and characterized. When the sequence identity among the rrn16-rrn23 regions from C. odorata and Nicotiana tabacum was compared, 3 inDels of 240, 104, and 39 bp were found that might severely affect transformation efficiency. Using this region, a new transformation vector was developed using pUC19 as a backbone by inserting the rrn16-trnI and trnA-rrn23 sequences from C. odorata and adding 2 independent expression cassettes into the trnI-trnA intergenic region, conferring spectinomycin resistance, the ability to express the gfp reporter gene, and a site that can be used to express any other gene of interest.

  8. Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Ulrich

    1995-01-01

    Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region. - In: Region in Aktion - oder: Region im Abseits? - Boxberg-Wölchingen : Eigenständige Regionalentwicklung Baden-Württemberg, 1995. - S. 25 f.

  9. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  10. Building Regional Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the foundations of regional knowledge and its long-term impact onthe region's companies' and how a particular knowledge has developed an ability tostay competitive within a specific technological field. The case illustrates how theCopenhagen region has been able to develop...... a dominating position in the global marketfor industrial enzymes from 1870-2004. The case of industrial enzymes shows how aregion has been able to build sustainable competitive advantages from its distinctivecompetencies. This is done through a mixture of outsourcing and in sourcing ofcompetencies, knowledge...

  11. Regional Stability & Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    It seems that regional decision makers during the last two decades has been unable to produce a sustainable peacebuilding plan for the region and it is questionable whether any remarkable change will occur in the near future. Some would argue that the political differences are simply too far apart...... to the process of peacebuilding, this could prove as a useful tool, and for this reason politicians, officials, and persons in general with an interest in this region will benefit from the perspectives presented here....

  12. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  13. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  14. Regional Education Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  15. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  16. Aeromagnetic Regional Grid Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several regions are represented in this unique collection of earth surface measurements of magnetic field parameters and their related anomalies. The DNAG Magnetics...

  17. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  18. Paediatric regional anaesthesia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced respiratory depression. The purpose ... regional blocks are usually performed under anaesthesia or .... brachial plexus, as well as the axillary, musculo-cutaneous, ulnar, ... of their use for continuous postoperative pain management or.

  19. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  20. Second region of stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.M.; Chance, M.S.

    1980-10-01

    A new type of axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is presented. It is characterized by a region of pressure and safety factor variation with a short scale length imposed as a perturbation. The equilibrium consistent with these profile variations can be calculated by means of an asymptotic expansion. The flexibility obtained by generating such equilibria allows for a close examination of the mechanisms that are relevant to ballooning instabilities - ideal MHD modes with large toroidal mode number. The so-called first and second regions of stability against these modes are seen well within the limits of validity of the asymptotic expansion. It appears that the modes must be localized in regions with small values of the local shear of the magnetic field. The second region of stability occurs where the local shear is large throughout the range where the magnetic field line curvature is destabilizing

  1. Regional utvikling og partnerskap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, H.; Gjertsen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Danish regional policy has changed dramatically. As of January 1991, all central government incentive schemes were terminated, and since then the main components of spatial economic policy have been a host of subnational initiatives and the European Structural...... in European matters as envisaged in the ?Europe of the Regions? slogan. The aim of this chapter is to examine the transformation of regional policy in Denmark from the perspective of political decentralization and Europeanization in order to establish to what extent recent changes have increased the capacity...... of Danish regions to pursue their own agendas with regard to economic development, and explore the organizational strategies pursued by varies tiers of government in this process of rapid and profound policy change. The text is divided into three parts. The following section provides a brief outline...

  2. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....... Development of pricing policies is contested at Community level and has taken place in a clash between different policy rationalities. Significantly though, the effects of the pricing policies are closely related to regional mobility systems, e.g. through financing large trans-border infrastructure projects...... and establishing common technical charging systems thus changing the conditions for regional mobility. This paper explores how policies of infrastructure pricing shape new ways of governing mobility which influences trans-border, regional policy-making. The key findings are that there is a tendency to include...

  3. Southeast DIVER Regional Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  4. Northeast DIVER Regional Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  5. Regional Hearing Clerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Regional Hearing Clerk receives filings for proceedings under the Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 22

  6. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  7. Active regions, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martres, M.J.; Bruzek, A.

    1977-01-01

    The solar Active Region is an extremely complex phenomenon comprising a large variety of features (active,region phenomena) in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. The occurrence of the various active phenomena depends on the phase and state of evolution of the AR; their appearance depends on the radiation used for the observation. The various phenomena are described and illustrated with photographs. Several paragraphs are dedicated to magnetic classification of AR, Mt. Wilson Spot Classification, solar activity indices, and solar activity data publications

  8. RCA's regional industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) for Research Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, formulated under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), came into force in June 1972. The overall objective of RCA is to promote technical cooperation among the developing and developed countries in the Asia Pacific region in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and related technology. Currently, the biggest project under RCA is the Regional Project on the Industrial Applications of Isotopes and Radiation Technology for Asia and the Pacific. The project was established in 1982 for a period of five years and was completed in December 1986. The first phase of the project has generated a high degree of awareness on the industrial potential of isotopes and radiation technology throughout the region; produced a cadre of trained manpower in all areas covered by the project; identified the expertise available in the region; and developed in the region, a unique network of people and institutions involved with the utilization of isotope and radiation technology. A Phase II of the project, which cover all but one of the sub-projects under Phase I, was approved in early 1987 for another five years until 1991. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Regional boundaries study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavatsky, S.; Phaneuf, P.; Topaz, D.; Ward, D.

    1978-02-01

    The NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) has elected to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of its existing regional boundary alignment because of the anticipated future growth of nuclear power generating facilities and corresponding inspection requirements. This report documents a management study designed to identify, analyze, and evaluate alternative regional boundary configurations for the NRC/IE regions. Eight boundary configurations were chosen for evaluation. These configurations offered alternatives ranging from two to ten regions, and some included the concepts of subregional or satellite offices. Each alternative configuration was evaluated according to three major criteria: project workload, cost, and office location. Each major criterion included elements such as management control, program uniformity, disruption, costs, and coordination with other agencies. The conclusion reached was that regional configurations with regions of equal and relatively large workloads, combined with the concepts of subregional or satellite offices, may offer a significant benefit to the Office of Inspection and Enforcement and the Commission and are worthy of further study. A phased implementation plan, which is suitable to some configurations, may help mitigate the disruption created by realignment

  10. Nuclear power regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parera, María Delia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a regional analysis of the Argentine electricity market was carried out considering the effects of regional cooperation, national and international interconnections; additionally, the possibilities of insertion of new nuclear power plants in different regions were evaluated, indicating the most suitable areas for these facilities to increase the penetration of nuclear energy in national energy matrix. The interconnection of electricity markets and natural gas due to the linkage between both energy forms was also studied. With this purpose, MESSAGE program was used (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts), promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This model performs a country-level economic optimization, resulting in the minimum cost for the modelling system. Regionalization executed by the Wholesale Electricity Market Management Company (CAMMESA, by its Spanish acronym) that divides the country into eight regions. The characteristics and the needs of each region, their respective demands and supplies of electricity and natural gas, as well as existing and planned interconnections, consisting of power lines and pipelines were taken into account. According to the results obtained through the model, nuclear is a competitive option. (author) [es

  11. Tandem repeat regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome and their application for high resolution genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Steven P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The facultative, intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infectious disease of humans and animals. We identified and categorized tandem repeat arrays and their distribution throughout the genome of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 in order to develop a genetic typing method for B. pseudomallei. We then screened 104 of the potentially polymorphic loci across a diverse panel of 31 isolates including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis in order to identify loci with varying degrees of polymorphism. A subset of these tandem repeat arrays were subsequently developed into a multiple-locus VNTR analysis to examine 66 B. pseudomallei and 21 B. mallei isolates from around the world, as well as 95 lineages from a serial transfer experiment encompassing ~18,000 generations. Results B. pseudomallei contains a preponderance of tandem repeat loci throughout its genome, many of which are duplicated elsewhere in the genome. The majority of these loci are composed of repeat motif lengths of 6 to 9 bp with 4 to 10 repeat units and are predominately located in intergenic regions of the genome. Across geographically diverse B. pseudomallei and B.mallei isolates, the 32 VNTR loci displayed between 7 and 28 alleles, with Nei's diversity values ranging from 0.47 and 0.94. Mutation rates for these loci are comparable (>10-5 per locus per generation to that of the most diverse tandemly repeated regions found in other less diverse bacteria. Conclusion The frequency, location and duplicate nature of tandemly repeated regions within the B. pseudomallei genome indicate that these tandem repeat regions may play a role in generating and maintaining adaptive genomic variation. Multiple-locus VNTR analysis revealed extensive diversity within the global isolate set containing B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, and it detected genotypic differences within clonal lineages of both species that were

  12. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  13. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  14. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  15. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Scholars studying economic inequality in China have maintained that regional inequality and economic divergence across provinces have steadily increased over the past 30 years. New studies have shown that this trend is a statistical aberration; calculations show that instead of quickly and sharply...... rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...... across provinces in order to show that without these processes, we would have seen more of a rise in interprovincial income inequality. We conclude by arguing that inequality in China is still increasing, but it is changing and becoming less place-based. As regional inequality decreases, there are signs...

  16. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    influenced by such interactions? In approaching these questions, this dissertation focuses on why entrepreneurs act (the causes of entrepreneurship, anchored in the context), how they act (the entrepreneurial practices, action, and activities), and what happens when they act (the outcomes and impact...... of entrepreneurship). This study sets out to obtain an in-depth understanding of the micro-, community-, and regional-level localized entrepreneurial processes as well as the way in which these processes are intertwined with the spatial context. The contribution of this dissertation lies in the illustration of how......, culture, history, and natural resources. The insights of this thesis are believed to be vital for understanding why certain types of local entrepreneurship prevail in certain regions. This can further our knowledge of how to foster and enable entrepreneurship in lagging regions. In addition, this study...

  17. GRTgaz and the regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the regional activities of GRTgaz in France in the form of 12 regional fact sheets summarizing the key data by the end of 2016: network structure, financial indicators (investments, orders), public and industrial gas consumptions, 2017 projects, institutional and environmental partnerships

  18. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  19. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  20. ASEAN : Extra-Regional Cooperation Triggers Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.; Krapohl, S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter contains two case studies of regional cooperation within Southeast Asia. The network analysis of ASEAN demonstrates that the region is dependent on extra-regional trade with the EU and the USA, but also with China and Japan. However, the region is not dominated by a single regional

  1. Regional Resource Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and electricity commodities are among the most volatile commodities in the world. Spurred on by the recent significant increases in the price of natural gas, the BC Utilities Commission initiated an investigation into factors impacting on natural gas prices, and the validity of the Sumas index (a market trading point, or interchange where multiple pipelines interconnect, allowing the purchase and sale of gas among market participants) as a price setting mechanism. The Commission also sought the opinions and perspectives of the the province's natural gas industry regarding the high volatility of the Sumas gas prices, and as to what could be done to alleviate the wild fluctuations. Following review of the responses from stakeholders, the Commission issued a directive to BC Gas to undertake discussions on regional resource planning with full representation from all stakeholders. This study is the result of the Commission's directive, and is intended to address the issues contained in the directives. Accordingly, the study examined gas demand in the region, demand growth, including power generation, natural gas resource balance in the region, the California impacts on demand and on supply to the region, supply shortfalls on a peak day, and on a seasonal and annual basis, near term remedies, possible resource additions in the longer term, the economic justification for adding major resources and proposed actions to develop needed resource additions. The study confirmed the existence of a growing capacity deficit, which limits the supply of natural gas to the region. Near term options to alleviate the regional capacity deficit were found to be limited to discouraging power generation from serving export markets, demand side management efforts, and expansion of the WEI's systems by 105 mmcf/d. Longer term solutions would involve larger scale expansion of WEI's T-South capacity, the BC Gas' Inland Pacific Connector Project and the Washington Lateral proposed by

  2. Measuring the prevalence of regional mutation rates: an analysis of silent substitutions in mammals, fungi, and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuch Brian B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of mutation vary both within and across genomes. It has been shown for a few mammals that mutation rates vary within the genome, while for unknown reasons, the sensu stricto yeasts have uniform rates instead. The generality of these observations has been unknown. Here we examine silent site substitutions in a more expansive set (20 mammals, 27 fungi, 4 insects to determine why some genomes demonstrate this mosaic distribution and why others are uniform. Results We applied several intragene and intergene correlation tests to measure regional substitution patterns. Assuming that silent sites are a reasonable approximation to neutrally mutating sequence, our results show that all multicellular eukaryotes exhibit mutational heterogeneity. In striking contrast, all fungi are mutationally uniform – with the exception of three Candida species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis. We speculate that aspects of replication timing may be responsible for distinguishing these species. Our analysis also reveals classes of genes whose silent sites behave anomalously with respect to the mutational background in many species, indicating prevalent selective pressures. Genes associated with nucleotide binding or gene regulation have consistently low silent substitution rates in every mammalian species, as well as multiple fungi. On the other hand, receptor genes repeatedly exhibit high silent substitution rates, suggesting they have been influenced by diversifying selection. Conclusion Our findings provide a framework for understanding the regional mutational properties of eukaryotes, revealing a sharp difference between fungi and multicellular species. They also elucidate common selective pressures acting on eukaryotic silent sites, with frequent evidence for both purifying and diversifying selection.

  3. From corridor to region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Jespersen, Per Homann

    2006-01-01

    The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched...... this task by applying principles of participative planning and with action research methodology are involving stakeholders in the process of defining, developing and disseminating the idea of the Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - COINCO....

  4. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  5. Regional Governance Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Dijkstra, Lewis; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    study presents novel data (European QoG Index – EQI) on the ‘quality of government’ (QoG) – understood as low corruption, impartial public services and rule of law – for national and sub-national levels in twenty-seven European Union countries. The EQI shows notable within-country variations: while...... high-performing regions in Italy and Spain (for example, Bolzano, País Vasco) rank amongst the best European Union regions, others perform well below the European Union average. The index is highly correlated with sub-national levels of socio-economic development and levels of social trust, yet...

  6. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Maria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policies in the EU Member States have included tools whoseimportance varied from one country to another. Can be identified by negative incentives forregional development policy towards location in crowded areas or control over the location,the reallocation of economic activities in national territory, creation of adequateinfrastructure, measures to enhance development, financial incentives granted toenterprises. Sustainable business development, rehabilitation of social infrastructure,including social housing and improved social services. Improved regional and localtransportation are key areas of intervention rehabilitation and upgrading of county roads,city streets, including road construction and rehabilitation of belt.

  7. Eastern Baltic Sea Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig

    2016-01-01

    Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016).......Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016)....

  8. Voksenuddannelse og regional udvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i regionale og lokale forskelle uddannelsesforskelle behandler artiklen uddannelsers rolle i regional udvikling. Der lægges særlig vægt på forskellige former for voksenuddannelse. Hvad betyder udviklingen mod vidensamfundet for udviklingen i erhverv, beskæftigelse og sociale...... forhold? Hvilken rolle spiller uddannelse i centerområder og udkantsområder? Hvordan kan uddannelse og læring bidrage til regional udvikling? Hvilke roller kan voksenuddannelse have i denne sammenhæng?...

  9. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  10. Regional Geography is Dead. Long Live Regional Geography!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Werner, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 2-8 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : regional geography * regions * geography * methodology * Ostrava region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  11. Regionalism in Scottish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Dougal

    1976-01-01

    It is well-known that Scottish universities are highly local institutions and that over two-fifth of Scottish university students live at home. Attempts to ascertain if this regionalism has relaxed over the past twenty years with student grant regulations, improvement in communications and the increasing affluence of today's society. (Author/RK)

  12. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  13. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. It may happen ... move the affected body part The cause of CRPS is unknown. There is no specific diagnostic test. ...

  14. Global, Local, or Regional?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of analysis, in addition to the country-level and the global level. Regional strategy analysis requires a fundamental rethink of mainstream theories in the international strategy sphere. This rethink involves, inter alia, internalization theory, with its resource-based view and transaction cost economics...

  15. H2 region detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.

    1978-01-01

    The now classical technique of detection of HII regions is by means of photography and/or interferometry through narrow-band interference filters, with a large aperture ratio of the imaging optics. It enables the detailed study of the spiral structure and the repartition of ionized gas in our Galaxy as well as in the external galaxies [fr

  16. REGIONAL CUSTOMS DIRECTORATES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CABA STEFAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of a regional customs directorate is analyzed. A new approach of the managerial system, in the European integration context, is presented. The customs system is one of the first “doors” to a new economic, social and cultural community. For

  17. Modern regional innovation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega-Argiles, Raquel

    This paper analyses the evolution of regional innovation policy into the mainstream of public policy. The paper examines the empirical and theoretical developments which have shifted much of the focus on innovation-related issues to matters of economic geography. As well as academic material we also

  18. Regionalizing global climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, A.J.; Arneth, A.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate models simulate the Earth's climate impressively at scales of continents and greater. At these scales, large-scale dynamics and physics largely define the climate. At spatial scales relevant to policy makers, and to impacts and adaptation, many other processes may affect regional and

  19. Aid for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion POPESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of regional development has captured the attention of researchers long UMA, but some trends in contemporary economy and international division of labor, cooperation, integration and globalization bring it back to the forefront of current theoretical and methodological concerns. Especially the process of European integration requires comprehensive and pragmatic approach, realistic subject (2, 3, 4.

