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Sample records for scots pine shoots

  1. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  2. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The intracellular Scots pine shoot symbiont Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 aggregates around the host nucleus and encodes eukaryote-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimäki, Janne J; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Halonen, Outi; Frank, A Carolin

    2015-03-24

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit plant tissues without any apparent signs of infection, often fundamentally altering plant phenotypes. While endophytes are typically studied in plant roots, where they colonize the apoplast or dead cells, Methylobacterium extorquens strain DSM13060 is a facultatively intracellular symbiont of the meristematic cells of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot tips. The bacterium promotes host growth and development without the production of known plant growth-stimulating factors. Our objective was to examine intracellular colonization by M. extorquens DSM13060 of Scots pine and sequence its genome to identify novel molecular mechanisms potentially involved in intracellular colonization and plant growth promotion. Reporter construct analysis of known growth promotion genes demonstrated that these were only weakly active inside the plant or not expressed at all. We found that bacterial cells accumulate near the nucleus in intact, living pine cells, pointing to host nuclear processes as the target of the symbiont's activity. Genome analysis identified a set of eukaryote-like functions that are common as effectors in intracellular bacterial pathogens, supporting the notion of intracellular bacterial activity. These include ankyrin repeats, transcription factors, and host-defense silencing functions and may be secreted by a recently imported type IV secretion system. Potential factors involved in host growth include three copies of phospholipase A2, an enzyme that is rare in bacteria but implicated in a range of plant cellular processes, and proteins putatively involved in gibberellin biosynthesis. Our results describe a novel endophytic niche and create a foundation for postgenomic studies of a symbiosis with potential applications in forestry and agriculture. All multicellular eukaryotes host communities of essential microbes, but most of these interactions are still poorly understood. In plants, bacterial endophytes are found inside

  4. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  5. Increased needle nitrogen contents did not improve shoot photosynthetic performance of mature nitrogen-poor Scots pine trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Tarvainen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modelling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar P deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute towards lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises

  6. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  7. Caledonian scots pine: origins and genetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B Kinloch; R. D. Westfall; G. I. Forrest

    1986-01-01

    Monoterpene and isozyme loci, used as markers to study the genetic structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native to Scotland, showed that the endemic populations are not genetically impoverished, in spite of severe contraction in range and numbers as a result of both natural and anthropogenic causes. On the contrary, variability in the relict...

  8. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the

  9. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  10. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity, using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  11. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Pertti; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Noe, Steffen; Petäjä, Tuukka; Vanhatalo, Anni; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity), using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  12. Damage by pathogens and insects to Scots pine and lodgepole pine 25 years after reciprocal plantings in Canada and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A combined species - provenance - family experiment with Scots pine and lodgepole pine was planted in Canada and Sweden. One aim of the experiment was to evaluate the two species' sensitivities to pathogens and insects 25 years after establishment in their non-native continents. In Canada, Scots pine had better average survival than lodgepole pine, but survival rates among trees from the best seed-lots were equal. In Canada only western gall rust infected Scots pine to some extent, and mounta...

  13. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence

  14. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  15. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  16. Possibilities of the chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.

    1999-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a good bio indicator. This species is widely distributed in Europe, including Latvia, is easily identified, and is used in bio indication studies. It is known that the concentrations of most elements in needles change with time. These changes are connected to the processes involved in the uptake, transportation, storage and retranslocation of the elements. Scots pine keeps their needles for several years (3 to 4 years) and are suitable for the study of time related processes. The chemical composition of pine needles is used for the study the deposition and impact of air pollutants. Coniferous needles are covered with epicuticular wax, which act as a trap for airborne deposits. A comparison of chemical composition of pine needles that were unwashed and washed with chloroform made it possible to distinguish which elements were on the needles and to evaluate the character of pollution. The most important stage of the analysis of pine needles is sampling. Nutrient concentrations in the needles of coniferous trees have been shown to vary with the needle age and tree age, the phase of the annual physiological cycle, availability of nutrients in the soil and needle position within the crown. It is very important to take representative sample for the analysis. In the current work the trace element concentrations of the single needle were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and total reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF). The results of analysis showed that concentration of some elements depends from the position of needle within branch for the same needle age class. The concentrations of trace elements in the single needles within main shoot were more or less constant compare with other order shoots at given needle age class. Some higher variations in the elemental concentrations between single needles were observed in the tip part of main shoot. The actual distribution of the elements within a needle has

  17. Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iason, Glenn R.; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Brewer, Mark J.; Summers, Ron W.; Moore, Ben D.

    2011-01-01

    A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different compounds acting as defences against high-impact herbivores operating at different life stages. We also hypothesize that pairwise coevolution, with uncorrelated interactions, is more likely to result in greater PSM diversity, than diffuse coevolution. We tested whether up to 13 different monoterpenes in Scots pine were inhibitory to herbivory by slugs (Arion ater), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), each of which attack trees at a different life stage. Plants containing more α-pinene were avoided by both slugs and capercaillie, which may act as reinforcing selective agents for this dominant defensive compound. Herbivory by red deer and capercaillie were, respectively, weakly negatively associated with δ3-carene, and strongly negatively correlated with the minor compound β-ocimene. Three of the four herbivores are probably contributory selective agents on some of the terpenes, and thus maintain some, but by no means all, of the phytochemical diversity in the species. The correlated defensive function of α-pinene against slugs and capercaillie is consistent with diffuse coevolutionary processes. PMID:21444308

  18. Relations between Scots pine needle element concentrations and decreased needle longevity along pollution gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamppu, Jukka; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Deceased needle longevity was related to increased heavy metal concentrations. - Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots were sampled along transects near one urban pollution source and two smelters. Needle Mg, P and K concentrations decreased from the second to the fourth age class linearly with needle survival along the urban pollution gradient. Still, over 80% of the average concentration of these nutrients remained in the fourth needle age class. Decreased needle longevity was closely related to the increased heavy metal concentrations near the smelters. Near the urban pollution source, it was related to the increased annual needle mass and the increased needle nutrient concentrations. Decreased Mn accumulation along with needle age was detected near all pollution sources. Leaching of Mn from needles and especially from soil as a cause of decreased needle concentrations is discussed

  19. Pine weevil feeding in Scots pine and Norway spruce regenerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Damage caused by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L) feeding on conifer seedlings is a major problem in reforested areas in many parts of Europe. The adult weevil feeds on the stem-bark of young seedlings, frequently killing a large proportion of newly planted seedlings. The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to investigate whether additional food supplies could decrease the damage caused by pine weevil to seedlings, and to determine whether access to extra food might explain w...

  20. The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90 ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  1. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  2. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman; Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood

  3. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman, E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Forest Industry Engineering Department, Faculty of Forestry, Bursa Technical University, 16200 Bursa (Turkey); Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez [Interior Architecture Department, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood.

  4. Effects of drought and irrigation on ecosystem functioning in a mature Scots pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Brunner, Ivano; Egli, Simon; Eilmann, Britta; Graf Pannatier, Eisabeth; Schleppi, Patrick; Zingg, Andreas; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperature and reduce summer precipitation in Switzerland. To study the expected effects of increased drought in mature forests two different approaches are in general possible: water can be partially or completely removed from the ecosystems via above- or below-canopy roofs or water can be added to already drought-prone ecosystems. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. In our study water was added to a mature 90-year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest with a few singe pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.), located in the valley bottom of the driest region of Switzerland (Valais). In Valais, Scots pines are declining, usually with increased mortality rates following drought years. It was therefore of special interest to study here how water addition is changing forest ecosystem functioning. The irrigation experiment started in the summer of 2003. Out of eight 0.1 ha experimental plots, four were randomly selected for irrigation, the other four left as a control. Irrigation occurred during rainless nights between April and October, doubling the annual rainfall amount from 650 to 1300 mm. Irrigation water, taken from a near-by irrigation channel, added some nutrients to the plots, but nutrients which were deficient on the site, e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus, were not altered. Tree diameter, tree height and crown width were assessed before the start of the irrigation in winter 2002/2003 and after 7 years of the experiment in 2009/2010. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Additionally, tree mortality was annually evaluated. Mycorrhizal fruit bodies were identified and counted at weekly intervals from 2003 until 2007. Root samples were taken in 2004 and 2005. In 2004 and 2005 wood formation of thirteen trees was analysed in weekly or biweekly intervals using the pinning method. These trees were felled in 2006 for stem, shoot and needle growth analysis

  5. Impact of warming, moderate nitrogen addition and bark herbivory on BVOC emissions and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiiva, Päivi; Häikiö, Elina; Kasurinen, Anne

    2018-04-10

    The changing climate will expose boreal forests to rising temperatures, increasing soil nitrogen (N) levels and an increasing risk of herbivory. The single and interaction effects of warming (+2 °C increase), moderate N addition (30 kg ha-1 year-1) and bark herbivory by large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) on growth and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were studied in growth chambers over 175 days. In addition, warming and N addition effects on shoot net photosynthesis (Pn) were measured. Nitrogen addition increased both shoot and root dry weights, whereas warming, in combination with herbivory, reduced stem height growth. Warming together with N addition increased current-year shoot Pn, whereas N effects on previous-year shoot Pn were variable over time. Warming decreased non-oxygenated monoterpene (MT) emissions in June and increased them in July. Of individual MT compounds, α-pinene, δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene were among the most frequently responsive compounds in warming treatments in the May-July period. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed only from warming treatments in July. Moderate N addition increased oxygenated monoterpenes in May, and MTs in June and September. However, N addition effect on MTs in June was clearer without warming than with warming. Bark herbivory tended to increase MT emissions in combination with warming and N addition 3 weeks after the damage caused by weevils. Of individual compounds in other BVOC blends, herbivory increased the emissions of methyl-benzene, benzene and hexanal in July. Hence, though both warming and N addition have a potential to change BVOC emissions from Scots pines, the N effect may also be partly cancelled by warming. Furthermore, herbivory pressure in combination with climate warming and N addition may, at least periodically, increase BVOC release to the atmosphere from young Scots pine seedlings.

  6. Afforestation in Serbia in the period 1961-2007 with special reference to Austrian pine and Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of afforestation in Serbia is high because only in this way the forest area can be increased and brought to the level which corresponds to the demands of the population. This is also indicated by the content of some documents, such as 'Professional base for the design of the National Forest Action Programme', which emphasises this problem from the very beginning. Special significance is assigned to afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, which are most frequently applied in the afforestation of the most unfavourable terrains. This study analyses the scope of afforestation over the period 1961-2007, the percentage of Austrian pine and Scots pine and the relationship of the afforested areas, and generates the forecasts of the changes in the future period. In this way, the socialeconomic significance of afforestation can be assessed from the aspect of satisfying the objectives of forest policy, and particularly of afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, as the specific tree species.

  7. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, P Yu; Geras'kin, S A; Horemans, N; Makarenko, E S; Saenen, E; Duarte, G T; Nauts, R; Bondarenko, V S; Jacobs, G; Voorspoels, S; Kudin, M

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Four different Phytophthora species that are able to infect Scots pine seedlings in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate susceptibility of young Scots pine seedlings to four Phytophthora species: Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora pini; seven-day-old seedlings of Scots pine (15 seedlings per experiment were infected using agar plugs of the respective species. Control group also consisted of 15 seedlings and was inoculated with sterile agar plugs. Results unambiguously show that after 4.5 days, all seedlings show clear signs of infection and display severe symptoms of tissue damage and necrosis. Moreover, three and two seedlings in the P. cactorum and P. cambivora infected seedlings groups, respectively, collapsed. The length of largest necrosis measured 13.4±3.90 mm and was caused by P. cactorum. To rule out any putative contamination or infection by secondary pathogens, re-isolations of pathogens from infection sites were performed and were positive in 100% of plated pieces of infected seedlings. All re-isolations were, however, negative in the case of the control group. Detailed microscopic analyses of infected tissues of young seedlings confirmed the presence of numerous Phytophthora species inside and on the surface of infected seedlings. Therefore, our results suggest Phytophthora spp. and mainly P. cactorum and P. cambivora as aggressive pathogens of Scots pine seedlings and highlight a putative involvement of these species in the damping off of young Scots pine seedlings frequently observed in forest nurseries.

  9. Early field performance of drought-stressed scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulac, S.; Clcek, E.; Tasdemir, U.

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a large natural distribution throughout the world, including semi-arid areas of Turkey, where it is being used for afforestation. Determining the drought resistance of Scots pine provenances can increase the success of afforestation efforts in semi-arid regions. In the first stage of this study, water-stress treatments were applied to ten provenances of one-year-old Scots pine seedlings in their second vegetation period (between April and November). The diameter and height of the seedlings were evaluated in the nursery in order to determine their morphology. The four drought-stress treatments consisted of once-weekly irrigation (IR1), twice-weekly irrigation (IR2-Control), biweekly irrigation (IR3) and open field conditions (IR4). Later, the water-stressed seedlings were planted in a semi-arid district in Bayburt, Turkey, and their survival and growth performances were evaluated over a five-year period. The nursery study showed that drought stress and provenance as well as the interaction of the two significantly affected the morphological characteristics of the seedlings. Under water-stress conditions, the best growth performance was found in the Dokurcun, Degirmendere and Dirgine provenance seedlings. Water-stress and provenance factors and their interaction also affected the open field performance of the seedlings, where the Degirmendere, Dirgine and Dokurcun provenances again exhibited the best performance. Consequently, these Scots pine provenances can be recommended for afforestation sites having conditions similar to those of the study site. (author)

  10. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ

  11. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  12. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Seidel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index. Both indices were derived from infrared images during a six-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland. In pines from the Spanish and Bulgarian provenances, the stress level differences were significantly lower than in continental pines. Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  13. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  14. Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of fertilized Scots pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsholm, T; Ericsson, A

    1990-09-01

    Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of 30-year-old, fertilized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in Northern Sweden were investigated over two years in field experiments. The studied plots had been fertilized annually for 17 years with (i) a high level of N, (ii) a medium level of N, or (iii) a medium level of N, P and K. Trees growing on unfertilized plots served as controls. In control trees, glutamine, glutamic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, aspartic acid and proline represented 50-70% of the total free amino acids determined. Arginine was present only in low concentrations in control trees throughout the year, but it was usually the most abundant amino acid in fertilized trees. Glutamine concentrations were high during the spring and summer in both years of study, whereas proline concentrations were high in the spring but otherwise low throughout the year. In the first year of study, glutamic acid concentrations were high during the spring and summer, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid was present in high concentrations during the winter months. This pattern was less pronounced in the second year of investigation. The concentrations of most amino acids, except glutamic acid, increased in response to fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the foliar concentration of arginine from trees to a maximum of 110 micromol g(dw) (-1). Trees fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium had significantly lower arginine concentrations than trees fertilized with the same amount of nitrogen only. Protein concentrations were similar in all fertilized trees but higher than those in control trees. For all treatments, protein concentrations were high in winter and at a minimum in early spring. In summer, the protein concentration remained almost constant except for a temporary decrease which coincided with the expansion of new shoots. Apart from arginine, the amino acid composition of proteins was similar in all

  15. The longitudinal distribution of elements in developing and aging scots pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.; Helmisaari, H.S.; Standzenieks, P.; Lindgren, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    EDXRF measurements were made continuously at only a few mm distance along the needle length (Viksna et. al. 1999). Needles for the scanning EDXRF measurements were sampled in 1997 from mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees at Jugla, a relatively unpolluted site (56 0 56? N, 24 0 26?) E in Latvia. Six 25-year-old trees (mean diameter 16.6 cm, mean height 6.6 m, stand basal area 4.8 m 2 ha -1 , stem volume 13.5 m 3 ha -1 , 220 trees ha -1 ) were randomly chosen for sample trees. The branch chosen for sampling from each tree was situated at the height of five meters from the ground and on southern side of the canopy. At every sampling time, one needle from the middle of the main shoot was chosen for analysis, and transported to the laboratory in a plastic bag. Needle sampling were started in late June when the developing needles were only 10 mm long. By early August the needles had reached their maximum length. After maturation, needles were still sampled two more growing seasons until early November, 2.5 years after needle initiation. The longitudinal distribution of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Br, Rb and Sr in the developing and aging single pine needles is discussed. (authors)

  16. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  17. Vegetation diversity of the Scots pine stands in different forest sites in the Turawa Forest District

    OpenAIRE

    Stefańska-Krzaczek, Ewa; Pech, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The utility of phytocenotic indices in the diagnosis and classification of forest sites might be limited because of vegetation degeneration in managed forests. However, even in secondary communities it may be possible to determine indicator species, although these may differ from typical and well known plant indicators. The aim of this work was to assess the vegetation diversity of Scots pine stands in representative forest site types along a moisture and fertility gradient. In total ...

  18. Ectomycorrhizal community structure of different genotypes of Scots pine under forest nursery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz; Aucina, Algis; Skridaila, Audrius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepsas, Edvardas; Rudawska, Maria

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of Scots pine genotypes on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community and growth, survival, and foliar nutrient composition of 2-year-old seedlings grown in forest bare-root nursery conditions in Lithuania. The Scots pine seeds originated from five stands from Latvia (P1), Lithuania (P2 and P3), Belarus (P4), and Poland (P5). Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus and Suillus variegatus (within the Suilloid type), Wilcoxina mikolae, Tuber sp., Thelephora terrestris, Cenococcum geophilum, and Russuloid type. The fungal species richness varied between five and seven morphotypes, depending on seed origin. The average species richness and relative abundance of most ECM morphotypes differed significantly depending on pine origin. The most essential finding of our study is the shift in dominance from an ascomycetous fungus like W. mikolae in P2 and P4 seedlings to basidiomycetous Suilloid species like S. luteus and S. variegatus in P1 and P5 seedlings. Significant differences between Scots pine origin were also found in seedling height, root dry weight, survival, and concentration of C, K, Ca, and Mg in the needles. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient revealed that survival and nutritional status of pine seedlings were positively correlated with abundance of Suilloid mycorrhizas and negatively linked with W. mikolae abundance. However, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only survival and magnesium content in pine needles were significantly correlated with abundance of ECM fungi, and Suilloid mycorrhizas were a main significant predictor. Our results may have implications for understanding the physiological and genetic relationship between the host tree and fungi and should be considered in management decisions in forestry and ECM fungus inoculation programs.

  19. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V A [Siberian State Technological University, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: GAIvanova@ksc.krasn.r [National Institute of Aerospace, Resident at NASA Langley Research Center, MS 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  20. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A; Ivanov, V A; Soja, A J

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  1. Analysis, pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of different fractions of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Forestry residues consisting of softwood are a major lignocellulosic resource for production of liquid biofuels. Scots pine, a commercially important forest tree, was fractionated into seven fractions of chips: juvenile heartwood, mature heartwood, juvenile sapwood, mature sapwood, bark, top parts, and knotwood. The different fractions were characterized analytically with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Results All fractions were characterized by a high glucan content (38-43%) and a high content of other carbohydrates (11-14% mannan, 2-4% galactan) that generate easily convertible hexose sugars, and by a low content of inorganic material (0.2-0.9% ash). The lignin content was relatively uniform (27-32%) and the syringyl-guaiacyl ratio of the different fractions were within the range 0.021-0.025. The knotwood had a high content of extractives (9%) compared to the other fractions. The effects of pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were relatively similar, but without pretreatment the bark fraction was considerably more susceptible to enzymatic saccharification. Conclusions Since sawn timber is a main product from softwood species such as Scots pine, it is an important issue whether different parts of the tree are equally suitable for bioconversion processes. The investigation shows that bioconversion of Scots pine is facilitated by that most of the different fractions exhibit relatively similar properties with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to techniques used for bioconversion of woody biomass. PMID:24641769

  2. Role of de novo biosynthesis in ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taipale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine have traditionally been assumed to originate as evaporation from specialized storage pools. More recently, the significance of de novo emissions, originating directly from monoterpene biosynthesis, has been recognized. To study the role of biosynthesis at the ecosystem scale, we measured monoterpene emissions from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The interpretation of the measurements was based on a correlation analysis and a hybrid emission algorithm describing both de novo and pool emissions. During the measurement period May–August 2007, the monthly medians of daytime emissions were 200, 290, 180, and 200 μg m−2 h−1. The emissions were partly light dependent, probably due to de novo biosynthesis. The emission potential for both de novo and pool emissions exhibited a decreasing summertime trend. The ratio of the de novo emission potential to the total emission potential varied between 30 % and 46 %. Although the monthly changes were not significant, the ratio always differed statistically from zero, suggesting that the role of de novo biosynthesis was observable. Given the uncertainties in this study, we conclude that more accurate estimates of the contribution of de novo emissions are required for improving monoterpene emission algorithms for Scots pine dominated forests.

  3. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, P.Yu.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Horemans, N.; Makarenko, E.S.; Saenen, E.; Duarte, G.T.; Nauts, R.; Bondarenko, V.S.; Jacobs, G.; Voorspoels, S.; Kudin, M.

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. - Highlights: • Chronic radiation exposure changes the genetic structure of plant populations. • Genomes of irradiated pines are hypermethylated. • The level of hypermethylation does not depend on annual dose. - These results indicate that even relatively low levels of chronic radiation exposure can influence on the genetic characteristics and the methylation status of natural pine populations and that it should be considered as an important ecological factor reflecting the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems.

  4. Know your limits? Climate extremes impact the range of Scots pine in unexpected places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio Camarero, J; Gazol, Antonio; Sancho-Benages, Santiago; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Although extreme climatic events such as drought are known to modify forest dynamics by triggering tree dieback, the impact of extreme cold events, especially at the low-latitude margin ('rear edge') of species distributional ranges, has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of one such extreme cold event on a population of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) along the species' European southern rear-edge range limit and to determine how such events can be incorporated into species distribution models (SDMs). A combination of dendrochronology and field observation was used to quantify how an extreme cold event in 2001 in eastern Spain affected growth, needle loss and mortality of Scots pine. Long-term European climatic data sets were used to contextualize the severity of the 2001 event, and an SDM for Scots pine in Europe was used to predict climatic range limits. The 2001 winter reached record minimum temperatures (equivalent to the maximum European-wide diurnal ranges) and, for trees already stressed by a preceding dry summer and autumn, this caused dieback and large-scale mortality. Needle loss and mortality were particularly evident in south-facing sites, where post-event recovery was greatly reduced. The SDM predicted European Scots pine distribution mainly on the basis of responses to maximum and minimum monthly temperatures, but in comparison with this the observed effects of the 2001 cold event at the southerly edge of the range limit were unforeseen. The results suggest that in order to better forecast how anthropogenic climate change might affect future forest distributions, distribution modelling techniques such as SDMs must incorporate climatic extremes. For Scots pine, this study shows that the effects of cold extremes should be included across the entire distribution margin, including the southern 'rear edge', in order to avoid biased predictions based solely on warmer climatic scenarios. © The Author 2015. Published by

  5. Differential response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of red and far-red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Abdur; Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Strand, Åsa; García-Gil, M R

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the response to increasing intensity of red (R) and far-R (FR) light and to a decrease in R:FR ratio in Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) seedling. The results showed that FR high-irradiance response for hypocotyl elongation may be present in Scots pine and that this response is enhanced by increasing light intensity. However, both hypocotyl inhibition and pigment accumulation were more strongly affected by the R light compared with FR light. This is in contrast to previous reports in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In the angiosperm, A. thaliana R light shows an overall milder effect on inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and on pigment biosynthesis compared with FR suggesting conifers and angiosperms respond very differently to the different light regimes. Scots pine shade avoidance syndrome with longer hypocotyls, shorter cotyledons and lower chlorophyll content in response to shade conditions resembles the response observed in A. thaliana. However, anthocyanin accumulation increased with shade in Scots pine, which again differs from what is known in angiosperms. Overall, the response of seedling development and physiology to R and FR light in Scots pine indicates that the regulatory mechanism for light response may differ between gymnosperms and angiosperms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Sergey; Kuzmina, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 down to 2 degree Celsius. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed. Eniseysk and Vikhorevka (from Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk oblast)provenances of pine have the biggest radial increments, the least sensitivity to Cenangium dieback and smallest increments decline. These climatypes are in the group of perspective provenances and in present time they are recommended for wide trial in the region for future use in plantation forest growing. Kandalaksha (Murmansk oblast

  7. Wood anatomical parameters of lowland European oak and Scots pine as proxies for climate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzategui, Daniel; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Helle, Gerd; Heinrich, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions from the temperate lowlands worldwide are largely missing due to diffuse climate signals so far found in tree-ring widths. This motivated us to concentrate our efforts on the wood anatomies of two common European tree species, the European oak (Quercus robur) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We combined core samples of living trees with archaeological wood from northern Germany and Poland. We measured approx. 46,000 earlywood oak vessels of 34 trees covering the period AD 1500 to 2016 and approx. 7.5 million pine tracheid cells of 41 trees covering the period AD 1300 to 2010. First climate growth analyses indicate that both oak earlywood vessel and pine tracheid parameters contain climate signals which are different and more significant than those found in tree-ring widths. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed at EGU for the first time.

  8. Mistletoe (Viscum album) infestation in the Scots pine stimulates drought-dependent oxidative damage in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Salih; Ilhan, Veli; Turkoglu, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the detrimental effect of the mistletoe (Viscum albumL.), a hemiparasitic plant, on the mortality of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.). Fieldwork was conducted in the town of Kelkit (Gumushane province, Turkey) from April to October in 2013. Pine needles of similar ages were removed from the branches of mistletoe-infested and noninfested Scots pine plants, then transported to the laboratory and used as research materials. The effects of the mistletoe on the Scots pine during infestation were evaluated by determining the levels of water, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA, being a product of lipid peroxidation) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2 (-•)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). In addition, the activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were measured in the same samples. The highest level of drought stress was found in summer (especially in August) as a result of the lowest water content in the soil and the highest average temperature occurring in these months. The drought stress induced by mistletoe infestation caused a regular decrease in water content, while it increased the levels of EL, MDA and ROS (H2O2, O2 (-•)and(•)OH). The infestation also stimulated the activities of CAT and POX, with the exception of SOD. On the other hand, in August, when the drought conditions were the harshest, the levels of EL and MDA, which are two of the most important indicator parameters for oxidative stress, as well as the levels of H2O2and(•)OH, which are two of the ROS leading to oxidative stress, reached the highest values in both infested and noninfested needles, whereas the O2 (-•)level decreased. For the same period and needles, CAT activity increased, while SOD activity decreased. Peroxidase activity, however, did not exhibit a significant change. Our findings indicate

  9. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Cape, J. Neil

    2007-01-01

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F v /F m ) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO 2 - /HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. - Exposure to HONO affects photosynthesis and nutrient status of pine trees

  10. Structural and climatic determinants of demographic rates of Scots pine forests across the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà-Cabrera, Albert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Vayreda, Jordi; Retana, Javier

    2011-06-01

    The demographic rates of tree species typically show large spatial variation across their range. Understanding the environmental factors underlying this variation is a key topic in forest ecology, with far-reaching management implications. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) covers large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, the Iberian Peninsula being its southwestern distribution limit. In recent decades, an increase in severe droughts and a densification of forests as a result of changes in forest uses have occurred in this region. Our aim was to use climate and stand structure data to explain mortality and growth patterns of Scots pine forests across the Iberian Peninsula. We used data from 2392 plots dominated by Scots pine, sampled for the National Forest Inventory of Spain. Plots were sampled from 1986 to 1996 (IFN2) and were resampled from 1997 to 2007 (IFN3), allowing for the calculation of growth and mortality rates. We fitted linear models to assess the response of growth and mortality rates to the spatial variability of climate, climatic anomalies, and forest structure. Over the period of approximately 10 years between the IFN2 and IFN3, the amount of standing dead trees increased 11-fold. Higher mortality rates were related to dryness, and growth was reduced with increasing dryness and temperature, but results also suggested that effects of climatic stressors were not restricted to dry sites only. Forest structure was strongly related to demographic rates, suggesting that stand development and competition are the main factors associated with demography. In the case of mortality, forest structure interacted with climate, suggesting that competition for water resources induces tree mortality in dry sites. A slight negative relationship was found between mortality and growth, indicating that both rates are likely to be affected by the same stress factors. Additionally, regeneration tended to be lower in plots with higher mortality. Taken together, our results

  11. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumburg, Jan

    2000-07-01

    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  12. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Florian, C; Oberhuber, W

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during 2009, which was characterised by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to ca. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations rose in all tissues (branch, stem, root) until the end of July, except in needles, where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site, NSC concentrations in the aboveground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in aboveground growth, possibly due to elevated belowground carbon demand. In conclusion, our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though carbon reserves were not exhausted, sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Persistence of ectomycorrhizas by Thelephora terrestris on outplanted Scots pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Hilszczańska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thelephora terrestris (Erhr. Fr. is a very common ectomycorrhizal symbiont (ECM in conifer trees, however the role of this ubiquitous fungus in nurseries and Scots pine plantations is still unknown. It is described as tolerant of high nitrogen availability and therefore was taken into consideration as an important ECM partner of seedlings, particularly after replanting on post agricultural land. In laboratory the seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. were inoculated with T. terrestris (Tt/IBL/2 or not inoculated (control and grown in containers in two different regimes of nitrogen fertilization (4g N x kg-1 and 6 g N x kg-1. Next year these seedlings were outplanted in post agricultural land and 6 months later, the number and identity of some mycorrhizas were studied. It was found, that mycorrhizal abundance was higher in the inoculated treatments than in non-inoculated ones. PCR RFLP analysis confirmed share of two different isolates of Thelephora engaged in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Part of mycorrhizas had the same pattern of RFLP as the isolate used to inoculation. Similar results were obtained in second year of experimental study in the field what confirmed the persistence of artificially introduced T. terrestris in post agricultural soil as an important component of the ECM community.

  14. Frost hardiness of mycorrhizal (Hebeloma sp.) and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anna; Lehto, Tarja; Repo, Tapani

    2013-10-01

    The frost hardiness (FH) of mycorrhizal [ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] and non-mycorrhizal (NM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings was studied to assess whether mycorrhizal symbiosis affected the roots' tolerance of below-zero temperatures. ECM (Hebeloma sp.) and NM seedlings were cultivated in a growth chamber for 18 weeks. After 13 weeks' growth in long-day and high-temperature (LDHT) conditions, a half of the ECM and NM seedlings were moved into a chamber with short-day and low-temperature (SDLT) conditions to cold acclimate. After exposures to a range of below-zero temperatures, the FH of the roots was assessed by means of the relative electrolyte leakage test. The FH was determined as the inflection point of the temperature-response curve. No significant difference was found between the FH of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots in LDHT (-8.9 and -9.8 °C) or SDLT (-7.5 and -6.8 °C). The mycorrhizal treatment had no significant effect on the total dry mass, the allocation of dry mass among the roots and needles or nutrient accumulation. The mycorrhizal treatment with Hebeloma sp. did not affect the FH of Scots pine in this experimental setup. More information is needed on the extent to which mycorrhizas tolerate low temperatures, especially with different nutrient contents and different mycorrhiza fungi.

  15. Indications on continued nitrogen uptake in Scots pine roots after clear-felling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrektson, A.; Valinger, E.; Leijon, B.; Sjoegren, H.; Sonesson, J.

    1997-11-01

    A study was performed in a 150 years old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand situated on a sandy moor in northern Sweden. Two plots were to be compared, and in June 1993 one was clear-felled. Even if reduced with approximately 50%, a significant fine root (diameter < 2 mm) growth was noticed at least up to one year after the clear-felling. For medium roots (diameters 2-4 and 4-6 mm) nitrogen content in root-wood and root-bark samples from the clear-felling, as compared to the reference plot, were 30-50% higher two months after the clear-felling. The difference did not increase in later comparisons. N-content in bark and wood buttress did not differ during the period studied, except for a higher percentage in bark at the clear-felling after two summers. This was believed to be a result of decomposition. The results indicate a maintained physiological activity in the stump-root system of Scots pine at least for one year at this site. An active uptake of N in roots of cut trees may influence leaching after clear-felling, the forage value of roots, and root decomposition rate and also maintain root competition with standing trees after thinning. 40 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  16. Are Scots pine forest edges particularly prone to drought-induced mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Schunk, Christian; Zeiträg, Claudia; Herrmann, Corinna; Kaiser, Laura; Lemme, Hannes; Straub, Christoph; Taeger, Steffen; Gößwein, Sebastian; Klemmt, Hans-Joachim; Menzel, Annette

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency of drought-induced tree mortality world-wide. To better predict the associated change of species composition and forest dynamics on various scales and develop adequate adaptation strategies, more information on the mechanisms driving the often observed patchiness of tree die-back is needed. Although forest-edge effects may play an important role within the given context, only few corresponding studies exist. Here, we investigate the regional die-back of Scots pine in Franconia, Germany, after a hot and dry summer in 2015, thereby emphasizing possible differences in mortality between forest edge and interior. By means of dendroecological investigations and close-range remote sensing, we assess long-term growth performance and current tree vitality along five different forest-edge distance gradients. Our results clearly indicate a differing growth performance between edge and interior trees, associated with a higher vulnerability to drought, increased mortality rates, and lower tree vitality at the forest edge. Prior long-lasting growth decline of dead trees compared to live trees suggests depletion of carbon reserves in course of a long-term drought persisting since the 1990s to be the cause of regional Scots pine die-back. These findings highlight the forest edge as a potential focal point of forest management adaptation strategies in the context of drought-induced mortality.

  17. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomak, Eylem D.; Baysal, Ergun; Peker, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. ► Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. ► The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. ► Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. ► Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  18. Climate influences the leaf area/sapwood area ratio in Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencuccini, M; Grace, J

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the leaf area/sapwood area ratio in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is influenced by site differences in water vapor pressure deficit of the air (D). Two stands of the same provenance were selected, one in western Scotland and one in eastern England, so that effects resulting from age, genetic variability, density and fertility were minimized. Compared with the Scots pine trees at the cooler and wetter site in Scotland, the trees at the warmer and drier site in England produced less leaf area per unit of conducting sapwood area both at a stem height of 1.3 m and at the base of the live crown, whereas stem permeability was similar at both sites. Also, trees at the drier site had less leaf area per unit branch cross-sectional area at the branch base than trees at the wetter site. For each site, the average values for leaf area, sapwood area and permeability were used, together with values of transpiration rates at different D, to calculate average stem water potential gradients. Changes in the leaf area/sapwood area ratio acted to maintain a similar water potential gradient in the stems of trees at both sites despite climatic differences between the sites.

  19. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem D., E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Baysal, Ergun, E-mail: bergun@mu.edu.tr [Mugla University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Kotekli, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Peker, Huseyin, E-mail: peker100@hotmail.com [Artvin Coruh University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 06100 Artvin (Turkey)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  20. Silvicultural interpretation of natural vegetation dynamics in ageing Scots pine stands for their conversion into mixed broadleaved stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, V.; Geudens, G.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Lust, N.