  20. Regional anaesthesia in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, H; Finster, M

    1984-01-01

    This review includes a brief discussion of the indications and pitfalls of regional anaesthetic techniques commonly used during parturition. Emphasis is given to the physiological changes of pregnancy and the potential effects on the fetus. The criteria for the choice of local anaesthetic are also presented.

  1. Chloroplast DNA analysis of Tunisian cork oak populations (Quercus suber L.): sequence variations and molecular evolution of the trnL (UAA)-trnF (GAA) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessamad, A; Baraket, G; Sakka, H; Ammari, Y; Ksontini, M; Hannachi, A Salhi

    2016-10-24

    Sequences of the trnL-trnF spacer and combined trnL-trnF region in chloroplast DNA of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) were analyzed to detect polymorphisms and to elucidate molecular evolution and demographic history. The aligned sequences varied in length and nucleotide composition. The overall ratio of transition/transversion (ti/tv) of 0.724 for the intergenic spacer and 0.258 for the pooled sequences were estimated, and indicated that transversions are more frequent than transitions. The molecular evolution and demographic history of Q. suber were investigated. Neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li) ruled out the null hypothesis of a strictly neutral model, and Fu's Fs and Ramos-Onsins and Rozas' R2 confirmed the recent expansion of cork oak trees, validating its persistency in North Africa since the last glaciation during the Quaternary. The observed uni-modal mismatch distribution and the Harpending's raggedness index confirmed the demographic history model for cork oak. A phylogenetic dendrogram showed that the distribution of Q. suber trees occurs independently of geographical origin, the relief of the population site, and the bioclimatic stages. The molecular history and cytoplasmic diversity suggest that in situ and ex situ conservation strategies can be recommended for preserving landscape value and facing predictable future climatic changes.

  2. Venus - Phoebe Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This Magellan radar image is of part of the Phoebe region of Venus. It is a mosaic of parts of revolutions 146 and 147 acquired in the first radar test on Aug. 16, 1990. The area in the image is located at 291 degrees east longitude, 19 degrees south latitude. The image shows an area 30 kilometers (19.6 miles) wide and 76 km (47 miles) long. On the basis of Pioneer Venus and Arecibo data, it is known that two major rift zones occur in southern Phoebe Regio and that they terminate at about 20 to 25 degrees south latitude, about 2,000 km (1,240 miles) apart. This image is of an area just north of the southern end of the western rift zone. The region is characterized by a complex geologic history involving both volcanism and faulting. Several of the geologic units show distinctive overlapping or cross cutting relationships that permit identification and separation of geologic events and construction of the geologic history of the region. The oldest rocks in this image form the complexly deformed and faulted, radar bright, hilly terrain in the northern half. Faults of a variety of orientations are observed. A narrow fault trough (about one-half to one km (three tenths to six tenths of a mile) wide is seen crossing the bright hills near the lower part in the middle of the image. This is one of the youngest faults in the faulted, hilly unit as it is seen to cut across many other structures. The fault trough in turn appears to be embayed and flooded by the darker plains that appear in the south half of the image. These plains are interpreted to be of volcanic origin. The dark plains may be formed of a complex of overlapping volcanic flows. For example, the somewhat darker region of plains in the lower left (southwest) corner of the image may be a different age series of plains forming volcanic lava flows. Finally, the narrow bright line crossing the image in its lower part is interpreted to be a fault which cross cuts both plains units and is thus the youngest event in

  3. Regional planning without means - search for regional leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Fertner, Christian

    and stakeholders, not least due to its polycentric urban structure with several medium-sized towns. Besides the regional authority and the regions 22 municipalities, sub-regional collaboration is gaining momentum. Furthermore, different fora, councils and associations are engaging in regional issues. However......, collaboration is often focused on specific sectors or sub-regions, while the joint development of the region is left behind. The regional authority has changed its focus from planning to the provision of knowledge, suitable to kick-off joint action with regional stakeholders, while municipalities keep focus...... on their own territories, eventually in the context of one of the new sub-regional collaborations. Based on an empirical analysis of the regional interplay in Southern Denmark and results from the ESPON ReSSI project, we go through these new settings of regional collaboration in the search for new forms...

  4. Midwest regional management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    In response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the States of Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin formed the Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. One of the top priorities of the Compact Commission is the development of a comprehensive regional waste management plan. The plan consists of five major elements: (1) waste inventory; (2) waste stream projections; (3) analysis of waste management and disposal options; (4) development of a regional waste management system; and (5) selection of a host state(s) for future low-level waste facilities. When completed, the Midwest Management Plan will serve as the framework for future low-level radioactive waste management and disposal decisions

  5. A region in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, M.U.; Nicolet, R.; Dufour, J.

    1998-01-01

    On July 19 and 20 of 1996, torrential rains provoked catastrophic floods in the Saguenay Region of Quebec. The overflowing waters of the region's rivers damaged 3000 residential buildings, completely destroyed another 426, and seriously affected the activities of 850 business establishments. In this comprehensive report, the physical causes and the social, economic, psychological, cultural, political and administrative consequences of this natural catastrophe are discussed by several experts. The report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the actual flooding conditions and the immediate response of local emergency services such as the Red Cross and the Saint-Vincent-de-Paul agencies. Reactions of the various public agencies and governments to the disaster are described in Part Two. Part Three of the document focuses on lessons to be drawn from this natural disaster, in particular the need to improve emergency relief strategies. The legal implications and consequences of the disaster are also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  7. Entropy region and convolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František; Csirmaz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2016), s. 6007-6018 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : entropy region * information-theoretic inequality * polymatroid Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/matus-0465564.pdf

  8. Disarmament through regional dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Yuhei

    1994-01-01

    The role played by the United Nations in the pursuit of peace and disarmament and in support of the construction of a stable order in the region is very great. The attitude of Japan as a 'peace loving state' shown by its support to Non-proliferation is expressed by its high appreciation of the fact that this Second United Nations Conference in Hiroshima has been convened, as such exchanges of views constitute an important aspect of the process of disarmament

  9. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  10. Cleantech Region Stedendriehoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A. (Andries)

    2016-01-01

      http://dx.doi.org/10.14261/postit/B1917A51-5AA6-4723-9EDF87AB64EC267B Keynote speech. In 2015 and 2016, Saxion University of Applied Sciences organized the 2nd and 3rd edition of the Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship Conference (RIEC).  It just so happens that innovation and

  11. Regionalization Lessons from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    and coordination. Regions and municipalities in Denmark are governed by directly elected democratic councils. The Danish case is thus an example of democratic decentralization, but within a framework of national coordination and fiscal control. In spite of the difference in size and historical traditions...... there are also many similarities between Canada and Denmark, particularly in terms of health and social policy goals and aspirations, and in terms of the commitment to a comprehensive, universal healthcare system. These similarities provide interesting opportunities for comparison....

  12. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas of Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name are included with the feature dataset. Public Domain Allotments are not included in this data set.

  13. Regional greenhouse climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.; Rind, D.; Delgenio, A.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Prather, M.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss the impact of an increasing greenhouse effect on three aspects of regional climate: droughts, storms and temperature. A continuous of current growth rates of greenhouse gases causes an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in their climate model simulations, with the greatest impacts in broad regions of the subtropics and middle latitudes. But the greenhouse effect enhances both ends of the hydrologic cycle in the model, that is, there is an increased frequency of extreme wet situations, as well as increased drought. Model results are shown to imply that increased greenhouse warming will lead to more intense thunderstorms, that is, deeper thunderstorms with greater rainfall. Emanual has shown that the model results also imply that the greenhouse warming leads to more destructive tropical cyclones. The authors present updated records of observed temperatures and show that the observations and model results, averaged over the globe and over the US, are generally consistent. The impacts of simulated climate changes on droughts, storms and temperature provide no evidence that there will be regional winners if greenhouse gases continue to increase rapidly

  14. SERVICES AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven ILLERIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to discuss what roles the different economic sectors, and in particular services activities (the tertiary sector play in regional development, understood as growth in production, incomes and employment in weakly developedregions. This question is approached in two ways. The contribution first contains a – primarily theoretical – re-examination of the so-called economic base model, which states that services play a passive role in regional development. The discussion leads to substantial modifications of the model. The second approach is more empirical. It will take as its point of departure the proposition – often heard, but rarely examined – that since service activities are more concentrated in big cities than other activities and in recent decades have shown higher growth rates than other economic activities, it follows that the economic development is now pulled towards big city regions. Examined by way of a statistical analysisin Denmark and France, this proposition could not be verified.

  15. Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the Alligator Rivers Region is presented. It contains general information regarding the physiography, climate, hydrology and mining of the region. The Alligator Rivers Region is within an ancient basin, the Pine Creek Geosyncline, which has an area of approximately 66000 km 2 . The Geosyncline has a history of mineral exploitation dating back to 1865, during which time 16 metals have been extracted (silver, arsenic, gold, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tin, tantalum, uranium, tungsten, zinc). Uranium exploration in the Pine Creek Geosyncline was stimulated by the discovery in 1949 of secondary uranium mineralisation near Rum June, 70 km south-east of Darwin. This was followed by a decade of intense exploration activity resulting in the discoveries of economic uranium ore bodies at Rum Jungle and in the upper reaches of the South Alligator River Valley. All the known major uranium deposits of the East Alligator River uranium field have been discovered since 1969. The present known resources of the Geosyncline are approximately 360 000 tonnes of contained U 3 O 8 . 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Andean region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    New opportunities for climate change mitigation arising from a higher energy integration among Andean Pact nations were analysed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF Project. Apart from the search for regional mitigation actions, the study was mainly aimed at detecting methodological problems which arise when passing from a strictly national view to the co-ordination of regional actions to deal with climate change. In accordance with the available resources and data, and in view of the mainly methodological nature of the project, it was decided to analyse the opportunities to delve into the energy integration of the Region as regards electricity and natural gas industries and their eventual impact on the emission of greenhouse gases. Although possibilities of setting up electricity and natural gas markets are real, their impacts on GHG emission from the energy system would not prove substantially higher than those which the nations could achieve through the use of their own energy resources, in view that the Andean systems are competitive rather than complementary. More in-depth studies and detail information will be required - unavailable for the present study - to be able to properly evaluate all benefits associated with higher energy integration. Nevertheless, the supply of natural gas to Ecuador seems to be the alternative with the highest impact on GHG emission. If we were to analyse the supply and final consumption of energy jointly, we would most certainly detect additional mitigation options resulting from higher co-operation and co-ordination in the energy field. (EHS)

  17. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_001140 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... AAP1-SMF2 intergenic region ... Length = 227 ... Query: 8 ... LLFLHGFLQNGKVFSEKSSGIRKLLKKANVQCDYIDAPVLLEKKDLPFEM...DDEKWQATLD 67 ... LLFLHGFLQNGKVFSEKSSGIRKLLKKANVQCDYIDAPVLLEKKDLPFEMDDEKWQATLD Sbjct: 1 ... ...LLFLHGFLQNGKVFSEKSSGIRKLLKKANVQCDYIDAPVLLEKKDLPFEMDDEKWQATLD 60 ... Query: 128 PDHPQ

  19. A subspecies of region crossing change, region freeze crossing change

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Ayumu; Shimizu, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a local move on a link diagram named a region freeze crossing change which is close to a region crossing change, but not the same. We study similarity and difference between region crossing change and region freeze crossing change.

  20. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget for the West Maui Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 5 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-5 June 2016 Hawaii Regional Sediment Management...distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “ Hawaii Regional Sediment Management

  1. Kernel machine SNP set analysis provides new insight into the association between obesity and polymorphisms located on the chromosomal 16q.12.2 region: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanrouh, Niloufar; Daneshpour, Maryam S; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Tapak, Leili

    2018-06-05

    Obesity is a serious health problem that leads to low quality of life and early mortality. To the purpose of prevention and gene therapy for such a worldwide disease, genome wide association study is a powerful tool for finding SNPs associated with increased risk of obesity. To conduct an association analysis, kernel machine regression is a generalized regression method, has an advantage of considering the epistasis effects as well as the correlation between individuals due to unknown factors. In this study, information of the people who participated in Tehran cardio-metabolic genetic study was used. They were genotyped for the chromosomal region, evaluation 986 variations located at 16q12.2; build 38hg. Kernel machine regression and single SNP analysis were used to assess the association between obesity and SNPs genotyped data. We found that associated SNP sets with obesity, were almost in the FTO (P = 0.01), AIKTIP (P = 0.02) and MMP2 (P = 0.02) genes. Moreover, two SNPs, i.e., rs10521296 and rs11647470, showed significant association with obesity using kernel regression (P = 0.02). In conclusion, significant sets were randomly distributed throughout the region with more density around the FTO, AIKTIP and MMP2 genes. Furthermore, two intergenic SNPs showed significant association after using kernel machine regression. Therefore, more studies have to be conducted to assess their functionality or precise mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional Studies Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on methodology studies with regard to hydrologic analysis; atmospheric transport; forest growth models; distribution of sensitive species; agricultural analysis; and environmental objectives in energy facility siting. National coal utilization assessment studies are reported with regard to technology characterization; air quality impacts; water resources; regional characterization; forest impacts; coal extraction impacts on sensitive animal species; and health impacts. The following special projects were carried out: water resource aspects of inexhaustible technology deployment; ecological constraints on the rapidly expanded use of coal; and U.S. coal and the global carbon problem

  3. Region & Gateway Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Derik

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art robot mapping approaches are capable of acquiring impressively accurate 2D and 3D models of their environments. To the best of our knowledge, few of them represent structure or acquire models of task-relevant objects. In this work, a new approach to mapping of indoor environments is presented, in which the environment structure in terms of regions and gateways is automatically extracted, while the robot explores. Objects, both in 2D and 3D, are modeled explicitly in those map...

  4. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  5. OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maguire, Karen; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone; Nauwelaers, Claire

    This book examines regional innovation in central and southern Denmark, looking at its role in the economy, its governance and policy context and regional strategies for innovation driven growth.......This book examines regional innovation in central and southern Denmark, looking at its role in the economy, its governance and policy context and regional strategies for innovation driven growth....

  6. Region segmentation along image sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs

  7. Active region structures in the transition region and corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Observational aspects of the transition region and coronal structures of the solar active region are reviewed with an emphasis on imaging of the plasma loops which act as tracers of the magnetic flux loops. The study of the basic structure of an active region is discussed in terms of the morphological and thermal classifications of active region loops, including umbral structures, and observational knowledge of the thermal structure of loops is considered in relation to scaling laws, emission measures and the structures of individual loops. The temporal evolution of active region loop structures is reviewed with emphasis on ephemeral regions and the emergence of active regions. Planned future spaceborne observations of active region loop structures in the EUV and soft X-ray regions are also indicated

  8. Regional climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, S.

    2005-01-01

    Because studies of the regional impact of climate change need higher spatial resolution than that obtained in standard global climate change scenarios, developing regional scenarios from models is a crucial goal for the climate modelling community. The zoom capacity of ARPEGE-Climat, the Meteo-France climate model, allows use of scenarios with a horizontal resolution of about 50 km over France and the Mediterranean basin. An IPCC-A2 scenario for the end of the 21. century in France shows higher temperatures in each season and more winter and less summer precipitation than now. Tuning the modelled statistical distributions to observed temperature and precipitation allows us to study changes in the frequency of extreme events between today's climate and that at the end of century. The frequency of very hot days in summer will increase. In particular, the frequency of days with a maximum temperature above 35 deg C will be multiplied by a factor of 10, on average. In our scenario, the Toulouse area and Provence might see one quarter of their summer days with a maximum temperature above 35 deg C. (author)

  9. Transient regional osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Marquina, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel-Ángel; Cano, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Transient regional osteoporosis (TRO) is a disease that predisposes to fragility fracture in weight bearing joints of mid-life women and men. Pregnant women may also suffer the process, usually at the hip. The prevalence of TRO is lower than the systemic form, associated with postmenopause and advanced age, but may be falsely diminished by under-diagnosis. The disease may be uni- or bilateral, and may migrate to distinct joints. One main feature of TRO is spontaneous recovery. Pain and progressive limitation in the functionality of the affected joint(s) are key symptoms. In the case of the form associated with pregnancy, difficulties in diagnosis derive from the relatively young age at presentation and from the clinical overlapping with the frequent aches during gestation. Densitometric osteoporosis in the affected region is not always present, but bone marrow edema, with or without joint effusion, is detected by magnetic resonance. There are not treatment guidelines, but the association of antiresorptives to symptomatic treatment seems to be beneficial. Surgery or other orthopedic interventions can be required for specific indications, like hip fracture, intra-medullary decompression, or other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regional Population Projections for China

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, F.L.; Cao, G.-Y.; Hizsnyik, E.

    2003-01-01

    Considering the size and the regional diversity of China, a prudent analysis of many economic and policy issues needs to consider the regional differences in climate, soil, water, and other natural resource endowments, population density, and social and economic development. Future-oriented multi-regional assessments require regionally detailed scenarios. A key component of such scenarios is the evolution of the population in different regions. For studies of land-use change and agriculture, ...

  11. Regional Healthcare Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kudelina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of healthcare systems effectiveness of the regions of the Russian Federation (federal districts was conducted using the Minmax method based on the data available at the United Interdepartmental Statistical Information System. Four groups of components (i.e. availability of resources; use of resources; access to resources and medical effectiveness decomposed into 17 items were analyzed. The resource availability was measured by four indicators, including the provision of doctors, nurses, hospital beds; agencies providing health care to the population. Use of resources was measured by seven indicators: the average hospital stay, days; the average bed occupancy, days; the number of operations per 1 physician surgical; the cost per unit volume of medical care: in outpatient clinics, day hospitals, inpatient and emergency care. Access to the resources was measured by three indicators: the satisfaction of the population by medical care; the capacity of outpatient clinics; the average number of visits to health facility. The medical effectiveness was also measured by three indicators: incidence with the "first-ever diagnosis of malignancy"; life expectancy at birth, years; the number of days of temporary disability. The study of the dynamics of the components and indexes for 2008–2012 allows to indicate a multidirectional influence on the regional healthcare system. In some federal districts (e.g. North Caucasian, the effectiveness decreases due to resource availability, in others (South, North Caucasian — due to the use of resources, in others (Far Eastern, Ural — due to access to resources. It is found that the effectiveness of the healthcare systems of the federal districts differs significantly. In addition, the built matrix proves the variability the of effectiveness (comparison of expenditures and results of healthcare systems of the federal districts of the Russian Federation: the high results can be obtained at high costs

  12. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  13. Regional Course: Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Calderon, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    They chose the Arenal's Dam and its damming, which has a control established from 1978. Currently, this technique is not applied in any other work of the 'Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad'. Their interest is to apply it in similar works. Among the projects that has been accomplished, they have the sampling of different sites water, the most representative to see the quality of water, the most representative waters Ions analysis of the damming, in underground waters of the region, in the available wells and for all of the river banks about the dam. With this technique they hope to obtain some parameters to define the water sources, the underground flow dynamics, the water turbulent stream, the mixings, the movement time and the relation to the damming. (author)

  14. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Regional Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Morev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS in conducting sociological research on the territory of the Vologda Oblast and the Northwestern Federal District. It describes the historical aspects of formation of the system for public opinion monitoring and examines its theoretical and methodological foundations. The author of the article analyzes the structure of monitoring indicators and provides a brief interpretation of research findings that reflect social wellbeing and social perception trends. In addition, the paper analyzes people’s attitude toward the activities of federal and regional authorities, trends in social well-being, consumer sentiment and also the complex indicator – the index of public sentiment in the region – developed by ISEDT RAS researchers. The results of sociological studies carried out at ISEDT RAS correlate with the dynamics of the all-Russian public opinion polls conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM, Levada-Center, etc. They indicate that Russian society gradually adapts to new conditions of life after the collapse of the USSR. Besides, opinion polls show the most important features of the post-Soviet Russian history at its present stage; they are associated with the intensification of international political relations, the consequences of the “Crimean spring” and the new challenges Russia’s economy is facing now. The article concludes that as global community, of which Russian society is part, is evolving, sociological knowledge begins to play an increasingly important role in administration and national security; this is associated with the greater importance attached to intangible development factors. Therefore, a necessary prerequisite for administration effectiveness in all its stages is to implement the results of sociological research on social

  16. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  17. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  18. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  19. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New England region (including the 6 New Englandstates plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,matched by an equally diverse economy and humanpopulation. Livelihoods throughout the region are basedon service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  20. Region Sønderjylland-Schleswig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klatt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    3 bidrag til leksikon over Sønderjylland: Dansk Generalsekretariat, dansk foreningsliv, Region Sønderjylland-Schleswig......3 bidrag til leksikon over Sønderjylland: Dansk Generalsekretariat, dansk foreningsliv, Region Sønderjylland-Schleswig...

  1. Regional employment growth, shocks and regional industrial resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    2013-01-01

    The resilience of regional industries to economic shocks has gained a lot of attention in evolutionary economic geography recently. This paper uses a novel quantitative approach to investigate the regional industrial resilience of the Danish ICT sector to the shock following the burst of the dot......-com bubble. It is shown that regions characterised by small and young ICT service companies were more adaptable and grew more than others, while diversity and urbanisation increased the sensitivity to the business cycle after the shock. Different types of resilient regions are found: adaptively resilient......, rigidly resilient, entrepreneurially resilient and non-resilient regions....

  2. Regional Employment Growth, Shocks and Regional Industrial Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, J.R.; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    2015-01-01

    The resilience of regional industries to economic shocks has gained a lot of attention in evolutionary economic geography recently. This paper uses a novel quantitative approach to investigate the regional industrial resilience of the Danish information and communication technology (ICT) sector...... to the shock following the burst of the dot.com bubble. It is shown that regions characterized by small and young ICT service companies were more adaptable and grew more than others, while diversity and urbanization increased the sensitivity to the business cycle after the shock. Different types of resilient...... regions are found: adaptively resilient, rigidly resilient, entrepreneurially resilient and non-resilient regions....

  3. Regional odontodysplasia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Magalhães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (RO is a rare developmental anomaly involving both mesodermal and ectodermal dental components in a group of contiguous teeth. It affects the primary and permanent dentitions in the maxilla and mandible or both jaws. Generally it is localized in only one arch. The etiology of this dental anomaly is uncertain. Clinically, affected teeth have an abnormal morphology, are soft on probing and typically discolored, yellow or yellowish-brown. Radiographically, the affected teeth show a "ghostlike" appearance. This paper reports the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting this rare anomaly on the left side of the maxillary arch, which crossed the midline. The primary maxillary left teeth (except for the canine and the primary maxillary right central incisor were missing due to previous extractions. The permanent teeth had a "ghostlike" appearance radiographically. The treatment performed was rehabilitation with temporary partial acrylic denture and periodic controls. In the future, the extraction of affected permanent teeth and rehabilitation with dental implants will be evaluated. The presentation of this case adds valuable information to pediatric dentists to review special clinical and radiographic features of RO, which will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of patients with this condition.

  4. regional economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stimson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone que un círculo virtuoso para el desarrollo sostenible de una ciudad o región se logra a través de un proceso por el que el liderazgo proactivo y fuerte y las instituciones efectivas refuerzan la capacidad y aptitud de un lugar para hacer un mejor uso de sus dotaciones de recursos y lograr un mercado mejorado que consiga ser competitivo y emprendedor. Se propone que el funcionamiento de una ciudad o región en un punto en el tiempo y la trayectoria de su desarrollo económico a lo largo del tiempo puede representarse por su posición en un Cubo de resultados de Competitividad Regional. El artículo propone una nueva estructura de modelo donde el desarrollo económico y funcionamiento de una ciudad o región sea un resultado dependiente de cómo sus dotaciones de recursos y mercado ajustadas como variables cuasi-independientes son mediadas por la interacción entre el liderazgo, instituciones y espíritu empresarial como variables intervinientes. Las experiencias de un cierto número de casos de estudio de ciudades dentro de una variedad de lugares en EE.UU., Europa, Asia y Australia se exploran dentro de esa estructura.

  5. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costamilan, L.C.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  6. Regional identity and family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripković Gordana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of a study on regionalisation and family, within the project named Sociological Aspects of Multiculturality and Regionalisation and their influence on the development of AP Vojvodina and the Republic of Serbia. The author focuses her attention to operationalisation of the theoretical and methodological premises that were developed in the previous paper (Tripković, 2002: 111-127, which means that it represents the results of the second phase of the research plan. This phase includes adjusting of theoretical concepts to the fieldwork displaying the results of the research and the analysis of the findings that put a family in the context of confronting different identities, above all national and regional. As possible "identity difference" was emphasized in the research, theoretical and methodological apparatus was adjusted to this goal. That is why in this paper the replies of interviewees that can suggest or reject the assumption that their national identity can influence significantly the evaluation of identity specificities are presented and analyzed, concerning more or less visible aspects of family life, like welfare status, relations between spouses, respect to the elder, family harmony, number of children, connections with relatives, etc.

  7. Planning for regional centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    In conclusion, the successful development and implementation of a multinational nuclear fuel cycle project will require that it be economically viable and satisfy the overlying interests and concerns of the participants. To assure success, it is absolutely essential that the initial planning, development of project criteria, and implementation be based on an authoritative understanding of the real needs of and benefits to all potential participants. The organizational structure for such a project must contain appropriate checks and balances that are sufficient to protect investors, owners, and consumers. Because of its special nature, these checks and balances must also provide for satisfying other important interests, such as an operating organization that addresses nonproliferation concerns and nuclear safeguards. The next logical step in the evolution of regional nuclear complexes is to determine whether such an approach is, indeed, economically viable, financially attractive, and operationally practical. Those who have succeeded in structuring nonnuclear, energy-related complexes currently operating throughout the world today should be looked to for developing the feasibility study of this concept in the nuclear field

  8. Regional differences in family poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Robert K. Triest

    1997-01-01

    Poverty rates vary considerably over regions, as do the demographic characteristics of the poor, but why the extent of poverty varies as much as it does across different regions of the country is not fully understood. This is an unfortunate gap in our knowledge, since it is difficult to analyze how recent changes in federal anti-poverty policy will affect the regional distribution of poverty without a better understanding of current regional differences in the poverty rate.> The main goal of ...

  9. Networking in gendered regional development

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Hedfeldt; Gun Hedlund

    2011-01-01

    The present Swedish regionalization process creates a lack of institutionalisation called the "regional mess" (Stegmann McCallion 2008:587). According to a state investigation, Sweden has a "fragmented growth- and development policy as well as a weak and unclear regional organisation of society" (SOU 2007:10:18). Old and new structures are intertwined and the question emerges if this situation may create a space for women regarding regional development (Hedfeldt & Hedlund 2009). A multi-level...

  10. Physics of fully ionized regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower, D.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the term fully ionised regions is taken to embrace both planetary nebulae and the so-called 'H II' regions referred to as H + regions. Whilst these two types of gaseous nebulae are very different from an evolutionary standpoint, they are physically very similar, being characterised by photoionisation of a low-density plasma by a hot star. (Auth.)

  11. Distinct Patterns of Association of Variants at 11q23.3 Chromosomal Region with Coronary Artery Disease and Dyslipidemia in the Population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayabarapu Pranav Chand

    Full Text Available In our attempt to comprehensively understand the nature of association of variants at 11q23.3 apolipoprotein gene cluster region, we genotyped a prioritized set of 96 informative SNPs using Fluidigm customized SNP genotyping platform in a sample of 508 coronary artery disease (CAD cases and 516 controls. We found 12 SNPs as significantly associated with CAD at P <0.05, albeit only four (rs2849165, rs17440396, rs6589566 and rs633389 of these remained significant after Benjamin Hochberg correction. Of the four, while rs6589566 confers risk to CAD, the other three SNPs reduce risk for the disease. Interaction of variants that belong to regulatory genes BUD13 and ZPR1 with APOA5-APOA4 intergenic variants is also observed to significantly increase the risk towards CAD. Further, ROC analysis of the risk scores of the 12 significant SNPs suggests that our study has substantial power to confer these genetic variants as predictors of risk for CAD, as illustrated by AUC (0.763; 95% CI: 0.729-0.798, p = <0.0001. On the other hand, the protective SNPs of CAD are associated with elevated Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol levels, hence with dyslipidemia, in our sample of controls, which may suggest distinct effects of the variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region towards CAD and dyslipidemia. It may be necessary to replicate these findings in the independent and ethnically heterogeneous Indian samples in order to establish this as an Indian pattern. However, only functional analysis of the significant variants identified in our study can provide more precise understanding of the mechanisms involved in the contrasting nature of their effects in manifesting dyslipidemia and CAD.

  12. Regional futures: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, W.

    1993-01-01

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  13. Regional and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, P.

    2004-01-01

    A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs

  14. Thinking regionally: narrative, the medical humanities and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Keir

    2015-06-01

    Drawing on multiple literatures from history, geography, anthropology, sociology and literature, this essay asks questions about what we mean by region and why narratives of region should matter to the medical humanities. The essay surveys how region can be used as a lens of analysis, exploring the various academic approaches to region and their limitations. It argues that regions are dynamic but also unstable as a category of analysis and are often used uncritically by scholars. In encouraging scholars working in the medical humanities to be aware that regions are not simple objective or analytical boxes, the essay shows how an awareness of region helps challenge metropolitan whiggism and ideas of core and periphery to give a more prominent place to hinterlands, market towns and rural environments. Furthermore, the essay considers how incorporating region into our understanding of illness can offer new insights. It demonstrates the need for scholars to be attuned to the narratives constructed around regions, suggesting that regions can be viewed as discursive formations that provide a frame for understanding both collective and personal ideas of, and responses to, health and illness, disease and healing, to create what Megan Davies calls a more nuanced 'intellectual cartography'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Food Independence of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Vladimirovich Tyutyunik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with such basic definitions as food security, food independence and food self- sufficiency of the region. The author shows the ambiguity problem of interpretations of these terms in the Russian legislation, which is especially evident in the transition from the national to the regional level. Using the example of legislative acts of some of the Russian Federation’s subjects the study demonstrates the incorrect use of mentioned terms. In author’s opinion, regional authorities in the Russian Federation must introduce amendments to the legislative documents concerning food security. To be more concrete, the regional authorities should either deny the goal of food independence for a particular region, or specify that the goal of reaching food independence for the region does not mean food self-sufficiency, but just import substitution on the regional level

  16. Phylogenetic relationships in Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae sensu stricto based on matK gene, chlL gene, trnL-trnF IGS region, and trnL intron sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, J; Tsumura, Y; Yoshimaru, H; Tachida, H

    2000-10-01

    Nucleotide sequences from four chloroplast genes, the matK, chlL, intergenic spacer (IGS) region between trnL and trnF, and an intron of trnL, were determined from all species of Taxodiaceae and five species of Cupressaceae sensu stricto (s.s.). Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum parsimony and the neighbor-joining methods with Cunninghamia as an outgroup. These analyses provided greater resolution of relationships among genera and higher bootstrap supports for clades compared to previous analyses. Results indicate that Taiwania diverged first, and then Athrotaxis diverged from the remaining genera. Metasequoia, Sequoia, and Sequoiadendron form a clade. Taxodium and Glyptostrobus form a clade, which is the sister to Cryptomeria. Cupressaceae s.s. are derived from within Taxodiaceae, being the most closely related to the Cryptomeria/Taxodium/Glyptostrobus clade. These relationships are consistent with previous morphological groupings and the analyses of molecular data. In addition, we found acceleration of evolutionary rates in Cupressaceae s.s. Possible causes for the acceleration are discussed.

  17. Regional Trends in Electromobility - Regional Study North America

    OpenAIRE

    Turrentine, Tom; Garas, Dhalia

    2015-01-01

    The subproject “Regional Trends in Electro mobility” aims at identifying and analyzing major trends in the field of electro mobility. The trend analysis will monitor research effort and upcoming technologies, policies, products and market developments in different focus regions around the world continuously to enable a systematic analysis of global trends. The regional trend analysis for electro mobility is a major keystone for the project success and therefore cooperation with...

  18. Regional geochemical prospecting of uranium in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, A.O.; Hohn, H.

    1982-01-01

    A regional geochemical prospecting program for uranium in the Serra dos Carajas area, south of Para, was performed by NUCLEBRAS using stream sediment samples obtained from other companies acting in this area. The results of the survey are presented compared to regional geology and an aerial total count map. The different data showed a good correlation, particularly in areas mapped regionally as granitic rocks. (Author) [pt

  19. Pleiotropic Associations of Allelic Variants in a 2q22 Region with Risks of Major Human Diseases and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Kulminski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining insights into genetic predisposition to age-related diseases and lifespan is a challenging task complicated by the elusive role of evolution in these phenotypes. To gain more insights, we combined methods of genome-wide and candidate-gene studies. Genome-wide scan in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study (N = 9,573 was used to pre-select promising loci. Candidate-gene methods were used to comprehensively analyze associations of novel uncommon variants in Caucasians (minor allele frequency~2.5% located in band 2q22.3 with risks of coronary heart disease (CHD, heart failure (HF, stroke, diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (ND, and mortality in the ARIC study, the Framingham Heart Study (N = 4,434, and the Health and Retirement Study (N = 9,676. We leveraged the analyses of pleiotropy, age-related heterogeneity, and causal inferences. Meta-analysis of the results from these comprehensive analyses shows that the minor allele increases risks of death by about 50% (p = 4.6×10-9, CHD by 35% (p = 8.9×10-6, HF by 55% (p = 9.7×10-5, stroke by 25% (p = 4.0×10-2, and ND by 100% (p = 1.3×10-3. This allele also significantly influences each of two diseases, diabetes and cancer, in antagonistic fashion in different populations. Combined significance of the pleiotropic effects was p = 6.6×10-21. Causal mediation analyses show that endophenotypes explained only small fractions of these effects. This locus harbors an evolutionary conserved gene-desert region with non-coding intergenic sequences likely involved in regulation of protein-coding flanking genes ZEB2 and ACVR2A. This region is intensively studied for mutations causing severe developmental/genetic disorders. Our analyses indicate a promising target region for interventions aimed to reduce risks of many major human diseases and mortality.

  20. Regional Stability & Lessons Learned in Regional Peace Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    , as none of the countries is able to deal with the intrastate and interstate conflicts on its own. The conference Regional Stability & Lessons Learned in Regional Peace Building was the result of comprehensive cooperation between Pakistan’s National Defence University and the Royal Danish Defence College......The NATO-led intervention in Afghanistan is coming to an end, and the necessity of regional peace building solutions for the region’s security issues seems more exigent than ever before. Regional states have to come to terms with each other in some ways if violent extremists are to be countered...