    2006-01-01

    In many West-European regions there is principal consensus on the conversion of homogeneous even-aged Scots pine plantations into mixed broadleaved stands. In recent years, interest is growing for conversion management in which managers try to maximise the use of natural processes by steering or

  1. Presence of Nitrosospiral cluster 2 bacteria corresponds to N transformation rates in nine acid Scots pine forest soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugroho, R. Adi; Roling, W.F.M.; Laverman, A.M.; Zoomer, R.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    The relation between environmental factors and the presence of ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB), and its consequences for the N transformation rates were investigated in nine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest soils. In general, the diversity in AOB appears to be strikingly low compared to

  2. Improved recruitment and early growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after fire and soil scarification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2004-01-01

    The success of seedling recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is strongly dependent on soil surface properties, such as humus depth and moisture content. In an undisturbed forest floor, seedlings are seldom able to become established due to the high incidence of desiccation in the organic

  3. Chemical composition of needles and cambial activity of stems of Scots pine trees affected by air pollutants in Polish forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech Dmuchowski; Ewa U. Kurczynska; Wieslaw Wloch

    1998-01-01

    The impact of environmental pollution is defined for the chemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and cambial activity in the tree stems in Polish forests. The research investigated 20-year-old trees growing in two areas in significantly different levels of pollution. The highly polluted area was located near the Warsaw...

  4. Dynamics and stratification of functional groups of micro- and mesoarthropods in the organic layer of a Scots pine forest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Kniese, J.P.; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Verhoef, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the abundance, biomass and microstratification of functional groups of micro- and mesoarthropods inhabiting the organic layers of a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris L.). An experiment using stratified litterbags, containing organic material of four degradation stages, i.e.,

  5. Net ecosystem productivity and its environmental controls in a mature Scots pine stand in north-western Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziemblinska, K.; Urbaniak, M.; Chojnicki, B. H.; Black, T. A.; Niu, S.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 228, nov (2016), s. 60-72 ISSN 0168-1923 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Scots pine * eddy covariance * environmental controls * net ecosystem productivity * southern Finland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  6. A review of thinning effects on Scots pine stands: From growth and yield to new challenges under global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren del Río

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stands have been carried out since long in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather the knowledge about the thinning effects on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the framework of climate change. Area of study: The review covered studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stands have been carried out for many years in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather knowledge regarding the effects of thinning on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the context of climate change. Area of study: The review covers studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Material and methods: We reviewed the effect of thinning on four aspects: growth and yield, stability against snow and wind, response to drought, and ecosystem services. Main results: Heavy thinning involves a loss in volume yield, although the magnitude depends on the region, site and stand age. Thinning generally does not affect dominant height while the positive effect on tree diameter depends on the thinning regime. The stability of the stand against snow and wind is lower after the first thinning and increases in the long term. The impact of extreme droughts on tree growth is lower in thinned stands, which is linked to a better capacity to recover after the drought. Thinning generally reduces the wood quality, litter mass, and stand structural diversity, while having neutral or positive effects on other ecosystem services, although these effects can vary depending on the thinning regime. However, scarce information is available for most of the ecosystem services. Research highlight: Existing thinning experiments in

  7. A review of thinning effects on Scots pine stands: From growth and yield to new challenges under global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miren del Río, M.P.; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés; Pretzsch, Hans; Löf, Magnus; Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands have been carried out since long in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather the knowledge about the thinning effects on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the framework of climate change. Area of study: The review covered studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands have been carried out for many years in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather knowledge regarding the effects of thinning on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the context of climate change. Area of study: The review covers studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Material and methods: We reviewed the effect of thinning on four aspects: growth and yield, stability against snow and wind, response to drought, and ecosystem services. Main results: Heavy thinning involves a loss in volume yield, although the magnitude depends on the region, site and stand age. Thinning generally does not affect dominant height while the positive effect on tree diameter depends on the thinning regime. The stability of the stand against snow and wind is lower after the first thinning and increases in the long term. The impact of extreme droughts on tree growth is lower in thinned stands, which is linked to a better capacity to recover after the drought. Thinning generally reduces the wood quality, litter mass, and stand structural diversity, while having neutral or positive effects on other ecosystem services, although these effects can vary depending on the thinning regime. However, scarce information is available for most of the ecosystem services. Research highlight: Existing thinning experiments in Scots pine stands

  8. A review of thinning effects on Scots pine stands: From growth and yield to new challenges under global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miren del Río, M.P.; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés; Pretzsch, Hans; Löf, Magnus; Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands have been carried out since long in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather the knowledge about the thinning effects on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the framework of climate change. Area of study: The review covered studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands have been carried out for many years in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather knowledge regarding the effects of thinning on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the context of climate change. Area of study: The review covers studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Material and methods: We reviewed the effect of thinning on four aspects: growth and yield, stability against snow and wind, response to drought, and ecosystem services. Main results: Heavy thinning involves a loss in volume yield, although the magnitude depends on the region, site and stand age. Thinning generally does not affect dominant height while the positive effect on tree diameter depends on the thinning regime. The stability of the stand against snow and wind is lower after the first thinning and increases in the long term. The impact of extreme droughts on tree growth is lower in thinned stands, which is linked to a better capacity to recover after the drought. Thinning generally reduces the wood quality, litter mass, and stand structural diversity, while having neutral or positive effects on other ecosystem services, although these effects can vary depending on the thinning regime. However, scarce information is available for most of the ecosystem services. Research highlight: Existing thinning experiments in Scots pine stands

  9. Long-term impact of shoot blight disease on red pine saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Haugen; Michael E. Ostry

    2013-01-01

    Damage from Sirococcus and Diplodia shoot blights of red pine is widespread and periodically severe in the Lake States. An outbreak of shoot blight occurred in red pine sapling plantations across northern Wisconsin, northern Minnesota, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in 1993. We established monitoring plots in red pine sapling...

  10. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Heikkinen, Juha; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 1-3 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013) before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only. We analyzed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence. The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 2013-2014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global climate models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  11. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio eLinkosalo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 13 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013 before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only.We analysed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence.The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 20132014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global warming models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  12. Influence of Scots pine encroachment into alpine grassland in the quality and stability of soil organic matter aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Carlos; Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Benito, Marta; José Fernández, María; Rubio, Agustín

    2013-04-01

    Ecotone areas are dynamic zones potentially suitable for detecting ecosystem sensitivity to climate change effects. Climate change scenarios proposed by IPCC predict a temperature increase in Mediterranean areas with the consequent altitudinal advance of Scots pine treeline (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the extent of grassland-shrubland areas. Therefore, variations in physical, chemical and biological properties of soils due to plant dynamics are expected. We present a study located in the grassland-forest ecotone of Scots pine on a Mediterranean mountain in Central Spain, considering three different vegetation types: high mountain grassland-shrubland, shrubland-Scots pine high mountain forest and Scots pine mountain forest. We worked on the hypothesis that different plant species compositions influence both the size distribution and aggregate protection of the organic carbon (C), as a result of the different quality of C inputs to the soil from different vegetation types. To test this assumption, topsoil samples were firstly separated into four aggregate fractions (6-2 mm, 2-0.250 mm, 0.250-0.053 mm and centrifuging and decanting the supernatants; and thirdly, different iPOM (coarse iPOM and fine iPOM) and mineral associated soil organic C were released from each remaining aggregate fraction by sonication at 300 J ml-1 and further quantified by wet sieving. We expect differences between light fraction, different iPOM and mineral associated soil organic C from the different aggregates fractions obtained among vegetation types as a result of different quality and quantity organic matter inputs to the soil. Thus, we will be able to predict (i) the evolution of protected soil organic matter with the encroachment of Scots pine on Mediterranean mountains due to climate change effects, (ii) the rate of macroaggregate formation and degradation in those vegetation areas, and (iii) whether they will behave as source or sink of atmospheric C.

  13. Effects of soil copper and nickel on survival and growth of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tiina Maileena

    2004-11-01

    The contribution of soil Cu and Ni pollution to the poor vitality and growth rate of Scots pine growing in the vicinity of a Cu-Ni smelter was investigated in two manipulation experiments. In the first manipulation, Cu-Ni smelter-polluted soil cores were transported from a smelter-pollution gradient to unpolluted greenhouse conditions. A 4-year-old pine seedling was planted in each core and cultivated for a 17-month period. In the second manipulation, pine seedlings from the same lot were cultivated for the same 17-month period in a quartz sand medium containing increasing doses of copper sulfate, nickel sulfate, and a combination of both. The variation in the biomass growth of the seedlings grown in the smelter-polluted soil cores was very similar to that of mature pine stands growing along the same smelter-pollution gradient in the field. In addition, the rate of Cu and Ni exposure explained a high proportion of the biomass growth variation, and had an effect on the Ca, K, and Mg status of the seedlings. According to the lethal threshold values determined on the basis of the metal sulfate exposure experiments, both the Cu and Ni content of the 0.5 km smelter-polluted soil cores were high enough to cause the death of most of the seedlings. The presence of Cu seemed to increase Ni toxicity.

  14. Juvenile wood volume and its proportion to stem volume vs. selected biometric features of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Tomczak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a correlation between breast height diameter, tree height and stem total volume of Scots pines, on the one hand, and volume and proportion of juvenile wood, on the other. The investigations comprised pure pine stands of the IInd, IIIrd, IVth and Vth age classes developed in conditions of fresh mixed coniferous forest. A distinct curvilinear correlation was found between volume and proportion of juvenile wood in tree stems and breast height diameter, height and stem total volume. Because of high values of determination coefficients (R2, which characterised the above-mentioned correlations, it seems appropriate to use these regularities to assess the quality of the timber raw material regarding the proportions of its volume and juvenile wood in stems of Scots pine trees.

  15. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  16. Response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Aurela, Mika; Mammarella, Ivan; Thum, Tea; Tsuruta, Aki; Yang, Huiyi; Aalto, Tuula

    2017-09-01

    The influence of drought on plant functioning has received considerable attention in recent years, however our understanding of the response of carbon and water coupling to drought in terrestrial ecosystems still needs to be improved. A severe soil moisture drought occurred in southern Finland in the late summer of 2006. In this study, we investigated the response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) on the daily time scale mainly using eddy covariance flux data from the Hyytiälä (southern Finland) flux site. In addition, simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were evaluated against the observed results. Based on observed data, the ecosystem level water use efficiency (EWUE; the ratio of gross primary production, GPP, to evapotranspiration, ET) showed a decrease during the severe soil moisture drought, while the inherent water use efficiency (IWUE; a quantity defined as EWUE multiplied with mean daytime vapour pressure deficit, VPD) increased and the underlying water use efficiency (uWUE, a metric based on IWUE and a simple stomatal model, is the ratio of GPP multiplied with a square root of VPD to ET) was unchanged during the drought. The decrease in EWUE was due to the stronger decline in GPP than in ET. The increase in IWUE was because of the decreased stomatal conductance under increased VPD. The unchanged uWUE indicates that the trade-off between carbon assimilation and transpiration of the boreal Scots pine forest was not disturbed by this drought event at the site. The JSBACH simulation showed declines of both GPP and ET under the severe soil moisture drought, but to a smaller extent compared to the observed GPP and ET. Simulated GPP and ET led to a smaller decrease in EWUE but a larger increase in IWUE because of the severe soil moisture drought in comparison to observations. As in the observations, the simulated uWUE showed no changes in the drought event. The model deficiencies exist

  17. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Skripal’shchikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  18. Influence of thinning intensity and canopy type on Scots pine stand and growth dynamics in a mixed managed forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primicia, I.; Artázcoz, R.; Imbert, J.B.; Puertas, F.; Traver, M.C.; Castillo, F.J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We analysed the effects of thinning intensity and canopy type on Scots pine growth and stand dynamics in a mixed Scots pine-beech forest. Area of the study: Western Pyrenees. Material and methods: Three thinning intensities were applied in 1999 (0, 20 and 30% basal area removed) and 2009 (0, 20 and 40%) on 9 plots. Within each plot, pure pine and mixed pine-beech patches are distinguished. All pine trees were inventoried in 1999, 2009 and 2014. The effects of treatments on the tree and stand structure variables (density, basal area, stand and tree volume), on the periodic annual increment in basal area and stand and tree volume, and on mortality rates, were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Main Results: The enhancement of tree growth was mainly noticeable after the second thinning. Growth rates following thinning were similar or higher in the moderate than in the severe thinning. Periodic stand volume annual increments were higher in the thinned than in the unthinned plots, but no differences were observed between the thinned treatments. We observed an increase in the differences of the Tree volume annual increment between canopy types (mixed < pure) over time in the unthinned plots, as beech crowns developed. Research highlights: Moderate thinning is suggested as an appropriate forest practice at early pine age in these mixed forests, since it produced higher tree growth rates than the severe thinning and it counteracted the negative effect of beech on pine growth observed in the unthinned plots. (Author)

  19. Environmental pollution changes in membrane lipids, antioxidants and vitality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on pollen grains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. collected from trees at 1.5, 3, 4 km and control, 20 km from the Luboń factory producing mineral fertilisers. The percentage of germination of pollen formed close to the pollution source was ca 20% lower compared to the control pollen. Lowered vitality of the pollen was effected in changes of the structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Pollen from the polluted area contained ca 15% less total phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatytidylinositol and had a lower content of soluble proteins and less of low molecular antioxidants, such as thiols and ascorbic acid. Composition of total fatty acid in phospholipids fractions showed a significant reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Pollen originating from the polluted area and stored at -30°C showed considerably stronger degradation of cytoplasmic membranes than control.

  20. Study of needle morphometric indices in Scots pine in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, E.S.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Oudalova, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological effects in Scots pine populations experiencing chronic radiation exposure at doses up to 130 mGy per year as a result of the Chernobyl accident were studied in 2011 and 2013, using needle indices as endpoints. No relationships between the length, the mass of needles and the asymmetry in weight of paired needles and radiation exposure were revealed. The frequency of necrotic needles increases with the level of radiation exposure; however, the significance of these effects in different years was different. The index of fluctuating asymmetry in needle length significantly increases at annual doses of 90 and 130 mGy and correlates with the absorbed dose as well as 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclide activities in soils and cones at the study sites. The findings obtained are consistent with an international recommendation to consider radiation exposure of 100 mGy.y -1 as a margin for biota safety in chronic irradiation. (authors)

  1. Defoliating Insect Mass Outbreak Affects Soil N Fluxes and Tree N Nutrition in Scots Pine Forests

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    Maren M. Grüning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i.e., organic and inorganic 15N net uptake capacity of fine roots as well as N pools in fine roots and needles in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forest over an entire vegetation period. Plots were either infested by the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L. or served as controls. Our results show an increased N input by insect feces, litter, and throughfall at the infested plots compared to controls, as well as increased leaching of nitrate. However, the additional N input into the soil did not increase, but reduce inorganic and organic net N uptake capacity of Scots pine roots. N pools in the fine roots and needles of infested trees showed an accumulation of total N, amino acid-N, protein-N, and structural N in the roots and the remaining needles as a compensatory response triggered by defoliation. Thus, although soil N availability was increased via surplus N input, trees did not respond with an increased N acquisition, but rather invested resources into defense by accumulation of amino acid-N and protein-N as a survival strategy.

  2. Defoliating Insect Mass Outbreak Affects Soil N Fluxes and Tree N Nutrition in Scots Pine Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüning, Maren M; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; L-M-Arnold, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i.e., organic and inorganic 15 N net uptake capacity of fine roots) as well as N pools in fine roots and needles in a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over an entire vegetation period. Plots were either infested by the nun moth ( Lymantria monacha L.) or served as controls. Our results show an increased N input by insect feces, litter, and throughfall at the infested plots compared to controls, as well as increased leaching of nitrate. However, the additional N input into the soil did not increase, but reduce inorganic and organic net N uptake capacity of Scots pine roots. N pools in the fine roots and needles of infested trees showed an accumulation of total N, amino acid-N, protein-N, and structural N in the roots and the remaining needles as a compensatory response triggered by defoliation. Thus, although soil N availability was increased via surplus N input, trees did not respond with an increased N acquisition, but rather invested resources into defense by accumulation of amino acid-N and protein-N as a survival strategy.

  3. FREE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION IN SCOTS PINE TISSUES UNDER STRESS IMPACT IN RHIZOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudachkova N.E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The free amino acid content in the needles and the inner bark of stems and roots of 8-13-ages self-sawn trees of Pinus sylvestris L. in Central Siberia in experimental and natural conditions was compared. The experiments imitated an influence of long-seasonal or permafrost, soil drought and root hypoxia, concomitant flooding. The aim of the investigation was to expose the adaptive changes of these metabolites composition under stress impact. All of types of stress influences changed the total free amino acid content in the tissues of different morphological tree parts: the cooling of root system caused a deposit of free amino acids in overground tree part, the water deficit stimulated an accumulation of free amino acids in root inner bark, the flooding decreased the amino acid content in all tissues. The ratio in a group of amino acids with glutamic acid as metabolic precursor (-aminobutyric (GABA, proline, arginine, citrulline and ornithine changed under different stress impact. The cold stress in rhizosphere caused GABA accumulation in the needles and stem but not in the roots in the period of soil thawing. The moderate moisture deficit had not an influence on GABA content, the flooding caused GABA accumulation only in new needles. The maximal exceeding above control were marked for the sum of arginine and its metabolic precursors citrulline and ornithine. The group of these compounds may be considered as stress metabolites for scots pine, but specificity of depositing of these amino acids at water stress requires additional proofs. Since the proline accumulation was showed in separate times in the different tissues under all of investigated stressors impact, the specificity of proline as indicator of water stress in scots pine tissues is debatable. The disturbance of donor-acceptor connections in experiment with cooling resulted to the amino acid accumulation in stem inner bark, in experiment with drought – in root inner bark.

  4. Impact of climate change on radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in North-western Russia

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    Lopatin E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When adapting forest management practices to a changing environment, it is very important to understand the response of an unmanaged natural forest to climate change. The method used to identify major climatic factors influencing radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine along a latitudinal gradient in north-western Russia is dendroclimatic analysis. A clear increasing long-term trend was identified in air temperature and precipitation. During the last 20 years, all meteorological stations experienced temperature increases, and 40 years ago precipitation began to increase. This is shown by the radial increment of Siberian spruce and Scots pine. Therefore, climate change could partly explain the increased forest productivity. The total variance explained by temperature varied from 22% to 41% and precipitation from 19% to 38%. The significant climatic parameters for radial increment in Komi Republic were identified, and the relation between temperature and precipitation in explained variance changes over time for Siberian spruce.

  5. Biometric characters of seeds and wings as markers of geographical differentiation between European scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. provenances

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    Lech Urbaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric characters of seeds and wings served to describe interprovenance differentiation of Scots pine in Europe. Grouping analysis was applied, Mahalanobis distances were calculated as well as Hotellings T2 statistics were applied. The similarity of East European and Finnish provenances was conspicuous. The provenance from Scotland proved to be similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia. On the other hand, two southern provenances 54(Rychtal, Poland and 55(Luboml, Ukraine, were also found similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia (western Norway. The obtained pattern of reciprocal relations may indicate pathways of Scots pine migration in the postglacial period or may be a result of adaptation to certain similar environmental conditions. No relations were detected between size of seeds and geographic origin of provenances.

  6. Long-term dynamics of monoterpene synthase activities, monoterpene storage pools and emissions in boreal Scots pine

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Ghirardo, Andrea; Juurola, Eija; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Zimmer, Ina; Hellén, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Bäck, Jaana

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) are well documented, and emissions are often shown to follow the incident temperatures due to effects on compound volatility. Recent studies have indicated a link between monoterpene emissions and physiological drivers such as photosynthetic capacity during needle development. The complex interplay between the dynamic changes in the biosynthetic capacity to produce monoterpenes and the temperature-dependent evapor...

  7. Determination of metals in scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris) needles and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludborzs, A.; Viksna, A.

    2000-01-01

    Current report is the finding to apply two modern and powerful methods of microanalysis - Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - for the analysis of biological and geological materials. For some of the measurements Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used as an arbitrary method. The goal of the research project is to find possible relationships between metals content in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles and the soil samples, which have been taken under the trees. The objectives of the work are analysis of both needles and soils, pH measurements of the soil samples, and handling of a simplified metal speciation analysis in the soil samples. For statistical reliability of the project, seven pine trees from different locations in Latvia have been chosen as the analysis objects. Samples of 20 different age class needles have been collected from the trees and 21 soil sample has been sampled under the trees. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Cd content have been analysed in both samples of the needles and the soils. The obtained measurement data have been processed according to the aim of the project. Relevant questions about causal differences of metal concentrations in different age classes of needles, about subtle working principles of the plant's root system, about the role of some elements in the plant's living processes still remain unanswered. (author)

  8. The O-methyltransferase PMT2 mediates methylation of pinosylvin in Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasela, Tanja; Lim, Kean-Jin; Pietiäinen, Milla; Teeri, Teemu H

    2017-06-01

    Heartwood extractives are important determinants of the natural durability of pine heartwood. The most important phenolic compounds affecting durability are the stilbenes pinosylvin and its monomethylether, which in addition have important functions as phytoalexins in active defense. A substantial portion of the synthesized pinosylvin is 3-methoxylated but the O-methyltransferase responsible for this modification has not been correctly identified. We studied the expression of the stilbene pathway during heartwood development as well as in response to wounding of xylem and UV-C treatment of needles. We isolated and enzymatically characterized a novel O-methyltransferase, PMT2. The methylated product was verified as pinosylvin monomethylether using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography analyses. The PMT2 enzyme was highly specific for stilbenes as substrate, in contrast to caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) and PMT1 that were multifunctional. Expression profile and multifunctional activity of CCoAOMT suggest that it might have additional roles outside lignin biosynthesis. PMT1 is not involved in the stilbene pathway and its biological function remains an open question. We isolated a new specific O-methyltransferase responsible for 3-methoxylation of pinosylvin. Expression of PMT2 closely follows stilbene biosynthesis during developmental and stress induction. We propose that PMT2 is responsible for pinosylvin methylation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), instead of the previously characterized methyltransferase, PMT1. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  10. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roitto, M. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Environmental Research, Karilantie 2A, FIN-50600 Mikkeli (Finland) and Department of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FIN-15140 Lahti (Finland)]. E-mail: marja.roitto@mtt.fi; Rautio, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kukkola, E. [University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Physiology, PO Box 56, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Huttunen, S. [Department of Biology, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles.

  11. Long-term trends in radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in Komi Republic (northwestern Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopatin, E. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)); Kolstroem, T. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)); Spiecker, H. (Univ. of Freiburg (Germany))

    2008-07-01

    Komi is situated on the eastern boundary of the European part of Russia, in the boreal region where large areas of natural forest still exist. Using radial growth measurements it was possible to attain positive long-term trends of growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) in the Komi Republic. Increases in the radial growth of Siberian spruce in the forest-tundra were 134% and in the northern taiga zone 35% over successive 50-year periods from 1901 to 1950 and from 1951 to 2000. Respectively, in the middle taiga zone a 76% increase in radial growth was found (over 100 years), whilst in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The increase in radial growth of Scots pine in the northern taiga zone was 32%. In the middle taiga zone the radial growth increase in Scots pine was 55% and in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The long-term growth trends of Komi were compared with those in other parts of Europe. (orig.)

  12. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roitto, M.; Rautio, P.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R.; Kukkola, E.; Huttunen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg -1 soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg -1 soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles

  13. Susceptibility of hornbeam and Scots pine woods to destruction by the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus ROSSI, 1792 (Blattodea: Isoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests of the degree of damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus woods by the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Both wood species are classified as “susceptible to destruction by termites” in the EN 350-2:2000 standard. The procedures described in the ASTM D 3345-08 standard (2009 were applied in the experiments. During laboratory coercion tests, wood samples from these two species were damaged to a degree between light attack and moderate attack with penetration. Recent Scots pine sapwood was damaged to a heavy degree. The results can be associated with the much higher density of hornbeam wood as compared to Scots pine sapwood. The mortality rate of the termites in the test containers with both wood species was similar and low, no greater than 10%. In the light of the results, the classification of the susceptibility of native wood species to termite feeding, as stated in the EN 350-2:2000 standard, appears to be oversimplified.

  14. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a stress-induced multifunctional O-methyltransferase with pinosylvin methyltransferase activity from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiron, H; Drouet, A; Claudot, A C; Eckerskorn, C; Trost, M; Heller, W; Ernst, D; Sandermann, H

    2000-12-01

    Formation of pinosylvin (PS) and pinosylvin 3-O-monomethyl ether (PSM), as well as the activities of stilbene synthase (STS) and S-adenosyl-1-methionine (SAM):pinosylvin O-methyltransferase (PMT), were induced strongly in needles of Scots pine seedlings upon ozone treatment, as well as in cell suspension cultures of Scots pine upon fungal elicitation. A SAM-dependent PMT protein was purified and partially characterised. A cDNA encoding PMT was isolated from an ozone-induced Scots pine cDNA library. Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNA suggested the presence of a gene family. The deduced protein sequence showed the typical highly conserved regions of O-methyltransferases (OMTs), and average identities of 20-56% to known OMTs. PMT expressed in Escherichia coli corresponded to that of purified PMT (40 kDa) from pine cell cultures. The recombinant enzyme catalysed the methylation of PS, caffeic acid, caffeoyl-CoA and quercetin. Several other substances, such as astringenin, resveratrol, 5-OH-ferulic acid, catechol and luteolin, were also methylated. Recombinant PMT thus had a relatively broad substrate specificity. Treatment of 7-year old Scots pine trees with ozone markedly increased the PMT mRNA level. Our results show that PMT represents a new SAM-dependent OMT for the methylation of stress-induced pinosylvin in Scots pine needles.

  15. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency

  16. Provenance variations of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Southern PART of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulcu, S.; Bilir, N.

    2015-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p <= 0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05 <= p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p <= 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species. (author)

  17. Frost hardiness of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine under two fertilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anna; Lehto, Tarja; Repo, Tapani

    2015-07-01

    Survival and functioning of mycorrhizal associations at low temperatures are not known well. In an earlier study, ectomycorrhizas did not affect the frost hardiness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) roots, but here we studied whether differential nutrient availability would change the result and additionally, alter frost hardiness aboveground. The aim in this experiment was to compare the frost hardiness of roots and needles of mycorrhizal (Hebeloma sp.) and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine seedlings raised using two fertilization treatments and two cold-hardening regimes. The fertilization treatments were low (LF) and high (HF) application of a complete nutrient solution. Three hundred mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings were cultivated in growth chambers in four blocks for 16 weeks. For the first 9 weeks, the seedlings grew in long-day and high-temperature (LDHT) with low fertilization and then they were raised for 3 weeks in LDHT with either low or high fertilization. After this, half of the plants in each treatment combination remained in LDHT, and half were transferred to short-day and low-temperature (SDLT) conditions to cold acclimatize. The frost hardiness of the roots and needles was assessed using controlled freezing tests followed by electrolyte leakage tests (REL). Mycorrhizal roots were slightly more frost hardy than non-mycorrhizal roots, but only in the growing-season conditions (LDHT) in low-nutrient treatment. In LDHT and LF, the frost hardiness of the non-mycorrhizal roots was about -9 °C, and that of the non-mycorrhizal HF roots and the mycorrhizal roots in both fertilization levels was about -11 °C. However, no difference was found in the roots within the SDLT regime, and in needles, there was no difference between mycorrhizal and fertilization treatments. The frost hardiness of needles increased by SDLT treatment, being -8.5 and -14.1 °C in LDHT and SDLT, respectively. The dry mass of roots, stems, and needles was lower in LF than in

  18. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

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    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  19. Analysis of Scots pine climatypes growth dynamics in the provenance trial in Central Siberia

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    N. A. Kuzmina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of 83 Scots pine climatypes by height growth at the age of 37 years in the provenance trial was done. Three groups of climatypes were distinguished as: fast-growing, moderate-growing and slow-growing. The research at the age of 20–25 revealed 13 climatypes of 27 from the fast-growing group as candidates to breed-populations. These climatypes are from Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Kemerovo Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Karelia, and the Republic of Komi. At the age of 37 years they confirm the status of perspective climatypes in height growth, survival, and resistance to fungal pathogens as it was noted earlier (Kuzmina, Kuzmin, 2007, 2008. The average height of trees of these climatypes exceeds control height by 32 %. The moderate-growing group consists of 18 climatypes, five of them are candidates to breed-populations. The intensity of their growth was reduced but average height is at the level of control average value. The third group has the largest number of climatypes. After the inventory in 2013 two climatypes previously marked as perspective were added into the third group. Last years the intensity of their growth was significantly reduced because of disease caused by cenangium dieback at the 22–24 years old. So the rank status of studied climatypes in different age periods is significantly changeable because of different reaction to ecological factors. The analysis of annual height increments growth confirms that objective conclusions about selection of perspective climatypes could be possible only after 25 years old of pine.

  20. Modelling the effect of low soil temperatures on transpiration by Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Stähli, Manfred; Gustafsson, David; Bishop, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    For ecosystem modelling of the Boreal forest it is important to include processes associated with low soil temperature during spring-early summer, as these affect the tree water uptake. The COUP model, a physically based SVAT model, was tested with 2 years of soil and snow physical measurements and sap flow measurements in a 70-year-old Scots pine stand in the boreal zone of northern Sweden. During the first year the extent and duration of soil frost was manipulated in the field. The model was successful in reproducing the timing of the soil warming after the snowmelt and frost thaw. A delayed soil warming, into the growing season, severely reduced the transpiration. We demonstrated the potential for considerable overestimation of transpiration by the model if the reduction of the trees' capacity to transpire due to low soil temperatures is not taken into account. We also demonstrated that the accumulated effect of aboveground conditions could be included when simulating the relationship between soil temperature and tree water uptake. This improved the estimated transpiration for the control plot and when soil warming was delayed into the growing season. The study illustrates the need of including antecedent conditions on root growth in the model in order to catch these effects on transpiration. The COUP model is a promising tool for predicting transpiration in high-latitude stands.

  1. Aluminium effects on pyridine nucleotide redox state in roots of Scots pine

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    Gabriela Lorenc-Plucińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After prolonged (3-9 weeks hydroponic treatment of Scots pine seedlings with different concentrations (0.5-4.0 mM of Al (AI(N033, the levels of pyridine nucleotides were determined in root homogenates. After 3 weeks of Al stress, a significant decrease of the anabolic reduction charge (ARC: NADPH/(NADP+ + NADPH and an increase of the redox status (NAD(PH/NAD(P+, catabolic reduction charge (CRC: NADH/(NAD+ + NADH and phosphorylation capacity expressed as NADP+/NAD+ ratio was found in the 4.0 mM Al treatment. After 6 weeks, Al at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mM induced an enhancement of the NADH level and a reduction of NADPH level, but the redox ratios were not changed significantly. After 9 weeks treatment with Al concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mM, decreases of the relative level of NADP+, NADPH and NADH and increases of NAD+ were found. Consequently, the CRC, NAD(PH/NAD(P+ and NADP+/NAD+ ratios reached a minimum and ARC a maximum as compared to previous measurements.

  2. Elevated temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration effects on xylem anatomy of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpelainen, A.; Gerendiain, A.Z.; Luostarinen, K.; Peltola, H.; Kellomaki, S. [Joensuu Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Forestry

    2007-09-15

    The effects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and elevated temperatures on the xylem anatomy of 20-year old Scots pine trees were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 16 chambers containing 4 trees each with a factorial combination of both ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations and 2 different temperature regimes. CO{sub 2} concentrations were doubled with a corresponding increase of between 2 and 6 degrees C according to each season over a period of 6 years. The study showed that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations increased the ring width in 4 of the 6 analyzed treatment years. Earlywood width increased during the first 2 years of the experiment, while latewood width increased during the third year of the study. The study also showed that the tracheid walls in both the latewood and earlywood samples were thicker when either temperature levels or CO{sub 2} levels were increased. It was noted that combined CO{sub 2} and temperature elevations resulted in thinner tracheid walls. However, latewood tracheid lumen diameters were larger in all CO{sub 2} and temperature treatments than trees grown in ambient conditions. It was concluded that xylem anatomy was impacted more by increases in temperature than by elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Predicting moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine by microwave scanning of sawn timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Hagman, O.; Fjellner, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of calibrating a prediction model for the moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using microwave sensors. The material was initially of green moisture content and was thereafter dried in several steps to zero moisture content. At each step, all the pieces were weighed, scanned with a microwave sensor (Satimo 9,4GHz), and computed tomography (CT)-scanned with a medical CT scanner (Siemens Somatom AR.T.). The output variables from the microwave sensor were used as predictors, and CT images that correlated with known moisture content were used as response variables. Multivariate models to predict average moisture content and density were calibrated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models for average moisture content and density were applied at the pixel level, and the distribution was visualized. The results show that it is possible to predict both moisture content distribution and density distribution with high accuracy using microwave sensors. (author)

  4. Retention of seed trees fails to lifeboat ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in harvested Scots pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenius, Kerstin; Lindahl, Björn D; Dahlberg, Anders

    2017-09-01

    Fennoscandian forestry has in the past decades changed from natural regeneration of forests towards replantation of clear-cuts, which negatively impacts ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity. Retention of trees during harvesting enables EMF survival, and we therefore expected EMF communities to be more similar to those in old natural stands after forest regeneration using seed trees compared to full clear-cutting and replanting. We sequenced fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicons to assess EMF communities in 10- to 60-year-old Scots pine stands regenerated either using seed trees or through replanting of clear-cuts with old natural stands as reference. We also investigated local EMF communities around retained old trees. We found that retention of seed trees failed to mitigate the impact of harvesting on EMF community composition and diversity. With increasing stand age, EMF communities became increasingly similar to those in old natural stands and permanently retained trees maintained EMF locally. From our observations, we conclude that EMF communities, at least common species, post-harvest are more influenced by environmental filtering, resulting from environmental changes induced by harvest, than by the continuity of trees. These results suggest that retention of intact forest patches is a more efficient way to conserve EMF diversity than retaining dispersed single trees. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Elevated temperature and CO2 concentration effects on xylem anatomy of Scots pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpelainen, A.; Gerendiain, A.Z.; Luostarinen, K.; Peltola, H.; Kellomaki, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and elevated temperatures on the xylem anatomy of 20-year old Scots pine trees were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 16 chambers containing 4 trees each with a factorial combination of both ambient and elevated CO 2 concentrations and 2 different temperature regimes. CO 2 concentrations were doubled with a corresponding increase of between 2 and 6 degrees C according to each season over a period of 6 years. The study showed that elevated CO 2 concentrations increased the ring width in 4 of the 6 analyzed treatment years. Earlywood width increased during the first 2 years of the experiment, while latewood width increased during the third year of the study. The study also showed that the tracheid walls in both the latewood and earlywood samples were thicker when either temperature levels or CO 2 levels were increased. It was noted that combined CO 2 and temperature elevations resulted in thinner tracheid walls. However, latewood tracheid lumen diameters were larger in all CO 2 and temperature treatments than trees grown in ambient conditions. It was concluded that xylem anatomy was impacted more by increases in temperature than by elevated CO 2 concentrations. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  7. Proportion of knotty wood in stems of 28-year old lodgepole and Scots pine in experimental plantation in Zvirgzde, Latvia

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    Jansons Aris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In forestry, alien tree species are planted to maximize yield from a stand by increasing productivity and decreasing environmental risks. In Eastern Europe, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia might be used as a source of biomass and industrial wood; however, before any recommendations are given, possible gains of the novel species should be scrupulously evaluated. In this study, we compared volume and proportion of knotty stemwood (VKN of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris from first generation seed orchards and provenances of alien lodgepole pine [Fort Nelson (58°38’ N, 122°41’ W and Summit Lake (54°24› N, 122°37› W] at the age of 27 years growing in central Latvia. We also assessed the relationships between VKN and several morphometric parameters.