  1. A Declining Region: Provincial Renaissance Revisited (Case of Volgograd Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdova Yuliya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes findings yielded by the empirical study performed in the framework of an RGNF grant entitled “Image of a region as a communicative strategy for the authorities and mass media”. The methods of study included expert survey and formal survey (N=1000, July-September 2013, studying the opinion of respondents who were either internal experts residing in the Volgograd region (N=20; May-September 2013 or external experts who reside outside the region but maintain stable ties with the representatives of state and municipal authorities, regional mass media and business. The findings indicate that the Volgograd region has fallen behind other modernized Russian regions, that young people tend to leave it, that a negative image of the region as a declining territory persists. Answers to the open question “What is unacceptable for you in the existing image of the Volgograd region?” revealed major problems determining the local context of a declining region, and those were issues associated with inefficient regional/municipal administration: “the condition of the roads”, “constant replacement of people in the administration”, “politics as a whole”, “a destitute region without a good manager”, “unemployment”, “countryside is dying off”, “indifference of the authorities”, “roads, housing and public utilities and the administration”, “the authorities are not responsible for the people”, “the authorities do not solve the problems of the city or its people”, “thieving”, “dishonest authorities”, “the region goes to rack and ruin, no kindergartens or jobs”, “one cannot even walk in the streets”, “corruption”, “a stagnant region with low pay”, “no perspectives in the future”, “the region is stagnating due to corruption among officials”. According to the local Census Bureau, the Volgograd region can be classified as a declining territory where the population decline

  2. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Maia dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table. The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of

  3. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newstead, C.M.; Lee, D.S.; Spitalnik, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  4. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    inflows, should be understood in the broader frame of regional contingencies, and not be simplistically explained as investors' discontent (i.e., in order to pressure Vietnamese authorities into implementing a more orthodox neo-liberal agenda). And in a post-crisis regional economic reorganisation...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  5. Fiscal competition and regional differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Justman, Moshe; Thisse, Jacques-François; Van Ypersele, Tanguy

    2001-01-01

    Regions can benefit by offering infrastructure services that are differentiated. Competition between regions over potential investors is then less direct, allowing them to realize greater benefits from external investors. The two polar cases of full and incomplete information about investors' needs are studied. In both cases, there is regional differentiation. However, fiscal competition is efficient in the former case but not in the latter. Finally, it is shown that free entry in the loc...

  6. Regional energy facility siting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, R.C.; Eagles, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results of the energy facility siting analysis portion of a regional pilot study performed for the anticipated National Energy Siting and Facility Report are presented. The question of cell analysis versus site-specific analysis is explored, including an evaluation of the difference in depth between the two approaches. A discussion of the possible accomplishments of regional analysis is presented. It is concluded that regional sitting analysis could be of use in a national siting study, if its inherent limits are recognized

  7. Regional radiation standards for population of Chelyabinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Eh.M.; Zajtseva, Yh.A.; Panteleev, V.V.; Gavrilov, A.P.; Kolotygina, N.V.; Pudovkina, L.V.; Kravtsova, O.S.

    1996-01-01

    Regional radiation regulations for population exposures in Chelyabinsk region are developed which are to play the role of standard limits. The priority goal of setting standard level is to consolidate the achieved radioecological balance on the contaminated territories and to establish a mechanism of control over the activities of the facility and over the use of lands in restriction zone by the population

  8. Cloaks with multiple invisible regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Zhu, Shouzheng; He, Lianxing; Wang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a general method of extending the effective invisible regions for both the shell-like interior cloak and the complementary media exterior cloak, without affecting their original cloaking regions. The proposed method is based on layered spatial mapping instead of the intact mapping. Certain interior or exterior invisible regions can be obtained by properly using a compressed or folded transformation in each space layer. Therefore, the proposal enables the as-designed cloaks to provide multiple invisible regions of different types simultaneously. Thus objects can be hidden in the interior cavity and/or in the exterior space, or even be embedded between the cloaking shells

  9. Productive Regions: Criteria and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasyuk L. I.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An official statistical dataset for 80 territorial subjects of the Russian Federation for 2000, 2007 and 2009 has proved the hypothesis that, under the neoclassical concept, the resources move to regions with the highest marginal productivity of the factors of production, which leads to the accumulation of investment resources, while providing financial and social efficiency. Based on cluster analysis by three performance criteria, productive regions are identified, which are dominated by regions productive in the extraction of minerals. It is shown that the stability of the factors’ distribution in space determines the current and future specialization of regional economies

  10. THE REGIONAL STRUCTURE OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina TODOROVIC

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches some of the characteristics of the regional development of Serbia, from the perspective of two models of territorial organization: one is governmental (administrative and statistical, and the other is functional. The imbalances in the levels of development of various territorial units of Serbia (regional disproportions are the consequence of many structural disharmonies, material limitations, and problems with populationstructure, during many years, all worsened by political and economic events at the end of the twentieth century. Also, in this paper we point out the main characteristics of undeveloped regions, the criteria with which we can define them, and a typology of the municipalities inside each such region.

  11. Regions and the Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ianos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is an important target of European Union, constantly promoted by its institutions and their representatives. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, one of the most important support documents, the region represents a very important issue, being considered to be the key to its successfulness. The region is seen as a support for the smart growth and all the operational policy concepts try to make use of the spatial potential, by taking better account of the territorial specificities. Two main questions play attention: the need to transform the present-day developmental regions into administrative ones is a priority? What kind of regionalization it must to be promoted? Correlating these issues with already defined territorial cohesion, the administrative region is a real tool for the future territorial development. The experience of the last 14 years asks urgently the building of a new territorial administrative reform, giving competences to regions. For instant, each development region is a construction resulted from a free association of the counties. Their role in the regional development is much reduced one, because their regional councils are not elected; decisions taken at this level are consultative for the social, economical, cultural or political actors.

  12. VT Regional Development Corporation (RDC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Department of Economic Development partners with the twelve Regional Development Corporations around the state to provide technical assistance. They can assist...

  13. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  14. Latin America Region: Between Dependence and Autonomy in Regional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Vaca Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The space called Latin America has a particular history marked by centuries of colonialism and coloniality. The latter concept implies that the basic structure of the colonial system has not changed even though formal independence has been achieved. For this reason, the subcontinent has fluctuated between dependence and the quest for autonomy. These successive cycles have manifested themselves both in the internal configurations and in the regional schemes that have been undertaken. This paper analyzes the construction and evolution of the idea of a region: Latin America and the Caribbean. To that end it examines the concepts of region, regionalism, what Latin America and the Caribbean implies, and what are the transformations in these ideas that have emerged from the regional configurations of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC as plural organisms with broad objectives.

  15. NOAA Miami Regional Library > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Collections Open Access Resources Research Tools E-resources NOAA S. and NOAA N.E. Library Institutional Repository DIVE INTO About the Library | Collections | Research Tools | Library Services & NOAA Miami Regional Library @ AOML & NHC NOAA Miami Regional Library at National Hurricane

  16. Regional Inflation and Financial Dollarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; de Haas, R.; Sokolov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the local currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of

  17. Robustness Regions for Dichotomous Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijn, Pieter; Molenaar, Ivo W.

    1981-01-01

    In the case of dichotomous decisions, the total set of all assumptions/specifications for which the decision would have been the same is the robustness region. Inspection of this (data-dependent) region is a form of sensitivity analysis which may lead to improved decision making. (Author/BW)

  18. Metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    the boundaries of the city further out. With the opening of the suburban train lines in 1934, the until today known finger structure was consolidated. A regional strategy, the “Fingerplan”, incorporating this structure was elaborated in 1947, but individual motorisation eroded some of the principles. Still...... in Sweden, forming a cross-border region with around 3.5 mio. inhabitants....

  19. Archives: Town and Regional Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... Archives: Town and Regional Planning. Journal Home > Archives: Town and Regional Planning. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 12 of 12 ...

  20. Risk assessment: A regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palecek, M [Occupational Safety Research Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1992-07-01

    An assessment of the region of North Bohemia which suffered from forty years socialist economy and heavy emissions from German and Polish factories and power stations is presented. The case strongly underlines the need for regional and international cooperation both in the assessment of hazards and finding solution to public health and environmental problems.

  1. Risk assessment: A regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palecek, M.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the region of North Bohemia which suffered from forty years socialist economy and heavy emissions from German and Polish factories and power stations is presented. The case strongly underlines the need for regional and international cooperation both in the assessment of hazards and finding solution to public health and environmental problems

  2. Analysis of regional climate strategies in the Barents region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, S.; Inkeroeinen, J.; Latola, K.; Vaisanen, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    2012-11-15

    Climate change is a global phenomenon with especially harsh effects on the Arctic and northern regions. The Arctic's average temperature has risen at almost twice the rate as elsewhere in the past few decades. Since 1966, the Arctic land area covered by snow in early summer has shrunk by almost a fifth. The Barents Region consists of the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia (i.e. the European part of Russia). Climate change will cause serious impacts in the Barents Region because of its higher density of population living under harsh climatic conditions, thus setting it apart from other Arctic areas. In many cases, economic activities, like tourism, rely on certain weather conditions. For this reason, climate change and adaptation to it is of special urgency for the region. Regional climate change strategies are important tools for addressing mitigation and adaptation to climate change as they can be used to consolidate the efforts of different stakeholders of the public and private sectors. Regional strategies can be important factors in achieving the national and international goals. The study evaluated how the national climate change goals were implemented in the regional and local strategies and programmes in northern Finland. The specific goal was to describe the processes by which the regional strategies were prepared and implemented, and how the work was expanded to include the whole of northern Finland. Finally, the Finnish preparatory processes were compared to case examples of processes for preparing climate change strategies elsewhere in the Barents Region. This analysis provides examples of good practices in preparing a climate change strategy and implementing it. (orig.)

  3. COMBINATION OF GOALS STRATEGY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Yu. Lapigin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the tools to identify strategicallyimportant objectives of regional development is not enough to build a developmentperspective, relying on something special,what distinguishes each region from therest. The article discusses approaches to the formation of the regional developmentstrategy, which is based on goals set by the results of the analysis of the main factors inthe development of the region. The study is based on the methodology of systems theoryand methods of strategic management. The most important results should include tools tobuild the tree of strategic objectives resultingfrom the implementation of the algorithm forconstructing planes of analysis and development of the region. The results can be used to develop a strategy for the developmentof socio-economic systems of various typesand forms.

  4. Croatia in a Regional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Caratan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author examines the regional context of Croatian politics, highlighting the main reasons for its significance: involvement of the region in war in recent history, the rootedness, aside from that, of extremely strong economic, political and cultural bonds between the countries in the region, and the importance of cooperation in the region for EU accession and further economic development. On these grounds, the author seeks to examine the possibility for stabilisation of the region, and to establish what interests the neighbouring countries such as Italy, Austria, Hungary and others have in strenghtening the bonds with the new democracies in Central and Southeast Europe. All of this eventually provides the answer to the question what is the interest of the EU in this region’s stability and in its admission to the European Union

  5. Dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that H II regions may contain dust: 1) the continuum light scattered by dust grains (O'Dell and Hubbard, 1965), 2) thermal radiation from dust grains at infrared wavelengths (Ney and Allen, 1969), 3) the abnormal helium abundance in some H II regions (Peimbert and Costero, 1969), etc. Although observations of the scattered continuum suggest that the H II region cores may be dust-free, dust grains and gas must be well mixed in view of the infrared observations. This difficulty may be solved by introducing globules with sizes approximately 0.001 pc. These globules and the molecular clouds adjacent to H II regions are the main sources supplying dust to H II regions. (Auth.)

  6. Initiatives for regional dialogue consideration of regional disarmament guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschik, R.

    1994-01-01

    The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security. The guidelines contain 52 principles on: relationship between regional disarmament, arm limitation and global security; general guidelines and recommendations for regional disarmament efforts; possible ways and means to assist and implement these efforts; possible role of the United Nations in aiding these efforts. Experiences gained in Europe and Near East are analysed in the framework of the situation in Northeast, South and Southeast Asia

  7. The Region is Dead, Long Live the Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzger, Jonathan; Olesen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    If it today is commonly accepted that regions are ‘constructs’ – then who or what construct them, for what reasons, and by which means? How are they made manifest and durable as both mental geographies and mundane everyday realities (cf. Metzger, 2013)? Paasi (2010, p.2298) suggests that regions...... practices that have led to the formation and more recently encroaching dissipation of a well-known EUropean region: Öresund. In this endeavour we will make an effort to be sensitive to how Öresund as a spatial entity interrelates with, depends upon or partially challenges/is challenged by other geographical...

  8. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  9. Sources of Regional Banks Capitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Miroshnichenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching of sources to increase the capitalization of Russian banks is an important economic problem for both the national and regional economy. Moreover, a strong capital base allows to credit institutions to meet the demands of economic agents for banking service. The research focuses on the choice of sources of regulatory capital for the banks of Tyumen region in the context of changing supervisory requirements in the period of 2005–2016, in different phases of the business cycle. We apply econometric methods of statistical information using IBM SPSS Statistics software. We have calculated the individual correlations of regional banks’ capital with gross domestic product (GDP (excluding gross regional product (GRP and GRP (with the exception of the effect of GDP. These calculations have shown that the capital of regional banks is related only to GDP. The increase in the capital of regional banks is accompanied by a change in its structure: the share of authorized capital has halved, and the share of subordinated debt has grown. All sources of capital, other than the reserve fund, are related to GDP. Authorized capital is associated with the profit of profitable lending institutions; retained earnings in the capital of regional banks — with the aggregated amount of risks of the banking system of the Russian Federation. Subordinated debt, like capital as a whole, is negatively affected by the profitability of the banking sector. The change in the capital of regional banks is determined by the change in retained earnings, subordinated debt and reserve fund. Modelling of these relations has allowed to obtain a system of equations. This system synthesizes linear regression models of changing the capital of regional banks in the context of their sourcing. The results of this study are significant for theoretical justification and practical development of a balanced financial policy of regional banks. Our research will contribute to

  10. Tribal Land Polygons, Region 9, 2006, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  11. regional. Un análisis para las regiones europeas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Camacho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pese a encontrarnos inmersos en una economía globalizada, la innovación es en muchos aspectos un fenómeno esencialmente regional, donde los servicios (ignorados hasta ahora, y en particular aquellos denominados como servicios intensivos conocimiento (SIC, adquieren un papel central, gracias a su capacidad para transmitir conocimiento, en especial de tipo tácito. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una primera aproximación empírica a los efectos asociados a la localización de SIC, tomando 107 regiones europeas. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la hipótesis de que los SIC ejercen un impacto positivo sobre el desempeño innovador regional, impacto que podría desbordarse hacia las regiones vecinas.

  12. Tribal Boundary Polygons, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  13. Minimum deterrence and regional security. Section 2. Other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azikiwe, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Compared to European political and security circumstance, minimum deterrence is less an illusion in other regions where weapon free zones already exist. It will continue to be relevant to the security of other regions. Strategic arms limitation should be pursued vigorously in a constructive and pragmatic manner, bearing in mind the need to readjust to new global challenges. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is the linchpin on which the Non-proliferation Treaty rests

  14. Malaysia in international regional relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarulnizam Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the international system saw the structure and survival issues that grip the country will also change. The main challenge to the nation is how to adapt these changes that running quite rapidly and outside the country's ability to cope alone. Issues and global structural changes also affect the international system of East Asia region that contains two important sub-Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia. Changes inherent in both these sub certainly affect the foreign policy and diplomacy, security and bilateral relations between Malaysia and other countries. Malaysia is not a global power capable of changing the international system. However, Malaysia is an important country in East Asia that has contributed to the prosperity of this region. The big question is how to adapt these changes into the Malaysia international regional policy and bilateral relations? What extent international issues affecting the regional survival of the country? What is the contribution to regional stability of Malaysia? This book explores the impact of selective regional issues to Malaysia, while also discussing the role and response to changes in regional Malaysia since the country gained independence. (author)

  15. Regional Courts as Judicial Brakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalf Katrin Nyman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how regional integration courts can act as judicial brakes, at a time when “constitutional coups” – leaders staying in power past constitutional time limits or other forms of actions against the spirit if not always the letter of the constitution – are alarmingly common. The article discusses how regional courts can be used to modify or protect national rule of law and the constitutional order from the outside (i.e. from the regional integration aspect and the extent to which this can be valid particularly to promote a uniform interpretation and application of human rights. Although this trend is visible in Europe, it is more striking, because less expected, on other continents, in particular Africa and the Americas, where the developments take place in less than perfect democratic environments. The article contains evidence from cases dealt with in the various regional courts, supporting that a system of political and judicial oversight, especially in regions with weak or fragile democratic systems, can be a useful addition to national judicial or other mechanisms of protection of rule of law and control of the executive. Action by regional courts helps defeat perceptions of majoritarian politics, which in many countries allow for the winner to take all. Under a system of regional oversight, states become aware of the limits they themselves have set and citizens become aware of their possibilities to challenge political power.