  8. Genetic processes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    As immobile organisms, plants have to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions and make use of different adaptive mechanisms to survive and reproduce successfully under stress. It is often difficult to detect the organism s or population s response to stress factors due to slow changes of environmental conditions or delayed reactions of plants. From this point of view, the investigation of reactions under extreme environmental change offer unique opportunities to study adaptation mechanisms. Areas with a strong anthropogenic impact on the environment represent ideal places for research on adaptation or selection processes. For many decades, ionizing radiation is well known as a strong damaging and stress factor. Radiation exposure causes heavy damages of the DNA. This leads to a decrease in fitness in the present generation and inheritable mutations which reveal their effects in later generations. On the other hand, radiation exposure activates adaptation processes to ensure survival. The investigation of the influence of radiation at different levels of life organization from the DNA level to the population level can help to elucidate response mechanisms to changing environments. After the accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the surrounding territories were contaminated with high amounts of radioactive material. The exclusion zone became a natural laboratory for the investigation of effects of radiation on the biocenosis. Pinus sylvestris is one of the most wildly used species in radiation research due to its very high sensitivity to radiation exposure and dominance in forest ecosystems of the exclusion zone. Nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and AFLP markers were investigated in order to study mutation rates and selection processes under the influence of radiation in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) of different age and irradiation conditions collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone and control areas. The results of this study show that a

  9. Carbon dioxide exchange above a 30-year-old Scots pine plantation established on organic-soil cropland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohila, A.; Laurila, T.; Aurela, M.; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Aro, L.; Laine, J.; Kolari, P.; Minkkinen, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the boreal zone, large areas of natural mires have been drained and used for agriculture, resulting in net carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and increased nitrous oxide emissions but decreased methane emissions. However, due to structural changes in agriculture, a substantial area of cropland on organic soil has been afforested. In order to estimate the carbon balance of afforested organic-soil cropland, we measured CO 2 and water vapour (H 2 O) fluxes during year above a Scots pine plantation (Pinus sylvestris) in the middle-boreal zone, using the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. We observed CO 2 uptake by the Scots pine stand from late April to mid-October with a daily average net uptake from May to the beginning of October. However, there were also periods of daily net efflux. High ecosystem respiration rates continued throughout the winter (mean winter respiration 0.036 mg CO 2 m -2 s-1). As an annual average, the 30-year-old pine stand was a small source of CO 2 (+50 g m -2 a -1 ) to the atmosphere, showing that the CO 2 sequestration into the ecosystem was able to compensate for most of the carbon that was released by heterotrophic respiration from the drained soil. (orig.)

  10. Effects of treatment with vermicompost on the some morphological and physiological characteristics of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.

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    Atilla Atik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, effects of vermicompost treatment tried to be determined on some morphological and physiological seedling quality characteristics of one – year Scots pines. Experiments were set according to random plots experimental design including 14 trials with 3 repetitions. With this aim, seeds obtained from seven different sites (origins of mixed Scots pine stands which naturally grow in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey were used in the experiments. At the end of the vegetation period, important physiologic and morphologic parameters of seedlings in the plots, SH, RCD, TDW, RDW and total N rate were detected. After that, RI, V and QI rates, each of which is also important rational indicator in seedlings for height, root collar diameter and weight balance, were calculated with the help of morphological data. Effects of VC treatment were found to be statistically significant on all the development parameters measured in seedlings in seven origin groups. It was determined in all morphologic parameters that the best development rate was observed in Goktepe originating seedlings in both VC treatment and control groups while Geyikgolu originating seedlings showed the least development performance. It was observed from the correlation analysis that there is a positive relation between morphologic and physiologic quality criteria. It was also determined according to the results of multivariable regression analysis that elevation of the sites where seedlings were picked up was more effective on the development of seedling development than the aspect of the sites. Results of the study were found to be convenient with the related literature and showed that VC treatment contributed positively to the development of Scots pine seedlings taken from seven different origins.

  11. Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory Effects on the Amino Acid and Nitrogen Content in the Needles of Scots Pine

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    Eugenija Kupsinskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p

  12. The true distribution and accumulation of radiocaesium in stem of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Y.; Goor, F.; Riesen, T.

    2002-01-01

    The radial and vertical distributions of radiocaesium, potassium and calcium were determined in two Scots pine stands (17 and 58 yr old) similarly affected by the Chernobyl fallout. For both age classes, concentrations are always the lowest in the stemwood, highest in the inner bark and intermediary levels were observed for the outer bark. Due to the cumulative character of its biomass, however, stemwood is a long-term major reservoir of 137 Cs. With tree development, changes in the 137 Cs radial distribution are well described by variations in the sap ascent pattern and reveal an important transfer between tree rings. It is shown that, both the biomass evolution and knowledge of the evolution of the 137 Cs radial gradient are important to predicting 137 Cs accumulation in wood with time. According to the common transfer factor (TF) approach, one would expect a decrease in radiocaesium accumulation with time (from 0.0047±0.0013 to 0.0035±0.0008 m 2 kg -1 for the 17 and 58 yr old trees, respectively). With the wood immobilisation potential (WIP) approach, it was, however, clearly shown that additional annual uptake was highest for the older stand (3.12±0.23 Bq cm -3 yr -1 for the 58-year-old stand compared to 1.99±0.30 Bq cm -3 yr -1 for the younger stand). Following the WIP approach, it was moreover possible to distinguish between the 137 Cs incorporated via the root uptake process and a possible lasting effect of interception. It is shown that, whereas for the younger stand (5 yr old at the time of the accident) root uptake contributed exclusively to the wood contamination, the former process explained only 48% of the measured total 137 Cs content in the wood of the older tree

  13. Long-term nitrogen additions and the intrinsic water-use efficiency of boreal Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Wallin, Göran; Linder, Sune; Lundmark, Tomas; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen fertilization nearly always increases productivity in boreal forests, at least in terms of wood production, but it is unclear how. In a mature (80 yrs. old) Scots pine forest in northern Sweden, we tested the extent to which nitrogen fertilization increased intrinsic photosynthetic water-use efficiency. We measured δ13C both discretely, in biweekly phloem sampling, and continuously, by monitoring of bole respiration. The original experiment was designed as a test of eddy covariance methods and is not therefore strictly replicated. Nonetheless, we compared phloem contents among fifteen trees from each plot and stem respiration from four per plot. The treatments included addition of 100 kg N/ha for eight years and a control. Phloem contents have the advantage of integrating over the whole canopy and undergoing complete and rapid turnover. Their disadvantage is that some have observed isotopic drift with transport down the length of the stem, presumably as a result of preferential export and/or reloading. We also measured the isotopic composition of stem respiration from four trees on each plot using a Picarro G1101-I CRDS attached to the vent flow from a continuous gas-exchange system. We detected consistent differences in δ13C between the treatments in phloem contents. Within each treatment, the phloem δ13C was negatively correlated with antecedent temperature (R2= 0.65) and no other measured climate variable. The isotopic composition of stem CO2 efflux will be compared to that of phloem contents. However, when converted to intrinsic water-use efficiency, the increase amounted to only about 4%. This is a small relative to the near doubling in wood production. Although we were able to detect a clear and consistent increase in water-use efficiency with N-fertilization, it constitutes but a minor cause of the observed increase in wood production.

  14. Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine

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    H. Verbeeck

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage water use is an indirect consequence of the interplay between different meteorological drivers through their effect on water flow and water potential in trees. We studied these microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation and vapour pressure deficit (VPD were the main atmospheric drivers of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed. VPD was determined to be one of the main drivers of these differences. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. The daily minimum tree water content was lower in periods of high VPD, but the reserves were not completely depleted after the first day of high VPD, due to refilling during the night.

    Nevertheless, the tree water content deficit was a third important factor influencing storage water use. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water content

  15. Drought impact on wood formation and antioxidant protection of Scots pine cambial zone

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    N. E. Sudachkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought on the 8-9-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was simulated in the field by isolating trees from precipitation. The biochemical changes typical of water stress wеre compared with the structural changes of the annual rings of wood. The samples of the current and last year needles, cambium and adjoining layers of xylem and phloem of stems and roots were analyzed. In the needles, the content of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids were determined. The contents of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA, the activity of enzymes, realizing antioxidant protection: superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and content of sugars and starch were determined in tissues of xylem, phloem and cambium. It was shown that drought reduces the weight of the needles, the chlorophyll content and the width of the annual wood rings. In moderate drought in the cambial zone oxidative stress was developed and also protection system against free radicals was activated, which resulted in a high SOD activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide due to the activity of peroxidase reduction. As a result, the division processes in cambial zone and cells extension growth were inhibited and the width of annual wood rings decreased due to reduction in the number and size of tracheids. It was found that decrease in growth was not due to deficit of carbohydrates for the process xylogenesis. Water deficit increases the concentration of low molecular weight carbohydrates in the tissues, which, due to the inhibition of division and extension cambial derivatives are only partially used for thickening tracheid cell walls. As a result, abnormal tracheides with reduced size of cells and lumens and thickened cell walls were formed. Abundance of soluble carbohydrates was deposited as a reserve pool in the root phloem in the form of starch. The stock function of root phloem was increased under water deficit conditions.

  16. Controls of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes from scots pine by surface conductance and abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshan Zha

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (E and CO2 flux (Fc in the growing season of an unusual dry year were measured continuously over a Scots pine forest in eastern Finland, by eddy covariance techniques. The aims were to gain an understanding of their biological and environmental control processes. As a result, there were obvious diurnal and seasonal changes in E, Fc , surface conductance (gc , and decoupling coefficient (Ω, showing similar trends to those in radiation (PAR and vapour pressure deficit (δ. The maximum mean daily values (24-h average for E, Fc , gc , and Ω were 1.78 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -11.18 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 6.27 mm s(-1, and 0.31, respectively, with seasonal averages of 0.71 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -4.61 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 3.3 mm s(-1, and 0.16. E and Fc were controlled by combined biological and environmental variables. There was curvilinear dependence of E on gc and Fc on gc . Among the environmental variables, PAR was the most important factor having a positive linear relationship to E and curvilinear relationship to Fc , while vapour pressure deficit was the most important environmental factor affecting gc . Water use efficiency was slightly higher in the dry season, with mean monthly values ranging from 6.67 to 7.48 μmol CO2 (mmol H2O(-1 and a seasonal average of 7.06 μmol CO2 (μmol H2O(-1. Low Ω and its close positive relationship with gc indicate that evapotranspiration was sensitive to surface conductance. Mid summer drought reduced surface conductance and decoupling coefficient, suggesting a more biotic control of evapotranspiration and a physiological acclimation to dry air. Surface conductance remained low and constant under dry condition, supporting that a constant value of surface constant can be used for modelling transpiration under drought condition.

  17. Total vs. internal element concentrations in Scots pine needles along a sulphur and metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, Pasi; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Different methods should be used for foliar analyses of trees used as bioindicators of pollution, than those analyses used in nutritional studies of trees. - Analysis of foliar elements is a commonly used method for studying tree nutrition and for monitoring the impacts of air pollutants on forest ecosystems. Interpretations based on the results of foliar element analysis may, however, be different in nutrition vs. monitoring studies. We studied the impacts of severe sulphur and metal (mainly Cu and Ni) pollution on the element concentrations (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S and Zn) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) foliage along an airborne sulphur and metal pollution gradient. Emphasis was put on determining the contribution of air-borne particles that have accumulated on needle surfaces to the total foliage concentrations. A comparison of two soil extraction methods was carried out in order to obtain a reliable estimate of plant-available element concentrations in the soil. Element concentrations in the soil showed only a weak relationship with internal foliar concentrations. There were no clear differences between the total and internal needle S concentrations along the gradient, whereas at the plot closest to the metal smelter complex the total Cu concentrations in the youngest needles were 1.3-fold and Ni concentrations over 1.6-fold higher than the internal needle concentrations. Chloroform-extracted surface wax was found to have Ni and Cu concentrations of as high as 3000 and 600 μg/g of wax, respectively. Our results suggest that bioindicator studies (e.g. monitoring studies) may require different foliar analysis techniques from those used in studies on the nutritional status of trees

  18. Development of an improved attractive lure for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Peter de Groot; Stephen Burke; David Wakarchuk; Robert A. Haack; Reginald Nott; Taylor Scarr

    2003-01-01

    1) The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is an exotic pest of pine, Pinus spp., and was first discovered in North America in 1992. 2) Although primary attraction to host volatiles has been clearly demonstrated for T. piniperda, the existence and role of secondary attraction to...

  19. Changes in the Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Under Anthropogenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Judzentiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF, a cement factory (CF, and an oil refinery (OR. Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005. Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles.

  20. Assessment of morphometric indexes in the second generation of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Sergeevna Makarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. A series of morphometric indexes was studied in Scots pine trees, which are the second generation of trees severely exposed at the Chernobyl accident in doses of 4-5, 10-20 and 80-100 Gy. Materials and methods. Variability of length and mass of needles, curvature of sprouts, tree height and trunk circumference were studied in 2011-2014. Results. Needle gigantism, one of the typical radiomorphoses, was observed in 2012 and 2013 in all groups of trees. Curved sprouts were discovered more often in a reference group. Tree height and trunk circumference in groups of 4-5 and 10-20 Gy were significantly higher than in the reference group. Conclusion. The trees of the second generation of severely exposed pines can be characterized with needle gigantism and stimulation of growth processes (circumference of the trunk, height of the tree at doses of 4-5 Gy and 10-20 Gy.

  1. INTERACTIONS OF ELEVATED CO2, NH3 AND O-3 ON MYCORRHIZAL INFECTION, GAS-EXCHANGE AND N-METABOLISM IN SAPLINGS OF SCOTS PINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEREZSOBA, M; DUECK, TA; PUPPI, G; KUIPER, PJC

    Four-year-old saplings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were exposed for 11 weeks in controlled-environment chambers to charcoal-filtered air, or to charcoal-filtered air supplemented with NH3 (40 mu g m(-3)), O-3 (110 mu g m(-3) during day/ 40 mu g m(-3) during night) or NH3 + O-3. All

  2. Short-term exposure to atmospheric ammonia does not affect frost hardening of needles from three- and five-year-old Scots pine trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, J.M A M; van Hasselt, P.R; van Eerden, L.J.M.; Dueck, T.A.

    The effect of atmospheric ammonia on frost hardening of needles from 3- and 5-year-old Scots pine trees was investigated. Trees were exposed to various concentrations of NH(3) during different hardening stages under laboratory conditions and in experiments with open-top chambers under a natural

  3. There is no direct relationship between N-status and frost hardiness in needles of NH3-exposed Scots pine seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, JMAM; Venema, JH; Van Hasselt, PR

    2000-01-01

    The effect of short-term atmospheric ammonia deposition on frost hardening of needles of three-month-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied. Plants were frost hardened under short day and moderate temperature conditions in the laboratory during exposure to gaseous NH3

  4. Dynamic relationship between the VOC emissions from a Scots pine stem and the tree water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Chan, Tommy; Aalto, Juho; Kolari, Pasi; Rissanen, Kaisa; Hakola, Hannele; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana

    2013-04-01

    The stems of coniferous trees contain huge storages of oleoresin. The composition of oleoresin depends on e.g. tree species, age, provenance, health status, and environmental conditions. Oleoresin is under pressure in the extensive network of resin ducts in wood and needles. It flows out from a mechanically damaged site to protect the tree by sealing the wounded site. Once in contact with air, volatile parts of oleoresin evaporate, and the residual compounds harden to make a solid protective seal over damaged tissues. The hardening time of the resin depends on evaporation rate of the volatiles which in turn depends on temperature. The storage is also toxic to herbivores and attracts predators that restrict the herbivore damage. Despite abundant knowledge on emissions of volatile isoprenoids from foliage, very little is known about their emissions from woody plant parts. We set up an experiment to measure emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes as well as two oxygenated VOCs, methanol and acetone, from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stem and branches. The measurements were started in early April and continued until mid-June, 2012. Simultaneously, we measured the dynamics of whole stem and xylem diameter changes, stem sap flow rate and foliage transpiration rate. These measurements were used to estimate A) pressure changes inside the living stem tissue and the water conducting xylem, B) the refilling of stem water stores after winter dehydration (the ratio of sap flow at the stem base to water loss by foliage), and C) the increase in tree water transport capacity (the ratio of maximum daily sap flow rate to the diurnal variation in xylem pressure) during spring due to winter embolism refilling and/or the temperature dependent root water uptake capacity. The results show that already very early in spring, significant VOC emissions from pine stem can be detected, and that they exhibit a diurnal cycle similar to that of ambient temperature. During the highest emission

  5. Maximizing peatland forest regeneration success at lowest cost to the atmosphere. Effects of soil preparation on Scots pine seedling vitality and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, M.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation investigated the impacts of soil preparation after clearcutting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest on thick-peated soil from silvicultural and climatic standpoints. Three growing seasons after outplanting, mounding most effectively secured seedling survival, growth, and vitality through improved soil aeration of the planting spot. However, other presumed benefits of mounding to seedlings such as warmer soil temperatures and faster organic matter decomposition were not confirmed here. Regeneration in scalps was unsuccessful due to waterlogged soil. Importantly when scalping, only the humus layer should be scraped off without creating depressions in the peat. Seedling tolerance to desiccated as well as waterlogged peat soil over one growing season was remarkable in controlled conditions. The impact of drought, however, was more immediate and severe as root and shoot growth, fractional colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and root hydraulic conductance were reduced. Nevertheless, maintenance of rather high photochemical efficiency (expressed as variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence, Fv/Fm) especially in current-year needles despite harsh drought seemed to indicate a potential for seedling recovery. Polyamine analysis also revealed that new needles are preferred in protecting the different parts of the seedlings against drought stress. Wet-stressed seedlings, on the other hand, exhibited few signs of suffering. It was also demonstrated how the experimental environment a controlled versus field setting influences seedling tolerance to stress. The differing moisture levels within comparable microsites dry vs. wet scalps and ditch vs. inverted mounds had little influence on seedling growth and condition although physiological upset (i.e., Fv/Fm) was evident within scalps. Namely, the wetter the soil was, the lower Fv/Fm was. The fear of soil preparation accelerating GHG emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}, from peat into the atmosphere

  6. Chemodiversity of a Scots pine stand and implications for terpene air concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2012-02-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 48 yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ significantly between trees

  7. Relationships between grade determining properties of Spanish scots and laricio pine structural timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Golfín, J. I.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In a. sample made up of 3312 boards of scots pine (pinus sylvestris and 3318 boards of laricio pine pinus nigra Van Saltzmannii, both of Spanish provenance, and ranging in size from 100x40x2500 mm to 200x70x4500 mm, previously tested in accordance with the procedure set forth in UNE EN 408 standard, the relationships between the grade determining properties considered in the UNE EN 338 standard (bending strength, global and local modulus of elasticity in bending, density are studied. In addition to these variables, the modulus of elasticity was also considered, calculated by means of the measuring of the transmission speed of an ultrasonic pulse generated by a Sylvatest device. The global modulus of elasticity calculated by measuring the deformation at the neutral axis seems to be the best predictor of the ultimate bending strength, while the local modulus of elasticity proves to be difficult to obtain, and has a lower predictive quality, and so its elimination is suggested. The need to consider one single testing procedure to determine the global modulus of elasticity is also analyzed, along with the convenience of carrying out further studies regarding the use of ultrasonic techniques in order to predict the modulus of elasticity, due to the fact that the systems available are not sufficiently precise.

    En una muestra compuesta por 3.312 piezas de madera aserrada de pino laricio (pimis nigra y 3.318 piezas de pino silvestre (pinus sylvestris de procedencia española y con dimensiones que varían entre 100x40x2.500 mm y 200x70x4.500 mm, previamente ensayada a flexión de acuerdo con el procedimiento descrito en la norma UNE EN 408, se analizan las relaciones existentes entre las propiedades indicadoras establecidas en la norma UNE EN 338 (resistencia última a flexión, módulos de elasticidad global y local en flexión, densidad. Adicionalmente a estas variables se determinó también el módulo de elasticidad obtenido mediante la medici

  8. Determination of the stress-strain curve in specimens of Scots pine for numerical simulation of defect free beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baño, V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a twodimensional numerical model to simulate the response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. defect free timber members in order to predict the behaviour of these members when subjected to external forces. For this purpose, data of the mechanical properties of Scots pine were obtained by performing experimental tests on specimens. We determined the stresses and deformations of timber beams in the elastic-plastic and plastic phases. In addition, we developed a finite element software that considered the orthotropic nature of timber, the non-linearity of the compression-reduction branch and the differing moduli of elasticity in tension and compression for Scots pine beams free from defects. The software developed simulates an experimental four point bending test according to UNE-EN 408 Standard.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de un modelo numérico bidimensional de piezas de madera de Pinus sylvestris L. libre de defectos que prediga su comportamiento frente a solicitaciones externas. Para su desarrollo, fue necesario realizar ensayos experimentales sobre probetas de pequeño tamaño con el fin de obtener los datos de las propiedades mecánicas para el Pinus sylvestris L. de procedencia española. A partir de los datos experimentales obtenidos, se desarrolla un programa de elementos finitos que considera la ortotropía de la madera, la no linealidad de la rama compresión-acortamiento y los distintos módulos de elasticidad a tracción y a compresión para vigas libres de defectos. El programa simula el ensayo experimental de flexión en cuatro puntos según la Norma UNE-EN 408 y aborda la determinación de las tensiones y deformaciones de las vigas de madera en las tres fases de comportamiento: elástica, elastoplástica y plástica.

  9. Response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of drought on plant functioning has received considerable attention in recent years, however our understanding of the response of carbon and water coupling to drought in terrestrial ecosystems still needs to be improved. A severe soil moisture drought occurred in southern Finland in the late summer of 2006. In this study, we investigated the response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris on the daily time scale mainly using eddy covariance flux data from the Hyytiälä (southern Finland flux site. In addition, simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were evaluated against the observed results. Based on observed data, the ecosystem level water use efficiency (EWUE; the ratio of gross primary production, GPP, to evapotranspiration, ET showed a decrease during the severe soil moisture drought, while the inherent water use efficiency (IWUE; a quantity defined as EWUE multiplied with mean daytime vapour pressure deficit, VPD increased and the underlying water use efficiency (uWUE, a metric based on IWUE and a simple stomatal model, is the ratio of GPP multiplied with a square root of VPD to ET was unchanged during the drought. The decrease in EWUE was due to the stronger decline in GPP than in ET. The increase in IWUE was because of the decreased stomatal conductance under increased VPD. The unchanged uWUE indicates that the trade-off between carbon assimilation and transpiration of the boreal Scots pine forest was not disturbed by this drought event at the site. The JSBACH simulation showed declines of both GPP and ET under the severe soil moisture drought, but to a smaller extent compared to the observed GPP and ET. Simulated GPP and ET led to a smaller decrease in EWUE but a larger increase in IWUE because of the severe soil moisture drought in comparison to observations. As in the observations, the simulated uWUE showed no changes in the drought event. The

  10. Regulation of gene expression for defensins and lipid transfer protein in Scots pine seedlings by necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata (Fr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrunyk Nataliya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Damping-off disease in pine seedling, caused by fungi and oomycetes (Fusarium, Alternaria, Botrytis, Phytophthora and other species, is one of the most dangerous diseases in conifer nurseries and greenhouses worldwide. Alternaria alternata is a necrotrophic pathogen, which causes early blight in higher plants and results in massive economic losses in agro-industry as well as in forestry. Pine seedlings that lack strong lignificated and suberized cell walls at early stages of their growth are vulnerable to damping-off disease. So, triggering the synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, such as phytoalexins, anticipins and pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, is the main defense strategy to confine pathogens at early stages of pine ontogenesis. Defensins and lipid transfer proteins are members of two PR-protein families (PR-12 and PR-14 respectively and possess antimicrobial activities in vitro through contact toxicity, and the involvement in defense signalling. In this work, we describe the changes in the expression levels of four defensin genes and lipid transfer protein in Scots pine seedlings infected with A. alternata. The expression levels of PsDef1 and PsDef2 increased at 48 h.p.i. (hours post inoculation. The levels of PsDef4 transcripts have increased after 6 and 24 hours. Notably, at 48 h.p.i., the level of PsDef4 transcripts was decreased by 1.2 times compared to control. The level of PsDef3 transcripts was reduced at all three time points. On the other hand, the level of PsLTP1 transcripts increased at 6 h and 48 h.p.i.; while at 24 h.p.i., it decreased by 20% when compared to the control sample. Our results suggest that defensins and lipid transfer protein are involved in the defense response of young Scots pine to necrotrophic pathogen. Thus, those genes can be used as the molecular markers in forestry selection and development of the ecologically friendly remedies for coniferous seedlings cultivation in greenhouses and nurseries.

  11. Observations on the effects of acid rain treatment on needle surfaces of scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, M.; Huttunen, S.; Back, J.

    1994-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings were subjected to acid rain treatment at pH 3, pH 4 and pH 7 in a field experiment during 1986-1989. SEM+EDS, TEM, and measurements of wax quantity were used to detect changes in needle surfaces. After 5 weeks at pH 3 and pH 4 acid rain treatment, CaSO 4 -crystallites were observed on visibly undamaged pine and spruce needle surfaces. Direct acid rain damage in conjunction with CaSO 4 -crystallites was observed only occasionally in wax structures. Two-month-old pine needles had 50% less wax in early August after exposure at pH 3 and pH 4 than water controls. The occurrence of CaSO 4 -crystallites on acid rain-treated needle surfaces, and more abundant deposition of Ca oxalate crystallites in the inner walls of epi- and hypodermal cells could be involved with acid rain-induced calcium leaching. Calcium sulphate is probably a result of the disturbed wax and cuticle biosynthesis resulting in undeveloped, permeable cuticles. At the end of experiment, no CaSO 4 -crystallites were seen on needle surfaces. Soil analysis revealed an increase in the soluble Ca concentrations at pH 3. (orig.)

  12. The growth of Scots pine and the availability of nutrients in old Finnish liming experiments on drained peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Paetilae, A.

    1994-01-01

    Liming (with applications of 1000 to 8000 kg/ha) had no long- term (1929-1985) effect on the growth of Scots pine on drained oligotrophic peatlands. Liming plus NPK fertilization had a variable effect on the growth of stands. The same treatment could result in a very different response in different experimental areas. Both liming alone and liming plus NPK fertilization increased the calcium, magnesium and nitrogen contents of peat and decreased the C/Nratio and acidity. Liming plus fertilization decreased needle boron and manganese and increased calcium and nitrogen concentrations. The results of peat and needle analysis indicated that the changes in nitrogen availability to trees caused by liming have not been sufficient enough to affect tree growth. It was also concluded that boron deficiency was the main reason for the lowered yield. (26 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.) (author)

  13. Effect of raw wood supply system on the wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill using Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, O. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), Email: olli.dahl@tkk.fi; Jylhae, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), Email: paula.jylha@metla.fi; Laitila, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: juha.laitila@metla.fi; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    Integration of energy wood procurement into that of pulpwood is seen as a means for reducing the high procurement costs of small-diameter wood harvested from first thinnings. In the deepest mode of integration, pulp and energy fractions are separated from each other in the debarking drum of the pulp mill. In the present paper, the competitiveness of the conventional supply chain based on cut-to-length harvesting was compared to the supply systems based on the harvesting of loose whole trees and whole-tree bundling, in the cases of three Scots pine-dominated first-thinning stands using wood paying capability (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as a decisive criterion. Furthermore, the competitiveness of first thinnings as raw material sources for a pulp mill was evaluated by using intermediate thinnings as s reference. (orig.)

  14. Soil carbon and nitrogen budget in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, T.; Bergmann, C.; Huettl, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Litterfall, bio- and necromass of the forest floor vegetation, decomposition of recent organic material, soil respiration and humus stocks were examined in 3 Scots pine stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany. One site, Rosea, received heavy deposition loads from chemical industries and brown coal fired power plants. The site Taura received moderate air pollution due to lower deposition of coarse and calcium rich dust particles; the third site, Neuglobsow was afforested and represents a low polluted control site. High nitrogen loads and increased pH value due to Ca deposition caused shifts in the vegetation structure, and higher biomass production of the forest floor vegetation, whereas needle litter production was not impacted. Simultaneously, decomposition rates of the recently harvested forest floor vegetation decreased with increasing pollutant loads, but needle litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates did not differ between the sites. Consequently, soil carbon and nitrogen stocks increased with increasing pollutant input. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Contrasting growth forecasts across the geographical range of Scots pine due to altitudinal and latitudinal differences in climatic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, Luis; Linares, Juan C; Sánchez-Miranda, Ángela; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity. We selected Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a model species to explore growth responses to climatic variability (seasonal temperature and precipitation) over the last century through dendrochronological methods. We developed linear models based on age, climate and previous growth to forecast growth trends up to year 2100 using climatic predictions. Populations were located at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the northern, central and southernmost populations and across an altitudinal gradient at the southern edge of the distribution (treeline, medium and lower elevations). Radial growth was maximal at medium altitude and treeline of the southernmost populations. Temperature was the main factor controlling growth variability along the gradients, although the timing and strength of climatic variables affecting growth shifted with latitude and altitude. Predictive models forecast a general increase in Scots pine growth at treeline across the latitudinal distribution, with southern populations increasing growth up to year 2050, when it stabilizes. The highest responsiveness appeared at central latitude, and moderate growth increase is projected at the northern limit. Contrastingly, the model forecasted growth declines at lowland-southern populations, suggesting an upslope range displacement over the coming decades. Our results give insight into the geographical responses of tree species to climate change

  16. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Drought-induced defoliation and long periods of near-zero gas exchange play a key role in accentuating metabolic decline of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Aguadé, David; Galiano, Lucía; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2013-10-01

    Drought-induced defoliation has recently been associated with the depletion of carbon reserves and increased mortality risk in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We hypothesize that defoliated individuals are more sensitive to drought, implying that potentially higher gas exchange (per unit of leaf area) during wet periods may not compensate for their reduced photosynthetic area. We measured sap flow, needle water potentials and whole-tree hydraulic conductance to analyse the drought responses of co-occurring defoliated and nondefoliated Scots pines in northeast Spain during typical (2010) and extreme (2011) drought conditions. Defoliated Scots pines showed higher sap flow per unit leaf area during spring, but were more sensitive to summer drought, relative to nondefoliated pines. This pattern was associated with a steeper decline in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance with drought and an enhanced sensitivity of canopy conductance to soil water availability. Near-homeostasis in midday water potentials was observed across years and defoliation classes, with minimum values of -2.5 MPa. Enhanced sensitivity to drought and prolonged periods of near-zero gas exchange were consistent with low levels of carbohydrate reserves in defoliated trees. Our results support the critical links between defoliation, water and carbon availability, and their key roles in determining tree survival and recovery under drought. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p essential oils in the needles allowed us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of the effects of pollution than 1-year-old needles in the case of the NFF and the OR transects, and both-aged needles were equally valuable in the case of the CF transect. The changes detected in the proportions of components of the essential oils in the needles of the trees affected by the industrial emissions may play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility of the pine stands to the biotic factors, and also may alter emissions of terpenes from the stands to the atmosphere.

  19. 76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705... distorted growth in host trees. Large infestations of PSB typically kill most of the lateral shoots near the...

  20. Uranium distribution and cycling in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on a revegetated U-mining heap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Yves; Schmidt, Peter; Hees, May van; Wannijn, Jean; Bree, Peter van; Rufyikiri, Gervais; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2005-01-01

    We determined the uranium distribution in soil and its allocation in compartments of 35-year-old Scots pine developed on a revegetated U-mining heap. The processes controlling the dynamics of U recycling were identified and further quantified in terms of annual fluxes. As pine developed, an acid humus layer emerged leading to weathering of the alkaline mining debris but this had little effect on U mobility in the soil profile. Increased U mobility mainly involved a translocation of U to metal-humus chelates in surface layers. The root compartment accounted for 99.3% of the U budget in tree, thus serving as an effective barrier which restricts U uptake. The current root uptake and transfer of U to upper parts of the tree amounted to about 3 g ha -1 y -1 , i.e. less than 0.03% of the current NH 4 -exchangeable U pool in the soil (0-30 cm). Allocation and translocation pattern made it clear that a dominant fraction of the translocated U moves passively with the ascent xylem sap, most likely as a soluble complex, and steadily accumulates in the needles. Consequently, 97% of the U annual uptake is returned to the soil through litterfall. At the studied site, the risk of U dissemination due to biomass turnover or trunk harvest was low when considered in relation to the current 'exemption level' for U

  1. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  2. The variability of Scots pine from Piekielna Góra as expressed by morphological and anatomical traits of needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year old needles were collected from 30 standing Scots pine trees on Piekielna Góra. These needles were analysed in respect to 13 morphological and anatomical traits. The data so obtained was subjected to a whole range of multi-trait analytical methods in an attempt to determine the variability among the randomly chosen trees. Multivariate analysis of variance and canonical analysis were done as well as calculation of Mahalanobis distances between each pair of trees and their significance was tested by the Hotelling T2 statistics. Aminimum spanning tree was constructed on the basis of the shortest Mahalanobis distances, while a dendrogram (cluster analysis was compiled on the basis of Euclidean distances. It was found that in spite of the fact that the studied population sample of pines did not form internal, significantly differentiated groups, the variability among particular trees was large and depended on the given trait. The number of resin canals best differentiated the studied trees, while the Marcet coefficient did not significantly differentia­te any pair of trees.