  16. Regional Branding: Building Brand Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Margarisová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional branding is one of several ways to promote rural regions and support development of socially, culturally and environmentally oriented economies in areas that are interesting due to their natural and cultural heritage. The article attempts to review the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of branding as conveyed by leading authors in the marketing field. The aim of this paper is to define brand as a broad complex of variables, which are used in building of its identity as a basis for creating value proposition and the position of a brand. Article briefly describes the most comprehensive labeling system for regional products at the micro-regional level is the one guaranteed by Association of Regional Brands (ARB. The main contribution of this article is a theoretical model of strategic management of a regional brand, which captures the interdependence of the individual steps of brand building as well as stakeholders. The starting point for building of brand value is a strategic analysis of the brand, including analysis of customer and competitors. The analysis of external factors is followed by analysis of the brand itself. The resulting relationship between the brand and the customer is based on value proposition representing benefits (functional, emotional, self‑expression. The concept of total product is connected with the concept of total brand and it is offered to the customer as a regional product. Finally it suggests possibilities for further research.

  17. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, Ian H [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, and Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the `regional` - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  18. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  19. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, Ian H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the 'regional' - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  20. BUDGETARY REGIONAL POLICY: THEORETICAL CONCEPTUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyshpanova Nataliia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Formation and implementation of the budget policy of the regions in Ukraine is directly related to the processes of decentralization of power, increase of budget powers and strengthening of financial capacity of the territories. Formation of balanced local budgets and support of an effective system of managing budget resources is a key to strengthening the economic potential of the regions and increasing the well-being of citizens. The purpose of this article is to assess the current concepts of the fiscal policy of the region in Ukraine and to determine the impact of fiscal policy on the socio-economic development of the regions. Results. In this article the essence and content of budget policy are considered, the interpretation of different scientists is presented. An author’s approach to the definition of the essence of the budget policy of the region as a set of economic and administrative measures in the budget sphere, determined by the interrelated goals and objectives of the state and local self-government, aimed at the socio-economic development of the territory. The conceptual model of the fiscal policy of the region is presented and it is determined that the strategic goal of fiscal policy at the local level should be to ensure sustainable socio-economic development of the territories. The main principles that need to be observed during the implementation of the budget policy of the region are described; functions to be performed by local level fiscal policy; and the main tools by which local authorities carry out their functions. Conclusions. It is noted that the content of the budget policy of the region should be to determine the course, tasks and directions of the state and local self-government activities in the field of the formation and use of budget funds. The budget policy of the region should respond to a combination of the following systemic challenges: 1. the restoration of economic growth, as soon as

  1. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  2. Region 7 Title V facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web map shows the Region 7 Title V facilities (Clean Air Act major sources), any Class I areas within 300 km of R7 States, and any Tribal areas within 50 miles...

  3. Penguins of the Magellan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bingham

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Magellan region, including the Falkland Islands, is one of the world´s most important areas for seabirds, and especially penguins. World-wide there are 17 species of penguin; 7 of these regularly breed around the coastal waters of South America, and 5 within the Magellan region. These are the King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus, Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes c. chrysocome, Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus and Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus. During the last five years, a review of the breeding populations of penguins within the Magellan region was conducted. This work included population censuses of all the surface breeding species throughout the Falkland Islands and southern South America. The results of this work are presented, along with other cited information, to provide a summary of the current knowledge of penguin populations within the Magellan region.

  4. Regional Assessment of South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarrett, Kenneth; McMillen, Gary K

    1997-01-01

    .... Economically, the countries of the region have emerged from the debt crisis of the 1980s with a zealous belief in the advantages of export-oriented policies, privatization, and the elimination...

  5. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Dean-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  6. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dean-Yi [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-10-15

    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  7. Regions compete for French synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Ten regions in France have placed bids to host the planned national synchrotron Soleil. Leading contenders include a joint bid from Ile-de-France and Essonne for Orsay, offering FF 1 billion towards the construction costs (2 paragraphs).

  8. Pacific Northwest DIVER Regional Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  9. Groundwater Vulnerability Regions of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions onThis map represent areas with similar hydrogeologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  10. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.

  11. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) is provided here.

  12. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI, NV, AS, GU) is provided here.

  13. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 2 (NJ, NY, PR, VI) is provided here.

  14. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT) is provided here.

  15. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA) is provided here.

  16. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN) is provided here.

  17. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX) is provided here.

  18. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 3 (DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV) is provided here.

  19. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 3 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) is provided here.

  20. National Marine Fisheries Service Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Legislative Atlas is a regional geographic information system (GIS) that provides spatial data for state and federal coastal and...

  1. The Landform Regions of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  2. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  3. Regional differences of consumer preferences when shopping for regional products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kalábová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of a research on consumer preferences when shopping for groceries. It is focused on regional products and consumer preferences in relation to the country of origin of food products. The main objective of this paper is to find the existence of spatial relationships between spatial deployment of regional products and consumer preferences for regional products. It will be necessary to create a data model for monitoring the deployment of regional products and also a data model for tracking important indicators of consumer behavior in all regions of the Czech Republic. The results are based on questionnaire survey that was conducted within the period from October 2010 to January 2011 on a sample of 3767 respondents from the Czech Republic, via both online questionnaires and their printed version. For the data collection the questionnaire system ReLa, developed by the Department of Marketing and Trade at Faculty of Business and Economics at Mendel University in Brno, was used. Data was processed with statistical software STATISTICA (ver. 10. Spatial visualisation was processed with GIS software ArcGIS (ver. 10.1. Preferences for food of Czech origin were analysed in relation to identification criteria. The research results show that the origin of food has an important role in consumer purchase decision-making. There is no significant difference in importance of this factor based on gender of consumers, however, we could prove moderate dependence on respondent’s occupation, education and age. We could also experience regional differences in levels of preferences of local products or products of Czech origin in regard of 14 regions of the Czech Republic. χ2 (N = 3767 = 245.25; p < 0.001. Value of Pearson’s coefficient of contingency is 0.334.

  4. Regional energy-environmental planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavecchio, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    In consideration of the relationship existing between energy and environment, it's clear that tools are needed to reach a pre-emptive convergence of different interests coming from the management of these sectors. The main tool to realize the above-mentioned convergence of interests in the Regional Energy and Environment Plan (PEAR). The plan allows italian Regions to schedule and to address energy measures in their own area and to regulate Local entities functions [it

  5. Managing regional innovation strategy projects

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Patricia; Hanisch, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative interview study with 28 RIS project managers that aimed at understanding whether or not this is true in the context of regional innovation and what the specifics of managing regional innovation projects are. In taking up a recent claim for policy intervention studies which allow to “derive precise suggestions for their design and management”.  The study investigated the interrelation between the agility of the management approach and the achievements of RIS p...

  6. Competition for biomass. Regional imbalances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, S.E.; Bohlin, B.; Remes, M.; Aakesson, H.; Warnqvist, B.; Norrstroem, H.; Jonsson, Tomas

    1997-04-01

    The main aim of this study has been to investigate if a substantial increase in biofuel utilization may lead to pronounced regional differences in supply and demand, and what effects such imbalances could lead to. In the study the country has been split up into ten regions, from north to south, and it is confirmed that there would be an imbalance effect. confirmed that there would be an imbalance effect

  7. Regional and Global Monetary Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Lamberte; Peter J. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of national, regional, and global financial crises, together with their rising costs and complexity, have increased calls for greater regional and global monetary cooperation. This is particularly necessary in light of volatile capital flow movements that can quickly transmit crisis developments in individual countries to other countries around the world. Global financial safety nets (GFSNs) are one important area for monetary cooperation. This paper reviews the c...

  8. ASEAN: Regional Integration and Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Mari PANGESTU; Lili Yan ING

    2015-01-01

    Over recent decades, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has advanced a policy of regional integration, starting with the ASEAN Free Trade Area, followed by the ASEAN+1 free trade agreements with its six main trading partners, and now with ASEAN+6. For ASEAN to further advance regional integration in the East Asian context, it should continue to focus on trade in goods, investment, and services, to smooth out the process of trade creation and investment realisation. East Asian ...

  9. Why are Trade Agreements Regional?

    OpenAIRE

    Zissimos, Ben

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how distance may be used to coordinate on a unique equilibrium in which trade agreements are regional. Trade agreement formation is modeled as coalition formation. In a standard trade model with no distance between countries, a familiar problem of coordination failure arises giving rise to multiple equilibria; any one of many possible trade agreements can form. With distance between countries, and through strategic interaction in tariff setting, regional trade agreements gene...

  10. Social attitudes and regional inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Muštra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As the budgets of the European Union (EU become tighter, the questions about the effectiveness of EU’s expenditure, especially the most important parts such as Cohesion policy, are hotly debated. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the presence of social attitudes may influence the effectiveness of EU budget expenditure, measured by the level of regional inequalities. The analysis starts by focusing on individuals’ attitudes towards income from their own effort and income which is derived from other people’s effort, having in mind that individual actions depend on their attitudes. The next step establishes the link between the income from other people’s effort with the re-distributive dimension of the EU budget, considering that different attitudes among individuals in the EU could lead to significant differences in effectiveness of this redistributive policy among European regions and, consequently, diverse regional inequalities. Empirical research uses data for 27 EU countries observed over two waves of European Value Surveys: 1999-2000 (Wave 1 and 2008–2009 (Wave 2. The results indicate a significant role of social attitudes for regional inequalities, which raises the question of the appropriateness of simplification and uniform regional policy instruments in solving EU regional problems.

  11. Building a bi-directional promoter binary vector from the intergenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... Jimmy Moses Tindamanyire1*, Brad Townsley2, Andrew Kiggundu1,. Wilberforce Tushemereirwe1 and Neelima Sinha2. 1National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda. P. O. Box 7065, Kampala, Uganda. 2Davis 2237 Life Science Building, Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, CA. 95616 ...

  12. Interallelic and intergenic incompatibilities of the Prdm9 (Hst1 gene in mouse hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Flachs

    Full Text Available The Dobzhansky-Muller model of incompatibilities explains reproductive isolation between species by incorrect epistatic interactions. Although the mechanisms of speciation are of great interest, no incompatibility has been characterized at the gene level in mammals. The Hybrid sterility 1 gene (Hst1 participates in the arrest of meiosis in F(1 males of certain strains from two Mus musculus subspecies, e.g., PWD from M. m. musculus and C57BL/6J (henceforth B6 from M. m. domesticus. Hst1 has been identified as a meiotic PR-domain gene (Prdm9 encoding histone 3 methyltransferase in the male offspring of PWD females and B6 males, (PWD×B6F(1. To characterize the incompatibilities underlying hybrid sterility, we phenotyped reproductive and meiotic markers in males with altered copy numbers of Prdm9. A partial rescue of fertility was observed upon removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9 from the azoospermic (PWD×B6F(1 hybrids, whereas removing one of the two Prdm9 copies in PWD or B6 background had no effect on male reproduction. Incompatibility(ies not involving Prdm9(B6 also acts in the (PWD×B6F(1 hybrids, since the correction of hybrid sterility by Prdm9(B6 deletion was not complete. Additions and subtractions of Prdm9 copies, as well as allelic replacements, improved meiotic progression and fecundity also in the progeny-producing reciprocal (B6×PWDF(1 males. Moreover, an increased dosage of Prdm9 and reciprocal cross enhanced fertility of other sperm-carrying male hybrids, (PWD×B6-C3H.Prdm9F(1, harboring another Prdm9 allele of M. m. domesticus origin. The levels of Prdm9 mRNA isoforms were similar in the prepubertal testes of all types of F(1 hybrids of PWD with B6 and B6-C3H.Prdm9 despite their different prospective fertility, but decreased to 53% after removal of Prdm9(B6. Therefore, the Prdm9(B6 allele probably takes part in posttranscriptional dominant-negative hybrid interaction(s absent in the parental strains.

  13. Indirect intergenic suppression of a radiosensitive mutant of Sordaria macrospora defective in sister-chromatid cohesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A D; Leblon, G; Zickler, D

    1986-01-01

    Six ultra violet (UV) mutageneses were performed on the spo76 UV-sensitive mutant of Sordaria macrospora. Spo76 shows an early centromere cleavage associated with an arrest at the first meiotic division and therefore does not form ascospores. Moreover, it exhibits altered pairing structure (synaptonemal complex), revealing a defect in the sister-chromatid cohesiveness. From 37 revertants which partially restored sporulation, 34 extragenic suppressors of spo76 were isolated. All suppressors are altered in chromosomal pairing but, unlike spo76, show a wild type centromere cleavage. The 34 suppressors were assigned to six different genes and mapped. Only one of the suppressor genes is involved in repair functions.

  14. Interallelic and intergenic incompatibilities of the Prdm9 (Hst1) gene in mouse hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachs, Petr; Mihola, Ondřej; Simeček, Petr; Gregorová, Soňa; Schimenti, John C; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Baudat, Frédéric; de Massy, Bernard; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    The Dobzhansky-Muller model of incompatibilities explains reproductive isolation between species by incorrect epistatic interactions. Although the mechanisms of speciation are of great interest, no incompatibility has been characterized at the gene level in mammals. The Hybrid sterility 1 gene (Hst1) participates in the arrest of meiosis in F(1) males of certain strains from two Mus musculus subspecies, e.g., PWD from M. m. musculus and C57BL/6J (henceforth B6) from M. m. domesticus. Hst1 has been identified as a meiotic PR-domain gene (Prdm9) encoding histone 3 methyltransferase in the male offspring of PWD females and B6 males, (PWD×B6)F(1). To characterize the incompatibilities underlying hybrid sterility, we phenotyped reproductive and meiotic markers in males with altered copy numbers of Prdm9. A partial rescue of fertility was observed upon removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9 from the azoospermic (PWD×B6)F(1) hybrids, whereas removing one of the two Prdm9 copies in PWD or B6 background had no effect on male reproduction. Incompatibility(ies) not involving Prdm9(B6) also acts in the (PWD×B6)F(1) hybrids, since the correction of hybrid sterility by Prdm9(B6) deletion was not complete. Additions and subtractions of Prdm9 copies, as well as allelic replacements, improved meiotic progression and fecundity also in the progeny-producing reciprocal (B6×PWD)F(1) males. Moreover, an increased dosage of Prdm9 and reciprocal cross enhanced fertility of other sperm-carrying male hybrids, (PWD×B6-C3H.Prdm9)F(1), harboring another Prdm9 allele of M. m. domesticus origin. The levels of Prdm9 mRNA isoforms were similar in the prepubertal testes of all types of F(1) hybrids of PWD with B6 and B6-C3H.Prdm9 despite their different prospective fertility, but decreased to 53% after removal of Prdm9(B6). Therefore, the Prdm9(B6) allele probably takes part in posttranscriptional dominant-negative hybrid interaction(s) absent in the parental strains.

  15. phuR intergenic mutation results in pleiotropic effects on global gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Wassermann, Tina; Ciofu, Oana

    2015-01-01

    We have previously found a positive selection for promoter mutations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa DK2 leading to increased expression of the phu (Pseudomonas heme utilization) system. By mimicking conditions of the CF airways in vitro, we experimentally demonstrated that increased expression of phu......R confers a growth advantage in the presence of hemoglobin, thus suggesting that P. aeruginosa evolves towards iron acquisition from hemoglobin....

  16. Pathoadaptation of a Human Pathogen Through Non-Coding Intergenic Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein

    in CF adaptation of P. aeruginosa and their expressions are altered by the mutation. It was established that mutations upstream ampR increased tolerance of P. aeruginosa to some β-lactam antibiotics. Mutations in promoter of phuR, encoding receptor of pseudomonas heme uptake system, conferred growth...... advantage in the presence of hemoglobin demonstrating that P. aeruginosa has adapted towards utilization of iron from hemoglobin. Further investigation of phuR promoter mutation revealed pleiotropic effects on expression of many other genes. The pleiotropic effect by this mutation was contingent...

  17. Interallelic and intergenic incompatibilities of the Prdm9 (Hst1) gene in mouse hybrid sterility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flachs, Petr; Mihola, Ondřej; Šimeček, Petr; Gregorová, Soňa; Schimenti, J.C.; Matsui, Y.; Baudat, F.; de Massy, B.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2012), e1003044 ISSN 1553-7404 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GAP305/10/1931; GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR(CZ) GPP305/11/P630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : hybrid sterility * meiosis * incompatibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.517, year: 2012

  18. Building a bi-directional promoter binary vector from the intergenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to express genes in a controlled and limited domain is essential to succeed in targeted genetic modification. Having tools by which to rapidly and conveniently generate constructs which can be assayed in a diverse array of plant species expedites research and end-product development. Targeting specifically ...

  19. Promotion and regional development. Implementation of regional productive development agencies. The case of Maule region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Yamil Alul González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Productive Development Agencies implemented in Chile in 2006, were developed as a way to answer the longing desire to territorially decentralize, and that the own Regions be whom define their future. The Agencies have the responsibility to develop innovation and productive development Agendas in participative processes, which means with public, academic and private actors. Also, the Agencies have the mission to implement Competitive Improvement Plans-PMC (clusters in prioritized economic sectors by the own region. These PMC are leaded by private actors in each sector.

  20. REGIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH TOURISM. THE CASE OF REGION WEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Ionut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional development should aim to correlate and integrate tourism among the other integrative parts of the regional and local development, taking into account the fact that a region’s prosperity as effect of tourism development may be shown clearly in several stages: on the spot (as a result of direct consumption of the tourist product, on short term (through continuous absorption of the work-force and encouraging the welcoming commerce and in the long run (concentrating capital for investment in the general infrastructure and the one of tourism, in structures of reception for tourism and in the development of urban services. The analysis of intra-regional disparities as part of the economic growth at the level of Region West starts off with the idea that each component county has a different landscape, which favored or inhibited their economic growth; in the same time, each component county has its own specific, which can be promoted through tourism, inducing in time a regional income, and respectively, a social-economic and cultural growth of less developed areas.