  3. Variability of morphological needle traits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. among populations from mountain and lowland regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabiszak Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to examine interpopulational needle traits variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. from four mountain, one foothill and three lowland, natural populations located in Poland. This choice of locations was motivated by the presumed different origins of mountainous populations and the necessity to demonstrate how closely they are related to lowland populations. Variation in the studied populations was determined using seven morphological traits of needles: 1 - needle length, 2 - number of stomatal rows on the flat side of a needle, 3 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the flat side, 4 - number of stomatal rows on the convex side of a needle, 5 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the convex side, 6 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the left side and 7 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the right side. Biometric data were analysed statistically, and it was found that (i needle traits differentiate studied populations; (ii the postulated division of the population into two groups is reflected in the obtained results; and (iii a particularly strong relationship was found between two relict pine populations from the Pieniny (Sokolica, Kazalnica, Czertezik and Tatra Mts. (Wielke Koryciska, which may be the result of the common origins and history of these two populations

  4. Multivariate Correlation between Analysis Data on Dissolved Organic Material from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris Chips and their Autohydrolysis Pre-Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Lehto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemometric techniques were used to establish the relationship between the autohydrolysis conditions prior to pulping and the chemical compositions of the soluble organic materials removed from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris wood chips. The aqueous chip pre-treatments (autohydrolysis were administered at 130 °C and 150 °C for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, and the hydrolysates obtained were characterized in terms of total carbohydrates (various mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides together with uronic acid side groups, volatile acids (acetic and formic acids, lignin, and furans (furfural and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural. Based on the analytical data gathered, a relatively accurate model for pine chip autohydrolysis was developed.

  5. Artificial recharge of groundwater through sprinkling infiltration: impacts on forest soil and the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöjd, Pekka; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Smolander, Aino; Derome, John; Lumme, Ilari; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2009-05-01

    We studied the chemical changes in forest soil and the effects on Scots pine trees caused by continuous sprinkling infiltration over a period of two years, followed by a recovery period of two years. Infiltration increased the water input onto the forest soil by a factor of approximately 1000. After one year of infiltration, the pH of the organic layer had risen from about 4.0 to 6.7. The NH(4)-N concentration in the organic layer increased, most probably due to the NH(4) ions in the infiltration water, as the net N mineralization rate did not increase. Sprinkling infiltration initiated nitrification in the mineral soil. Macronutrient concentrations generally increased in the organic layer and mineral soil. An exception, however, was the concentration of extractable phosphorus, which decreased strongly during the infiltration period and did not show a recovery within two years. The NO(3)-N and K concentrations had reverted back to their initial level during the two-year recovery period, while the concentrations of Ca, Mg and NH(4)-N were still elevated. Nutrient concentrations in the pine needles increased on the infiltrated plots. However, the needle P concentration increased, despite the decrease in plant-available P in the soil. Despite the increase in the nutrient status, there were some visible signs of chlorosis in the current-year needles after two years of infiltration. The radial growth of the pines more than doubled on the infiltrated plots, which suggests that the very large increase in the water input onto the forest floor had no adverse effect on the functioning of the trees. However, a monitoring period of four years is not sufficient for detecting potential long term detrimental effects on forest trees.

  6. Soil respiration shifts as drought-induced tree substitution advances from Scots pine to Holm oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Josep; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Poyatos, Rafael; Janssens, Ivan A.; Lloret, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    There is more and more evidences that the current global warming trend and the increase of frequency and intensity of drought events during the last decades in the Northern hemisphere are currently producing an increment of drought-induced forest die-off events, being the Mediterranean region one of the most affected areas. This drought-induced mortality could lead in a vegetation shift with unpredicted consequences in carbon pools, where soils are the most determinant factor in this carbon balance as they contain over two-thirds of carbon on forest ecosystems. There are several uncertainties related on the interaction between soil, environmental conditions and vegetation shifts that could modify their capability to be net carbon sinks or sources in a warming context. We studied soil respiration and its heterotrophic (RH) and autotrophic (Ra) (split in fine roots [Rr] and mycorrhizal respiration [Rs]) components in a mixed Mediterranean forest where Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) are suffering from drought-induced die-off and replaced by Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) as the dominant tree species. Soil respiration fluxes and its fractions were measured every two weeks during one year at four stages of the substitution process (non defoliated pines [NDP], defoliated pines [DFP], dead pines [DP] and Holm oak [HO]), using the mesh exclusion method. The aims were (i) to describe soil respiration fluxes in a drought-induced secondary successional process, (ii) to test whether the changes in vegetation affected soil respiration fluxes and (iii) to determine the influence of environmental and abiotic variables on the different soil respiration fractions. Total soil respiration was 10.10±6.17 TC ha-1 y-1, RH represented the 67% of the total, Ra represented the 34% of the total, and Rr and Rs were the 22 and 12%, respectively. Significant differences were found in total soil respiration and RH between NDP and HO, being lower in HO than in NDP (34% in total and 48% in RH). No

  7. Interactions between canopy cover density and regeneration cores of older saplings in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, M.; Nocentini, S.; Ducci, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: This paper provides an analysis of growth and survival of twenty–year–old Scots pine saplings in relation to canopy cover density (CCD) gradients, from dense (D–CCD), sparse (S–CCD), and gap (G–CCD) situations. Area of study: Aladag (Bolu) in northern Turkey. Material and methods: Sparse canopy cover density (S–CCD), dense canopy cover density (D–CCD) and gap canopy (G–CCD) were chosen within ten different strip sample plots (10 × 50 m) with sapling regeneration cores. Those regeneration cores were divided into two portions (individuals at the edge and middle of the regeneration cores) and from each portion three individuals was were obtained from a sample. The growth relationships of individual saplings were calculated with stem analyses. Honowski Light Factor (HLF) (ratio of Terminal sprout length (T) to Lateral sprout length (L)) was used to present growth potential measure of seedlings. Main results: The largest sapling regeneration cores were found in the G–CCD followed by S–CCD, and finally D–CCD, all tested for significance with Kruskal–Wallis Test. Compared with saplings in the middle of regeneration cores (crop saplings), those at the edge were always reduced in terms of mean height. Significant difference was only found between the ‘Main Crop’ and the ‘Edge 1’ of the regeneration cores for G–CCD suggesting that sapling regeneration cores are more typical under G–CCD conditions. HLF ratios were greater than 1 with high growth potentials for both CCD gradients (G–CCD and S–CCD) and there were no significant variations between G–CCD and S–CCD for main crop and edges. The thinning after 12–14 years increased sapling growth. However, under D–CCD, growth had virtually ceased. Research highlights: Naturally occurring Scots pine saplings are suppressed by a dense canopy. However, they are tolerant of shade to the extent that they can survive over relatively long time–periods (10–12 years) and

  8. Rapid changes in the range limits of Scots pine 4000 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, A.J.; Huntley, B.

    1991-01-01

    Paleoecological data provide estimates of response rates to past climate changes. Fossil Pinus sylvestris stumps in far northern Scotland demonstrate former presence of pine trees where conventional pollen evidence of pine forests is lacking. Radiocarbon, dendrochronological, and fine temporal-resolution palynological data show that pine forest were present for about four centuries some 4,000 years ago; the forests expanded and then retreated rapidly some 70 to 80 kilometers. Despite the rapidity of this response to climate change, it occurred at rates slower by an order of magnitude than those necessary to maintain equilibrium with forecast climate changes attributed to the greenhouse effect

  9. Diel cycles of isoprenoids in the emissions of Norway spruce, different Scots pine chemotypes, and in Boreal forest ambient air during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, N.; Williams, J.; Song, W.; Vanhatalo, A.; Bäck, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Cuvette based emission rates of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from four chemotypes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and one chemotype of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as well as the ambient mixing ratios of monoterpenes were determined during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 summer campaign. Differences in chemical composition as well as in emission strength were observed between the different chemotypes. The chemotypes of Scots pine can be classified according to species with high, no and intermediate content of Δ3-carene. The "no- Δ3-carene" chemotype was found to be the strongest emitter of monoterpenes. From this chemotype, β-myrcene, a very reactive organic gas, was the dominant species accounting for more than 35 % of the total emission rates of isoprenoids followed by ß-phellandrene (~34%). Myrcene emission rates ranged from 0.8 up to 24 µg/g (dw)/h. α-farnesene was the dominant sesquiterpene species, with measured average emission rates of 318 ng/g (dw)/h. In the high Δ3-carene chemotype, which is the most studied in Hyytiälä, Δ3-carene was more than 48 % of the total monoterpene emission. The mean Δ3-carene emission rate, circa 609 ng/g (dw)/h reported here is consistent with the previously reported value during the same season. The terpene emission from spruce was dominated by limonene (35%), ß-phellandrene (15%), α-pinene (14 %) and eucalyptol (9%). Total spruce monoterpene emissions ranged from 0.549 up to 12.2 µg/g (dw)/h. Overall the total terpene flux (monoterpenes + sesquiterpenes) from all studied plant species varied from 230 ng/g (dw)/h up to 66 µg/g (dw)/h. The total ambient monoterpenes (including α-pinene, Δ3-carene, ß-pinene and ß-myrcene) measured during the campaign varied in mixing ratio from a few ppt to over one ppb. The most abundant biogenic VOCs measured above the canopy were α-pinene and Δ3-carene and these two compounds together contributed more than 50% of the total monoterpenes. The diel cycles of isoprenoid mixing ratios

  10. Relationship between the light environment and carbohydrates in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) on a dune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klõšeiko, J.

    2003-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation transmitted through the canopy (FPAR) on a forested dune was measured at different locations with a ceptometer, and the correlations of carbohydrates in Scots pine needles with FPAR were studied. The hypothesis was that the sucrose content is relatively stable in different light environments and the main effect of the location on the dune is expressed on the glucose content in needles assuming that glucose regulates the balance between the light environment and nutritional conditions influencing the carbohydrate production and demand processes in trees. The contents of the investigated carbohydrates did not correlate with the FPAR, which was significantly elevated at the higher locations on the dune (500 per cent on top) relative to the locations on the foot. The concentrations of hexoses varied substantially between the individual branches or trees from the same plots and between plots, while sucrose levels on single plots were relatively constant. Analysis of variance indicated the effect of the location on the concentrations of sucrose and excess bound fructose, and on the total content of carbohydrates in current-year needles in which the investigated parameters were positively correlated with the respective parameters in one-year-old needles. The results indicate that the content of carbohydrates does not directly depend on the light environment on the dune, though the large variance in the content of hexoses possibly requires increasing the number of samples on each plot to reveal the differences in needles between the locations on the dune

  11. Distribution of 137Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Holiaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of 137Cs selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of 137Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research, detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of 137Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of 137Cs: d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.55 (Am(ω = 0.63 ± 0.08; 0.55 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.95 (Am(ω = 1.01 ± 0.04; 0.95 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 1.0 (Am(ω = 2.1 ± 0.5.

  12. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens.

  13. Increase of apatite dissolution rate by Scots pine roots associated or not with Burkholderia glathei PML1(12)Rp in open-system flow microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, Christophe; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Uroz, Stéphane; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Tosheva, Zornitza; Kies, Antoine

    2013-04-01

    The release of nutritive elements through apatite dissolution represents the main source of phosphorus, calcium, and several micronutrients (e.g., Zn, Cu) for organisms in non-fertilized forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify, for the first time, the dissolution rate of apatite grains by tree roots that were or were not associated with a mineral weathering bacterial strain, and by various acids known to be produced by tree roots and soil bacterial strains in open-system flow microcosms. In addition, we explored whether the mobilization of trace elements (including rare earth elements) upon apatite dissolution was affected by the presence of trees and associated microorganisms. The dissolution rate of apatite by Scots pine plants that were or were not inoculated with the strain Burkholderia glathei PML1(12)Rp, and by inorganic (nitric) and organic (citric, oxalic and gluconic) acids at pH 5.5, 4.8, 3.8, 3.5, 3.0, and 2.0 was monitored in two controlled experiments: "plant-bacteria interaction" and "inorganic and organic acids". Analyses of the outlet solutions in the "plant-bacteria interaction" experiment showed that Scots pine roots and B. glathei PML1(12)Rp produced protons and organic acids such as gluconate, oxalate, acetate, and lactate. The weathering budget calculation revealed that Scots pines (with or without PML1(12)Rp) significantly increased (factor > 10) the release of Ca, P, As, Sr, Zn, U, Y, and rare earth elements such as Ce, La, Nd from apatite, compared to control abiotic treatment. Scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed traces of apatite dissolution in contact of roots. Most dissolved elements were taken up by Scots pine roots, i.e., approximately 50% of Ca, 70% of P, 30% of As, 70% of Sr, 90% of Zn, and 100% of U, Y, and rare earth elements. Interestingly, no significant additional effect due to the bacterial strain PML1(12)Rp on apatite dissolution and Scots pine nutrition and growth was observed. The "inorganic

  14. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in South-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP; active plough (AP; and forest mill (FM on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use.

  15. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  16. Distribution and migration of cesium and strontium radionuclides in Estonian scots pine stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.; Tekko, S.; Aaspollu, J.; Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Nifontova, M.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive pollution from the Chernobyl NPS reactor accident in 1986 has wide scale impact through radionuclides fallout over large areas. We used mushrooms, macrolichenes, mosses and pine needles, forest litter and soil for the investigaton of 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation and migration in pine ecosystems. Systematic collections were made on 63 field sites, total amount of samples analyzed is 350. Highest concentrations of radiocaesium were determined in mushrooms (41.8 kBq/kg) in north-east of Estonia, in macrolichens at the Lahemaa National Park (6.2 kBq/kg). At the Rumpo Botanical Reserve the level of radiocaesium exceeded background concentration (1985) 1.3-1.8 times and at the Koljaku 4.0-4.4 times. During five years of observations (1986-1991) decrease of radionuclides pollution revealed 15 times the Rumpo and Koljaku. Radiostrontium concentrations in different ecosystem compartments all over the territory did not exeed harmful levels. (author). 2 tabs

  17. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of mast years, i.e. the synchronous production of vast amounts of fruits or seeds, has an important impact on forest ecosystems, their functioning and their services. We investigated the mast patterns of the forest tree species common beech, common and sessile oak, Norway spruce...... and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe over the last two to three decades. We analysed data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and additional Danish, German, Flemish and Swiss datasets.Within-plot synchrony...

  18. The influence of drought on the water uptake by Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. at different positions in the tree stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boczoń Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodically occurring drought is typical for the climate of Poland. In habitats supplied exclusively with rain water, tree stands are frequently exposed to the negative effects of water deficit in the soil. The aim of this study was to examine the water uptake and consumption of two individual Scots pine trees under drought conditions. The trees were located at different positions within the stand and at the time of study were over 150 years old. Soil moisture, availability of soil water and the quantity of water uptake by the individual trees were examined by measuring the water velocity inside the trunks (Thermal Dissipation Probe method.

  19. History, distribution, damage, and life cycle of a pine shoot gali sawfly, Xyela gallicaulis (Hymenoptera: Xyelidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 44(3):276-283

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry O. Yates; David R. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of Xyela gallicaulis Smith cause shoot stem galls in young pines. Loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., is the most seriously damaged, but galls have been observed on slash pine, P. elliottii var. elliottii Engelm., and shortleaf pine, P. echinata Mill. Studies in Virginia and Georgia confirm a 2-year life cycle. Larval development takes...

  20. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  1. Trace elements in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi growing in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The trace metal contents in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic partners of Scots pine, were studied on three sites situated in west-central Poland. Elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 123 samples of 16 species. The study explored the differences in metal accumulation in relation to site, fungal species, age and part of the fruiting body and results were related to metal content in soil and plant material (roots and needles). Soil analysis revealed that results were obtained under environmental conditions not subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Median metal concentrations did not differ disparately between sites, although the concentrations of each of the tested metals in the individual species varied to a large extent. Extremely high levels of Al with a large bioconcentration factor (BCF) were found in sporocarps of Thelephora terrestris. The spread between the highest and the lowest concentration (max/min) was very wide in Al, Cd and Pb and these elements may be considered to be absorbed preferentially by fruiting bodies of some species whereas Fe, Mn and Zn, with relatively low values of max/min, are normally absorbed by the majority of fungi. There was no clear relationship between caps and stipes in metal content. However, a tendency to higher metal concentration in the caps was observed. The metal content in young and older fruiting bodies of five different fungi was species dependent. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by plant and mushrooms, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In plant material (roots and needles), highest values of BCFs were noted for essential metals, like Zn and Mn. Lead showed a definite exclusion pattern (BCF below 1). In fruiting bodies of tested fungi, especially in Amanita muscaria, cadmium was the most intensively accumulated metal. Lead was excluded by plants but was accumulated or excluded by fungi depending on the species. The

  2. Gap fraction based estimation of LAI in Scots pine stands subjected to experimental removal of branches and stems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenberg, P.; Nilson, T.; Smolander, H.; Voipio, P.

    2003-01-01

    We compared estimates of leaf area index obtained by the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer (LAI PCA ) to direct estimates of LAI ('true' LAI) obtained through allometric relationships. This was done for two Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, where LAI was gradually reduced by removing branches and whole trees. LAI (defined on a hemisurface area basis) decreased from 2.24 to 0.50 in the branch removal experiment and from 1.58 to 0.29 in the tree removal experiment. The aim of the study was to analyse the variation in the ratio of the LAI-2000 estimate to the true LAI (LAI PCA /LAI) with changes in stand structure and total leaf area. In the tree removal plot, which had a smaller proportion of woody (branch) area, LAI PCA /LAI remained fairly stable (0.63-0.69) and was smaller than that in the branch removal plot, where LAI PCA /LAI increased from 0.76 to 1.16 along with the decrease in leaf area and a subsequent increase in woody (stem) area. The ratio of LAI PCA to the plant area index (PAI) differed less between plots but remained higher in the branch removal plot (increasing from 0.56 to 0.69) than in the tree removal plot, where it varied between 0.55 and 0.60. Results were analysed with the help of a theoretical canopy radiation model, which can be inverted to give LAI based on the gap fraction values measured by the LAI-2000 and stand structural parameters. Model-inverted LAI agreed well with directly measured LAI, suggesting that the model is a useful tool for correcting bias in the LAI-2000 estimates because of grouping of leaf area and the contribution of woody area. (author)

  3. SOME IMPORTANT SHOOT AND STEM FUNGI IN PINE (Pinus spp.) AND FIRS (Abies sp.) IN WESTERN BLACKSEA REGION, TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAZANÇ, Nuri Kaan; MADEN, Salih

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine fungal diseases of pines and firs observed on the shoots and the stems in the Western Blacksea Region (Karabük, Ulus and Bartın State Forest Enterprises) between the years of 2001–2004. Five different fungi were determined on pines (Pinus sp.) and firs (Abies sp.) by this study. Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum which cause rust diseases were determined only on pines. Sphaeropsis sapinea and Gremmeniella abietina were determined on pines an...

  4. Plasticity in gas-exchange physiology of mature Scots pine and European larch drive short- and long-term adjustments to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Lévesque, Mathieu; Rigling, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Adjustment mechanisms of trees to changes in soil-water availability over long periods are poorly understood, but crucial to improve estimates of forest development in a changing climate. We compared mature trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European larch (Larix decidua) growing along water-permeable channels (irrigated) and under natural conditions (control) at three sites in inner-Alpine dry valleys. At two sites, the irrigation had been stopped in the 1980s. We combined measurements of basal area increment (BAI), tree height and gas-exchange physiology (Δ 13 C) for the period 1970-2009. At one site, the Δ 13 C of irrigated pine trees was higher than that of the control in all years, while at the other sites, it differed in pine and larch only in years with dry climatic conditions. During the first decade after the sudden change in water availability, the BAI and Δ 13 C of originally irrigated pine and larch trees decreased instantly, but subsequently reached higher levels than those of the control by 2009 (15 years afterwards). We found a high plasticity in the gas-exchange physiology of pine and larch and site-specific responses to changes in water availability. Our study highlights the ability of trees to adjust to new conditions, thus showing high resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of the degree of resistance of maternal scots pine trees and their progeny to the action of SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/ and a mixture of these gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S; Karolewski, P

    1978-01-01

    Detached shoots of trees and 10 months old seedlings from seed collected from these trees, from 17 clones of Scots pine, had been subjected to the action of sulfur dioxide, ozone and a mixture of these gases. The plants were exposed to the gases in chambers specially adapted for the purpose. The concentrations of gases used and the durations of exposition permitted a considerable differentiation of the degree of needle injury observed on individual trees. On the basis of the experiments conducted a comparison was made of the injuries to needles of mother trees and to their seedling progenies made by the various gas treatments. A significant positive correlation was observed between the injuries in mothers and in the progenies due to SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ acting alone. Comparison of the injuries observed on single needles and on needle pairs in fascicles allowed us to conclude that the latter were more sensitive to the action of SO/sub 2/ while with ozone the opposite is true. 22 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avia, Komlan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Savolainen, Outi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Döring, C.; Rauch, E.

    2009-01-01

    is currently being developed at Göttingen University aims at providing a tool for the quantitative assessment of biotic and abiotic risks for forest ecosystems under the conditions of changing climate. In order to assess the future risks of wind damage the system employs a coupled modelling approach combining...... the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil–vegetation–atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks—changes of microclimate as a result...... the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend...

  8. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panferov, O; Rauch, E; Doering, C; Ahrends, B; Sogachev, A

    2009-01-01

    Wind damage is one of the major natural disturbances that can occur worldwide in most types of forests. Enhanced management using adequate decision support systems (DSS) can considerably reduce the risk of windthrow. The decision support system 'Forest and Climate Change' (DSS-WuK) which is currently being developed at Goettingen University aims at providing a tool for the quantitative assessment of biotic and abiotic risks for forest ecosystems under the conditions of changing climate. In order to assess the future risks of wind damage the system employs a coupled modelling approach combining the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks-changes of microclimate as a result of tree fall and consequent stabilization or destabilization of a forest stand. The results of the study indicate that in Solling the risk of windthrow for spruce and pine forest stands is likely to increase considerably during the 21st century. The general tendencies indicate that under A1B the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend on the particular local or regional combination of climatic and soil factors with tree species, age and structure. For Solling the positive feedback to local climatic forcing is found. The feedback contributes considerably (up to 6% under given conditions) to the projected forest damage and cannot be neglected. Therefore, the adequate projection of future damage probabilities can be performed only with a process-based coupled soil-atmosphere model with corresponding high spatial

  9. Individual variability of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. by the drought resistance features in forest-steppe pine forests of south Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tikhonova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The drought resistance of trees in the Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. populations was studied under forest steppe conditions of southern Siberia. We found large differences amongthe treesin the time and rate of needles dehydration. In the populations of the more arid growing conditions (Shira, Balgazyn the rate of loss 50 % of the water was three to four times lower than in the population of the more favorable conditions for growth (Minusinsk. It has been established that the variability of water-holding capacity of needles from individual trees in populations varies from high to very high levels. On the contrary, for the water absorption capacity of needles characteristically has variability, as within population and between them. Is marked a great assessment reliability of water holding capacity of the needles under the pooled analysis of absolute and relative indicators of dynamics of the needles degradration. We investigated the correlation of needles’ water retention signs with a height and heterozygosity of trees. It was found that under more favorable conditions of the growth the large part of sample are the trees with a direct connection between heterozygosity and drought resistance of tree and in the worst conditions – with a reverse. The correlations of water-holding capacity of needles with the height of the tree are ambiguous: in the Minusinsk sample, the most of drought-resistant trees are characterized by better growth, in Balgazyn population – conversely. Some dwarf individuals from the Balgazyn and Shira populations in terms of drought tolerance are at same level as the typical trees, among the less drought-resistant trees found as dwarfs, and typical trees. It was concluded that there are trees in populations with different strategies to adaptation to the moisture deficit.

  10. The HartX-synthesis: An experimental approach to water and carbon exchange of a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhofer, Ch.; Gay, L. W.; Granier, A.; Joss, U.; Kessler, A.; Köstner, B.; Siegwolf, R.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Vogt, R.

    1996-03-01

    In May 1992 during the interdisciplinary measurement campaign HartX (Hartheim eXperiment), several independent estimates of stand water vapor flux were compared at a 12-m high Scots pine ( Pinus silvestris) plantation on a flat fluvial terrace of the Rhine close to Freiburg, Germany. Weather during the HartX period was characterized by ten consecutive clear days with exceptionally high input of available energy for this time of year and with a slowly shifting diurnal pattern in atmospheric variables like vapor pressure deficit. Methods utilized to quantify components of stand water flux included porometry measurements on understory graminoid leaves and on pine needles and three different techniques for determining individual tree xylem sap flow. Micrometeorological methods included eddy covariance and eddy covariance energy balance techniques with six independent systems on two towers separated by 40 m. Additionally, Bowen ratio energy balance estimates of water flux were conducted and measurements of the gradients in water vapor, CO2, and trace gases within and above the stand were carried out with an additional, portable 30 m high telescoping mast. Biologically-based estimates of overstory transpiration were obtained by up-scaling tree sap flow rates to stand level via cumulative sapwood area. Tree transpiration contributed between 2.2 and 2.6 mm/day to ET for a tree leaf area index (LAI) of 2.8. The pine stand had an understory dominated by sedge and grass species with overall average LAI of 1.5. Mechanistic canopy gas exchange models that quantify both water vapor and CO2 exchange were applied to both understory and tree needle ecosystem compartments. Thus, the transpiration by graminoid species was estimated at approximately 20% of total stand ET. The modelled estimates for understory contribution to stand water flux compared well with micrometeorologically-based determinations. Maximum carbon gain was estimated from the canopy models at approximately 425 mmol

  11. Effects of temperature and drought manipulations on seedlings of Scots pine provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeger, S; Sparks, T H; Menzel, A

    2015-03-01

    Rising temperatures and more frequent and severe climatic extremes as a consequence of climate change are expected to affect growth and distribution of tree species that are adapted to current local conditions. Species distribution models predict a considerable loss of habitats for Pinus sylvestris. These models do not consider possible intraspecific differences in response to drought and warming that could buffer those impacts. We tested 10 European provenances of P. sylvestris, from the southwestern to the central European part of the species distribution, for their response to warming and to drought using a factorial design. In this common-garden experiment the air surrounding plants was heated directly to prevent excessive soil heating, and drought manipulation, using a rain-out shelter, permitted almost natural radiation, including high light stress. Plant responses were assessed as changes in phenology, growth increment and biomass allocation. Seedlings of P. sylvestris revealed a plastic response to drought by increased taproot length and root-shoot ratios. Strongest phenotypic plasticity of root growth was found for southwestern provenances, indicating a specific drought adaptation at the cost of overall low growth of aboveground structures even under non-drought conditions. Warming had a minor effect on growth but advanced phenological development and had a contrasting effect on bud biomass and diameter increment, depending on water availability. The intraspecific variation of P. sylvestris provenances could buffer climate change impacts, although additional factors such as the adaptation to other climatic extremes have to be considered before assisted migration could become a management option. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Effects of heavy metals and some biotic factors on ectomycorrhizal Scots pine in northern Finland; Effekter av tungmetaller och naagra biotiska faktorer paa tall och dess ektomykorrhiza i norra Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, U.

    1996-04-01

    In this work, nickel and copper exposure on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied experimentally under field conditions. The significance of some biotic factors was also studied. We wanted to test whether the understorey lichen layer has a protective role against nickel exposure, and whether it has any effects on pine seedlings. Effects of defoliation, simulating sawfly grazing, were also examined, since the reduced photosynthesis can be assumed to affect root growth and ectomycorrhiza negatively. Ectomycorrhizal colonization has been found to decrease in pinyon pine due to defoliation. 19 refs

  13. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. © The

  14. Long term changes in atmospheric N and S throughfall deposition and effects on soil solution chemistry in a Scots pine forest in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxman, Andries W; Peters, Roy C J H; Roelofs, Jan G M

    2008-12-01

    In a Scots pine forest the throughfall deposition and the chemical composition of the soil solution was monitored since 1984. (Inter)national legislation measures led to a reduction of the deposition of nitrogen and sulphur. The deposition of sulphur has decreased by approximately 65%. The total mineral-nitrogen deposition has decreased by ca. 25%, which is mainly due to a reduction in ammonium-N deposition (-40%), since nitrate-N deposition has increased (+50%). The nitrogen concentration in the upper mineral soil solution at 10 cm depth has decreased, leading to an improved nutritional balance, which may result in improved tree vitality. In the drainage water at 90 cm depth the fluxes of NO3(-) and SO4(2-) have decreased, resulting in a reduced leeching of accompanying base cations, thus preserving nutrients in the ecosystem. It may take still several years, however, before this will meet the prerequisite of a sustainable ecosystem.

  15. Logging residue removal after thinning in boreal forests: long-term impact on the nutrient status of Norway spruce and Scots pine needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiro, Jukka; Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna; Tamminen, Pekka; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare how conventional stem harvesting (CH) and whole-tree harvesting (WTH) in the first, and in some cases also in the second, thinning affect the needle nutrient status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands in Finland. A series of 12 long-term field experiments was studied. The experiments were established during 1978-86. The effects of logging residue removal after thinnings on the needle nutrient concentrations were generally minor and without any overall trends, but there were differences between experiments. Trees tend to maintain their current needle nutrient concentrations at the same level by re-utilizing the nutrients stored in the older tissues and by changing C allocation in the whole tree. Thus, needle analysis should be combined with stem growth data in order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of WTH on the nutrient status of trees.

  16. Aerial survey of red pine plantations for sirococcus shoot blight. Forest research report No. 46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A total of 849 red pine plantation diagrams were collected from the forest community and sketched onto 1:50,000 scale topographic maps. An aerial assessment was conducted beginning in the western counties in October 1990 and continuing eastward through to February 1991. Visual assessments were made for occurrence and severity of symptoms according to the average percentage of shoots affected per infected tree. General assessments on the height of plantations were also made, and each plantation was labelled as young (less than or equal to 3 m in height), pole (between 4 m and 6 m in height), or immature-mature (greater than 6 m in height). This research provides the results of the survey.

  17. Analysis of the effect of volume on the bending strength of the Spanish scot and laricio pine timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Golfín, J. I.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the XX century it has been recognized that the bending strength of timber is affected by the size of the specimen. In the present work the influence of depth (h and thickness (t on the characteristic bending strength (fk of both Scot (Pinus sylvestris and Laricio (Pinus nigra pine Spanish grown timber is assessed. 1.733 pieces of both species ranging in size from 100x40x2500 mm to 200x70x4.500 mm and especially sampled for this work, have been tested for bending in accordance with UNE EN 408 standard. In both species, the influence of depth and thickness on the characteristic bending strength of timber is highly significative but different between them and lead to conclude that the effect of the species is also significative and thus that the proposition of general values should be done cautiously, avoiding extrapolations. It is also concluded that, for both species, the effect of thickness seems to be highly significative and thus shouldn’t be ignored by the European standards. Finally, the convenience of revising the present depth factor considered in UNE EN 384 and UNE ENV 1995-1-1 standards is also suggested.

    Desde principios del siglo XX se conoce que la resistencia a la flexión de un elemento estructural viene afectada por su volumen. En el presente trabajo se analiza la influencia de la altura (h y del espesor (t de la sección de la pieza en la resistencia característica a flexión (fk de la madera de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris y pino laricio (Pinus nigra de procedencia española. 1.733 vigas de tamaño variable entre 100x40x2500 mm y 200x70x4.500 mm, muestreadas especialmente para este trabajo, fueron ensayadas flexión de acuerdo con la norma UNE EN 408. La influencia de la altura de la sección y del espesor sobre la resistencia característica a flexión en ambas especies de madera resulta ser significativa aunque distinta entre ellas, lo que lleva a concluir que

  18. Beyond annual budgets: carbon flux at different temporal scales in fire-prone Siberian Scots pine forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, C.; Czimczik, C.I.; Schulze, E.D.

    2002-01-01

    Along four chronosequences of fire-prone Siberian Scots pine forests we compared net primary production (NPP) and two different mass-based estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP C and NEP S ). NEP C quantifies changes in carbon pools along the chronosequences, whereas NEP S estimates the short-term stand-level carbon balance in intervals between fires. The chronosequences differed in the mean return interval of surface fires (unburned or moderately burned, 40 yr; heavily burned, 25 yr) and site quality (lichen versus Vaccinium type). Of the Vaccinium type (higher site quality) only a moderately burned chronosequence was studied. NEP C was derived from the rate of changes of two major carbon pools along the chronosequence time axes: (1) decomposition of old coarse woody debris (CWD) left from the previous generation after stand-replacing fire, and (2) accumulation of new carbon in biomass, CWD and soil organic layer by the regenerating stand. Young stands of all chronosequences were losing carbon at rates of -4 to -19 mol C/m 2 /yr (-48 to -228 g C/m 2 /yr). Depending on initial CWD pools and site-specific accumulation rates the stands became net carbon sinks after 12 yr (Vaccinium type) to 24 yr (lichen type) following the stand-replacing fire and offset initial carbon losses after 27 and 70 yr, respectively. Highest NEP C was reached in the unburned chronosequence (10.8 mol C/m 2 /yr or 130 g C/m 2 /yr). Maximum NEP C in the burned chronosequences ranged from 1.8 to 5.1 mol C/m 2 /yr (22 to 61 g C/m 2 /yr) depending on site quality and fire regime. Around a stand age of 200 yr NEP C was 1.6 ± 0.6 mol C/m 2 /yr (19 ± 7 g C/m 2 /yr) across all chronosequences. NEP S represents the current stand-level carbon accumulation in intervals between recurring surface fires and can be viewed as a mass-based analogue of net ecosystem exchange measured with flux towers. It was estimated based on measurements of current woody NPP, modelled decomposition of measured CWD

  19. The effect of temperature on forest production in Canada, Finland and Sweden. Predicted effects of a global warming on production of lodgepole pine and Scots pine in the northern boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Anders

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse relationships between forest production and climatic factors under different biogeoclimatic conditions and, thus, to enhance our ability to predict changes in production following temperature increases. Production in the IUFRO 70/71 provenance test series with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) was correlated to climate data from adjacent meteorological stations. Field-tests in Canada (British Columbia and the Yukon) and Scandinavia (Finland and Sweden) were evaluated about 20 years after planting. The temperature regime was strongly correlated to forest production in the northern boreal forest regions. The temperature during the growing season as a whole and the length of it seem to be more important than the maximum summer temperature. The relationship between production and temperature was weaker in Canada than in Scandinavia, and production increased generally more on poor and intermediate sites than on rich sites. According to the presented algorithms, an increase in the temperature sum from 600 to 1200 degree days, would theoretically result in an increase in site index of between 5 and 13 m for lodgepole pine, and slightly lower for Scots pine. The highest increases would occur in Scandinavia. Temperature plots show that, especially in northern Scandinavia, a higher mean temperature would prolong the growing season, and this may make short spells with above 0 deg C-temperatures during the dormant period. Together with drought during the growing season, this may increase the frequency of climate-related frost damage

  20. Sulphur isotopes as tracers of the influence of a coal-fired power plant on a Scots pine forest in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, R.; Àvila, A.; Soler, A.