  1. THE ENVIRONMENT OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bechis Liviu; MOSCVICIOV Andrei

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the difference between the two concepts regionalism and regionalization. It also presents the three types of regionalism analysis depending on the dimension and the nature of the relations: regionalism at national level, transnational regionalism and international regionalism analysis.

  2. Regional Aspects of New Industrialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov Petrovich Silin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors substantiate the need to consider the regional economic and other conditions when carrying out various essential transformations in the national economy of the country. We have argued the importance of new industrialization for overcoming the technological lag of the country and its regions and for supporting the large-scale structural transformations. We have proved that the complex set of the interconnected concepts and the theories of macro- and microlevels may be the theoretical platform for the paradigm of new industrialization. These are the theory of economic growth, the theory of the modernization of the economy, the theory of the change of technological ways during the industrial revolutions, theories of innovative development, developments in the field of the institutional theory. The authors have shown that the transition to new industrialization is the fundamental historical pattern for the majority of the countries of the world, including industrially developed ones. The purpose of the article is to identify the brightest tendencies and features of the development of the Ural macro-region in the years of market reforms as well as the definition of the strategic transformations in the context of the formation of new industrialization. The hypothesis of the research assumes that the revealed regional features of the Ural macroregion’s economic development are the prerequisites of its development as the centre of the modernization of the Russian economy. On the basis of the analysis of three groups of statistic data for the twenty-five year period of liberal and monetary reforms, the brightest tendencies and features of the development of the Ural macro-region are revealed. We have emphasized that the Ural macro-region has managed to keep its historically developed code — the industrial model of the economy, which have been developing for many decades. The authors have made a significant contribution of

  3. Users guide to REGIONAL-1: a regional assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Eadie, W.J.; Powell, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    A guide was prepared to allow a user to run the PNL long-range transport model, REGIONAL 1. REGIONAL 1 is a computer model set up to run atmospheric assessments on a regional basis. The model has the capability of being run in three modes for a single time period. The three modes are: (1) no deposition, (2) dry deposition, (3) wet and dry deposition. The guide provides the physical and mathematical basis used in the model for calculating transport, diffusion, and deposition for all three modes. Also the guide includes a program listing with an explanation of the listings and an example in the form of a short-term assessment for 48 hours. The purpose of the example is to allow a person who has past experience with programming and meteorology to operate the assessment model and compare his results with the guide results. This comparison will assure the user that the program is operating in a proper fashion

  4. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  5. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  6. Obesity and Regional Immigrant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott D; Carbert, Nicole S

    2017-11-24

    Canada has an increasingly large immigrant population. Areas of higher immigrant density, may relate to immigrants' health through reduced acculturation to Western foods, greater access to cultural foods, and/or promotion of salubrious values/practices. It is unclear, however, whether an association exists between Canada-wide regional immigrant density and obesity among immigrants. Thus, we examined whether regional immigrant density was related to obesity, among immigrants. Adult immigrant respondents (n = 15,595) to a national population-level health survey were merged with region-level immigrant density data. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the odds of obesity associated with increased immigrant density. The prevalence of obesity among the analytic sample was 16%. Increasing regional immigrant density was associated with lower odds of obesity among minority immigrants and long-term white immigrants. Immigrant density at the region-level in Canada may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining obesity among immigrants.

  7. Vital coalitions, vital regions; cooperation in sustainable, regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Many rural regions in Europe are undergoing a dynamic transition, driven by forces of urbanisation and agricultural development, new patterns of production and consumption, and new societal demands. However, while the historical rural-urban divide is eroding, rural landscapes are becoming more

  8. Regional climate services: A regional partnership between NOAA and USDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate services in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions have been enhanced by a recent addition of the USDA Climate Hubs to NOAA’s existing network of partners. This new partnership stems from the intrinsic variability of intra and inter-annual climatic conditions, which makes decision-making fo...

  9. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... overfishing or an overfished condition. SUMMARY: This action serves as a notice that NMFS, on behalf of the... to overfishing and are in an overfished condition. Also, in the Northeast Region, Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic windowpane is subject to overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an...

  10. Regional welfare disparities and regional economic growth in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Huy Hoang,

    2009-01-01

    This study had multiple objectives. First, it aimed at examining regional inequality
    in several welfare variables, such as health and education during the 1998-2004 period, and
    per capita income over time from 1990 to 2006. The first objective of the study was to gain
    a better

  11. Regional profile, energy-impacted communities: Region VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    This report has data on population, administration, finance, housing, health and safety, human services, education, and water and sewage for 325 energy-impacted communities. A review of current and potential energy developments in the region shows over 900 energy resource impacts listed for the 325 impacted communities. Coal development represents over one-third of the developments listed. Communities reporting coal development are distributed as follows: Colorado (36), Montana (42), North Dakota (61), South Dakota (13), Utah (73), and Wyoming (35). Energy-conversion initiatives represent another high incidence of energy-resource impact, with uranium development following closely with 83 communities reporting uranium development impact in the region. These projections indicate continued development of regional energy resources to serve national energy requirements. The 325 impacted communities as reported: Colorado (46), Montana (73), North Dakota (62), South Dakota (21), Utah (80), and Wyoming (43) follow a distribution pattern similar to that of future projects which illustrates that no area of the region will escape the impacts of energy development. (ERA citation 04:041706)

  12. Regional Solutions for Regional Problems: East Timor and Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    perceived Australia in this light and were openly opposed to Australian leadership of the multi- national mission. Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad of...such as Malaysia’s Prime Minister Mahathir , expressed concern over Australia’s forceful responses, regional leaders were broadly supportive and

  13. Regional cooperation prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Korea follows a well-established nuclear nonproliferation policy and could consider regional cooperation as proposed by many nuclear experts over the years. Real problems exist in establishing cooperation, but as the nuclear industry continues to grow, the motivation increases. The US should be a partner in the regional cooperation also. This paper summarizes significant advances made by the NNCA in applying remote monitoring technologies to support international safeguards in the ROK, providing the technical foundation for the use of these technologies for transparency between partner countries. Concrete steps are proposed to form an institutional and then a governmental approach for transparency in the use of nuclear material and even, eventual establishment of a regional safeguards inspection regime. (author)

  14. Security assurances and regional stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses whether and how security assurances affect political stability in geographic regions. Before embarking on what is necessarily a limited analysis of a complex subject, I point out that the subject is by no means new. For centuries, vast areas of the world have been affected by forces used against them by more powerful States, which at one time or another incorporated large parts of them into overseas colonies or contiguous empires. The new factors are the emancipation of those areas into independent regions, made up of States that play their own parts in international affairs, and the possession by a handful of Powers, outside or on the edge of those regions, of a specific form of superior force: nuclear weapons. (author)

  15. Employment growth and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rikard; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the potential drivers behind uneven regional development in the context of employment growth in Denmark and Sweden. In particular, we are interested in the roles of urbanization, industrial change and the rise of the new economy as manifested in the growth of the two economies...... in 2002–2007. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to analyse the impact of a number of key industrial sectors on regional employment growth in the two countries. The empirical analysis is based on longitudinal matched employer–employee data retrieved from official registers in each economy from 2002...... economies, we find that, although in general these economies react relatively similarly to changes, embarking on a narrower analysis of the individual sectors reveals marked national differences. This indicates that context matters in the analysis of regional economic dynamics in terms of structure, system...

  16. Regional indexes for France. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of regional weather indexes for France. Each regional index covers an homogenous area in terms of temperature represented by the biggest city. Five reference cities are used to represent the 22 economical regions of France (Paris Orly, Lyon, Marignane, Bordeaux and Strasbourg). (J.S.)

  17. Social Facilitation: the Kaliningrad Region and Russian Mainland Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toropov Pavel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors look at the concept of social facilitation as a possible component of Russian social consolidation in the course of social reforms. The article focuses on the results of an empirical study of the levels and characteristics of competence in social facilitation, which is here understood as the ability to apply certain knowledge and systems of skills and as a success rate of actions based on experience in improving the conditions of social development. The study was conducted in the Kaliningrad region in 2012—2013. The data was obtained through a survey of 400 respondents using the authors’ methodology encompassing eight basic elements of competence and a structured interview aimed at a better understanding of the subject of the study and attitudes towards it. The data is compared against the results of a similar study in two regions of central Russia with similar conditions. The results suggest a disharmonic and inconsistent structure of competence in social facilitation, low motivation for social activity in youth, and a narrow range of ideas about possible areas of personal activities in the current conditions. Gender differences are identified in the level and structure of competence. The authors believe that certain differences in competence components identified through mathematical methods are determined by the geographical characteristics of the Kaliningrad region — its exclave nature, a relatively small territory, and proximity to the EU countries. It is stressed that the regional conditions affecting motivation, forms and areas of activities, and structure of experience should be taken into account in selecting means and methods of organising youth activities. They can also serve as a basis for the regional youth policy.

  18. Regional cooperative agreement for the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Among the means available to the International Atomic Energy Agency to promote cooperative efforts in the nuclear field is the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development, and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for the Asia and Pacific Region. Under the terms of this agreement, which came into force on June 12, 1972, participating countries aim to promote and coordinate research, development, and training projects in nuclear fields through collaborative efforts among relevant national institutions in the region. The Agency's role is to provide organizational, administrative, advisory, technical, and financial assistance when needed to secure successful execution of the projects undertaken within the framework of the RCA. Although this presentation deals primarily with the benefits of regional cooperation under the agreement, a review of the RCA would be somewhat imbalanced without a mention of its shortcomings. One of the principal impediments to more rapid progress, as is the case in many other areas, is financing. There is no stable source of funding outside the research contract program and, the likelihood of large-scale UNDP support notwithstanding, a greater willingness on the part of participating Member States to support the program along with the development of a greater sense of common purpose are called for. In this connection serious consideration is being given to the possibility of establishing an Asian Centre for Research and Training, an institute that would bring together scientists from the region to collaborate on problems common to the RCA countries. A study group has already been convened to investigate the feasibility of this proposal

  19. Differential accumulation of nif structural gene mRNA in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Jacobson, Marty; Ludwig, Marcus; Boyd, Eric S; Bryant, Donald A; Dean, Dennis R; Peters, John W

    2011-09-01

    Northern analysis was employed to investigate mRNA produced by mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii with defined deletions in the nif structural genes and in the intergenic noncoding regions. The results indicate that intergenic RNA secondary structures effect the differential accumulation of transcripts, supporting the high Fe protein-to-MoFe protein ratio required for optimal diazotrophic growth.

  20. Regional Competitiveness and Its Implications for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Daryono Soebagyo; Triyono Triyono; Yuli Tri Cahyono

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify regional competitiveness in some areas of Central Java. Regional competitiveness became one of the issues in regional development policy since the enactment of local autonomy.Measurement of regional competitiveness has been mostly done through ranking as a benchmark the competitiveness of the region. Mapping regional competitiveness in Indonesia has been made to all counties and cities, which shows the competitiveness ranking of each region. Competitivenes...

  1. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  2. Deep mycoses in Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhari, S; Cunha, M G; Schettini, A P; Talhari, A C

    1988-09-01

    Patients with deep mycoses diagnosed in dermatologic clinics of Manaus (state of Amazonas, Brazil) were studied from November 1973 to December 1983. They came from the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and the Federal Territory of Roraima. All of these regions, with the exception of Pará, are situated in the western part of the Amazon Basin. The climatic conditions in this region are almost the same: tropical forest, high rainfall, and mean annual temperature of 26C. The deep mycoses diagnosed, in order of frequency, were Jorge Lobo's disease, paracoccidioidomycosis, chromomycosis, sporotrichosis, mycetoma, cryptococcosis, zygomycosis, and histoplasmosis.

  3. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data

  4. Meteorological tracers in regional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1974-11-01

    Atmospheric tracers can be used as indicators to study both the ventilation of an urban region and its dispersion meteorology for air pollutants. A correlation analysis applied to the space-time dependent tracer concentrations is able to give transfer functions, the structure and characteristic parameters of which describe the meteorological and topographical situation of the urban region and its surroundings in an integral manner. To reduce the number of persons usually involved in a tracer experiment an automatic air sampling system had to be developed

  5. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  6. Governance in regional development planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to lay part of the groundwork for a new project aimed at exploring governance aspects concerned with regional development planning (RDP) in Denmark. The fundamental objective is to help establish and clarify a number of research questions to delve into the conditions...... and opportunities for anchoring and implementing such RDP. The paper mainly adopts a descriptive approach to portray tentative pathways to explore and discuss regional governance structures, procedures and practices that are being developed in establishing new RDP processes, strategies and plans....

  7. Cophasal regions on the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhevnikov, N I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' '

    1977-01-01

    The subsequent development of the phenomenological model of the solar convective zone is carried out. The cophasal region, in which unilateral movement of the matter is supposed, is considered. Quantitative relations for kinematic parameters of solar sport groups, agreeing well with the observations, are given. The cophasal regions distribution due to their linear dimensions is obtained. It is shown that the effective depth of the convective zone is found to change with the phase of the activity cycle: less in the minimum and more in the maximum of activity.

  8. Extinction of H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, F.P.; Kennicutt, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Visual extinction of H II regions in nine nearby galaxies as derived from the ratio of the radio continuum emission to H-alpha emission is systematically larger than visual extinction deduced from the Balmer lines alone, if one assumes a value Av/E(B-V) 3. An optically-limited sample of about 30 extragalactic H II regions has a mean extinction of 1.7 m in the visual while about 1.2 m is not seen in the reddening of the Balmer lines. Both reddening and extinction decreases with increasing galactic radius, at least for M33 and M101

  9. Unges uddannelsesvalg i Region Midtjylland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyen, Marianne; Tjørnelund, Henning

    Rapporten belyser nogle af de faktorer, som har betydning, når unge i Region Midtjylland vælger eller fravælger at få en uddannelse. Godt 2.000 unge er blevet spurgt om deres geografiske, økonomiske og familiemæssige baggrund og deres overvejelser i forhold til uddannelse. Fælles for de unge er......, at de var 18 år i år 2002 og boede i Region Midtjylland. Det vil sige, at de nu er omkring 25 år og allerede har truffet flere valg, der har betydning for deres fremtidige uddannelsesniveau og tilknytning til arbejdsmarkedet...

  10. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  11. Higher Education and European Regionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Speculates about the relationship between two fundamental social changes occurring in Europe: the development of a mass higher education system and the slow decay of the old states that were inherited from the 19th century, eroded from below by various movements for national and regional autonomy, and eroded from above by the growing power and…

  12. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  13. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  14. Biocapacity optimization in regional planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianjun; Yue, Dongxia; Li, Kai; Hui, Cang

    2017-01-01

    Ecological overshoot has been accelerating across the globe. Optimizing biocapacity has become a key to resolve the overshoot of ecological demand in regional sustainable development. However, most literature has focused on reducing ecological footprint but ignores the potential of spatial optimization of biocapacity through regional planning of land use. Here we develop a spatial probability model and present four scenarios for optimizing biocapacity of a river basin in Northwest China. The potential of enhanced biocapacity and its effects on ecological overshoot and water consumption in the region were explored. Two scenarios with no restrictions on croplands and water use reduced the overshoot by 29 to 53%, and another two scenarios which do not allow croplands and water use to increase worsened the overshoot by 11 to 15%. More spatially flexible transition rules of land use led to higher magnitude of change after optimization. However, biocapacity optimization required a large amount of additional water resources, casting considerable pressure on the already water-scarce socio-ecological system. Our results highlight the potential for policy makers to manage/optimize regional land use which addresses ecological overshoot. Investigation on the feasibility of such spatial optimization complies with the forward-looking policies for sustainable development and deserves further attention.

  15. Snakes of the Guianan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The study of snaks from the Guianan region got an early start in 1705 when several species were pictured by Merian. As relatively large proportion of the snakes described by Linnaeus originated from Surinam. Interest for and knowledge of this group of animals steadily increased in the 18th and 19th

  16. GLOBALIZATION & REGIONALIZATION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Frunză

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization refers to the growing interdependence of countries, resulting from the increasing integration of trade, finance, investments, labor markets and ideas in one globalmarketplace. The most important elements of this process are the international trade and the cross-border investment flows. Economic globalization has increased the specialization of workers, while the companies compete in global markets. Even globalization has recently become a common topic in academic discourse, many economists focused, from the 1980s and 1990s, in addition to globalization, on regionalization - the growth of networks of interdependence within multinational regions of the world. The recent decades arecharacterized by the fact that the world trade grew faster than world output, which implies that an increasing share of world GDP crosses international borders. The trend is explained, mostly, by thesubstantially declining of the trade barriers during the same period, as a result of successive trade negotiation rounds under the auspices of the GATT/WTO, unilateral trade liberalization and regional tradeagreements. Even there are global connections between all the countries, the strongest political and economic integration is being created within a few specific regions of the world: Europe, North America and East Asia.