    Stable sulphur isotopes and major ionic composition were analysed in precipitation and throughfall samples from a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris, L.) forest near the Cercs coal-fired power plant (Catalonia, NE Spain). The purpose of the study was to determine the main sources of sulphur deposition on this pine forest. Sulphur isotope measurements from the SO 2 power plant stack emissions were used to identify the isotopic signature of this source. Net throughfall fluxes of sulphur (26.1 kg S ha 1 yr -1) and nitrogen (16.3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) were higher—5-25 times higher for S and 5-15 times for N—at this site than in other forests in Catalonia. Sulphur isotope analysis confirmed that the net throughfall fluxes of sulphur were mostly due to the dry deposition of the SO 2 power plant emissions onto the pine canopies. Two potential atmospheric end-members were distinguished: regional background rainwater (δ 34S=+7.2‰) and power plant emissions (δ 34S=-2.8‰). By applying a two-component sulphur isotope mixing model, we found that during periods of low power plant activity (⩽10 emission h day -1), 62% of the throughfall sulphate could be attributed to the power plant emissions. At higher activity periods (⩾14 emission h day -1), this contribution rose to 73%. Although power plant contribution to bulk deposition was lower in both cases (34% and 45%), the possible influence of sulphate coming with long-range transport events from the polluted areas in the Mediterranean basin (δ 34S≈0‰) was not discarded.

  1. Comparisons of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux at the stand level and derivation of canopy conductance for Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, A.; Biron, P.; Köstner, B.; Gay, L. W.; Najjar, G.

    1996-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux over a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest (Hartheim, Germany), were carried out during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX), an intensive observation campaign of the international programme REKLIP. Sap flow was measured every 30 min using both radial constant heating (Granier, 1985) and two types of Cermak sap flowmeters installed on 24 trees selected to cover a wide range of the diameter classes of the stand (min 8 cm; max 17.5 cm). Available energy was high during the observation period (5.5 to 6.9 mm.day-1), and daily cumulated sap flow on a ground area basis varied between 2.0 and 2.7 mm day-1 depending on climate conditions. Maximum hourly values of sap flow reached 0.33 mm h-1, i.e., 230 W m-2. Comparisons of sap flow with water vapour flux as measured with two OPEC (One Propeller Eddy Correlation, University of Arizona) systems showed a time lag between the two methods, sap flow lagging about 90 min behind vapour flux. After taking into account this time lag in the sap flow data set, a good agreement was found between both methods: sap flow = 0.745* vapour flux, r 2 = 0.86. The difference between the two estimates was due to understory transpiration. Canopy conductance ( g c ) was calculated from sap flow measurements using the reverse form of Penman-Monteith equation and climatic data measured 4 m above the canopy. Variations of g c were well correlated ( r 2 = 0.85) with global radiation ( R) and vapour pressure deficit ( vpd). The quantitative expression for g c = f ( R, vpd) was very similar to that previously found with maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster) in the forest of Les Landes, South Western France.

  2. Reaction of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine fine roots along a deposition gradient of air pollutants in eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzenberger, B.; Schminke, B.; Strubelt, F.; Huettl, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Based on an ecosystematic approach within the comprehensive SANA (regeneration of the atmosphere above the new federal states) project the influence of industrial air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x ) (alkaline fly ashes) on the vitality of mycorrhizal, mycorrhizal frequency, and on parameters of root growth such as root biomass and necromass and distribution of different root classes in the soil horizons was investigated. The studies were conducted in three comparable Scots pine ecosystems in eastern Germany which were exposed to different deposition loads of air pollutants during the time of the former German Democratic Republic. Site specific differences were obtained for all parameters investigated. The reference plot Neuglobsow (background deposition) revealed the highest number of vital mycorrhizal, highest mycorrhizal frequency, and largest biomass of finest roots in the humus layer. At the impact-site Roesa and Taura (heavy and moderate deposition) located near Halle/Bitterfeld and Leipzig, the number of vital mycorrhizae was reduced and the life-span of mycorrhizae of reduced vitality was elongated. Finest root biomass and necromass of the humus layer were also lower at these plots as compared to Neuglobsow. At Neuglobsow a higher turnover of mycorrhizae and finest roots of the humus layer is assumed. The reduced growth of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal finest roots at the two pollution impacted sites Roesa and Taura is seen as an adaptation mechanism of the root system to high nutrient inputs. 14 refs., 4 figs

  3. Contamination of environment in the road surroudings - impact of road salting on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegrová, Jitka; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Tanda, Stefan; Anděl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview of the influence of transport on the environment is presented in this study. The complex analysis of soil and needle samples provides an extensive set of data, which presents elemental contamination of the environment near roads. Traffic pollution (including winter road treatment) has a significant negative influence on our environment. Besides sodium and chlorine from winter maintenance many other elements are emitted into the environment. Three possible sources of contamination are assumed for environmental contamination evaluation: car emission, winter maintenance and abrasion from breaks and clutches. The chemical analysis focused on the description of samples from inorganic point of view. The influence of the contamination potential on the sodium and chlorine content in the samples of 1st year-old and 2nd year-old needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is discussed. Additional soil samples were taken from each sampling site and analyzed to get insight in the sodium and chlorine distribution. Statistical evaluation was used for interpretation of complex interaction patterns between element concentrations in different aged needles based on localities character including distance from the road and element concentration in soils. This species of needles were chosen because of its heightened sensitivity towards salinization. The study was conducted in different parts of the Czech Republic. The resulting database is a source of valuable information about the influence of transport on the environment.

  4. Impact of needle age on the response of respiration in Scots pine to long-term elevation of carbon dioxide concentration and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha, T.; Ryyppo, A.; Kellomaki, S.; Wang, K-Y.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of needle age, elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on needle respiration in Scots pine was studied during a four-year period. Results showed that respiration rates and specific leaf area decreased in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration relative to ambient conditions, but increased in elevated temperature and when elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated temperature were combined. Starch and soluble sugar concentrations for a given needle age increased in elevated carbon dioxide, but decreased slightly under combined elevated temperature and elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Respiration rate and specific leaf area were highest in current year needles in all treatment modes. All treatment modes enhanced the difference in respiration between current year and older needles relative to ambient conditions. Carbohydrate concentration or specific leaf area remained unchanged in response to any treatment. Under ambient conditions the temperature coefficient of respiration increased slightly in elevated carbon dioxide regardless of age, however, there was significant decline at elevated temperature as well as when both carbon dioxide concentration and temperature were elevated, indicating acclimation of respiration to temperature. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Distribution of "1"3"7Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyaka, D.M.; Levchuk, S.Je.; Protsak, V.P.; Kashparov, V.O.

    2017-01-01

    Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs) selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of "1"3"7Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs: d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 0,55 (Am(omega) = 0,63 +- 0,08), 0,55 < d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 0,95 Am(omega) = 1,01 +- 0,04), 0,95 < d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 1,0 (Am(omega) = 2,1 +- 0,5).

  6. Injuries to Scots pine mycorrhizas and chemical gradients in forest soil in the environment of a pulp mill in Central Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopaininen, T.; Heinonen-Tanski, H.; Halonen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence and condition of Scots pine mycorrhizas were studied at different distances from a pulp mill in Central Finland. The chemical analyses of the soil humus layer in the vicinity of the mill revealed increased levels of ammonium-nitrogen, sulphur and calcium but unaltered concentrations of phosphorus and magnesium. Higher nitrate levels and nitrification were clearly detected at some sites which had recently been limed. Significant decreases in root ramification index and number of living mycorrhizas were found in a 0-0.6 km zone surrounding the factory but these parameters increased with increasing distance. Within a 2 km zone around the mill there were abundant Cenococcum geophilus and Paxilus involutus-type mycorrhizas while lowered frequencies of several other mycorrhizal types were detected. An ultrastructural study revealed changes in several types of mycorrhizas, the clearest of which were increased tannin deposition in cortical cells, intracellular growth of hyphae in cortical cells and the appearance of electron dense accumulations in the vacuoles of the funal cells. The ultrastructural changes observed were distributed at least to a distance of 3 km from the mill and occurred in the roots of trees that had only a slight loss of needle mass. Nitrogen deposition is suspected to be the primary cause of root decline but atmospheric SO 2 through the tree crown is also likely to be a contributing factor. 37 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Growth effects after whole-tree harvest in final cut of Scots pine and Norway spruce forest. Final report; Tillvaexteffekternas storlek och uthaallighet efter skogsbraensleuttag i slutavverkning av tall och gran. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valinger, E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2001-12-01

    A great concern in forestry today is whether whole-tree harvesting influence site productivity and whether it is consistent with the principle of sustainable use of forest resources. To evaluate this a randomised field experiment established 24 years ago in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Sweden was used. The field experiment was established in fall 1975 as a naturally regenerated mixed forest with Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with a growing stock of 305 m{sup 3}/ha was clear-cut near Kosta (56 deg 52' N, 15 deg 50' E, 240 m.a.s.l.). The site was a mesic dwarf-shrub type of medium fertility, with an average precipitation of 600 mm yr-1 and the soil was an orthic podzol. Treatments were conventional stem harvest (CH), whole-tree harvest (WTH), and branch and stem harvest (BSH). Scots pine seedlings of local provenance were planted in spring 1977 at the beginning of the second growing season following the harvest. The seedlings were planted in exposed mineral soil in manually scarified patches (40 x 40 cm) at 1.7 m spacing (144 seedlings per assessment plot, i.e. 3 600 seedlings/ha). Based on calliper data, the diameter for the mean basal area per tree (db) was calculated for each plot after 24 years using the formula: db = ({sigma} b{sup 3}/{sigma} b{sup 2}), where b is basal area at breast height for each tree. Three undamaged sample trees with a diameter equal or close to the diameter of the mean basal area per tree were selected on each plot giving 36 stems that were felled for destructive measurements in 2000. Total tree height ({+-} 0.01 m) was measured on every tree felled. Stem biomass was estimated by sampling of stem discs, 2 cm thick, at stump height (1 % of tree height), breast height (1.3 m), and at every meter along the bole. Crown biomass was estimated by sampling live and dead branches on the felled trees. From every whorl of branches one living branch was sampled and all branches were counted. Stem

  8. Diel cycles of isoprenoids in the emissions of Norway spruce, four Scots pine chemotypes, and in Boreal forest ambient air during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Branch enclosure based emission rates of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from four Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris and one Norway spruce (Picea abies, as well as the ambient mixing ratios of monoterpenes were determined during the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 summer campaign. Differences in chemical composition and in emission strength were observed between the different trees, which confirmed that they represented different chemotypes. The chemotypes of Scots pine can be classified according to species with high, no and intermediate content of Δ-3-carene. The "non-Δ-3-carene" chemotype was found to be the strongest emitter of monoterpenes. From this chemotype, β-myrcene, a very reactive monoterpene, was the dominant species accounting for more than 32 % of the total emission rates of isoprenoids followed by β-phellandrene (~27%. Myrcene fluxes ranged from 0.8 to 24 μg g−1 (dw h−1. α-Farnesene was the dominant sesquiterpene species, with average emission rates of 318 ng g−1 (dw h−1. In the high Δ-3-carene chemotype, more than 48% of the total monoterpene emission was Δ-3-carene. The average Δ-3-carene emission rate (from chemotype 3, circa 609 ng g−1 (dw h−1 reported here is consistent with the previously reported summer season value. Daily maximum temperatures varied between 20 and 35 °C during the measurements. The monoterpene emissions from spruce were dominated by limonene (35%, β-phellandrene (15%, α-pinene (14% and eucalyptol (9%. Total spruce monoterpene emissions ranged from 0.55 up to 12.2 μg g−1 (dw h−1. Overall the total terpene flux (monoterpenes + sesquiterpenes from all studied tree species varied from 230 ng g−1 (dw h−1 up to 66 μg g−1 (dw h−1. Total ambient monoterpenes (including α-pinene, Δ-3-carene, β-pinene and β-myrcene measured during the campaign

  9. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ash fertilization in a clear cut and in a Scots pine stand in central Sweden. Effects on soil-water and soil chemistry coupled to laboratory leachings of six ash products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, Eva; Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Jansson, Gunnar; Loevgren, Linnea

    1999-01-01

    An experiment with six different ash products was performed in a two-year old clear cut in central Sweden during 1995-98. Two of the ash products were also applied in a nearby 70 year old Scots pine stand. Five of the ash products originated from ash generated by the same boiler. Effects on soil-water and soil chemistry were monitored in the field. The leaching properties of the ash products were tested on the laboratory according to two methods, a column test and a shaking test

  11. Modeling soil CO2 production and transport to investigate the intra-day variability of surface efflux and soil CO2 concentration measurements in a scots pine forest (Pinus Sylvestris, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Stéphanie; Wylock, Christophe; Haut, Benoît; Maier, Martin; Longdoz, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Aimed:The main aim of this study is to improve the mechanistic understanding of soil CO2 efflux (Fs), especially its temporal variation at short-time scales, by investigating, through modeling, which underlying process among CO2 production and its transport up to the atmosphere is responsible for observed intra-day variation of Fs and soil CO2 concentration [CO2].Methods:In this study, a measurement campaign of Fs and vertical soil [CO2] profiles was conducted in a Scots Pine Forest soil in H...

  12. Accumulation of logging residue in first thinnings of Scots pine and Norway spruce. Impact of top bucking diameter of roundwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeisaenen, T.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail: tommi.raisanen@metla.fi

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of changes in the minimum top diameter of roundwood on the accumulation of logging residue. The aim was also to compare estimates of residue accumulation calculated by tree-specific biomass models with field measurements from thinnings. Felling experiments were performed in first thinnings of pine and spruce to evaluate the model calculations. In the felling, mean relative masses of the tree tops of spruce were nearly doubled with each increment of 2 cm in the top diameter. Respectively in pine, the mean relative tree top mass was increased by 50-60 % when the top diameter was increased by 2 cm. The mass of total residue (tree top and all delimbed branches) was similarly increased, but the differences were not as large. Compared to pine, a lesser variation in the crown mass of the spruce sample resulted in a more accurate model prediction of masses of tree tops and total residue. The results indicate that the residue accumulation from a small group of trees cannot be predicted very reliably, but when a larger tree population or area is considered, the model predictions are enhanced to a more practicable level. (orig.)

  13. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) based reconstruction of 130 years of water table fluctuations in a peatland and its relevance for moisture variability assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkevičiūtė, Marija; Edvardsson, Johannes; Pukienė, Rūtilė; Taminskas, Julius; Stoffel, Markus; Corona, Christophe; Kibirkštis, Gintautas

    2018-03-01

    Continuous water-table (WT) measurements from peatlands are scarce and - if existing at all -very short. Consequently, proxy indicators are critically needed to simulate hydrological changes in peatlands over longer time periods. In this study, we demonstrate that tree-ring width (TRW) records of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the Čepkeliai peatland (southern Lithuania) can be used as a proxy to reconstruct hydrological variability in a raised bog environment. A two-step modelling procedure was applied to extend existing measurements and to develop a new and longer peatland WT time series. To this end, we used instrumental WT measurements extending back to 2002, meteorological records, a P-PET (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) series covering the period 1935-2014, so as to construct a tree-ring based time series of WT fluctuations at the site for the period 1870-2014. Strongest correlations were obtained between average annual WT measured at the bog margin and total P-PET over 7 years (r = 0.923, p runoff since CE 1812 (r = 0.39, p < 0.00001, 1870-2014). We conclude that peatlands can act both as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases in case that hydrological conditions change, but that hydrological lags and complex feedbacks still hamper our understanding of several processes affecting the hydrology and carbon budget in peatlands. We therefore call for the development of further proxy records of water-table variability in peatlands to improve our understanding of peatland responses to climatic changes.

  14. Tissue localization of u.v.-B-screening pigments and of chalcone synthase mRNA in needles of Scots pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzler, J.P.; Jungblut, T.P.; Heller, W.; Köfferlein, M.; Hutzler, P.; Heinzmann, U.; Schmelzer, E.; Ernst, D.; Langebartels, C.; Sandermann, H. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal tissue was isolated from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles by enzymatic digestion in order to study tissue distribution of u.v.-B-screening pigments. Up to 90% of the needle content of a group of diacylated flavonol glycosides that were structurally closely related was found in the epidermal layer. Among these metabolites, 3'',6''-di-para-coumaroyl-isoquercitrin and 3'',6''-di-para-coumaroyl-astragalin were the main u.v.-B-induced compounds in cotyledons and primary needles, respectively. However, catechin and astragalin (kaempferol 3-glucoside), two non-acylated flavonoid metabolites, were only observed in total needle extracts, and at levels independent of u.v.-B treatment. According to this metabolite distribution, the mRNA of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme to flavonoids, was found in epidermal and mesophyll as well as vascular tissues. The major alkaliextractable wall-bound phenolic metabolites, astragalin, 4-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, a minor component of the cell wall, were also found exclusively in the epidermal layer. These compounds were not stimulated by u.v.-B irradiation within the experimental period. Staining of needle cross sections and epidermal layer preparations with Naturstoffreagenz A confirmed the specific localization of wall-bound astragalin in the outer wall of the epidermal layer. Model calculations of u.v.-B absorptions at 300 nm of soluble and cell-wall-bound metabolites of the epidermal layer revealed an almost complete shielding of the mesophyll tissue from u.v.-B radiation

  15. Microculture of western white pine (Pinus monticola) by induction of shoots on bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, M S; Malinek, J; Coffey, M

    1996-04-01

    We developed a protocol for the production of shoots from bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.). The best explant was a 2-mm-thick cross-sectional slice of the early winter bud. Genotype of the donor tree was a significant factor affecting shoot production, but more than 80% of the genotypes tested produced shoots. Of the media tested, bud slices from 1- to 3-year-old trees grew best in Litvay's medium containing N(6)-benzyladenine in the range of 1 to 30 micro M, whereas bud slices from older trees grew best in Gupta and Durzan's DCR medium with zeatin riboside. Up to 400 shoots more than 3 mm in height were obtained from 100 bud-slice explants taken from 7-year-old western white pine trees.

  16. Inter population variability of frost-resistance in provenances of scot pines (Pinusylvestris L.R. hamata Steven in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özel Halil Barış

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frost-resistance variability of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. var. hamata Steven seedlings grown in nurseries conditions, originated from 10 provenances, have been analyzed. The provenances from Black Sea region, Central Anatolian region and Eastern Anatolian region in Turkey have been used in selection of seed zones. The results of frost-resistance tests indicated a strong relationship of implemented freezing degrees with injury degrees of Scotch pine needles and photosynthetic productivities. On the other hand, another significant relationship has been determined between chlorophyll fluorescence and ion leakage methods (r=-0.801. This result shows that those two methods can be safely used in determining the damages due to low temperatures. In frost resistance tests, Scotch pine seedlings from different provenances have been frozen at -10, -20, -30 and -40°C. According to the Duncan test results, it has been determined that damage increased as temperature decreased. The damage level at -10°C implementation is 3.5% which can be tolerated by plants. But when the temperature has been decreased to -20°C, the level of damage has increased to 51.25%. As a result of photosynthetic analyses in this phase, it has been determined that there is a statistically significant relationship between provenances and temperature levels. Under the light of those findings, they have determined that the photosynthetic productivity has significantly decreased at temperatures between -20°C and -40°C. This situation conforms to injury index values determined in this study. As a result of injury index and photosynthetic productivity tests used for determining the damage after frost-resistance tests, it has been determined that the provenances of Amasya-Kunduz, Bolu-Aladağ, Düzce-Yığılca, Samsun-Vezirköprü and Eskişehir-Çatacık are more sensitive to frost than other provenances.

  17. Tree Growth and Climate Relationship: Dynamics of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Growing in the Near-Source Region of the Combined Heat and Power Plant During the Development of the Pro-Ecological Strategy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Opała, Magdalena

    Since the 1990s, the emission of pollutants was reduced in a majority of Polish and developing country factories whereas the level of energy production was similar to that prior to the 1990s. The conifer investigated in this study has grown for many years under the stress of industrial pollution. Despite this, the trees are preserved, to a large extent, sensitive to the natural climatic factors. We present a complex analysis of the climatic (sunshine, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind circulation) and anthropogenic factors influencing the radial increment dynamics of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the vicinity of the combined heat and power station in Łaziska (Poland). We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of growth reductions, the depth of reduction with respect to the distance from the emitter, the relationship between tree growth and climate during the industry development period and during proecological strategy application . Samples of carbon isotopic composition in pine needles from 2012 to 2013 were additionally determined. Pines series of 3 positions indicate that they have a similar sensitivity to most climatic elements of the previous and given year, but there is also a different rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The causes of diversity are due to the different types of habitat (site types) and industrial pollution. The variation in carbon stable isotopic composition in pine needles was connected with an increase of CO 2 .

  18. Seasonal patterns of ascorbate in the needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees: Correlation analyses with atmospheric O3 and NO2 gas mixing ratios and meteorological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, Kristine; Jaeger, Lutz; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    In the present field study the role of ascorbate in scavenging the harmful atmospheric trace gases O 3 and NO 2 was examined. For this purpose ascorbate contents were determined in needles of adult Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) during three consecutive years. Ascorbate contents were correlated with ambient tropospheric O 3 and NO 2 concentrations and with meteorological parameters. The results showed a strong correlation of atmospheric O 3 but not of atmospheric NO 2 concentrations with the apoplastic content of ascorbate during the seasonal course. Ascorbate contents in needle extracts did not correlate with ambient trace gas concentrations. In the apoplastic space, but not in needle extracts ascorbate contents correlate highly significantly with global radiation. From these results it is assumed that apoplastic ascorbate in Scots pine needles is adapted to the actual atmospheric O 3 concentration to mediate immediate detoxification of O 3 , while the atmospheric O 3 concentration itself is largely dependent on light intensity. - Contents of apoplastic but not symplastic ascorbate correlate significantly with atmospheric ozone concentrations

  19. Drought stress release increased growth rate but did not affect levels of storage carbohydrates in Scots pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Li, Mai-He

    2017-04-01

    For trees, energy storage in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) plays an important role for survival and growth, especially during stress events such as drought. It is hypothesized, that tree individuals that experience long-term drought stress use up larger amounts of NSCs than trees that do not experience drought. Consequently, such drought-induced depletion might lead to a decrease in tree vigor and carbon starvation, a mechanism that is subject of intensive debates in recent literature. Hence, if carbon starvation is occurring during drought, drought stress release should again increase NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 years) irrigation experiment is being conducted in the Pfyn forest, the largest Pinus sylvestris dominated forest in Switzerland, located in the dry inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley (average precipitation 600 mm/year, with frequent dry spells). Water addition ( 600 mm/year) is executed every year during the growing season between April and October. Tree height, stem diameter and crown transparency are being measured since 2003. In February, July and October 2015, roots, stem sapwood and needles were harvested from 30 irrigated and 30 control trees and 5 different crown transparency classes. Shoot length, needle morphology, soluble sugars, starch concentrations, needle δ13C and δ15N were measured. Shoot and stem growth were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees. Growth decreased with increasing crown transparency in both treatments. Only in July, needle starch levels were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees but there was no treatment effect for wood and root starch concentrations. Tissue starch and sugar levels were negatively correlated with crown transparency, particularly in the roots (preduced NSC is related to reduced tree vigor under drought.

  20. Mistletoe effects on Scots pine decline following drought events: insights from within-tree spatial patterns, growth and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio

    2012-05-01

    Forest decline has been attributed to the interaction of several stressors including biotic factors such as mistletoes and climate-induced drought stress. However, few data exist on how mistletoes are spatially arranged within trees and how this spatial pattern is related to changes in radial growth, responses to drought stress and carbon use. We used dendrochronology to quantify how mistletoe (Viscum album L.) infestation and drought stress affected long-term growth patterns in Pinus sylvestris L. at different heights. Basal area increment (BAI) trends and comparisons between trees of three different infestation degrees (without mistletoe, ID1; moderately infested trees, ID2; and severely infested trees, ID3) were performed using linear mixed-effects models. To identify the main climatic drivers of tree growth tree-ring widths were converted into indexed chronologies and related to climate data using correlation functions. We performed spatial analyses of the 3D distribution of mistletoe individuals and their ages within the crowns of three severely infested pines to describe their patterns. Lastly, we quantified carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations in needles and sapwood of branches from severely infested trees and from trees without mistletoe. Mistletoe individuals formed strongly clustered groups of similar age within tree crowns and their age increased towards the crown apex. Mistletoe infestation negatively impacted growth but this effect was stronger near the tree apex than in the rest of sampled heights, causing an average loss of 64% in BAI (loss of BAI was ∼51% at 1.3 m or near the tree base). We found that BAI of severely infested trees and moderately or non-infested trees diverged since 2001 and such divergence was magnified by drought. Infested trees had lower concentrations of soluble sugars in their needles than non-infested ones. We conclude that mistletoe infestation causes growth decline and increases the sensitivity of trees to drought

  1. Long-term effects of drought on tree-ring growth and carbon isotope variability in Scots pine in a dry environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Galina; Treydte, Kerstin; Bugmann, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Drought frequency is increasing in many parts of the world and may enhance tree decline and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms are poorly understood, however, particularly regarding chronic effects of long-term drought and the response to increasing temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). We combined analyses of radial growth and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in tree rings in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over the 20th century to elucidate causes of tree mortality in one of the driest parts of the European Alps (Pfynwald, Switzerland). We further compared trees that have recently died with living trees in a 10-year irrigation experiment, where annual precipitation was doubled. We found a sustained growth increase and immediate depletion of δ13C values for irrigated trees, indicating higher stomatal conductance and thus indeed demonstrating that water is a key limiting factor for growth. Growth of the now-dead trees started declining in the mid-1980s, when both mean temperature and VPD increased strongly. But growth of these trees was reduced to some extent already several decades earlier, while intrinsic water-use efficiency derived from δ13C values was higher. This indicates a more conservative water-use strategy compared with surviving trees, possibly at the cost of low carbon uptake and long-term reduction of the needle mass. We observed reduced climatic sensitivity of raw tree-ring δ13C for the now-dead in contrast to surviving trees, indicating impaired stomatal regulation, although this difference between the tree groups was smaller after detrending the data. Higher autocorrelation and a lower inter-annual δ13C variability of the now-dead trees further indicates a strong dependence on (low) carbon reserves. We conclude that the recent increase in atmospheric moisture demand in combination with insufficient soil water supply was the main trigger for mortality of those trees that were weakened by long

  2. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emission of Scots pine under drought stress - a 13CO2 labeling study to determine de novo and pool emissions under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Plants emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to e.g. communicate and to defend herbivores. Yet BVOCs also impact atmospheric chemistry processes, and lead to e.g. the built up of secondary organic aerosols. Abiotic stresses, such as drought, however highly influence plant physiology and subsequently BVOCs emission rates. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress on BVOCs emission rates of Scots pine trees, a de novo and pool emitter, under controlled climate chamber conditions within a dynamic enclosure system consisting of four plant chambers. Isotopic labeling with 13CO2 was used to detect which ratio of emissions of BVOCs derives from actual synthesis and from storage organs under different treatments. Additionally, the synthesis rate of the BVOCs synthesis can be determined. The experiment consisted of two campaigns (July 2015 and August 2015) of two control and two treated trees respectively in four controlled dynamic chambers simultaneously. Each campaign lasted for around 21 days and can be split into five phases: adaptation, control, dry-out, drought- and re-watering phase. The actual drought phase lasted around five days. During the campaigns two samples of BVOCs emissions were sampled per day and night on thermal desorption tubes and analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. Additionally, gas exchange of water and CO2, soil moisture, as well as leaf and chamber temperature was monitored continuously. 13CO2 labeling was performed simultaneously in all chambers during the phases control, drought and re-watering for five hours respectively. During the 13CO2 labeling four BVOCs emission samples per chamber were taken to identify the labeling rate on emitted BVOCs. First results show a decrease of BVOCs emissions during the drought phase and a recovery of emission after re-watering, as well as different strength of reduction of single compounds. The degree of labeling with 13

  3. Environmental impact assessment and monetary ecosystem service valuation of an ecosystem under different future environmental change and management scenarios; a case study of a Scots pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Deckmyn, Gaby; Giot, Olivier; Campioli, Matteo; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Verheyen, Kris; Rugani, Benedetto; Achten, Wouter; Verbeeck, Hans; Dewulf, Jo; Muys, Bart

    2016-05-15

    For a sustainable future, we must sustainably manage not only the human/industrial system but also ecosystems. To achieve the latter goal, we need to predict the responses of ecosystems and their provided services to management practices under changing environmental conditions via ecosystem models and use tools to compare the estimated provided services between the different scenarios. However, scientific articles have covered a limited amount of estimated ecosystem services and have used tools to aggregate services that contain a significant amount of subjective aspects and that represent the final result in a non-tangible unit such as 'points'. To resolve these matters, this study quantifies the environmental impact (on human health, natural systems and natural resources) in physical units and uses an ecosystem service valuation based on monetary values (including ecosystem disservices with associated negative monetary values). More specifically, the paper also focuses on the assessment of ecosystem services related to pollutant removal/generation flows, accounting for the inflow of eutrophying nitrogen (N) when assessing the effect of N leached to groundwater. Regarding water use/provisioning, evapotranspiration is alternatively considered a disservice because it implies a loss of (potential) groundwater. These approaches and improvements, relevant to all ecosystems, are demonstrated using a Scots pine stand from 2010 to 2089 for a combination of three environmental change and three management scenarios. The environmental change scenarios considered interannual climate variability trends and included alterations in temperature, precipitation, nitrogen deposition, wind speed, Particulate matter (PM) concentration and CO2 concentration. The addressed flows/ecosystem services, including disservices, are as follows: particulate matter removal, freshwater loss, CO2 sequestration, wood production, NOx emissions, NH3 uptake and nitrogen pollution/removal. The monetary

  4. Effects of mistletoe removal on growth, N and C reserves, and carbon and oxygen isotope composition in Scots pine hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cai-Feng; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Dobbertin, Matthias; Han, Xing-Guo; Li, Mai-He

    2016-05-01

    Most mistletoes are xylem-tapping hemiparasites, which derive their resources from the host's xylem solution. Thus, they affect the host's water relations and resource balance. To understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the mistletoe-host relationship, we experimentally removed Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollmann from adult Pinus sylvestris L. host trees growing in a Swiss dry valley. We analyzed the effects of mistletoe removal over time on host tree growth and on concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen (N) in needles, fine roots and sapwood. In addition, we assessed the δ(13)C and δ(18)O in host tree rings. After mistletoe removal, δ(13)C did not change in newly produced tree rings compared with tree rings in control trees (still infected with mistletoe), but δ(18)O values increased. This pattern might be interpreted as a decrease in assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (gs), but in our study, it most likely points to an inadequacy of the dual isotope approach. Instead, we interpret the unchanged δ(13)C in tree rings upon mistletoe removal as a balanced increase in A and gs that resulted in a constant intrinsic water use efficiency (defined as A/gs). Needle area-based concentrations of N, soluble sugars and NSC, as well as needle length, single needle area, tree ring width and shoot growth, were significantly higher in trees from which mistletoe was removed than in control trees. This finding suggests that mistletoe removal results in increased N availability and carbon gain, which in turn leads to increased growth rates of the hosts. Hence, in areas where mistletoe is common and the population is large, mistletoe management (e.g., removal) may be needed to improve the host vigor, growth rate and productivity, especially for relatively small trees and crop trees in xeric growth conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Metabolism of 14C-aspartate during shoot bud formation in cultured cotyledon explants of radiata pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konschuh, M.N.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Aspartate metabolism was investigated in excised cotyledons of radiata pine (Pinus radiate D. Don). These cotyledons were cultured under shoot-forming (plus N 6 -benzyladenine, SF), non-shoot-forming (minus N 6 -benzyladenine, NSF) and unresponsive (plus N 6 -benzyladenine, OLD) conditions, then incubated with [ 14 C]-aspartate for 3-h pulse treatments followed by 3-h chase treatments with cold aspartate. The majority of label was recovered in the CO 2 , amino acid, organic acid and pellet fractions. Uptake was greatest in all tissue types early in culture. Most (over 80%) of the [ 14 C 9-aspartate taken up by the tissues was converted to CO 2 at day 0 in SF and NSF tissues. CO 2 accounted for less than 50% of the total radioactivity in other tissues. Greater incorporation into fractions was observed in SF tissues during promeristemoid formation, while in NSF tissues the greatest incorporation was observed during a period of rapid elongation. Generally, less incorporation was observed in OLD cotyledons than in SF and NSF cotyledons. Analysis of the amino acid fraction showed that labelled aspartate was converted to other amino acids, mainly glutamate, glutamine, asparagine and 4-aminobutyric acid. (au)

  6. A dose rate causes no fluctuating asymmetry indexes changes in silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparova, Elena; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Morozova, Valeriia; Kashparov, Valery

    2018-06-04

    The assessment of the fluctuating asymmetry based on measurement of the parameters of left and right parts of silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and relative sizes of pairs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) was carried out. Twelve samples of both birch leaves and pairs of needles were collected from 10 trees at 5 sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and also at one control site located outside the ChEZ. Values of gamma dose rate in the air varied between the sites from 0.1 to 40 μGy h -1 . Activity concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the birch leaves varied over the range of 0.9÷2460 kBq kg -1 and 0.1÷339 kBq·kg -1 (DW), respectively. In addition to the above, in the Scots pine needles, these ranges were 0.7 ÷1970 kBq kg -1 f for 90 Sr and 0.1÷78 kBq kg -1 (DW) for 137 Cs. From the values of the radionuclides activity concentrations in the plants, the internal dose rate is estimated to be in the range of 0.1 ÷ 274 μGy h -1 . The main sources of the internal dose rate were radiation of 90 Sr and 90 Y. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch leaves and Scots pine needles varied over the range of 0.048 ± 0.007 ÷ 0.060 ± 0.009 and 0.014 ± 0.002 ÷ 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively, and did not statistically differ for all experimental sites. The indices also did not depend on the external or internal dose rate of ionizing radiation for plants. The above findings seem to be consistent with other research effort in terms of understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long-term effects of large scale nuclear accidents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Individual fluctuations of S content in healthy, and smoke-damaged Scots Pine and the relations between S content and contents of other major nutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Themlitz, R

    1960-01-01

    This paper compares the sulfur content of pine needles on trees not subject to smoke damage to the sulfur content of pine needles from trees subject to smoke damage. Four stands of pines located in East and West Germany were studied. The data showed no correlation with the sulfur content, with the age of the trees, nor with the uptake of other nutrients.

  8. Biochemical parameters as biomarkers for the early recognition of environmental pollution on Scots pine trees. II. The antioxidative metabolites ascorbic acid, glutathione, {alpha}-tocopherol and the enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.; Haertling, S. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Halle (Germany). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    2001-10-01

    Field investigations with Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) were performed in eastern Germany, where ambient SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} concentrations differed significantly in 1992-99 at three sites, namely Neuglobsow (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1992: 9 {mu}g m{sup -3}), Taura (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1992: 54 {mu}g m{sup -3}) and Roesa (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1992: 73 {mu}g m{sup -3}). To investigate the effects of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} on antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, glutathione, glutathione reductase, {alpha}-tocopherol) and pigments including chlorophyll fluorescence as well as visible damage symptoms in the form of needle yellowing and tip necroses, needles of the 1st and 2nd age class from young and mature trees were collected at the sites every October. Eight years after the start of the field study in 1992, the ambient SO{sub 2} concentrations had decreased significantly at Neuglobsow (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1999: 4 {mu}g m{sup -3}), Taura (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1999: 5 {mu}g m{sup -3}) and Roesa (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1999: 5 {mu}g m{sup -3}). NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} differed less at the three sites and showed no temporal variations. Whole needle glutathione continuously decreased, although concentrations were higher in needles of the 1st and 2nd age class from the polluted sites Taura and Roesa than the unpolluted site Neuglobsow. The activities of glutathione reductase exhibited the same site-related differences and temporal variations and were correlated with concentrations of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In contrast, the activities of the enzyme superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of whole needle ascorbic acid remained unchanged over the period. Only at the end of the investigation period did the concentrations of oxidized ascorbic acid (dehydroascorbate) increase in six-month-old needles at the polluted sites Taura and Roesa. Despite the clear decreases in SO{sub 2}, the visible symptoms

  9. Growth dynamics of tree-line and lake-shore Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in the central Scandinavian Mountains during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the early Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W Linderholm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trees growing at their altitudinal or latitudinal distribution in Fennoscandia have been widely used to reconstruct warm season temperatures, and the region hosts some of the world’s longest tree-ring chronologies. These multi-millennial long chronologies have mainly been built from tree remains found in lakes (subfossil wood from lake-shore trees. We used a unique dataset of Scots pine tree-ring data collected from wood remains found on a mountain slope in the central Scandinavian Mountains, yielding a chronology spanning over much of the last 1200 years. This data was compared with a local subfossil wood chronology with the aim to 1 describe growth variability in two environments during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA and the early Little Ice Age (LIA, and 2 investigate differences in growth characteristics during these contrasting periods. It was shown that the local tree-line during both the MCA and early LIA was almost 150 m higher that at present. Based on living pines from the two environments, tree-line pine growth was strongly associated with mid-summer temperatures, while the lake-shore trees showed an additional response to summer precipitation. During the MCA, regarded to be a period of favourable climate in the region, the tree-ring data from both environments showed strong coherency and moderate growth variability. In the early LIA, the two chronologies were less coherent, with the tree-line chronology showing more variability, suggesting different growth responses in the two environments during this period of less favourable growing conditions. Our results indicate that tree-ring width chronologies mainly based on lake-shore trees may need to be re-evaluated.

  10. Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: Chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahtab [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Soil Sciences Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung [Agricultural Microbiology Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Han [Division of Plant Environment Research, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Service, Jinju 660-360 (Korea, Republic of); Al-Wabel, Mohammad I [Soil Sciences Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Lee, Sung-Eun, E-mail: selpest@knu.ac.kr [School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Soo, E-mail: sslee97@kangwon.ac.kr [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Biochar immobilizes Pb and Cu in a contaminated shooting range soil. • Soybean stover-biochar is an efficient metal immobilizer than pine needle-biochar. • Biochar produced at 700 °C showed significant potential of sequestering C in soil. • Biochar showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass. - Abstract: Biochar (BC) could be a potential candidate for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. Mechanistic understandings are needed for the appropriate selection of BC and investigating molecular microbial ecological interactions. The soybean stover-derived BCs were more effective in immobilizing Pb (88%) and Cu (87%) than the pine needle-derived BCs in a contaminated shooting range soil. The sequential chemical extractions indicated that BCs stimulated the geochemical transformation of metal species. Spectroscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic measurements showed that Pb in the BCs amended soils was immobilized by the formation of stable chloropyromorphite. Soil organic C and microbial activity were also enhanced by BC. The non-labile C fraction in the soil amended with BCs produced at 700 °C was increased. Biochars showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass as promulgated by the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The feedstock type (namely soybean stover and pine needles) was the main factor influencing the BCs efficacy on metals’ (im) mobilization and bacterial health in soils.

  11. Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: Chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Young Han; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Sang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar immobilizes Pb and Cu in a contaminated shooting range soil. • Soybean stover-biochar is an efficient metal immobilizer than pine needle-biochar. • Biochar produced at 700 °C showed significant potential of sequestering C in soil. • Biochar showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass. - Abstract: Biochar (BC) could be a potential candidate for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. Mechanistic understandings are needed for the appropriate selection of BC and investigating molecular microbial ecological interactions. The soybean stover-derived BCs were more effective in immobilizing Pb (88%) and Cu (87%) than the pine needle-derived BCs in a contaminated shooting range soil. The sequential chemical extractions indicated that BCs stimulated the geochemical transformation of metal species. Spectroscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic measurements showed that Pb in the BCs amended soils was immobilized by the formation of stable chloropyromorphite. Soil organic C and microbial activity were also enhanced by BC. The non-labile C fraction in the soil amended with BCs produced at 700 °C was increased. Biochars showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass as promulgated by the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The feedstock type (namely soybean stover and pine needles) was the main factor influencing the BCs efficacy on metals’ (im) mobilization and bacterial health in soils.

  12. Particulate pollutants are capable to ‘degrade’ epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax ‘degradation’ or ‘erosion’, which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both ‘wax degradation’ and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially ‘degrades’ waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. Highlights: • Demonstrated capability of particles to produce ‘wax degradation’. • Dynamics of particles on pine needles, shown by videos. • Salt particles sprayed on pine needles increased minimum epidermal conductance g min . • Results strongly suggest direct link between air pollution and drought tolerance. • Linkage between different types of forest decline is suggested. -- ‘Wax degradation’ on pine needles and increased minimum epidermal conductance (i.e. uncontrollable water loss) were created by particles, suggesting a link between air pollution and tree drought tolerance

  13. Lodgepole pine: the first evidence of seed-based somatic embryogenesis and the expression of embryogenesis marker genes in shoot bud cultures of adult trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Young; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2010-11-01

    Of the various alternatives for cloning elite conifers, somatic embryogenesis (SE) appears to be the best option. In recent years, significant areas of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest have been devastated by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) in Western Canada. In an attempt to establish an SE propagation system for MPB-resistant lodgepole pine, several families displaying varying levels of resistance were selected for experimentation involving shoot bud and immature seed explants. In bud cultures, eight embryogenic lines were induced from 2 of 15 genotypes following various treatments. Genotype had an important influence on embryogenic culture initiation, and this effect was consistent over time. These lines were identified by microscopic observation and genetic markers. Despite the abundance of early somatic embryos, the cultures have yet to develop into mature embryos. In contrast, immature zygotic embryos (ZEs) cultured from megagametophytes initiated SE at an early dominance stage via nodule-type callus in 1 of 10 genotypes. As part of the study, putative embryogenesis-specific genes, WOX2 (WUSCHELL homeobox 2) and HAP3A, were analyzed in cultures of both shoot bud explants and ZEs. On the basis of these analyses, we postulate that PcHAP3A was expressed mainly in callus and may be involved in cell division, whereas WOX2 was expressed mainly in embryonal mass (EM)-like tissues. The findings from this study, based on molecular assessment, suggest that the cell lines derived from bud cultures were truly EM. Moreover, these experimental observations suggest that PcWOX2 could be used as an early genetic marker to discriminate embryogenic cultures from callus.

  14. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  15. Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  16. Temporal variations of Cs-137 in Sots Pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylen, T.; Plamboeck, A.H.; Boson, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the temporal changes in 137 Cs distribution in a Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) stand was studied during 1986 to 2006 in Northern Sweden. The Chernobyl fallout provided an excellent possibility to study the uptake and retention in conifer trees of 137 Cs, since the deposition lasted for only a few days. The average deposition of 137 Cs in the region that originates from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 was 20 ± 9 kBq M -2 . Also 137 Cs from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests was present in the area and was only 3 ±2 kBq m -2 . Studies show that the redistribution of radioactive caesium still contribute to high activity concentrations in some compartments of the ecosystem. It has been known that certain fungi continue to produce fruit bodies with high amounts of 137 Cs. The current study adds another aspect to consider: The high activity concentration in branches and current needles during 2006 indicates an uptake of 137 Cs from the soil which could lead to concentrations in Scots Pine that has to be considered in forestry and other kind of utilization of forest products. There are for instance a few game birds such as the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) that feed on pine shoots. Another possible effect is on the use of pine branches in the bio fuel industry. Given an activity concentration of 1200 Bq/kg (d.w.) and a concentration factor of 10 during combustion the concentration in ashes would be 12000 bq/kg. According to the recommendations from SSI (the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority) ashes that have concentrations higher than 10 kBq/kg must be stored in special deposits. It would be of interest to investigate the uptake in stands of different ages since the pine stand that was studied was about 30 years old in 1986 and do not represent neither a mature nor a newly established stand (tk)

  17. Nucleotide diversity and gene expression of Catalase and Glutathione peroxidase in irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornam, Barbara; Arkhipov, Andrey; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    In the Chernobyl exclusion zone forest trees have to tolerate and to adapt to ionizing radiation, therefore the molecular basis of their adaptive responses is of the utmost interest. Based on SNP analysis and real time PCR nucleotide diversity and expression profiles of gene fragments of catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which are known as radical scavenging genes, were analysed in the needles of irradiated pine trees of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In acutely and chronically irradiated trees (50 years old) planted before the accident a higher nucleotide diversity of Cat and more somatic mutations were found compared to their control. Chronically irradiated trees (20 years old) planted after the accident showed a similar nucleotide diversity of Cat compared to their control and in both collectives one somatic mutation was found. The nucleotide diversity of GPx was higher in all analysed trees compared to Cat. No somatic mutation events were found in GPx. For both gene fragments, no association between the received dose in a tree and the nucleotide diversity and mutation events was detected. The expression profiles of Cat and GPx in acutely and chronically and in chronically irradiated trees were similar. Compared to their corresponding control collectives, Cat was up-regulated and GPx slightly down-regulated.

  18. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Sardans, J.; Hodar, Jose A.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Guenther, Alex B.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Penuelas, Josep

    2017-09-25

    The metabolome, the chemical phenotype of an organism, should be shaped by evolution. Metabolomes depend on genetic composition and expression, which can be sources of evolutionary inertia, so most aspects of metabolomes should be similar in closely related sympatric species. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), one introduced (ssp. iberica) and one autochthonous (ssp. nevadensis), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory. The metabolomes of the subspecies were more dissimilar in summer than in winter, and iberica trees had higher concentrations of metabolites directly related to drought stress. Our results suggest that certain plant metabolic responses associated with folivory have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. The larger divergence between subspecies metabolomes in summer is likely due to the warmer and drier conditions that the northern iberica subspecies experience in Sierra Nevada. Our results provide crucial insights into how iberica populations would respond to the predicted conditions of climate change under an increased defoliation, two recent severe issues in the Mediterranean Basin.

  19. Why are young pines not attacked by Bupalus piniarius: preference, performance or predation ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonneveld, P.

    1997-12-31

    Only large mature Scots pine trees are defoliated by the pine looper moth Bupalus piniarius. Small, young pine trees remain seemingly undefoliated. Possible explanations behind this observation include, that eggs or larvae are heavily predated on young trees or that the quality of young trees as food for larvae is very poor. Another possibility is that one or both of these are true and that the female moth has evolved a behaviour not to oviposit on young trees and/or that oviposition may be related to mating behaviour. In a field laboratory, first instar B. piniarius larvae were reared on shoots from both young and old pine trees until pupation. Survival and development were monitored weekly. Larvae reared on young pine shoots achieved a lower weight as pupae than those reared on shoots from old pines. This indication of an effect of food quality on performance could not be detected for survival or development time. In the field, the role of ants for larval survival was studied by placing of B. piniarius larvae on pairs of comparable trees with ants and where ants were excluded. Formica spp. were more efficient larval predators than Lasius niger. Observational studies of predating behaviour of ants in contact with B. piniarius larvae supported these differences in predating efficiency between the two ant genera. My data suggest that it would be profitable for B. piniarius females to oviposit on large trees because it may reduce the risk for the offspring to be attacked by ants and increase the weight and probably the fecundity of the offspring Examination paper in entomology 1997:5. 14 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  20. Effect of irrigation on needle morphology, shoot and stem growth in a drought-exposed Pinus sylvestris forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Eilmann, Britta; Bleuler, Peter; Giuggiola, Arnaud; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Landolt, Werner; Schleppi, Patrick; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    In Valais, Switzerland, Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) are declining, mainly following drought. To assess the impact of drought on tree growth and survival, an irrigation experiment was initiated in 2003 in a mature pine forest, approximately doubling the annual precipitation. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Seven irrigated and six control trees were felled in 2006, and needles, stem discs and branches were taken for growth analysis. Irrigation in 2004 and 2005, both with below-average precipitation, increased needle size, area and mass, stem growth and, with a 1-year delay, shoot length. This led to a relative decrease in tree crown transparency (-14%) and to an increase in stand LAI (+20%). Irrigation increased needle length by 70%, shoot length by 100% and ring width by 120%, regardless of crown transparency. Crown transparency correlated positively with mean needle size, shoot length and ring width and negatively with specific leaf area. Trees with high crown transparency (low growth, short needles) experienced similar increases in needle mass and growth with irrigation than trees with low transparency (high growth, long needles), indicating that seemingly declining trees were able to 'recover' when water supply became sufficient. A simple drought index before and during the irrigation explained most of the variation found in the parameters for both irrigated and control trees.

  1. When Macbeth becomes scots When Macbeth becomes scots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derrick McClure

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, two Scots translations of Shakespeare’s Macbeth, by David Purves and Robin L.C. Lorimer, were published almost simultaneously.2 These had been made independently, though each translator was aware of the other’s intention; and they represent two unmistakably different approaches to the project. Before examining the translations themselves, I propose to submit certain assumptions—some almost axiomatic, some perhaps deserving of more detailed consideration—regarding poetic translation, and apply them in turn to the specific question of translating Shakespeare into Scots. In 1992, two Scots translations of Shakespeare’s Macbeth, by David Purves and Robin L.C. Lorimer, were published almost simultaneously.2 These had been made independently, though each translator was aware of the other’s intention; and they represent two unmistakably different approaches to the project. Before examining the translations themselves, I propose to submit certain assumptions—some almost axiomatic, some perhaps deserving of more detailed consideration—regarding poetic translation, and apply them in turn to the specific question of translating Shakespeare into Scots.

  2. Evidence on climatic variability and prehistoric human activities between 165 B.C. and A.D. 1400 derived from subfossil Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. found in a lake in Utsjoki, northernmost Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetterberg, P.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 1265 subfossil pines have been collected from small lakes and peat deposits in the forest-limit zone of northern Fennoscandia in order to study past variations of climate. Many of the subfossils have been dated by dendrochronology and the chronology constructed from the measured ring-width data extends as a continuous master curve from the present back until 165 B.C. and after a short gap until about 7000 years before the present time. This material has greatly increased the number of dated pine megafossils in northern Finland which had previously been restricted only to radiocarbon-dated samples. In addition to the year-by-year information provided by tree-ring width data, the temporal distribution of pine megafossils found in the vicinity of the forest-limit zone also provides information on past climatic changes. The 102 pine subfossils collected from Lake Ailigas, in Utsjoki, form part of the above material. They provide information about past variations in pine growth caused, to a large degree, by changing climate at this one site, but they also give glimpses of the local activities of Prehistoric Man. The data from 90 of these trees have been successfully dated using dendrochronological techniques and the results show that all of them grew during the time period beginning 3000 years before present, and that 79 pines lived during the time span 165 B.C. to A.D. 1952. In several lakes in the forest-limit zone, some subfossil trees are much older than those in Lake Ailigas. The relatively young ages of the subfossils at this site indicates that the lake has been in existence probably only during the past 3000 years, forming when climate turned more humid than in earlier times. The present continuous master curve is about 600 years longer than the earlier published pine chronology for northern Sweden, though this has recently been extended to A.D. 1. In the present study, the life spans of individual dated pines are considered in

  3. AUTOMATIC DETERMINATION OF TRUNK DIAMETER, CROWN BASE AND HEIGHT OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRISL. BASED ON ANALYSIS OF 3D POINT CLOUDS GATHERED FROM MULTI-STATION TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratajczak Michał

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS in recent years resulted in its recognition and implementation in many industries, including forestry and nature conservation. The use of the 3D TLS point clouds in the process of inventory of trees and stands, as well as in the determination of their biometric features (trunk diameter, tree height, crown base, number of trunk shapes, trees and lumber size (volume of trees is slowly becoming a practice. In addition to the measurement precision, the primary added value of TLS is the ability to automate the processing of the clouds of points 3D in the direction of the extraction of selected features of trees and stands. The paper presents the original software (GNOM for the automatic measurement of selected features of trees, based on the cloud of points obtained by the ground laser scanner FARO. With the developed algorithms (GNOM, the location of tree trunks on the circular research surface was specified and the measurement was performed; the measurement covered the DBH (l: 1.3m, further diameters of tree trunks at different heights of the tree trunk, base of the tree crown and volume of the tree trunk (the selection measurement method, as well as the tree crown. Research works were performed in the territory of the Niepolomice Forest in an unmixed pine stand (PinussylvestrisL. on the circular surface with a radius of 18 m, within which there were 16pine trees (14 of them were cut down. It was characterized by a two-storey and even-aged construction (147 years old and was devoid of undergrowth. Ground scanning was performed just before harvesting. The DBH of 16 pine trees was specified in a fully automatic way, using the algorithm GNOM with an accuracy of +2.1%, as compared to the reference measurement by the DBH measurement device. The medium, absolute measurement error in the cloud of points - using semi-automatic methods "PIXEL" (between points and PIPE (fitting the cylinder in the FARO

  4. Natural regeneration and seed production of pine stands on the dumps of coal mining industry in Kuzbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ufimtsev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the accounting of undergrowth in 5 gradations of crown closure density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvest-ris L. stands, growing on the dumps in 4 ecological-geographic areas of Kuzbass, inverse relation of parameters of renewal from hydrothermal coefficient of the district is established. Optimum conditions develop in a steppe kernel where the number of shoots, seed production and undergrowth reaches 110 thousand trees per hectare with crown closure of 50 % and density of forest stand of 0.75 thousand trees of the II class of age on 1 hectare. At decrease or increase of forest canopy density of the main tree stand layer quantitative characteristics decrease. The smallest amount of undergrowth is recorded in the mountain-taiga area – from 0.4 to 23 thousand trees per hectare with a tendency to increase in the process of increasing crown closure. Areas of the northern forest-steppe and the southern forest-steppe on quantitative signs of renewal are intermediate. The number of undergrowth has high direct correlation dependence on the size of the current fructification of forest stands – around a steppe kernel ripens to 3.7 million seeds on 1 hectare, in mountain and taiga – to 0.39 million seeds on 1 hectare. Sowing qualities of seeds – the weight 1000, energy of germination and viability, and morphometric characteristics of 2-year seedlings, which are grown up from them – height, diameter and point of a vital state between ecological-geographic areas have no statistically reliable distinctions, but the characteristics stated above, than in the stands on zone soils. It testifies to usefulness of dumps’ conditions for natural regeneration of Scots pine, high actual reproductive opportunities for pine stands in forest-steppe areas and a steppe kernel, and also potential opportunities of the stands in the mountain and taiga region of the southern Kuzbass.

  5. Long-term effects of liming and fertilization with N, P and K on ground vegetation, forest growth and soil chemistry of a Scots pine stand (Pinus sylvestris) in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsell, E.

    1997-12-31

    The present study was performed in a pine forest liming and fertilization experiment situated in central Sweden, started in 1959. The main objective was to investigate how the floristical composition changed due to different treatments during the period 1959-1996 and in particular since the latest investigation in 1981. Treatments including nitrogen and lime had the most important impact on both the species composition as well as on mean cover while effects by treatments including only phosphorous and potassium were less pronounced. It could be concluded that the main effects on the floristical composition by different treatments recorded in 1981 and 1996 were similar. However, the additional fertilization made since the last investigation in 1981 have led to more pronounced effects on floristic cover. Calluna vulgaris and Vaccinium vitis-idaea e.g. reacted negatively on nitrogen fertilization, while they were positively affected by lime. Vaccinium myrtillus reacted in the opposite way. These reactions were because of different preferences of nitrogen availability. V. Myrtillus prefers a nutrient rich environment while C. Vulgaris and V. Vitis-idaea prefer nutrient poor environments. Liming causes increased microbial activity which immobilise nitrogen. The added nitrogen during 1982-1990 made the effects more pronounced. The changes in floristical cover were linked to changes in soil chemistry and also the treatment effects on tree growth were analysed. The soil chemistry had not changed much concerning pH or base saturation since 1981, but the continued addition of nitrogen decreased the C/N-ratio in the humus layer. Tree growth was most affected by nitrogen which resulted in an almost immediately increased growth rate, while lime, phosphorous and potassium had a negative effect during the first years and then slightly increased Examination paper 1997:3. 34 refs, 23 figs, 16 tabs

  6. Shooting stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    1985-01-01

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr

  7. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge

    2014-01-01

    with stemwood and living branches. However, metal export with aboveground biomass represented relatively small proportion of metals in mineral sandy soil. The annual inputs of Fe and Zn with atmospheric deposition were over 10 times higher than the mean annual removals with total aboveground biomass....... The content of metals in forest biomass fuel ash was relatively small to compare with their total removals. The findings of this study have an important implications for future practice, i.e. the recommended maximum forest biomass fuel ash dose for the compensating fertilising could be increased with respect...... to balanced output - input in Lithuania....

  8. Effects of vibration on stone pine trees (Pinus pinea L.) on the vigor of the trees: crown density, growth shoots and parasites of weak trees.; Efectos del vibrado del pino pinonero (Pinus pinea L.) en el vigor de los arboles: densidad de copa, crecimiento de guias y parasitos de debilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Zurimendi, P.; Alvarez, J. M.; Pando, V.; Dominguez, M.; Gordo, J.; Finat, L.; Sierra-De-Grado, R.

    2009-07-01

    In the northwest of Spain the mechanized harvesting of pine cones is more and more frequent. In order to quantify the effects of vibration on the vigor of the trees, parcels of stone pine were planted in plateau and countryside. Both the mechanized and manual harvests were analyzed in adult and young trees. The growth of the tree shoots was measured. The presence and abundance of three insect plagues was analyzed in those same trees: Tacoma's piniperda, Rhyacionia buoliana and Thaumetopoea pityocampa. The average shoot length of those trees manually harvested was superior to that of those mechanically harvested. The difference was very significant in young trees (40-50 years old) in the countryside and in adult trees (more than 80 years) on the plateau. Rhyacionia buoliana was more abundant in adult trees that young trees, but the relation of its abundance with the harvest method was not seen. The presence of Tomicus piniperda was rare and was only detected in mechanically harvested stands. Thaumetopoea pityocampa was more frequent in trees harvested by hand than those harvested mechanically and was more abundant in young stands. The percentage tree of defoliation was low in all stands independent of harvest method. (Author) 45 refs.

  9. Can pine trees act as sources for nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4)?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčová, Kateřina; Pihlatie, M.; Vanhatalo, A.; Halmeenmäki, E.; Aaltonen, H.; Kolari, P.; Aalto, J.; Pumpanen, J.; Pavelka, Marian; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Bäck, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 2013 (2013), s. 362-366. ISBN 952-5027-76-7. ISSN 0784-3496 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : methane * nitrous oxide * scots pine * transport Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Defence activation in strawberry and pine- Epigenetic changes in treated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Komajda, Ludwika

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent species, withinagriculture and forestry respectively, that are traditionally protected by utilization of pesticidesincluding neurotoxic insecticides. More environmentally friendly protection strategies are thereforehighly desirable. Treating plants with specific metabolites naturally occurring in their tissues might alterepigenetic mechanisms, which in turn may strengthen plants self-defense against diseases a...

  11. Sirococcus Shoot Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins

    1984-01-01

    Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...

  12. Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT): cloning of the human SCOT gene, tertiary structural modeling of the human SCOT monomer, and characterization of three pathogenic mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukao, T.; Mitchell, G. A.; Song, X. Q.; Nakamura, H.; Kassovska-Bratinova, S.; Orii, K. E.; Wraith, J. E.; Besley, G.; Wanders, R. J.; Niezen-Koning, K. E.; Berry, G. T.; Palmieri, M.; Kondo, N.

    2000-01-01

    The activity of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; locus symbol OXCT; EC 2.8.3.5) is the main determinant of the ketolytic capacity of tissues. Hereditary SCOT deficiency causes episodic ketoacidosis. Here we describe the human SCOT gene, which spans more than 100 kb and contains 17

  13. The threatened plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media) associates with a wide range of biotrophic fungi in native Scottish pine woods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Tenna; Iason, Glenn R.; Alexander, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    The plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media, Ericaceae) is in need of conservation action in Scotland. Although widespread, it is locally distributed in dwarf shrub heath and more commonly in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodlands. A recent study on the mycorrhizal status of Pyrola suggeste...

  14. Buds enable pitch and shortleaf pines to recover from injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes

    1956-01-01

    Pitch and shortleaf pines often survive severe damage by fires, cutting, rabbits, or deer. Deer may take all but 2 inches of the 6- to 8-inch shoots of seedlings, and still these seedlings may live and develop new shoots. Fires may kill all the foliage and terminal shoots on sapling or pole-size stems, but still these trees may green up and develop new leaders. Many of...

  15. Shooting mechanisms in nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, Aimée; Wiel, van der Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W.J.; Leeuwen, van Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  16. SCoT: A Python Toolbox for EEG Source Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBillinger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of brain connectivity has become an important research tool in neuroscience. Connectivity can be estimated between cortical sources reconstructed from the electroencephalogram (EEG. Such analysis often relies on trial averaging to obtain reliable results. However, some applications such as brain-computer interfaces (BCIs require single-trial estimation methods.In this paper, we present SCoT – a source connectivity toolbox for Python. This toolbox implements routines for blind source decomposition and connectivity estimation with theMVARICA approach. Additionally, a novel extension called CSPVARICA is available for labeled data. SCoT estimates connectivity from various spectral measures relying on vector autoregressive (VAR models. Optionally, these VAR models can be regularized to facilitate ill posed applications such as single-trial fitting.We demonstrate basic usage of SCoT on motor imagery (MI data. Furthermore, we show simulation results of utilizing SCoT for feature extraction in a BCI application. These results indicate that CSPVARICA and correct regularization can significantly improve MI classification. While SCoT was mainly designed for application in BCIs, it contains useful tools for other areas of neuroscience. SCoT is a software package that (1 brings combined source decomposition and connectivtiy estimation to the open Python platform, and (2 offers tools for single-trial connectivity estimation. The source code is released under the MIT license and is available online at github.com/SCoT-dev/SCoT.

  17. Comparing Planting Tools for Container Longleaf Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Leduc; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2011-01-01

    We examined if compressing the soil to make a planting hole with a custom-built, solid round dibble versus coring the soil with a commercially available tube dibble influenced container-grown longleaf pine seedling development differently. Seven teen months after planting, the planting tool did not significantly affect root collar diameter, shoot or root mass, root-to-...

  18. Violence and school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.

  19. SCoT: a Python toolbox for EEG source connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Martin; Brunner, Clemens; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of brain connectivity has become an important research tool in neuroscience. Connectivity can be estimated between cortical sources reconstructed from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Such analysis often relies on trial averaging to obtain reliable results. However, some applications such as brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) require single-trial estimation methods. In this paper, we present SCoT-a source connectivity toolbox for Python. This toolbox implements routines for blind source decomposition and connectivity estimation with the MVARICA approach. Additionally, a novel extension called CSPVARICA is available for labeled data. SCoT estimates connectivity from various spectral measures relying on vector autoregressive (VAR) models. Optionally, these VAR models can be regularized to facilitate ill posed applications such as single-trial fitting. We demonstrate basic usage of SCoT on motor imagery (MI) data. Furthermore, we show simulation results of utilizing SCoT for feature extraction in a BCI application. These results indicate that CSPVARICA and correct regularization can significantly improve MI classification. While SCoT was mainly designed for application in BCIs, it contains useful tools for other areas of neuroscience. SCoT is a software package that (1) brings combined source decomposition and connectivtiy estimation to the open Python platform, and (2) offers tools for single-trial connectivity estimation. The source code is released under the MIT license and is available online at github.com/SCoT-dev/SCoT.

  20. Detection genetic variability of secale cereale L. by scot markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Petrovičová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. is our traditional cereal used for baking. The genetic variability of grown rye has been reduced by modern agronomic practices, which subsequently prompted the importance of search for species that could be useful as a gene pool for the improving of flour quality for human consumption or for other industrial uses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect genetic variability among the set of 45 rye genotypes using 8 SCoT markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 45 genotypes, using SCoT analysis, yielded 114 fragments, with an average of 14.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. The most polymorphic primer was SCoT 36, where 21 polymorphic amplification products were detected. In contract the lowest polymorphic primer was SCoT 45 with 5 polymorphic products. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the rye genotypes were divided into 2 main clusters. One rye genotype Motto, origin from Poland formed a separate subcluster (1b. Subscluster 2a included only genotype Valtické (CSK. In this experiment, SCoT proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Automatic determination of trunk diameter, crown base and height of scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Based on analysis of 3D point clouds gathered from multi-station terrestrial laser scanning. (Polish Title: Automatyczne okreslanie srednicy pnia, podstawy korony oraz wysokosci sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus Silvestris L.) Na podstawie analiz chmur punktow 3D pochodzacych z wielostanowiskowego naziemnego skanowania laserowego)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, M.; Wężyk, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in recent years resulted in its recognition and implementation in many industries, including forestry and nature conservation. The use of the 3D TLS point clouds in the process of inventory of trees and stands, as well as in the determination of their biometric features (trunk diameter, tree height, crown base, number of trunk shapes), trees and lumber size (volume of trees) is slowly becoming a practice. In addition to the measurement precision, the primary added value of TLS is the ability to automate the processing of the clouds of points 3D in the direction of the extraction of selected features of trees and stands. The paper presents the original software (GNOM) for the automatic measurement of selected features of trees, based on the cloud of points obtained by the ground laser scanner FARO. With the developed algorithms (GNOM), the location of tree trunks on the circular research surface was specified and the measurement was performed; the measurement covered the DBH (l: 1.3m), further diameters of tree trunks at different heights of the tree trunk, base of the tree crown and volume of the tree trunk (the selection measurement method), as well as the tree crown. Research works were performed in the territory of the Niepolomice Forest in an unmixed pine stand (Pinussylvestris L.) on the circular surface with a radius of 18 m, within which there were 16 pine trees (14 of them were cut down). It was characterized by a two-storey and even-aged construction (147 years old) and was devoid of undergrowth. Ground scanning was performed just before harvesting. The DBH of 16 pine trees was specified in a fully automatic way, using the algorithm GNOM with an accuracy of +2.1%, as compared to the reference measurement by the DBH measurement device. The medium, absolute measurement error in the cloud of points - using semi-automatic methods "PIXEL" (between points) and PIPE (fitting the cylinder) in the FARO Scene 5.x

  2. Planting Technique and Care of Stock Affect Survival of Planted Red Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Cooley

    1974-01-01

    Careless planting was found to be the most important of several possible causes of excessive mortality of newly planted red pine. Distribution procedures and high shoot/root ratios were also implicated.

  3. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  4. Millet's Shooting Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, M.

    1988-12-01

    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  5. Distributed trouble-shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Bogaard, S.A.A. van den; Rasker, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    When knowledge, required for trouble-shooting at sea, can be supplied real-time but from a distance, problems, such as with the limited availability of specialists, and the high costs of maintenance, may be tackled. Unclear is, however, how this redistribution of knowledge will work in practice. We

  6. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  7. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  8. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: a fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H L; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2009-05-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils.

  9. Limited growth recovery after drought-induced forest dieback in very defoliated trees of two pine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eGuada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width and intra-annual (xylogenesis scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized three years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die.

  10. Injury to white pine crowns in northern New England in 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W., Jr. Wilson

    1956-01-01

    Unusual development of white pine terminal shoots - due to some sort of damage - was observed during the summer of 1955 throughout northern New England. In at least one instance it was also observed in pitch pine, and it may have occurred in other species.

  11. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  12. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid

    1985-01-01

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  13. Ship and Shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  14. School Shootings and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...

  15. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  16. Nine years of irrigation cause vegetation and fine root shifts in a water-limited pine forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Herzog

    Full Text Available Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. in the inner-Alpine dry valleys of Switzerland have suffered from increased mortality during the past decades, which has been caused by longer and more frequent dry periods. In addition, a proceeding replacement of Scots pines by pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd. has been observed. In 2003, an irrigation experiment was performed to track changes by reducing drought pressure on the natural pine forest. After nine years of irrigation, we observed major adaptations in the vegetation and shifts in Scots pine fine root abundance and structure. Irrigation permitted new plant species to assemble and promote canopy closure with a subsequent loss of herb and moss coverage. Fine root dry weight increased under irrigation and fine roots had a tendency to elongate. Structural composition of fine roots remained unaffected by irrigation, expressing preserved proportions of cellulose, lignin and phenolic substances. A shift to a more negative δ13C signal in the fine root C indicates an increased photosynthetic activity in irrigated pine trees. Using radiocarbon (14C measurement, a reduced mean age of the fine roots in irrigated plots was revealed. The reason for this is either an increase in newly produced fine roots, supported by the increase in fine root biomass, or a reduced lifespan of fine roots which corresponds to an enhanced turnover rate. Overall, the responses belowground to irrigation are less conspicuous than the more rapid adaptations aboveground. Lagged and conservative adaptations of tree roots with decadal lifespans are challenging to detect, hence demanding for long-term surveys. Investigations concerning fine root turnover rate and degradation processes under a changing climate are crucial for a complete understanding of C cycling.