  17. Regional Highlights of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; J.M. Wolken; Teresa Hollingsworth; Christian Giardina; J.S. Littell; Linda Joyce; Chris Swanston; Stephen Handler; Lindsey Rustad; Steve McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Climatic extremes, ecological disturbance, and their interactions are expected to have major effects on ecosystems and social systems in most regions of the United States in the coming decades. In Alaska, where the largest temperature increases have occurred, permafrost is melting, carbon is being released, and fire regimes are changing, leading to a...

  18. Hybrid technology for regional railcars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christoph [DVV Eurailpress, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    It is possible to reduce the fuel consumed by diesel railcars operating short-distance regional services by making use of newly developed hybrid technology. Voith Turbo is setting out to produce evidence of that through two completely different projects. (orig.)

  19. Education and Italian Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  20. Regionalization--Deja Vu Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallanan, Edwin J.

    The subject of regionalization or the consolidation of schools has been a major issue of discussion and educational research for the past 15 years. A fact that has come out of the research is that consolidation is expensive. Yet, some observers continue to recommend consolidating the remaining school districts. When schools are closed, children…

  1. Assessing Regional Attitudes about Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Loveridge, Scott; Miller, Steven R.; Komarek, Timothy M.; Satimanon, Thasanee

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current discussion on factors that influence entrepreneurial activity focuses on availability of human, social, and financial capitals, regional economic conditions, and dynamics of population. We discuss social attitudes toward entrepreneurship and how attitudes may influence entrepreneurial activity. We analyze telephone survey questions designed to gauge attitudes towards community entrepreneurship. High school entrepreneurship career exploration and positive spin-offs from loc...

  2. Transport, logistics and the region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, de P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Cargo transport and logistics have a huge impact on sustainable (regional) economic development. Two broad (policy) challenges are center stage: enhancing co-location of logistics activities and improving efficiency in intermodal transport chains. Academic research can provide relevant insights for

  3. Regional labour market dynamics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; van Dijk, J.

    This article analyzes the response of regional labor markets in the Netherlands to region-specific labor demand shocks. Previous studies show remarkable differences in response between regions in European countries and regions in the United States. The analysis shows that, in Dutch regions, the

  4. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region Manager. 1605.7 Section 1605.7 National... ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.7 Region Manager. (a) Subject to the direction and control of the Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in...

  5. Shaping Regional Strategies of Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich; Heinicke, Patrick; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper examines the factors that drive the success of multinational corporations (MNCs) in their pursuit of regional strategies. We develop a comprehensive regional success factor model to investigate the effects of regional management autonomy and regional product/service adaption...... management autonomy and regional product/service adaption are higly contingent upon contextual influences on MNCs....

  6. First regional CSM program planned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    6 countries in the English-speaking Caribbean (Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, St. Kitts/Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent) are scheduled to form the 1st regional contraceptive social marketing program. The program will be under the auspices of the Barbados Family Planning Association. By combining resources, contraceptive social marketing should be able to effectively augment family planning activities in smaller countries where individual programs wuld be too costly. The regional program will also determine whether program elements from 1 country in a region are relevant in other countries. The Caribbean region as a whole has experienced a general decline in both crude birth rates and fertility rates during the past 15 years; however, adolescent fertility rates remain high and an average of 46% of the populations of Caribbean countries are under 15 years of age. Although heavy emigration has traditionally curbed population increases, new restrictive immigration laws are expected. Further increases in the working age population will contribute to already high unemployment rates and hinder economic development. The 6 countries selected for the social marketing program are receptive to innovative family planning approaches and have the basic marketing infrastructure required. Community-based distribution programs already in operation in these countries distribute condoms, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. The success of these programs has plateaued, and there is a need for delivery systems capable of reaching broader segments of the population. The social marketing program will be phased in to ensure local acceptance among national leaders and consumers. The regional program hopes to borrow elements from Jamaica's contraceptive social marketing program to avoid the costs involved in starting a program from scratch. A major innovation will be the use of mass media advertising for contraceptives.

  7. Sustainable development of Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Kuz’menkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of administrative-territorial units (ATU refers to the main directions of Russian Federation state policy to ensure the security of the national economy to meet the vital needs of people and the preservation of such a possibility for the future generations. The article describes and analyzes the factors that have the most significant impact on the level of ATE development. The dynamics of the gross output of agriculture in Russia and its critical evaluation are presents. It was revealed that the development of the region is the basis of the national economy security. At present, the concept of “sustainable development” in Russia is relevant and the role of regions in the sustainable development of the Russian Federation is constantly increasing. Stability of self-financing of the regional economy is achieved through conducting effective fiscal, financial, credit, tax and price policy, establishment of equal inter-budgetary relations with the federal center, the development of the securities market, increasing the volume of exports. Conducted research allowed: to identify the main factors influencing the sustainable development of Russia regions. The reasons for the backlog of economy of the Smolensk region of the nationwide growth rate and direction of their elimination are examined. Formation of the forecast of domestic agriculture development in the period up to 2020 should be based on the priority position of the industry in the agricultural sector, which is determined by its decisive role in meeting the population’s needs for basic food products. Prospective volumes of production of major agricultural products are based on the need to meet the challenges provided by the Russian Federation Government Decree.

  8. Building a competitive regional innovation environment : the regional development platform method as a tool for regional innovation policy

    OpenAIRE

    Harmaakorpi, Vesa

    2004-01-01

    The study focuses on building a regional innovation policy tool that takes into account the demands of the present techno-economic and socio-institutional paradigms. Regions are seen to be strongly dependent on their history. The competitiveness of a region is based on the regional resource configurations. In a turbulent world these resource configurations have to be renewed over time setting demands for regional dynamic capabilities. This study emphasises five regional dynamic capabilities: ...

  9. Regionalism vs. Multilateralism : An overview of the effects of Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Pöntinen, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The Purpose of this dissertation was to first find the motives behind and causes for regionalism and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of the phenomenon. Secondly, the intension was to determine the benefits of a possible bilateral FTA between Australia and China and whether a bilateral trade agreement would be more beneficial for the Australian economy than waiting for a multilateral WTO regulated framework. The research was conducted through an extensive literature review...

  10. Models of Regional Modernization of the Donbass Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Viktorovich Pavlov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methodical approach to the assessment of a level of development of post-industrial and neoindustrial models of economic modernization in regional aspect on the basis of various indicators. The proposed approach is approved with use of the statistical materials characterizing the state of economy in the regions of Donbass. The strategy of development of Donbass areas and their industrial cities would have to be based (we mean the situation if there were no military operations on this territory on the basis of the model of neoindustrialization assuming development of the sphere of the hi-tech industry, automation and a computerization of productive forces, replacement of physical work by intellectual labor that is radically capable to change nature of work and structure of labor balance of this macro-region. Branches and sectors of a socio-economic complex of the Donbass region using achievements of fundamental and applied science, engineering and design thought for increase in a share of automation, a computerization and mechanization of workplaces, physical and brainwork prior to the beginning of a political conflict in Ukraine have the potential of development. The authors also pay attention to need of studying the agglomerative effect from interaction of the cities and areas of the Donbass euroregion. It is connected, first of all, with development of vertical and horizontal mechanisms of active use of potential of so-called “cities-kernels”, capable to make the catalyzing impact on production, social infrastructure, creation and development of new perspective branches in the cities-satellites.

  11. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies; Integracion Regional de energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Guerra, J; Dominguez Bravo, J [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs.

  12. Desarrollo multinivel: Implicaciones macro-regional, local y micro- regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las implicaciones del desarrollo en los niveles macro-regional, local y micro- regional, a partir de la hipótesis central de la teoría del desarrollo que plantea que el desarrollo económico traerá consigo el desarrollo político y social. Después de hacer de un acercamiento conceptual al desarrollo, se repasan brevemente las teorías del desarrollo existentes como herramientas de análisis de la realidad. En la discusión se concluye que los procesos de desarrollo locales y regionales requieren de una transformación sustancial de las relaciones negociadas entre los agentes económicos y los actores políticos. Ante el paulatino retroceso que en las sociedades contemporáneas está teniendo el Estado de bienestar, uno de los principales retos es el empoderamiento de las organizaciones sociales y comunitarias para que desempeñen activamente su rol en los procesos de desarrollo local y regional.

  13. Regional innovation systems in the Lisbon strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, P.J.M. de; Lagendijk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This contribution explores the framing of the concept of Regional Innovation Systems (RISs) within European ecoruomic policies. Regional innovation systems are analytically and empirically assessed within the policy corltext of the Lisbon strategy, with special reference to regional dimensions in

  14. Allegheny County Kane Regional Center Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Total number of residents in each Kane Regional Center facility by race and gender. The Kane Regional Centers are skilled nursing and rehabilitation centers run by...

  15. Regional Innovation Policies in MERCOSUR : Obstacles and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... review existing regional cooperation initiatives, identify sectors with strong potential for regional cooperation, review other experiences in regional cooperation for innovation (European Union - EU, North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA), and propose institutional arrangements for promoting innovation among ...

  16. Regional Competitive Intelligence: Benchmarking and Policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Huggins , Robert

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking exercises have become increasingly popular within the sphere of regional policymaking in recent years. The aim of this paper is to analyse the concept of regional benchmarking and its links with regional policymaking processes. It develops a typology of regional benchmarking exercises and regional benchmarkers, and critically reviews the literature, both academic and policy oriented. It is argued that critics who suggest regional benchmarking is a flawed concept and technique fai...

  17. Dust deposit in recirculation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griemert, R.

    1985-03-01

    The present report shows investigations, which have been carried out in a closed duct at forward and backward facing steps. Distribution of fluid velocity and fluid fluctuations in and normal to main flow direction as well as the distribution of Reynolds shear stress have been measured. The mass transfer downstream of a backward facing step has been investigated as well. By using graphite-, copper-, tin- and rubber dust, conditions of deposition have been defined experimentally. A serie of photos shows the filling of a recirculation region downstream of a backward facing step with graphite dust. The present investigations allow to avoid deposition of dust in recirculation regions by selecting the fluid numbers in an appropriate way. (orig.) [de

  18. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  19. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report

  20. Regional Anaesthesia in Thyroid Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Abbas, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroidectomy is usually performed under general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Bilateral cervical plexus block has been occasionally used as sole anaesthesia technique for this operation in certain parts of world. Indications for regional anaesthesia elsewhere in the world are patient's preference and associated marked cardio-respiratory disease. This is the first report of thyroidectomy done solely under bilateral cervical plexus block in Pakistan. The patient had thyroid cancer and was medically compromised due to cardiac failure with ejection fraction of 25%. Bilateral cervical plexus block was performed to avoid the high risk with general anaesthesia. Total thyroidectomy was done while patient remained painfree during the procedure and top-up local anaesthetic infiltration was not required. Patient remained stable without any morbidity. Positive experience from this case indicates that regional anaesthesia with monitored anaesthesia care is safer than general anaesthesia in high risk patients and could be offered to selective thyroidectomy candidates. (author)

  1. Regional cooperation for emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, D.S.L.; Liu, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident that a sound emergency plan is indispensable to the overall nuclear power generation program. In some developing countries in Eastern Aisa, the availability of manpower resources and facilities to handle a nuclear power plant accident are rather limited. Therefore, the establishment of a regional mutual emergency plan is deemed necessary. A preliminary idea concerning this establishment is presented for deliberation by this Conference

  2. Evolution of the European region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeger, Eh.

    1984-01-01

    The problem on geochronological study of the European region is covered. The most ancient age values are determined by U-Pb methods by zircones from paragneisses. The model of evolution, being in agreement with the data obtained by U-Pb and Rb-Sr methods, is considered. The history of the Schwarzwald development is typical for the continent as a whole. The diagram of evolution of primary 87 Sr/ 86 Sr for orthogneisses and granites in France is given

  3. Regional power and local ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, D.; Philip, G.; Wilkinson, K.

    2017-01-01

    Archaeological data tend to be gathered at the local level: human agency also operates at this scale. By combining data from multiple surveys conducted within a larger area, it is possible to use local datasets to obtain a perspective on regional trends in settlement, population, and human activity...... and climate are then examined side by side in order to assess long-term human interactions. Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Regional Management Plan: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobny, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    This summary report describes the results of a 16-month project to develop a Regional Management Plan for low-level radioactive waste management in a seven-state area. The seven states are Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. These states have formed the Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission in accord with Congressional requirements established in 1980. 14 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  6. Il Lazio: una regione economica?

    OpenAIRE

    Toscano Pia

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth of Italy has proceeded in several directions through different ages from the unity of the nation on. Only in recent years, e.g., has Latium caught up with the most highly developed regions of northern Italy, aiming, like the north-east area, at a productive system made up of small and medium-sized industrial enterprises, and furthermore, concentrating on the tertiary sector which produces services for enterprises. Only in Rome and district has the economic development been con...

  7. FLOSSWorld Africa regional workshop agenda

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tucker, KC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available their activities – does this differ from country to country, and does it differ from Europe? Comparisons with previous studies such as FLOSS, FLOSS-US, FLOSS-Japan. • How are local FLOSS activities in target countries related with other institutions (public... administration, companies, schools, universities, etc.)? • What is the present and possible future impact of FLOSS activities on the labour market, education, governance, and the economy of developing countries? FLOSSWorld Africa Regional Agenda 4 FLOSSWorld...

  8. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  9. Heartland Alliance for Regional Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nancy [Climate and Energy Project, Inc., Hutchinson, KS (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The Heartland Alliance for Regional Transmission (HART) will foster a candid, productive conversation among stakeholders that identifies challenges to and benefits from a massive build out of wind generation and transmission across the Southwest Power Pool. Based on the outcomes of those deliberations, HART will develop and deliver an ambitious, coordinated, peer-to-peer outreach effort that spans the SPP to improve market acceptance for wind.

  10. Nordic Regional Report; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper elaborates findings and discussions of 2013 Cluster Consultation Nordic Regional report. The countries have close economic and financial ties and face some common challenges and shared risks, such as large banking sectors and high household debt. The economic performance of the four continental Nordic economies (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden—Nordic-4) ranks among the advanced economic development circle. It is analyzed that the large Nordic banking systems su...

  11. Super magnets for interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biallas, G.; Fowler, W.; Diebold, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of using superconducting magnets in the beam interaction regions of particle accelerators is discussed. These higher field magnets can be shorter, leaving more room for detectors, but also must have a large aperture and magnetic shielding. The ''kissing geometry'' was investigated, and design and scaling considerations are given. A rough estimate of the cost of such superconducting magnets is given as an aid to the selection of interaction geometry

  12. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs

  13. Corporate Corruption in Russian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ledeneva, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    To understand corporate corruption in Russia and to develop both effective anti-corruption policies at the macro level and anti-corruption strategies at the firm level one has to move beyond the predominant paradigm and to disaggregate its measurement. This article outlines the results of a pilot survey of CEOs of leading companies operating in the Russian regions with regard to their use of informal practices.

  14. Structure of the human vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human...

  15. EPA Region 3 Quality Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has links to resources that describe the Region's Quality Assurance Program, which is a collection of the Region's ongoing quality assurance (QA) policies, procedures, responsibilities and management systems.

  16. Selected Regional Judicial Officer Cases, 2005 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains selected cases involving EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) from 2005 to present. EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) perform...

  17. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  18. Wind power in Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Ahm, P.; Madsen, B.; Krogsgaard, P.

    1993-07-01

    Arctic or semi-arctic regions are often endowed with wind resources adequate for a viable production of electricity from the wind. Only limited efforts have so far been spent to introduce and to demonstrate the obvious synergy of combining wind power technology with the problems and needs of electricity generation in Arctic regions. Several factors have created a gap preventing the wind power technology carrying its full role in this context, including a certain lack of familiarity with the technology on the part of the end-users, the local utilities and communities, and a lack of commonly agreed techniques to adapt the same technology for Arctic applications on the part of the manufacturers. This report is part of a project that intends to contribute to bridging this gap. The preliminary results of a survey conducted by the project are included in this report, which is a working document for an international seminar held on June 3-4, 1993, at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Following the seminar a final report will be published. It is intended that the final report will serve as a basis for a sustained, international effort to develop the wind power potential of the Arctic and semi-arctic regions. The project is carried out by a project group formed by Risoe, PA Energy and BTM Consult. The project is sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency of the Danish Ministry of Energy through grant no. ENS-51171/93-0008. (au)

  19. How to teach regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröking, Katrin; Waurick, René

    2006-10-01

    The demand for peripheral nerve blocks and neuroaxial blocks from both patients and surgeons has increased over the last few years. This change in attitude towards regional anesthesia is prompted by the insight that adequate perioperative pain management leads to earlier ambulation, shorter hospital stay, reduced cost and increased patient satisfaction. To avoid serious complications of these techniques structured residency programs need to be available. Until 2004, the Residency Review Committee for Anesthesiology in the United States required a minimum of 50 epidurals, 40 spinals and 40 peripheral nerve blocks during residency. Similarly, the German Society for Anesthesia and Intensive Care required 100 neuroaxial blocks and 50 peripheral nerve blocks. In 2004 the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine endorsed standardized guidelines for regional anesthesia fellowships which regulate the administrative, equipment and educational demands. This review introduces the reader to the different teaching methods available, including cadaver workshops, three-dimensional videoclips, video filming, ultrasound guidance and acoustic assist devices as well as demonstrating their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, an overview is given of future residency training programs, which integrate administrative, material and educative demands as well as the teaching means into the daily clinical routine.