  17. Bark and wood pests of smoke-damaged Scots pine. [Myclophilus piniperda, Pissodes pini, Pissodes piniphilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudela, M; Wolf, R

    1964-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between smoke damage and insect infestation of trees. Two stands of trees were examined. The trees ranged in age from 64 > 75 years. Details are tabulated on the number and distribution of pests. The chief pests were Myclophilus piniperda, Pissodes pini, and Pissodes piniphilus. Results indicated that the intensity of attack by pests increased with increasing severity of smoke damage. 20 references.

  18. Growth response of Scots pine with different crown transparency status to drought release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Dobbertin, M.; Rigling, A.

    2013-01-01

    Context - One short-term adjustment of trees to drought is the reduction of photosynthetic tissues via leaf shedding. But in conifers, it usually takes several years to fully restore needle mass and assimilation capacity. Aims - This study aims to evaluate whether leaf shedding sustainably damages

  19. Trait-specific responses of Scots pine to irrigation on a short vs long time scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feichtinger, L.M.; Eilmann, Britta; Buchmann, Nina; Rigling, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In xeric environments, an increase in drought is related to reduced forest productivity and to enhanced mortality. However, predictions of future forest development remain difficult as the mechanisms underlying the responses of mature trees to long-term variations in water availability are not

  20. Regeneration patterns in boreal Scots pine glades linked to cold-induced photoinhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.; Wirth, C.; Schumacher, J.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Shibistova, O.; Lloyd, J.; Ensminger, I.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Regeneration patterns of Pinus sylvestris L. juveniles in central Siberian glades were studied in relation to cold-induced photoinhibition. Spatial distribution of seedlings in different height classes revealed higher seedling densities beneath the canopy than beyond the canopy, and

  1. Quality effects caused by torrefaction of pellets made from Scots pine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Dahl, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    by mechanical compression was determined using a material tester and results showed a rapid decrease before torrefaction temperature reached 250°C. Slightly further decrease was observed when increasing the temperature up to 270°C. The strength loss was confirmed by determining the energy required for grinding...... the pellet samples in a bench scale disc mill. Particle size distribution measurements after grinding indicated a significant increase of small particles (diameterca. 2mm). To further analyze the effect on strength, the mechanical durability of pellets was tested according to wood pellet standards, EN 15210...

  2. Newtonian boreal forest ecology: The Scots pine ecosystem as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti Hari

    Full Text Available Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by Newton. The forest ecosystem is a complicated entity and hence we needed altogether 27 concepts to describe the material and energy flows in the metabolism of trees, ground vegetation and microbes in the soil, and to describe the regularities in tree structure. Thirtyfour axioms described the most important features in the behaviour of the forest ecosystem. We utilised numerical simulations in the analysis of the behaviour of the system resulting in clear predictions that could be tested with field data. We collected retrospective time series of diameters and heights for test material from 6 stands in southern Finland and five stands in Estonia. The numerical simulations succeeded to predict the measured diameters and heights, providing clear corroboration with our theory.

  3. Interactions Between Testate Amoebae and Saprotrophic Microfungi in a Scots Pine Litter Microcosm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vohník, Martin; Burdíková, Zuzana; Vyhnal, Aleš; Koukol, O.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2011), s. 660-668 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P340; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : testate amoebae * saprotrophic fungi * litter Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.912, year: 2011

  4. The May October energy budget of a Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Kessler, A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes measurements of the Hartheim forest energy budget for the 157-day period of May 11 Oct. 14, 1992. Data were collected as 30-min means. Energy available to the forest was measured with net radiometers and soil heat flux discs; sensible heat exchange between the canopy and atmosphere was measured with two “One-Propeller Eddy Correlation” (OPEC) systems, and latent energy (evapotranspiration or ET) was determined as a residual in the surface energy balance equation. Net rediation, change in thermal storage, and sensible heat flux were verified by independent measurements during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX, May 11 12), and again during the “HartX2” experiment over 20 days late in the summer (Sep. 10 29). Specifically, sensible heat estimates from the two adjacent OPEC sensor sets were in close agreement throughout the summer, and in excellent agreement with measurements of sonic eddy correlation systems in May and September. The eddy correlation/energy balance technique was observed to overestimate occurrence of dew, leading to an underestimate of daily ET of about 5%. After taking dew into account, estimates of OPEC ET totaled 358 mm over the 5.1-month period, which is in quite good agreement with an ET estimate of 328 mm from a hydrologic water balance. An observed decrease in forest ET in July and August was clearly associated with low rainfall and increased soil water deficit. The OPEC system required only modest technical supervision, and generated a data yield of 99.5% over the period DOY 144 288. The documented verification and precision of this energy budget appears to be unmatched by any other long-term forest study reported to date.

  5. Effects of botanical antifeedants on Melolontha melolontha grub feeding on Scots pine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using botanic antifeedants to reduce the damage caused by Melolontha spp. grubs. To achieve the objective, the experiments were established in semi-field conditions to estimate the antifeedant activity of rutin, quercetin (flavonoids from buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and an extract from black alder Alnus glutinosa leaves against Melolontha melolontha grubs. The grubs were placed individually in the pots with a soil in which 2 year old Pinus sylvestris trees were planted. The pots were put in garden pavilions placed in the open area. Then the soil in the pots were watered with the emulsions of rutin, quercetin, an extract from A. glutinosa leaves, and with pure water-comparative variant. After 4 months, the weight and mortality of grubs were compared, as well as the weight of tree roots in all pots.

  6. Which climate change path are we following? Bad news from Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombi, Pierluigi; D'Andrea, Ettore; Rezaie, Negar; Cammarano, Mario; Matteucci, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Current expectations on future climate derive from coordinated experiments, which compile many climate models for sampling the entire uncertainty related to emission scenarios, initial conditions, and modelling process. Quantifying this uncertainty is important for taking decisions that are robust under a wide range of possible future conditions. Nevertheless, if uncertainty is too large, it can prevent from planning specific and effective measures. For this reason, reducing the spectrum of the possible scenarios to a small number of one or a few models that actually represent the climate pathway influencing natural ecosystems would substantially increase our planning capacity. Here we adopt a multidisciplinary approach based on the comparison of observed and expected spatial patterns of response to climate change in order to identify which specific models, among those included in the CMIP5, catch the real climate variation driving the response of natural ecosystems. We used dendrochronological analyses for determining the geographic pattern of recent growth trends for three European species of trees. At the same time, we modelled the climatic niche for the same species and forecasted the suitability variation expected across Europe under each different GCM. Finally, we estimated how well each GCM explains the real response of ecosystems, by comparing the expected variation with the observed growth trends. Doing this, we identified four climatic models that are coherent with the observed trends. These models are close to the highest range limit of the climatic variations expected by the ensemble of the CMIP5 models, suggesting that current predictions of climate change impacts on ecosystems could be underestimated.

  7. Which climate change path are we following? Bad news from Scots pine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bombi

    Full Text Available Current expectations on future climate derive from coordinated experiments, which compile many climate models for sampling the entire uncertainty related to emission scenarios, initial conditions, and modelling process. Quantifying this uncertainty is important for taking decisions that are robust under a wide range of possible future conditions. Nevertheless, if uncertainty is too large, it can prevent from planning specific and effective measures. For this reason, reducing the spectrum of the possible scenarios to a small number of one or a few models that actually represent the climate pathway influencing natural ecosystems would substantially increase our planning capacity. Here we adopt a multidisciplinary approach based on the comparison of observed and expected spatial patterns of response to climate change in order to identify which specific models, among those included in the CMIP5, catch the real climate variation driving the response of natural ecosystems. We used dendrochronological analyses for determining the geographic pattern of recent growth trends for three European species of trees. At the same time, we modelled the climatic niche for the same species and forecasted the suitability variation expected across Europe under each different GCM. Finally, we estimated how well each GCM explains the real response of ecosystems, by comparing the expected variation with the observed growth trends. Doing this, we identified four climatic models that are coherent with the observed trends. These models are close to the highest range limit of the climatic variations expected by the ensemble of the CMIP5 models, suggesting that current predictions of climate change impacts on ecosystems could be underestimated.

  8. Soil carbon dynamics in Scots pine forests at the Sistema Central of Spain (Sierra de Guadarrama)

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Oñate, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Los suelos forestales son clave en el cambio global por el carbono (C) que acumulan y por su capacidad de sumidero de C. Además de factores abióticos como el clima y las propiedades del suelo, la capacidad de los suelos para almacenar C está influenciada por el uso del suelo, los cambios en el uso del suelo y la ordenación forestal, que en última instancia pueden modificar las condiciones microclicámitas, la calidad y cantidad de los residuos vegetales que se incorporan al suelo, así como la ...

  9. Climate signals derived from cell anatomy of Scots pine in NE Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Heinrich, Ingo; Simard, Sonia; Helle, Gerhard; Liñán, Isabel Dorado; Heinken, Thilo

    2013-08-01

    Tree-ring chronologies of Pinus sylvestris L. from latitudinal and altitudinal limits of the species distribution have been widely used for climate reconstructions, but there are many sites within the temperate climate zone, as is the case in northeastern Germany, at which there is little evidence of a clear climate signal in the chronologies. In this study, we developed long chronologies of several cell structure variables (e.g., average lumen area and cell wall thickness) from P. sylvestris growing in northeastern Germany and investigated the influence of climate on ring widths and cell structure variables. We found significant correlations between cell structure variables and temperature, and between tree-ring width and relative humidity and vapor pressure, respectively, enabling the development of robust reconstructions from temperate sites that have not yet been realized. Moreover, it has been shown that it may not be necessary to detrend chronologies of cell structure variables and thus low-frequency climate signals may be retrieved from longer cell structure chronologies. The relatively extensive resource of archaeological material of P. sylvestris covering approximately the last millennium may now be useful for climate reconstructions in northeastern Germany and other sites in the temperate climate zone.

  10. The changes in redox status of ascorbate in stem tissue cells during Scots pine tree growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Antonova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of ascorbate (AsA and dehydroascorbate (DHA and their ratio, showing cellular redox state of AsA, were studied in the cells of the separate tissues at different levels of Pinus sylvestris L. stem during early- and latewood formation. Morphological status of the cells in the tissues and the content of soluble carbohydrates were also estimated. The cellular redox potential of AsA has been found to depend on the type of tissue, cell development degree, the level of stem and the type of forming wood. The content of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio in the cells of non-conducting phloem along the stem were higher than in mature xylem and less during earlywood than latewood formation. The cells of conducting phloem and forming xylem, as the principal tissues taking part in annual ring wood formation, differed in the content of acids in the course of early and late xylem formation. Along the stem, the content of AsA decreased in conducting phloem cells and increased in the cells of forming xylem during both early- and latewood formation. The AsA/DHA of conducting phloem during earlywood formation was greatest below the stem and diminished to the top of the tree, while in the course of latewood development it was similar at all levels. In forming xylem AsA/DHA increased to the top of tree during the early xylem formation and decreased in late xylem that indicates the differences in oxidation-reduction reactions into the cells of two type of forming wood. The data are discussed according to morphological development of cells and the content of carbohydrates.

  11. Understanding trait interactions and their impacts on growth in Scots pine branches across Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterck, F.J.; Martinez-Vilalta, J.; Mencuccini, M.; Cochard, H.; Gerrits, P.; Zweifel, R.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nole, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.

    2012-01-01

    1. Plants exhibit a wide variety in traits at different organizational levels. Intraspecific and interspecific studies have potential to demonstrate functional relationships and trade-offs amongst traits, with potential consequences for growth. However, the distinction between the correlative and

  12. Effects of fertilization and thinning on heartwood area, sapwood area and growth in Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerling, T.; Valinger, E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    1999-07-01

    In a fertilization and thinning experiment on Pinus sylvestris L. situated in northern Sweden, the effects on the amount of heartwood and sapwood were examined 12 yrs after treatment. On stem discs taken from the stump up to 75% of tree height, age, diameter, heartwood diameter and growth rings included in the heartwood were measured. Increases in heartwood area following fertilization and thinning were not statistically significant, whereas sapwood area was significantly increased by both fertilization and thinning. There was a significant positive interaction effect of fertilization and thinning on diameter under bark, sapwood area and relative heartwood area. The number of growth rings included in the heartwood at breast height was not affected by treatments. Thinned trees showed a higher needle biomass per unit of sapwood area at breast height. The results show that the possibility of affecting the amount of heartwood in individual trees by thinning and fertilization is limited. The results are discussed in relation to the pipe-model theory and the regulation of sapwood and heartwood.

  13. Imaging of native early embryogenic tissue of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřib, Jiří; Vooková, B.; Neděla, Vilém

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 285-290 ISSN 2391-5412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * backscattered electron detector * ionization detector * bottle cells * extracellular matrix * structural integrity Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  14. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anomalous needle numbers on dwarf shoots of Pinus mugo and P. uncinata (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of abnormal, three- (or more needle dwarf shoots of most southern and central European two-needle pine (Pinus species were studied. No specimens with more than two-needle dwarf shoots were found in a population of P. nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal Franco from the Iberian Peninsula and in two populations of P. uliginosa Neumann from the Sudeten Mountains in Central Europe. Single specimens were found within one population of P. pinaster Aiton from the Iberian Peninsula and among six populations of P. sylvestris L. from the Iberian Peninsula and Central Europe. Abnormal dwarf shoots mostly with three, but also four, five or six needles were found among 24 of 25 surveyed populations of P. mugo Turra and P. uncinata Ramond. The average frequency of specimens with at least one three-needle dwarf shoot was 24% for P. mugo and 20% for P. uncinata. The frequencies of occurrence varied significantly among studied populations and were highest in samples collected from the upper elevational range limits of the species in the mountains and near the northern limits of their ranges. The frequency of abnormal dwarf shoots in the same populations was significantly high in 2-3 consecutive years. Needles from three-needle dwarf shoots were not significantly shorter than those of two-needle shoots.

  16. Spectral and physiological information from chlorophyll fluorescence signals in the detection of pine damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinander, O. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.; Somersalo, S. [Helsinki Univ., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1995-12-31

    Photosynthesis is often among the first targets of the air pollution stress of plants. As chlorophyll fluorescence is a process competing with photosynthetic electron transport it can be employed to study the potential photosynthetic capacity and to detect damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Many previous studies have shown that chlorophyll fluorescence can be a powerful tool in the detection of forest damage. In this preliminary study, singular value analysis of the fluorescence induction curves was used together with the traditional way of analyzing fluorescence measurements. The experimental data were collected from ozone and carbon dioxide fumigated Scots pine saplings. (author)

  17. Climate sensitivity of Mediterranean pine growth reveals distinct east-west dipole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seim, A.; Treydte, K.; Trouet, V.; Frank, D.; Fonti, P.; Tegel, W.; Panayotov, M.; Fernandez-Donado, L.; Krusic, P.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 9 (2015), s. 2503-2513 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : tree-ring width * scots pine * wood formation * ice core * variability * drought * precipitation * reconstructions * circulation * dynamics * climate dynamics * dendroclimatology * drought response * Mediterranean east-west dipole * palaeoclimatology * Pinus spp * principal component analysis * tree-ring width Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015

  18. Spectral and physiological information from chlorophyll fluorescence signals in the detection of pine damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinander, O [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.; Somersalo, S [Helsinki Univ., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1996-12-31

    Photosynthesis is often among the first targets of the air pollution stress of plants. As chlorophyll fluorescence is a process competing with photosynthetic electron transport it can be employed to study the potential photosynthetic capacity and to detect damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Many previous studies have shown that chlorophyll fluorescence can be a powerful tool in the detection of forest damage. In this preliminary study, singular value analysis of the fluorescence induction curves was used together with the traditional way of analyzing fluorescence measurements. The experimental data were collected from ozone and carbon dioxide fumigated Scots pine saplings. (author)

  19. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  20. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  1. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta; N. Adiputra; I P G Adiatmika

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on...

  2. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovsky, A.; Dementyev, D.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011–2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg −1131 I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg −1134 Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg −1137 Cs. An important finding was the detection of 134 Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2–2.6), suggesting the presence of “older”, pre-Fukushima accident 137 Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two–three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident 137 Cs. - Highlights: • 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I were detected in samples of pine trees near Krasnoyarsk (Russia). • 134 Cs was transferred from old tree parts to the new (2012) shoots of pine trees. • The 137 Cs total / 134 Cs activity ratio for pine samples was greater than 1 due to the presence of pre-accident 137 Cs. • The accident 137 Cs activity in pine samples was higher than the pre-accident 137 Cs activity

  3. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  4. School Shootings as Organizational Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…

  5. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  6. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  7. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H.L.; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V.

    2009-01-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  8. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krznaric, Erik [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Verbruggen, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP242, Bd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wevers, Jan H.L. [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Colpaert, Jan V., E-mail: jan.colpaert@uhasselt.b [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2009-05-15

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  9. Plant biomass carbon store after water-level drawdown of pine mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology

    1997-12-31

    Tall-sedge pine fen is the site type most commonly drained in Finland. In their natural undrained condition sites of this type are rather wet with sparse, Scots pine dominated forest growing on hummocks and with large lawns dominated by sedges, usually Carex rostrata and/or C. lasiocarpa. Most of the primary production takes place in the field and ground layers. The major pathway for carbon accumulation in the system is via Sphagna and sedge roots, carbon accumulation by the tree stand being very slow. After drainage the situation changes radically as the sedges die out and the tree stand growth increases considerably. The aim of this study is to produce means of estimating the post-drainage dynamics of the plant biomass carbon store. The study is based on the assumption that sites similar before drainage will change in a similar manner following drainage. (5 refs.)

  10. Plant biomass carbon store after water-level drawdown of pine mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Tall-sedge pine fen is the site type most commonly drained in Finland. In their natural undrained condition sites of this type are rather wet with sparse, Scots pine dominated forest growing on hummocks and with large lawns dominated by sedges, usually Carex rostrata and/or C. lasiocarpa. Most of the primary production takes place in the field and ground layers. The major pathway for carbon accumulation in the system is via Sphagna and sedge roots, carbon accumulation by the tree stand being very slow. After drainage the situation changes radically as the sedges die out and the tree stand growth increases considerably. The aim of this study is to produce means of estimating the post-drainage dynamics of the plant biomass carbon store. The study is based on the assumption that sites similar before drainage will change in a similar manner following drainage. (5 refs.)

  11. Radiocesium in a Danish pine forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Morten

    1994-01-01

    During the autumn of 1991, a Scots pine forest, Tisvilde Hegn, was investigated with respect to the distribution of radiocesium on compartments in the forest ecosystem. The sandy acidic soil is poor, with a circa 5-cm thick layer of organic soil, and clay content is very low, between 0 and 2%. Cesium from Chernobyl is still totally in the upper 5 cm, while almost half of the fallout cesium has penetrated to depths lower than 5 cm. More than 95% of the total amount of 137 Cs is in the soil compartment. The rest is mainly in the trees (3.4%) and vegetation (0.4%), moss and lichen included. The concentrations of radiocesium are highest in the endshoots of the pine trees, and lowest in the hardwood. There are indications that the Chernobyl cesium is mainly distributed in the parts of the trees that have been formed since 1986. Observed Ratios (OR) were used to characterize the ability of the different components of the forest ecosystem to accumulate radiocesium. OR is defined as the ratio between the content of 137 Cs kg -1 (dry wt.) and the deposition per meter square. In vascular plants, mosses and lichens, OR varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m 2 /kg. In fungi, it varied between 0.05 and 4.5 m 2 /kg, though generally it was between 0.2 and 1 m 2 /kg. OR ( 137 Cs kg -1 /dry wt. of meat x 137 Cs m -2 ) levels in three roe deer samples varied between 0.016 and 0.21 kg -1 /dry wt. With an annual harvest of around 70,000 animals, this might be the most important pathway of this radionuclide to man from semi-natural ecosystems in Denmark

  12. Start codon targeted (scot polymorphism reveals genetic diversity in european old maize (zea mays l. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vivodík

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is one of the world's most important crop plants following wheat and rice, which provides staple food to large number of human population in the world. It is cultivated in a wider range of environments than wheat and rice because of its greater adaptability. Molecular characterization is frequently used by maize breeders as an alternative method for selecting more promising genotypes and reducing the cost and time needed to develop hybrid combinations. In the present investigation 40 genotypes of maize from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Slovakia and Yugoslavia were analysed using 20 Start codon targeted (SCoT markers. These primers produced total 114 fragments across 40 maize genotypes, of which 86 (76.43% were polymorphic with an average of 4.30 polymorphic fragments per primer and number of amplified fragments ranged from 2 (SCoT 45 to 8 (SCoT 28 and SCoT 63. The polymorphic information content (PIC value ranged from 0.374 (ScoT 45 to 0.846 (SCoT 28 with an average of 0.739. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. The hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the maize genotypes were divided into two main clusters. Unique maize genotype (cluster 1, Zuta Brzica, originating from Yugoslavia separated from others. Cluster 2 was divided into two main clusters (2a and 2b. Subcluster 2a contained one Yugoslavian genotype Juhoslavanska and subcluster 2b was divided in two subclusters 2ba and 2bb. The present study shows effectiveness of employing SCoT markers in analysis of maize, and would be useful for further studies in population genetics, conservation genetics and genotypes improvement.

  13. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use

  14. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  15. Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis in lily shoot tips cryopreserved by droplet vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...

  16. Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency: two pathogenic mutations, V133E and C456F, in Japanese siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X Q; Fukao, T; Watanabe, H; Shintaku, H; Hirayama, K; Kassovska-Bratinova, S; Kondo, N; Mitchell, G A

    1998-01-01

    Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; EC 2.8.3.5; locus symbol OXCT) is the key enzyme of ketone body utilization. Hereditary SCOT deficiency (MIM 245050) causes episodes of severe ketoacidosis. We developed a transient expression system for mutant SCOT cDNAs, using immortalized SCOT-deficient fibroblasts. This paper describes and characterizes three missense mutations in two SCOT-deficient siblings from Japan. They are genetic compounds who inherited the mutation C456F (c1367 G-->T) from their mother. Their paternal allele contains two mutations in cis, T58M (c173 C-->T) and V133E (c398T-->A). Expression of SCOT cDNAs containing either V133E or C456F produces no detectable SCOT activity, whereas T58M is functionally neutral. T58M is a rare sequence variant not detected in 100 control Japanese alleles. In fibroblasts from the proband (GS02), in whom immunoblot demonstrated no detectable SCOT peptide, we measured an apparent residual SCOT activity of 20-35%. We hypothesize that the high residual SCOT activity in homogenates may be an artifact caused by use of the substrate, acetoacetyl-CoA by other enzymes. Expression of mutant SCOT cDNAs more accurately reflects the residual activity of SCOT than do currently available assays in cell or tissue homogenates.

  17. Modeling of SAR returns from a red pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. H.; Kilic, O.; Chauhan, N. S.; Ranson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Bright P-band radar returns from red pine forests have been observed on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in Bangor, Maine. A plot of red pine trees was selected for the characterization and modeling to understand the cause of the high P-band returns. The red pine stand under study consisted of mature trees. Diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements were made to determine stand density as a function of tree diameter. Soil moisture and bulk density measurements were taken along with ground rough surface profiles. Detailed biomass measurements of the needles, shoots, branches, and trunks were also taken. These site statistics have been used in a distorted Born approximation model of the forest. Computations indicate that the direct-reflected or the double-bounce contributions from the ground are responsible for the high observed P-band returns for HH polarization.

  18. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  19. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey N Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS. SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date- www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS. Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.

  20. Height and seasonal growth pattern of jack pine full-sib families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1981-01-01

    Total tree height, seasonal shoot elongation, dates of growth initiation and cessation, and mean daily growth rate were measured and analyzed for a population of jack pine full-sib families derived from inter-provenance crosses. Parental provenance had no effect on these variables although this may have been due to small sample size. Progenies differed significantly...

  1. Crown characteristics of juvenile loblolly pine 6 years after application of thinning and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufang Yu; Jim L. Chambers; Zhenmin Tang; James P. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    Total foliage dry mass and leaf area at the canopy hierarchical level of needle, shoot, branch and crown were measured in 48 trees harvested from a 14-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, six growing seasons after thinning and fertilization treatments. In the unthinned treatment, upper crown needles were heavier and had more leaf area...

  2. Competition-Induced Reductions in Soil Water Availability Reduced Pine Root Extension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; L.A. Morris

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between soil water availability, root extension, and shoot growth of loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated in a rhizotron sand mixture in the absence and presence of crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) competition. Heights and diameters of seedlings grown with crabgrass were reduced 33 and SO%, respectively, compared with...

  3. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  4. Development concepts of a Smart Cyber Operating Theater (SCOT) using ORiN technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Jun; Masamune, Ken; Iseki, Hiroshi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-23

    Currently, networking has not progressed in the treatment room. Almost every medical device in the treatment room operates as a stand-alone device. In this project, we aim to develop a networked operating room called "Smart Cyber Operating Theater (SCOT)". Medical devices are connected using Open Resource interface for the Network (ORiN) technology. In this paper, we describe the concept of the SCOT project. SCOT is integrated using the communication interface ORiN, which was originally developed for industry. One feature of ORiN is that the system can be constructed flexibly. ORiN creates abstracts of the same type of devices and increases the robustness of the system for device exchange. By using ORiN technology, we are developing new applications, such as decision-making navigation or a precision guided treatment system.

  5. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  6. [School shooting in statu nascendi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, amok-like killings and especially so-called "school shootings" have received a great deal of public attention both in the Old and the New world. Meanwhile, criminal psychological research has gained a thorough insight into this dangerous development in young people. Thus, the possibility to assess the concrete threat of such a multiple killing before it is carried out has been considerably improved, as many prognostic criteria have been worked out in the meantime. The case report presented shows that it is possible to exercise a favourable influence on this critical negative trend.

  7. Individual variation of sap-flow rate in large pine and spruce trees and stand transpiration: a pilot study at the central NOPEX site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čermák, J.; Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Lindroth, A.; Bednářová, E.

    1995-06-01

    Transpiration in a mixed old stand of sub-boreal forest in the Norunda region (central Sweden) was estimated on the basis of direct measurement of sap flow rate in 24 large Scots pine and Norway spruce trees in July and August 1993. Sap flow rate was measured using the trunk tissue heat balance method based on internal (electric) heating and sensing of temperature. Transpiration was only 0.7 mm day -1 in a relatively dry period in July (i.e. about 20% of potential evaporation) and substantially higher after a rainy period in August. The error of the estimates of transpiration was higher during a dry period (about 13% and 22% in pine and spruce, respectively) and significantly lower (about 9% in both species) during a period of sufficient water supply. Shallow-rooted spruce trees responded much faster to precipitation than deeply rooted pines.

  8. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  9. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  10. Scottish Classroom Voices: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning Scots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, Jo Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Research in multilingual classrooms demonstrates education as a key site within which social and linguistic values are shaped. This study extends such research by investigating language use in a Scottish primary classroom. Scots is widely spoken throughout Scotland, figuring in a 2003 Scottish Parliament report as one of two indigenous heritage…

  11. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria on pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ecomycorrhizal fungi (Hebelon crustuliniforme(Bull.: Fr. Quél. 5392 and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers. Coker et Couch 5335 and bacteria (Bacillus polymyxa and Azospirillum brasilense. associated with mycorrhizas on the growth of pine seedligs was investigated. In addition the influence of bacteria on fungal biomass production and the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi and fungi pathogenic to root of pine seedlings were determined. In general, the shoot/root ratio was higher in plants inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and bacteria than in the control seedlings (grown only under sterile conditions. In non-sterile substrate the root/shoot ratio of the mycorrhizal seedlings was lower as compared to the control. Similar phenomenon was noted in plants inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinetorius. The bacteria used as well as the time of introduction of these organisms into the cultures of mycorrhiza fungi affected the production of fungal biomass. Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Pisolithus tinctorius inhibited the growth of Rizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi pathogenic to pine seedlings.

  12. Shooting mechanisms in Nature : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; van der Wiel, M.; Henselmans, P.W.J.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  13. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  14. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  15. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  16. Shoot organogenesis in oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil. Key words: shoot organogenesis, callus, ... saline and alkaline soils (Economou and Maloupa, 1995). Its fruits have been used as a .... cally inert compounds as reported by Kaminek (1992). Direct shoot organogenesis without ...

  17. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, M K; Sabana, A A; Rachana, K E; Rahman, Shafeeq; Jerard, B A; Karun, Anitha

    2015-12-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Advances in genomics research have resulted in the development of novel gene-targeted markers. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The results indicate the potential of SCoT markers to be utilized as molecular markers to detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions.

  18. Mass Shootings, Mental Illness, and Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2018-03-01

    In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem. Both sides are wrong. Mass shootings are indeed partially a mental health problem, albeit one poorly addressed by our current laws and policies. But the solution to mass shootings also needs to consider strategies that may reduce gun violence in general. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  19. Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...

  20. Felling-system and regeneration of pine forests on ecological-genetic-geographical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the adaptation of Scots pine populations to the natural regeneration on open sites with the mosaic retained stand and mineralized soil surface on the basis of the ecological-genetic-geographical investigations in the forests of the Russia and the theory of petropsammofitness-pyrofitness (Sannikov S. N., 1983 has been substantiated. The methods of clear cuts with the seeding from surrounding forest, seed curtains and sufficiently extent of the substrate preparation for the pine selfsown have been selected and elaborated as a main organization principle of the system «felling-regeneration» in the plains pine forests of the forest zone. High regeneration efficiency of this system with the application of original aggregate for the optimal mineralization of the soil substrate (with its synchronous loosing has been shown on the example of dominating pine forest types in the subzone for-forest-steppe of the Western Siberia. The silvicultural-ecological and reproductive-genetic advantages of retaining seed curtains instead of separate seed trees have been substantiated. The basic parameters of the system «felling-regeneration», which guarantee a sufficient success of the following pine regeneration in the for-forest-steppe subzone, have been determined with the help of the methods of the mathematical imitation modeling of the pine selfsown density depending on the area and localization of seed curtains, surrounding forest and the extent of the substrate mineralization. The zonal differentiated system of the fellings and measures for the regeneration optimization in the climatically substituting pine forest types in the Western Siberia has been elaborated according to the parameters, studied earlier, on the ecological-genetic-geographical basis. The principles of this system in forest zone come to the clear strip-fellings with insemination of cuts from the seed curtains and forest walls, and to the hollow-fellings with the

  1. Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers for DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized tritordeums and their respective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, Sandra; Ferreira, Luciana; Carvalho, Ana; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Martín, António; Lima-Brito, José Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Hexaploid tritordeum (H(ch)H(ch)AABB; 2n = 42) results from the cross between Hordeum chilense (H(ch)H(ch); 2n = 14) and cultivated durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (AABB; 2n = 28). Morphologically, tritordeum resembles the wheat parent, showing promise for agriculture and wheat breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) polymorphism is a recently developed technique that generates gene-targeted markers. Thus, we considered it interesting to evaluate its potential for the DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized hexaploid tritordeums and their respective parents. In this study, 60 SCoT primers were tested, and 18 and 19 of them revealed SCoT polymorphisms in the newly synthesized tritordeum lines HT27 and HT22, respectively, and their parents. An analysis of the presence/absence of bands among tritordeums and their parents revealed three types of polymorphic markers: (i) shared by tritordeums and one of their parents, (ii) exclusively amplified in tritordeums, and (iii) exclusively amplified in the parents. No polymorphism was detected among individuals of each parental species. Three SCoT markers were exclusively amplified in tritordeums of lines HT22 and HT27, being considered as polyploidization-induced rearrangements. About 70% of the SCoT markers of H. chilense origin were not transmitted to the allopolyploids of both lines, and most of the SCoTs scored in the newly synthesized allopolyploids originated from wheat, reinforcing the potential use of tritordeum as an alternative crop.

  2. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  3. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP

  4. Cell fate regulation in the shoot meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, T; Mayer, K F

    1998-04-01

    The shoot meristem is a proliferative centre containing pluripotent stem cells that are the ultimate source of all cells and organs continuously added to the growing shoot. The progeny of the stem cells have two developmental options, either to renew the stem cell population or to leave the meristem and to differentiate, possibly according to signals from more mature tissue. The destiny of each cell depends on its position within the dynamic shoot meristem. Genetic data suggest a simple model in which graded positional information is provided by antagonistic gene functions and is interpreted by genes which regulate cell fate.

  5. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  6. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on 20samples of people whowere selected randomly from the men's basketball club of the Faculty of Physical Educationand Health of Teacher Training Institute PGRI Bali. Samples were divided into two groups each  consisting of 10 people. Group I was given training step  jump shoot four sets of 10 reps  and Group II training still jump shoot four sets of 10 reps. The data before and after treatment were tested by SPSS computer program. The data were normally distributed and homogeneous so further tested using pairedt-test to compare the average values?? before and after training between each group, while the independent t-test was used to determine differences in mean values?? between the two groups. Paired t-test resulted the obtained data were significantly increased in both treatment groups p=0,001 in Group I and p=0,000 in Group II (p <0.05. Results of independent t-test found that both groups before training did not differ significantly p=0,926 (p>0.05 and after training both groups equally improve the accuracy of shooting because p=0,133 (p>0.05. It was concluded that botht raining improved the shooting accuracy and there was no difference between the effect of step jumps hoot and still jump shoot toward the shooting accuracy. It was suggested to improve the shooting accuracy in basketball used step jump shoot training and still jump shoot training four sets of 10 reps with a training frequency of 4 times a week for 6 weeks

  7. Higher-than-present Medieval pine (Pinus sylvestris treeline along the Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kullman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The upper treeline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. is renowned as a sensitive indicator of climate change and variability. By use of megafossil tree remains, preserved exposed on the ground surface, treeline shift over the past millennium was investigated at multiple sites along the Scandes in northern Sweden. Difference in thermal level between the present and the Medieval period, about AD 1000-1200, is a central, although controversial, aspect concerning the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate warming. Radiocarbon-dated megafossil pines revealed that the treeline was consistently positioned as much as 115 m higher during the Medieval period than today (AD 2000-2010, after a century of warming and substantial treeline upshift. Drawing on the last-mentioned figure, and a lapse rate of 0.6 °C/100 m, it may be inferred that Medieval summer temperatures were about 0.7 °C warmer than much of the past 100 years. Extensive pine mortality and treeline descent after the Medieval warming peak reflect substantially depressed temperatures during the Little Ice Age. Warmer-than-present conditions during the Medieval period concur with temperature reconstructions from different parts of northern Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and Greenland. Modern warming has not been sufficient to restore Medieval treelines. Against this background, there is little reason to view further modest warming as unnatural.