  20. Insertion and crossing region design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Beloshitsky, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article is the summary of the 5-afternoon tutorial on insertions for circular machines. Roughly half the course (Part 1) was spent discussing interaction regions, We start by recapitulating basic beam optics including building blocks. This provides the tools to analyze the basic structure of interaction regions and explore the parameter space. This simple example is then successively refined and made more realistic. Examples of realized interaction regions for both hadron and electron machines are shown and their salient features and differences explained. A brief discussion of solenoid-decoupling brings Part 1 to a close. In Part 2 we discussed various utility sections. Dispersion suppressors are presented in detail discussing the principles as well as the practical implementation of flexible suppressors using LEP as an example. Injection schemes, both single-turn and multi-turn stacking, are presented in depth. The matching of wiggler and undulator insertions and a discussion of the impact of these devices on beam parameters closes out Part 2

  1. Regional hyperthermia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovich, Z.; Langholz, B.; Astrahan, M.; Emami, B.; Oleson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    From 1981 through 1986, 49 patients with metastatic liver tumors received deep regional hyperthermia in phase I protocols in six major medical centers in the United States. Adenocarcinoma was seen in 80% of patients with colon as the primary site in 26%. The remaining patients had the following histological diagnoses: Soft tissue sarcoma in seven, malignant melanoma in two and transitional cell carcinoma in one. Deep regional hyperthermia treatments with a BSD-1000 annular phased array were given once or twice a week with a total of 167 treatment sessions, mean 3.4 (range 1 to 8). In addition to deep regional hyperthermia, 17 patients received radiotherapy, and 14 received chemotherapy. The median survival for all patients was 25 weeks. Complete response was obtained in two patients and partial response in four patients. An additional ten patients had nominal response. There was no complete or partial response among the 14 hyperthermia alone treated patients. Of the 26 patients who presented with severe pain, five had complete pain relief, five had partial relief and the majority had a lesser degree of pain relief or no pain relief. Acute treatment toxicity consisted of pain in ten, systemic temperature increase to 39 0 C in four tachycardia in two, claustrophobia in one. The majority of patients did not experience acute toxicity. No late toxicity was recorded in this group of 49 patients. (orig./MG)

  2. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  3. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  4. Regional insertion: an emergent approach; Insercao regional: uma abordagem emergente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, M T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P do [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Meio Ambiente

    1990-12-31

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs.

  5. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  6. The politics of inter-regionalism: relations between international regional organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der; Ribeiro Hoffman, A.; Reinalda, B.

    2013-01-01

    As the development of relations between international regional organizations, inter-regionalism denotes a relatively recent phenomenon. Largely due to systemic bipolarity, inter-regional relations remained limited to 'dialogue partnerships' between the European Community (EC) and other regional

  7. A modification to the SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region method provides phylogenetic insights within Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae Una modificación al método SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region aporta entendimiento filogenético en Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships among closely related plant species are still problematic. DNA intergenic regions often are insufficiently variable to provide desired resolution or support. In this study, a modification to the Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR method was used to find polymorphic loci for phylogenetic analyses within Ceratozamia. RAPD markers were first used to detect variation in 5 species. Then, equal length fragments found in 2 or more species were excised from the gel, purified and digested with frequent cutter restriction enzymes for isolating both ends, which have the same primer site. Digested fragments were sequenced with the RAPD primer. Variable sequences were used to design specific primers for amplifying and sequencing in all species for phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirmed the previously known high genome sequence resemblance within this genus that contrasts with its high morphological variation. Only 7 parsimony informative characters were found with this approach. Nonetheless, the Digested-SCAR (D-SCAR method provided some phylogenetic insights. Four main clades consistent with distribution ranges of the species were detected. The approach presented here was effective to solve some relationships within the genus and can potentially be implemented in other organisms to find polymorphic loci for phylogenetic studies at any taxonomic level.Las relaciones filogenéticas entre especies de plantas cercanamente relacionadas es aún problemático. Las regiones intergénicas del ADN son a menudo insuficientemente variables para proveer los niveles de resolución y soporte deseados. En este estudio, se usó una modificación al método Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR para encontrar loci polimórficos para análisis filogenéticos en Ceratozamia. Primero se usaron marcadores RAPD para detectar variación en 5 especies; luego, se cortaron del gel los fragmentos de la misma longitud en 2 o m

  8. Assessment of homogeneity of regions for regional flood frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Nam Won

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzed the effect of rainfall on hydrological similarity, which is an important step for regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA). For the RFFA, storage function method (SFM) using spatial extension technique was applied for the 22 sub-catchments that are partitioned from Chungju dam watershed in Republic of Korea. We used the SFM to generate the annual maximum floods for 22 sub-catchments using annual maximum storm events (1986~2010) as input data. Then the quantiles of rainfall and flood were estimated using the annual maximum series for the 22 sub-catchments. Finally, spatial variations in terms of two quantiles were analyzed. As a result, there were significant correlation between spatial variations of the two quantiles. This result demonstrates that spatial variation of rainfall is an important factor to explain the homogeneity of regions when applying RFFA. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant (11-TI-C06) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  9. Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu; Klugman, Sofia; Henning, Dag; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO 2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO 2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO 2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios

  10. Prevalencia de anemia en gestantes, Hospital Regional de Pucallpa, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becerra César

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Las encuestas demográficas de salud y población del Perú indican que las tasas globales de fecundidad, la proporción de adolescentes embarazadas y la mortalidad maternoinfantil son más altas en la selva que en otras zonas del país. Las parasitosis intestinales endémicas agravan el riesgo de anemia ya generalmente presente en las embarazadas por deficiencias de hierro, ácido fólico y otros nutrientes. En muchos países latinoamericanos, esa es la complicación más frecuente del embarazo y está asociada con partos pretérmino, bajo peso al nacer y mortalidad perinatal. Los estudios realizados sobre este tema en la selva peruana son escasos y no se dispone de estimaciones confiables de la prevalencia de anemia durante la gestación. Los autores se propusieron determinar la prevalencia de anemia en mujeres gestantes que acudían al Hospital Regional de Pucallpa, en la selva del Perú, entre enero de 1993 y junio de 1995. El estudio de corte transversal se basó en los registros de control prenatal y de parto de 1 015 embarazadas y permitió estudiar la asociación entre la prevalencia de anemia y variables como edad cronológica, escolaridad, número de gestaciones previas y peso de la madre al inicio del embarazo. También se compararon los valores de la hemoglobina materna con el peso de los recién nacidos. La prevalencia de anemia en la población de gestantes fue de 70,1%, valor que no se modificó por efecto de la edad materna, la escolaridad ni el intervalo intergenésico. La prevalencia de anemia se asoció directamente con el número de gestaciones e inversamente con la ganancia de peso durante el embarazo. La tasa de mortalidad perinatal fue de 37,7 por 1 000 nacidos. Ni esta tasa ni el peso de los recién nacidos resultaron asociados con el grado de anemia de la madre. El análisis de regresión multivariado muestra que el peso de la madre al inicio de la gestación (P = 0,0001, el peso ganado durante la gestación (P = 0

  11. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  12. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  13. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  14. 5. Regional focus: Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livernash, R.; Levy, B.S.; Hertzman, C.

    1992-01-01

    The industrial regions of Central Europe are so choked by pollution that the health of children is impaired and the lives of adults shortened. The paper discusses this situation under the following headings: industrial development and energy efficiency; dependence on coal; the extent of the damage (atmospheric pollution: low stacks, auto emissions; water pollution (agricultural sources); forest and soil damage; transboundary pollution); managing market forces (impact of higher prices, managing growth: the case of motor vehicles); looking for least-cost solutions (coping with coal, adjusting the fuel mix, energy conservation); developing effective laws and regulations

  15. REGIONAL JUSTICE AND NATIONAL UNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Loguinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In regions of Russia who lag behind the national average both in pay and in economic development, the problem of raising living standards should be solved through a nation-wide program which would be believed by peoples of Russia regardless of ethnicity. It should include creation of jobs, leveling of wages, abolition of fees for education and for a significant portion of health services, reducing utility tariffs and prices for public transportation, introduction of an income-based progressive taxation system, improving law enforcement activities, etc. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of macroeconomic indicators of Russian economy in recent years.

  16. Radiotherapy in the maxillofacial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdellmann, H.; Otten, J.E.; Lachard, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapeutic treatment of patients with tumours in the oral, perignathic, facial, and neck region can lead to considerable complications under irradiation and any time after irradiation if dental aspects are not considered. A dental treatment should therefore be planned in close cooperation with a dental-, oral-, and orthodontic centre before starting radiotherapy. In many cases, a preparing treatment is not possible for important reasons. Therefore, it is very important that patients who are being or have been treated with radiation are dealt with extremely carefully. (orig.) [de

  17. Regional insertion: an emergent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, M.T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P. do

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs

  18. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy

    The 27th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, held September 25 and 26, 1980, was hosted by the Pacific Geoscience Centre at the Institute of Ocean Sciences, near Victoria, British Columbia. A total of 79 papers was presented to the 150 registrants in six general sessions: seismology; electromagnetic induction; general geophysics; volcanology; hydrology; and oceanography, and in three special symposia: ‘The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and other active faults of the Pacific Northwest’ ‘Coastal circulation in the northeast Pacific’ and ‘Studies of the eruption of Mount St. Helens.’

  19. Regional Cluster’s development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladut, G.

    2016-07-01

    The European Commission aims to ensure coherence between environmental, climate, energy and industrial policy to create optimal business environments for sustainable growth and innovations, in a way that enhances the competitiveness of European industry, while moving towards a more resource efficient, circular economy. Sustainability needs to be mainstreamed into all areas of industrial policy to help European businesses to unlock first mover advantage and gain a competitive edge. The Dorothy project is inspired by the contents of the “Flagship Initiative for a resource-efficient Europe under the Europe 2020 strategy”. The Dorothy Project is targeted to develop the potential of innovation and research in the four Regions composing the Consortium in the field of Urban Logistics, which represent the specific application topic of the proposal, and is one of the main focuses of attention of the Flagship Initiative. The industrial environnent is the main actor on the research and innovation regional driven Clusters The Dorothy project has achieved the result of setting up three Regional Innovation Clusters in: Valencia – Spain, Lisbon – Portugal and Craiova – Romania, under the mentoring action of the already existing Tuscany Cluster in Firenze. They operate in the field of Urban Logistics. This achievement must be made durable in time and the cooperation among the Dorothy Clusters must be ensured over the time after the end of the project. For this reason, among the other activities carried out by the project, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) have been defined and signed among the four Clusters in form of a multilateral and mutual agreement among them. This paper explain the contents and the importance in the JAP – Joint Action Plan, of the thematic area 3 about regional clusters development, the target of the overall Thematic Area, why has been chosen as a Thematic Area, shortly remind the actions that are contained in the Thematic Area. The action

  20. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  1. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  2. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must be...

  3. Handwriting Moroccan regions recognition using Tifinagh character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. El Kessab

    2015-09-01

    In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh regions composed of 1600 image (100 Image for each region. The dataset can be used in one hand to test the efficiency of the Tifinagh region recognition system in extraction of characteristics significatives and the correct identification of each region in classification phase in the other hand.

  4. Full institutionalisation of regionalism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Wilgaard; Galland, Daniel

    As an ism referring to “political movements which demand greater control over the affairs of the regional territory by the people residing in that territory” (Keating, 1997:5), regionalism has influenced policy makers on EU, national, and regional levels to denote regions the intrinsic role...... (Halkier, 2008: 2). This understanding of regionalism as a process of institutionalisation corresponds with Mansfield & Solingen’s definition on regionalism as a process of institution creation … marked by cooperation and policy coordination. Thus, regionalism is a process that engages actors (2010: 146...

  5. Regional Policies For Social Housing. An experience in Regione Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Trombetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social housing is again a dynamic sector of construction. European «cohesion» and «convergence» programs aim to promote Mediterranean housing in order to improve competitiveness, innovation and employment in under-developed regions. The whole SH planning and implementing process implies criticalities that often damage local initiatives. This study of the Calabria Case has pointed out that both public and private entrepreneurs perceive the cumbersome requirements and procedures as ‘unfriendly’ and tend to renounce the incentives. Process management information instruments together with simpler evaluation and certification systems seem to encourage suitable and flexible solutions, reliable results as well as transparency and quality of action.

  6. Surface compositions in the Aristarchus Region: Implications for regional stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, H. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectra for the Aristachus region, obtained using the 2.2m UH telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, were reduced and analyzed. The spectra obtained for the central peak, southern floor, southwestern wall, eastern wall, and northwestern wall of Aristachus crater exhibit shallow continuum slopes, relatively strong feldspar bands, pyroxene bands stronger than those typically seen in the spectra of fresh higland features, and pyroxene band centers near l micrometer suggesting the dominance of Ca rich clinopyroxene. The spectrum of the south rim of Aristachus is quite distinct from those of other crater units. The position of Aristrchus on the plateau/mare boundary raises questions concerning compositional variations in crater ejects deposits.

  7. A region addresses patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  8. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  9. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  10. Reactor power region measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwa, Takao.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention can rapidly detect abnormality of a local power region monitor (LPRM) even at a low power region caused such as upon start-up of a BWR type reactor. Namely, the present invention comprises (1) an LPRM detector for measuring neutron fluxes in the reactor, (2) a gamma thermo detector for calibrating the sensitivity of the LPRM detector, (3) a comparison circuit for comparing the detected values of the detectors (1) and (2), and (4) an alarm circuit for outputting an alarm when the comparative difference of the output of the circuit (3) exceeds a predetermined value. Signals of an alarm for a lower limit of the LPRM detector have been issued continuously upon start-up and shut down of the reactor since neutron fluxes in the reactor are reduced. However, the gamma thermo detector is always secured in the inside of the reactor different from a travelling-type incore probe monitor (TIP) disposed so far for the same purpose. Accordingly, the alarm generated upon usual start-up can be eliminated by comparing the detected values of the detector (2) and abnormality of the detector (1) can be rapidly detected by judging the abnormality of the comparative difference. (I.S.)

  11. Regional systems of innovation: an evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    P Cooke; M G Uranga; G Etxebarria

    1998-01-01

    The authors develop the concept of regional systems of innovation and relate it to preexisting research on national systems of innovation. They argue that work conducted in the 'new regional science' field is complementary to systems of innovation approaches. They seek to link new regional work to evolutionary economics, and argue for the development of evolutionary regional science. Common elements of interest to evolutionary innovation research and new regional science are important in unde...

  12. Regional Multinationals and the Korean Comestics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hoon Oh; Alan M. Rugman

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the market penetration and expansion strategy of cosmetics and toiletries multinational enterprises (MNEs) in South Korea from the perspective of regional strategy as developed recently by Rugman. We find that MNEs have different market entry and expansion strategies in the home region and in the foreign region. Home region MNEs (Japanese MNEs in this case), in general, utilize their firm-specific advantages (FSAs) better than foreign region MNEs (European and MNEs from th...

  13. Governing development of regions- case of Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Bauer; Jana Knezova; Andrej Steiner

    2014-01-01

    Dynamism of development and competiveness of regions, as spatially and administratively defined units, depend not only on their natural, economic, social, and territorial potential but also on quality of regional development governance. At the time of creation of the regional level of territorial management in Slovakia there was expected that by introducing this new governance level the regional governments would become strong players in the field of regional development policy and provide su...

  14. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  15. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  16. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  17. Development of regional growth centres and impact on regional growth: A case study of Thailand’s Northeastern region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapon Sang-arun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the spatial economic structure and inequality in Thailand at the national and regional levels, with a particular focus on the Northeastern region in the period from 1987 to 2007. The study has three main points: 1 examination of the economic structure and inequality at the national level and in the Northeastern region according to the Theil index, 2 determination of regional growth centres and satellite towns by using growth pole theory as a conceptual framework and incorporating spatial interaction analysis and 3 analysis of the relationship between regional growth centres and satellite towns with regard to the impact on growth and inequality. The results show that the Northeastern region is definitely the lagging region in the nation, by both gross domestic product (GDP and gross regional product (GRP per capita. It was therefore selected for a case study. Spatial analysis identified Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Udon Thani and Ubon Ratchathani as regional growth centres. Each of them has its own sphere of influence (or satellite towns, and the total area of regional growth centres and satellite towns are classified as sub-regions. The development of regional growth centres has a direct impact on sub-regional economic growth through economic and social relationships: urbanisation, industrial development, per capita growth, the number of higher educational institutes and so on. However, such growth negatively correlates with economic equality among the provinces in a sub-region. The inequality trend is obviously on an upswing. This study suggests that industrial links between regional growth centres and their satellite towns should be improved in order for regional growth centre development to have a consistently desirable effect on both economic growth and equality. Such a strong process means that the growth of regional growth centres will spread, leading to the development of their surrounding areas.

  18. Regional Test Center Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. DOE Regional Test Center for Solar Technologies program was established to validate photovoltaic (PV) technologies installed in a range of different climates. The program is funded by the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative. The initiative seeks to make solar energy cost competitive with other forms of electricity by the end of the decade. Sandia National Laboratory currently manages four different sites across the country. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages a fifth site in Colorado. The entire PV portfolio currently includes 20 industry partners and almost 500 kW of installed systems. The program follows a defined process that outlines tasks, milestones, agreements, and deliverables. The process is broken out into four main parts: 1) planning and design, 2) installation, 3) operations, and 4) decommissioning. This operations manual defines the various elements of each part.

  19. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area.

  20. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...