  8. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  9. Mass shooting and mass media : does media coverage of mass shootings inspire copycat crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...

  10. Branch architecture in Ginkgo biloba: wood anatomy and long shoot-short shoot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A

    2013-10-01

    Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.

  11. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  12. SCoT marker for the assessment of genetic diversity in saudi arabian date palm cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F.A.; Tarroum, M.

    2015-01-01

    Different types of molecular markers based on DNA have been used for the assessment of genetic diversity in the plant species. Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT) marker has recently become the marker of choice in genetic diversity studies. SCoT marker was used for the assessment of genetic diversity in Saudi Arabian date palm cultivars. The percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) at population level ranged from 3.28 to 13.11 with an average of 7.10. The Neis gene diversity (h) and Shannons Information index (I) were 0.033 and 0.046, respectively. However, at cultivar level, PPL, Neis gene diversity (h) and Shannons Information index (I) were 42.62, 0.090 and 0.155, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 48% of variation within the populations, whereas 52% was found among the populations. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed level of genetic differentiation among populations (52% of total variance, P = 0.001), consistent with the gene differentiation coefficient (Gst = 0.631). Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the six cultivars and their populations into five main clusters at 0.95 genetic similarity coefficient level. (author)

  13. Melancholia and Conviviality in Modern Literary Scots: Sanghas, Sengas and Shairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Scott

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the visions of Scottish identity projected in twenty-first century, post-devolution Scots literature, and seeks to read them against Paul Gilroy’s 'Postcolonial Melancholia' (2005 which examines the protean identities of post-imperial Britain. Gilroy looks particularly at social and artistic manifestations of racial and cultural inequality, although conceding that there is also room for a ‘postcolonial conviviality’ that celebrates diversity. His critique of this ‘Britain’ is, however, selectively constructed, making only passing reference to the constituent nations of the United Kingdom, and no space is devoted to an evaluation of post-colonial Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland. As yet, no comparable analysis is forthcoming for these ‘home nations’, so this paper attempts to outline the ways in which Scottish—and particularly Scots—literature may provide relevant comparable cultural commentary. Focus is given here to literature written in Scots because the choice to write in Scots is strongly politically motivated and speaks immediately to the question of cultural inequality and loss. Specific attention is paid to Matthew Fitt’s B'ut n Ben A-Go-Go' (2000, Suhayl Saadi’s 'Psychoraag' (2004, and Anne Donovan’s 'Buddha Da' (2003, which various engage with questions of personal and national identity as their main characters take part in their personal journeys.

  14. Soil acidification and imbalanced nutrient availability in Scots pine forest soils in the Netherlands : causes, extent and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, G.

    1993-01-01

    Introduction

    Since the 1950s, in the Netherlands and several other western European countries an intensified livestock production system has developed. As a consequence, the quantities of NH x (NH

  15. Dark septate root endophytic fungi increase growth of Scots pine seedlings under elevated CO2 through enhanced nitrogen use efficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberton, O.; Kuyper, T.W.; Summerbell, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Although increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are predicted to have substantial impacts on plant growth and functioning of ecosystems, there is insufficient understanding of the responses of belowground processes to such increases. We investigated the effects of different dark septate root

  16. Persisting soil drought reduces leaf specific conductivity in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterck, F.J.; Zweifel, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Qumruzzaman, C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Leaf specific conductivity (LSC; the ratio of stem conductivity (KP) to leaf area (AL)), a measure of the hydraulic capacity of the stem to supply leaves with water, varies with soil water content. Empirical evidence for LSC responses to drought is ambiguous, because previously published

  17. Intraspecific aluminium response in Suillus luteus (L. s.f. gray., an ectomycorrhizal symbiont of scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Leski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus have been cultured on an aluminium containing growth medium in order to determine their in vitro aluminium tolerance. Five isolates originated from a site heavily polluted by acid rain with a high availability of aluminium in the soil. Five others were collected from a site free from direct pollution. Aluminium content in the sporocarps of S. luteus differed according to the site of origin and did not reveal symptoms of bioconcentration, although such phenomena were found when mycelium isolated from the sporocarps was submited to 100 mg/L Al in liquid culture. A clear relationship between Al accumulation in vitro and the site of origin of the isolate was not observed, although the highest amount of Al was found in the mycelium derived from the polluted soil. In a second experiment all isolates were grown in agar media containing 10, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L-1 Al and the colony diameter during culture and the final colony dry weight determined. S. luteus appeared to be very tolerant to the presence of Al in the medium. Each of the parameters used to measure the metal tolerance of the fungus ranked the isolates in a slightly different order, but those originating from the polluted area showed some superiority over the others. In polluted soils this species seems to have been submitted to a selection for higher aluminium tolerance. The results are discussed with reference to the possibilities of transformating in vitro studies to situation in the forest ecosystem.

  18. Quantification of extraradical soil mycelium and ectomycorrhizas of Boletus edulis in a Scots pine forest with variable sporocarp productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, Herminia; Agueda, Beatriz; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The availability of most edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms depends on their natural fructification. Sporocarp formation of these fungi is linked to habitat characteristics and climate conditions, but these data alone do not explain all the trends of fungal fruiting and dynamics. It could be hypothesized that the amount of soil mycelia could also be related to the production of carpophores. Soil samples (five cylinders of 250 cm(3) per plot) were taken monthly, from September to November, in five fenced permanent plots (5 × 5 m) in Pinar Grande (Soria, Spain), a Pinus sylvestris stand situated in the north of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. Plots were chosen to establish a gradient of Boletus edulis productivity from 0 to 38.5 kg/ha year, according to the mean fresh weight of sporocarps collected during the last 10 years. B. edulis ectomycorrhizal root tips were identified in each soil sample according to its morphology and counted. DNA extractions were performed with the PowerSoil(TM) DNA Isolation Kit and quantification of extraradical soil mycelium by real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and a TaqMan® probe. The concentration of soil mycelium of B. edulis (mg mycelium/g soil) did not differ significantly between plots (p = 0.1397), and sampling time (p = 0.7643) within the fructification period. The number of mycorrhizal short roots per soil volume showed significant differences between the plots (p = 0.0050) and the three sampling times (p < 0.0001). No significant correlation between the number of mycorrhizas and the productivity of the plot (kg of B. edulis/ha year) was detected (p = 0.615). A statistically significant positive correlation (p = 0.0481) was detected between the concentration of mycelia of B. edulis in the soil samples and the presence of short roots mycorrhizal with B. edulis in these samples. The productivity of the plots, in terms of sporocarps produced during the last 10 years, was not correlated either with the concentration of soil mycelium or with the presence or abundance of ectomycorrhizas.

  19. Response of central Siberian Scots pine to soil water deficit and long-term trends in atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arneth, A.; Lloyd, J.; Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M.; Grigoryev, S.; Kalaschnikov, Y. N.; Gleixner, G.; Schulze, E. D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2002), s. 1-13 ISSN 0886-6236 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : stable isotopes * boreal forest * carbon cycle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.957, year: 2002

  20. Evidences on the Ability of Mycorrhizal Genus Piloderma to Use Organic Nitrogen and Deliver It to Scots Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Santalahti, Minna; Bäcklund, Kirsi; Hari, Pertti; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis has been proposed to link plant photosynthesis and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition through the production of fungal enzymes which promote SOM degradation and nitrogen (N) uptake. However, laboratory and field evidence for the existence of these processes are rare. Piloderma sp., a common ECM genus in boreal forest soil, was chosen as model mycorrhiza for this study. The abundance of Piloderma sp. was studied in root tips and soil over one growing season and in winter. Protease production was measured from ectomycorrhiza and soil solution in the field and pure fungal cultures. We also tested the effect of Piloderma olivaceum on host plant organic N nutrition in the laboratory. The results showed that Piloderma sp. was highly abundant in the field and produced extracellular proteases, which correlated positively with the gross primary production, temperature and soil respiration. In the laboratory, Piloderma olivaceum could improve the ability of Pinus sylvestris L. to utilize N from extragenous proteins. We suggest that ECM fungi, although potentially retaining N in their hyphae, are important in forest C and N cycling due to their ability to access proteinaeous N. As Piloderma sp. abundance appeared to be seasonally highly variable, recycling of fungal-bound N after hyphal death may therefore be of primary importance for the N cycling in boreal ecosystems. PMID:26132469

  1. Climatic gradients within temperate Europe and small-scale species composition of lichen-rich dry acidophilous Scots pine forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košuthová, A.; Svitková, I.; Pišút, I.; Senko, D.; Valachovič, M.; Zaniewski, P. T.; Hájek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, APR 2015 (2015), s. 8-23 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Baltic sea * biodiversity * Cladonio-Pinetum * continentality Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2015

  2. Causes of the dying of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the Okhta training-cum-experimental forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podzorov, N V

    1961-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the health of these stands on the outskirts of Leningrad, where there has been considerable and increasing mortality since 1880. The chief causes are air pollution (especially from the Okhta chemical industry), climatic upsets, and periodic excesses of soil moisture. Counter measures recommended include: creating a protective belt 300-350 m wide of the most smoke resistant trees (Larix sibirica, Betula pubescens, Populus X canadensis, Tilia cordata, Acer negundo, Ulmus glabra and U. laevis) in the areas closest to the city, with the rows at 90/sup 0/ to the direction of the prevailing wind. Site improvement measures should be undertaken on level ground, heavy soils, and areas with excess soil moisture, and mixtures of conifers and broadleaved species should be planted. 7 references.

  3. Static and kinetic friction coefficients of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., parallel and perpendicular to grain direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the static (µe and kinetic (µd coefficients of friction were obtained for Pinus sylvestis L. sawn timber of Spanish origin. Friction between transverse surfaces sliding perpendicular to the grain (tangential direction and radial surfaces sliding parallel to the grain was analyzed. A specifically designed device was used for tests, which makes it possible to apply contact pressure and measure displacements and applied loads simultaneously. Coefficients of friction between transverse surfaces (µe = 0,24; µd = 0,17 were about twice of the coefficients of friction between radial surfaces (µe = 0,12; µd = 0,08. Furthermore, these values are located within normal values of those commonly reported for softwood. The results are considered preliminary due to the small number of specimens.En este estudio se determinaron los coeficientes de rozamiento, estático (µe y dinámico (µd, en madera aserrada de Pinus sylvestris L. de procedencia española, diferenciando si se produce el contacto entre secciones de corte transversal con deslizamiento en dirección perpendicular a la fibra (en dirección tangencial, o entre secciones de corte radial con deslizamiento paralelo a la fibra. Para la realización de los ensayos se ha utilizado un dispositivo, diseñado específicamente, que posibilita la aplicación de una presión de contacto y la medición del desplazamiento y de la fuerza aplicada de manera simultánea, permitiendo la obtención de los coeficientes de rozamiento estático y dinámico. Los coeficientes de rozamiento obtenidos entre secciones transversales (µe = 0.24; µd = 0.17 fueron del orden del doble de los coeficientes de rozamiento entre secciones radiales (µe = 0.12; µd = 0.08. Además, estos valores se encuentran dentro de los valores que aparecen habitualmente en la bibliografía para madera de coníferas. Debido al escaso tamaño de la muestra los resultados se consideran preliminares.

  4. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite Pakistani guava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.

  5. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Sakes

    Full Text Available In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill.We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting.Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi, or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals, or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi. The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1 in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum by compression of the spore and droplets and (2 in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in

  6. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Start codon targeted (SCoT) and target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) for evaluating the genetic relationship of Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Refeng; Yang, Sai; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Mengying; Lu, Jiangjie; Wang, Huizhong

    2015-08-10

    Two molecular marker systems, start codon targeted (SCoT) and target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), were used for genetic relationship analysis of 36 Dendrobium species collected from China. Twenty-two selected SCoT primers produced 337 loci, of which 324 (96%) were polymorphic, whereas 13 TRAP primer combinations produced a total of 510 loci, with 500 (97.8%) of them being polymorphic. An average polymorphism information content of 0.953 and 0.983 was detected using the SCoT and TRAP primers, respectively, showing that a high degree of genetic diversity exists among Chinese Dendrobium species. The partition of clusters in the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis plot based on the SCoT and TRAP markers was similar and clustered the 36 Dendrobium species into four main groups. Our results will provide useful information for resource protection and will also be useful to improve the current Dendrobium breeding programs. Our results also demonstrate that SCoT and TRAP markers are informative and can be used to evaluate genetic relationships between Dendrobium species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M Lanner; Kristina F. Connor

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senscence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in great basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To teast a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statiscally significant...

  9. Diseases of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth

    1964-01-01

    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  10. Smoke hardiness of pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    It has been determined in East Germany that some species of pines are more susceptible to the damaging effects of sulfates than others. On sites that are deficient in nutrients, the trees were found to be more susceptible to injuries. Pinus nigra was the most resistant, then Pinus strobus was next, and Pinus sylvestris was the most sensitive.

  11. The role of vanillin and p-coumaric acid in the growth of Scotch pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Michniewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It was stated that vanillin and p-coumaric acid used at concentrations 10-8-10-5M stimulated the growth of pine seedlings. Most effective were these substances used at concentration 10-7M. Both phenolic compounds stimulated the elongation, fresh and dry weight in very young seedlings (up to 3-4 weeks and increased the fresh and dry weight only in older ones (7 weeks. The stimulation of growth processes in pine seedlings treated with vanillin and p-coumaric acid coincided with the increase of auxins in roots and with the decrease of free gibberellins in these plant organs. Neither vanillin nor p-coumaric acid influenced the level of ABA-like inhibitor both in the shoots and roots of pine seedlings.

  12. Modelling water and {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Gielen, Sienke [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of {sup 36}Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous {sup 36}Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared

  13. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Towers

    Full Text Available Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts.Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed. We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event.We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015. We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001. All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  14. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  15. Youth Responses to School Shootings: A Reviw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Áine

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories...... of recovery? RECENT FINDINGS:Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced...

  16. Species ecology determines the role of nitrogen nutrition in the frost tolerance of pine seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toca, Andrei; Oliet, Juan A; Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Maroto, Judit; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2018-01-01

    Frost determines the evolution and distribution of plants in temperate and cold regions. Several environmental factors can influence frost acclimation of woody plants but the magnitude and direction of the effect of nitrogen (N) availability is controversial. We studied the effect of N availability on root and shoot frost tolerance in mid-fall and in winter in seedlings of four pines of contrasting ecology: Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, P. pinaster Ait., P. pinea L. and P. halepensis Mill.. Organ N and soluble sugar concentration, and timing of cessation of shoot elongation were measured to assess the physiological mechanisms underlying frost acclimation. Nitrogen was supplied at high and low rates only during the pre-hardening period and at a moderate N rate during hardening in the fall. Shoot frost tolerance increased over winter while root frost tolerance did not change in any species. Pre-hardening N availability affected the frost tolerance of both roots and shoots, although the effect was species-specific: high N reduced the overall root and shoot frost tolerance in P. pinea and P. halepensis, and increased the frost tolerance in P. nigra, but had no effect in P. pinaster. Nitrogen supply in the fall consistently increased frost tolerance in all species. Differences in frost tolerance among species and N treatments were not explained by variations in organ N or soluble carbohydrate concentration, nor by timing of cessation of shoot elongation; however, the most frost tolerant species ceased elongation earlier than the least frost tolerant species. Despite the close phylogenetic relatedness of the studied species, the effect of N availability on seedling frost tolerance differed among species, indicating that species ecology (especially frost acclimation physiology) and timing of N supply drives the effect of N availability on frost tolerance of pine species. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  17. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  18. Lead Pollution of Shooting Range Soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.

  19. Improving adventitious shoot regeneration from cultured leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) with or without 2.7 μM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation of two Petunia hybrida cultivars was studied. Seeds from 'Daddy Blue' and 'Dreams White' cultivars were germinated in vitro. Expanded leaves from both seedlings and ...

  20. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...

  1. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  2. Correlating gene expression to physiological parameters and environmental conditons during cold acclimation of Pinus sylvestris, identification of molecular markers using cDNA microarrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, R.V.L.; Lammers, M.; Balk, P.A.; Bronnum, P.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Perks, M.; Stattin, E.; Wordragen, van M.F.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were grown under different conditions (three field locations, two seasons and two climate room regimes), and then analyzed for freezing tolerance of shoots and roots and for transcript abundance in apical buds based on a cDNA microarray containing about

  3. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  4. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  5. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  6. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  7. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  8. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  9. Biomonitoring of airborne inorganic and organic pollutants by means of pine tree barks. I. Temporal and spatial variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Huhn, G.; Schuermann, G.; Popp, P.; Staerk, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) bark samples were collected at two field sites (Neuglobsow, Roesa) and in different years between 1987 and 1996 in the east of Germany. The barks were analyzed with respect to the following inorganic and organic substances: Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, NH 4 + , Ni, NO 3 - , PO 4 3- , Pb, Sr, SO 4 2- , Ti, V, W, Zr, Zn, benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). In addition to bark samples from the site Roesa, 53 test sites were investigated in the Nature Park Duebener Heide. Here, the analysis of the barks aimed at discovering spatial patterns of the above-mentioned substances. Since 1991, most of the determined substances (e.g. sulfate, nitrate, calcium, lead, benzo(a)pyrene, a-HCH) show decreased concentration values in bark samples from both sites. Temporal variations reflect substantial infra-structural changes in eastern Germany, especially at Roesa and in the industrial region around the cities Leipzig, Halle, and Bitterfeld. Moreover, nitrate concentrations in barks are increasing since 1995. The trend can be explained with increased nitrogen emissions from motor traffic and livestock farms. Spatial patterns of sulphate and ammonia reflect inputs from power plants and agriculture in pine stands of the Nature Park Duebener Heide. The results show that barks of pine trees can be used as biomonitoring tools to indicate and characterize depositions of airborne organic and inorganic pollutants. (author)

  10. High Frequency Multiple Shoot Induction of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.: Shoot Tip V/S Rhizome Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Nagesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an endangered medicinal plant with anticancer properties. The rhizome and tuberous roots of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Curculigo orchioides is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered ‘endangered’ in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. Here, we describe a successful protocol for multiple shoot induction of C. orchioides using shoot tip and rhizome disc. We find that proximal rhizome discs are optimal for high frequency shoot bud formation than shoot tip and distal rhizome disc. We observed a synergistic effect between 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin (KN (each at 1 mg/L on the regeneration of shoot buds from proximal rhizome disc than shoot tip explant. Optimum root induction was achieved on half-strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to natural condition with 90% survival.

  11. “A Significant Part of an Insignificant Identity”: the Re-Articulation of North-East Scots between Tradition and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Барбара Лоестер

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Britain the conflict between the national standard and regional languages and varieties, or rather those perceived to be ‘only’ a dialect, is still going strong and Scots plays a peculiar role in it. It is recognised and afforded a certain level of protection and promotion under the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages (ECRML. While related to English, Scots has a number of regional varieties and it stands in competition with other varieties of English within Scotland. North-East Scots (NE Scots, also known as ‘the Doric’, in particular occupies a rather special place within the sphere of Scots. While research has often focused on the perceived status of urban versus rural Scots, this paper examines the attitudes towards NE Scots with regard to identity construction as displayed by its speakers in rural areas and small towns in the North-East. Another focal point is the use of the regional variety as a perceived act of resistance against the ostensible dominance of English. Within the mind of its speakers what kind of identity do they feel they have - a largely local/regional, a national Scottish, a British one or something entirely different? The analysis of interview data highlights that respondents’ statements and their actual linguistic behaviour reinforce the affirmation of their regional identity; the extent to which this occurs will also be investigated.

  12. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  13. Effects of anaerobic growth conditions on biomass accumulation, root morphology, and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization in seedlings of some southern coastal plain pine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topa, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings of pond (Pinus serotina (Michx.)), sand (P. clausa (Engelm.) Sarg.), and loblolly pines (P. taeda L., drought-hardy and wet site seed sources) were grown in a non-circulating, continuously-flowing solution culture under anaerobic or aerobic conditions to determine the effects of anaerobics on overall growth, root morphology and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization. Although shoot growth of the 11-week old loblolly and pond pines was not affected by anaerobic treatment, it did significantly reduce root biomass. Sand pine suffered the largest biomass reduction. Flooding tolerance was positively correlated with specific morphological changes which enhanced root internal aeration. Oxygen transport from shoot to the root in anaerobically-grown loblolly and pond pine seedlings was demonstrated via rhizosphere oxidation experiments. Tissue elemental analyses showed that anaerobic conditions interfered with nutrient absorption and utilization. Short-term 32 p uptake experiments with intact seedlings indicated that net absorption decreased because of the reduction in root biomass, since H 2 PO 4 - influx in the anaerobically-grown seedlings was more than twice that of their aerobic counterparts. Sand pine possessed the physiological but not morphological capacity to increase P uptake under anaerobic growth conditions. Pond and wet-site loblolly pine seedlings maintained root growth, perhaps through enhanced internal root aeration - an advantage in field conditions where the phosphorus supply may be limited or highly localized

  14. Multiple shoot regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Induction of multiple shoots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant in two commercial varieties (Sahel and Varamin) using shoot apex was done. Explants were isolated from 3 - 4 days old seedlings, then they were cultured on a shoot induction media, modified MS nutrient agar with combinations: 1- ...

  15. Root~Shoot Growth Interactions of Sorghmn (Sorghwn Bicolor L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth. Studies on root-shoot intera'ctions in relation to mechanical impedance have only investigated the effect on shoots of ... growth regulators that may be responsible. Studies of root-shoot ... of germinating seeds to MI leaving roots in rela-.

  16. Sound propagation from a semi-open shooting range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2011-01-01

    Semi-open shooting ranges, in contrast to a fully open shooting range, are often used in the densely populated area of the Netherlands. The Ministry of Defense operates a number of these ranges. In these shooting ranges above the line of fire a number of screens are situated for safety precautions

  17. Lead pollution of shooting range soils | Sehube | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...

  18. Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...

  19. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  20. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  1. Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of Jackfruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jemal

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of ... shoot length and leaf number, whereby 2 mg/L BAP alone was found to be the best with a mean shoot .... Analysis of variance showed that the interaction between.

  2. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., ...

  3. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  4. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  5. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  6. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  7. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, tot U, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and 241 Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3 H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 microSv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables

  8. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  9. Propagation of pineapple by shoot tip culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almobasher, H. A. A.; Osman, M. G.; Said, A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of modifying the composition of MS medium for the clonal propagation of pineapple using shoot tips of Smooth Cayenne cultivar. Modification were made on various medium components. Results showed that both MS salts at the full or half strength were optimal, and there was on significant difference between them. Sucrose concentrations of 3% and 6% were better than other concentrations tested for growth and development of plant lets. The cultures responded positively to the increase of adenine sulfate and 80 mg/1 was the optimal. As for the additions of NAA and BA , alone or in combinations, the best results were recorded with the combination of NAA at 0.01 mg/1, and BA at 3.0 mg/1 where the largest number of shoots was obtained. Better explants performance was achieved on liquid medium with cotton support compared to solid medium. (Author)

  10. Date of shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position affect early rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese

    2006-01-01

    Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...

  11. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent dat...

  12. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  13. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock.

  14. Structuring agreements for seismic group shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Sigma Explorations Inc. sells licenses to use Sigma owned seismic data. The company participates with exploration and production companies in the joint acquisition of semi-private participation surveys. This paper discusses three major types of seismic group shoots and the essential elements of the agreements that govern or should govern them. They are: (1) exploration and production company joint ventures, (2) publicly offered spec shoots, and (3) semi-private participation surveys. The key issue with the exploration and production company joint ventures is that the companies are owners of the seismic data in proportion to their contribution towards the cost of the program. Their use of the data should be restricted to those situations permitted by the other owners. These are not often well documented, and there is much concern in the industry as a result. The key issue with publicly offered spec shoots is that the seismic company ultimately owns the data and the client exploration and production company is a licensee and must behave as such. In most such cases the rights and responsibilities are well documented in formal agreements that are signed in advance of the program's beginning date

  15. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Libao; Liang, Qingzhi; He, Xinhua; Luo, Cong; Chen, Hu; Qin, Zhenshi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies. This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers. Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms. The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  16. Rampage shootings: an historical, empirical, and theoretical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Michael; Duwe, Grant

    2018-02-01

    Rampage shootings is a relatively new term to describe a phenomenon that has a long history. Rampage shootings are mass shootings (generally defined as involving four or more victims), taking place in a public location, with victims chosen randomly or for symbolic purposes. These shootings are isolated events, meaning they are not connected to another criminal act (such as robbery or terrorism). Research suggests that rampage shootings are not a new phenomenon, but have occurred throughout the US since the early 1900s. There is some evidence of an increase in recent years, but definitional differences across studies and data sources make interpreting trends somewhat tenuous. Theories regarding the perpetration of rampage shootings center on masculinity, mental illness, and contagion effects. Policies aimed at preventing rampage shootings remain somewhat controversial and not well-tested in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Imago feeding preference of the black fir sawyer Monochamus urussovi Fisch. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodnitsky Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass outbreaks of the black fir sawyer M. urussovi regularly occur in forest stands dominated by Siberian fir Abies sibirica; outbreaks have been observed only on fir and exclusively in Siberia, although the beetle is also found in the vast territory including Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, China, Russian Far East and Japan. A closely related common species M. sutor has never produced outbreaks; its larvae have been registered only in Scots pine. Feeding preferences of the two species were compared under experimental conditions; total numbers of tested specimens were 132 (M. urussovi and 40 (M. sutor. M. sutor beetles were caught in nature, M. urussovi pupas and young adults were collected from fir trunks; pupas were reared to beetles. Each beetle was placed into a covered plastic enclosure for 24 hours and offered cut shoots of fir, spruce, Siberian pine, Scots pine, larch, birch and willow; all cuts were of the same length and diameter, needles and leaves had been previously removed. Beetles of the two species showed different feeding preference. M. sutor imagoes completely ignored fir shoots, definitely preferring Scots pine. M. urussovi feeding behavior was different: beetles did consume bark, bast and cambium of fir. However, they were mainly fed on Scots pine shoots. Feeding preference given to Scots pine by beetles grown in fir trunks can be explained by the hypothesis that this species originated on pine. Mass outbreaks of M. urussovi in Siberian fir-dominated forest ecosystems occur, because these plant communities are historically young (evidently much less than 10 000 years and yet unbalanced, transitional sort of ecosystems, so fir did not have enough evolutionary time to get adapted to injure by the sawyer and Ophiostoma fungi carried by beetles.

  18. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  19. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  20. Characterization of genetic diversity in chickpea using SSR markers, Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT) and Conserved DNA-Derived Polymorphism (CDDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibarat, Zahra; Saidi, Abbas; Hajibarat, Zohreh; Talebi, Reza

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the genetic diversity among 48 genotypes of chickpea comprising cultivars, landraces and internationally developed improved lines genetic distances were evaluated using three different molecular marker techniques: Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR); Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) and Conserved DNA-derived Polymorphism (CDDP). Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for SSR, SCoT and CDDP markers was 0.47, 0.45 and 0.45, respectively, and this revealed that three different marker types were equal for the assessment of diversity amongst genotypes. Cluster analysis for SSR and SCoT divided the genotypes in to three distinct clusters and using CDDP markers data, genotypes grouped in to five clusters. There were positive significant correlation (r = 0.43, P SSR markers. These results suggest that efficiency of SSR, SCOT and CDDP markers was relatively the same in fingerprinting of chickpea genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of using targeted DNA region molecular marker (CDDP) for genetic diversity analysis in chickpea in comparison with SCoT and SSR markers. Overall, our results are able to prove the suitability of SCoT and CDDP markers for genetic diversity analysis in chickpea for their high rates of polymorphism and their potential for genome diversity and germplasm conservation.

  1. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-11-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Utilization of the southern pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P

    1972-01-01

    After several years out of print, this book is again available. The two-volume reference characterizes the southern pine tree as raw material and describes the process by which it is converted to use. All 10 species are considered. The book is addressed primarily to the incoming generation of researchers and industrial managers in the southern pine industry. Foremen, superintendents, quality control personnel, wood procurement men, forest managers, extension workers, professors, and students of wood technology should find the handbook of value.

  3. In vitro shoot multiplication of Ziziphus spina-christi by shoot tip culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... Key words: Clonal propagation, cidir, shoot tip culture, Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. INTRODUCTION. Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., locally known as cidir, is a multipurpose tree species belonging to the botanical family Rhamnaceae. It is an important cultivated tree and one of the few truly native tree ...

  4. Light Requirement for Shoot Regeneration in Horseradish Hairy Roots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Tsutomu; Kamada, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions. PMID:16669041

  5. Light requirement for shoot regeneration in horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, T; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1992-08-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions.

  6. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  7. Youth Responses to School Shootings: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Áine; McDonagh, Tracey; Elklit, Ask

    2018-05-19

    This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories of recovery? Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced by pre-trauma functioning as well as peri-traumatic and post-traumatic factors. These include proximity to the trauma, peri-traumatic dissociation, post-traumatic emotional regulation difficulties, social support, and flexibility of coping styles. Research that separates the distinguishing features of young people with differing recovery styles is vital to tailor intervention. But methodological and design issues associated with such research necessitates caution in drawing conclusions. Variation in definitions and measures and the self-report nature of many of the studies are potential sources of bias. Greater uniformity across designs would enhance confidence and allow for improved evidence-based intervention.

  8. Journalism and School Shootings in Finland 2007 -2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...

  9. The dynamics of pine forests in Prebaikalia under anthropogenic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mikhailova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed and generalized were the results of prolonged (10–25 years monitoring of condition pine Pinus sylvestris L. forests affected by technogenic pollution and high recreation load in the South Prebaikalia. The results show that both factors have similarity in the stress effect on pine tree-stands, as confirmed by alteration in morphometric parameters of tree assimilating phytomass, decrease in photosynthetic pigments level, as well as by disturbance the nutrient elements proportions in the needles. As tree crown defoliation level reaches 65–70 %, the morphometric parameters for shoots and needles are found to decrease the background level by in 1.3–4.5 times. Under technogenic pollution, the needles’ chlorophylls sum was reduced 2.8–3.5 times, level of carotenoides – to 3.9 times maximum in comparison with the background needles while under high recreation load the green pigments content was reduced 1.9–5.7 times, carotenoids content – to 5.5 times. There is a imbalance in quantitative proportions between nutritional elements under any type of stress, N : P : K proportion changes due to increase of nitrogen level and reduction of phosphorus and potassium level. Index of tree-stand vital condition was calculated on the basis of the representative parameters to analyze the long forest dynamics. Significant reduction was shown in the index in the present time and correspondingly the obvious tendency to pine forest decline in the territories polluted by Irkutsk, Shelekhov, and Angarsk-Usolie industrial centers. At the same time near Cheremkhovo and Sayansk-Zima centers there are not heavy changes in the forest’s condition; during long time a middle level of weakening is registered but in the distance 20 km – a low level of weakening. In the territories characterized by a high recreation load, a sharp trend to declining pine tree-stands vital condition was found, and most clearly it is expressed in the towns of Khuzhir (Olkhon

  10. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  11. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  12. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  13. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  14. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  15. Mass propagation of shoots of Stevia rebaudiana using a large scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, M; Shigeoka, T; Koizumi, Y; Kawamura, M

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for the mass propagation of multiple shoots of Stevia rebaudiana is described. Isolated shoot primordia were used as the inoculum to obtain clusters of shoot primordia. Such clusters were grown in a 500 liter bioreactor to obtain shoots. A total of 64.6 Kg of shoots were propagated from 460 g of the inoculated shoot primordia. These shoots were easily acclimatized in soil.

  16. Radiosensitivity of in vitro Cultured Banana Shoot-Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagamawy, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinally dissected shoot apices of Grand Nain, Williams and Maghrabi banana cultivars were exposed to gamma irradiation with Cobalt 60 source at the doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 Gy and immediately placed into proliferation medium. A number of micropropagation cycles after irradiation were necessary up to M1 V2 to M1 V4 stage to let mutated sectors developing into non-chimeric shoots. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by the rate of shoot proliferation and by the shoot fresh weight increase. Increasing gamma doses caused reduction in survival rates and average number of shoots. Grand Nain exhibited the highest multiplication- rate (3.1). The lower dose (20 Gy) enhanced shoot multiplication ratio specially in Williams and Maghrabi, which however decreased with increased doses. The doses of 20-40 Gy yielded Ld50, with sensible degree of shoot multiplication, which occurred hardly ever beyond 40 Gy. The dose of 60 Gy resulted 80% lethal shoot growth. Linear decrease in fresh weight was observed in post-irradiation recovery, notably in the Maghrabi. In contradictory vulnerable damage was observed in Williams which showed the highest fresh weight value. Shoot proliferation appeared generally on the surface of the corm. Root formation was observed without additional hormone. The roots were dark colored and was decreased with the increased of dosage

  17. Australian Mass Shootings: An Analysis of Incidents and Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2017-06-01

    Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.

  18. School shootings: law enforcement and school district networking

    OpenAIRE

    Topadzhikyan, Tigran

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local School shootings have happened in the past and will happen again. The history of school shootings prompts all stakeholders to look at ways to prevent them from happening, and if they do happen, to be resilient. Change is needed in the prevention of school shootings. The case studies of Virginia Tech, Sandy Hook, E. O. Green Junior High, and Beslan school shootings reveal that the lack of information sharing and lack of communication were flaws; and the incidents might have...

  19. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  20. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  1. Genetic transformation and gene silencing mediated by multiple copies of a transgene in eastern white pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Newton, Ronald J; Weidner, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    An efficient transgenic eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) plant regeneration system has been established using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3850-mediated transformation and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene as a reporter in this investigation. Stable integration of transgenes in the plant genome of pine was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and northern blot analyses. Transgene expression was analysed in pine T-DNA transformants carrying different numbers of copies of T-DNA insertions. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) was mostly obtained in transgenic lines with more than three copies of T-DNA, but not in transgenic lines with one copy of T-DNA. In situ hybridization chromosome analysis of transgenic lines demonstrated that silenced transgenic lines had two or more T-DNA insertions in the same chromosome. These results suggest that two or more T-DNA insertions in the same chromosome facilitate efficient gene silencing in transgenic pine cells expressing green fluorescent protein. There were no differences in shoot differentiation and development between transgenic lines with multiple T-DNA copies and transgenic lines with one or two T-DNA copies.

  2. Prescribed Burn at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance

    2000-01-01

    .... Abandoned fields grew up in pine or in some cases were planted in pine during the 1930's. The burning of farm stubble and woodlands was a common practice in Arkansas throughout this time period...

  3. SHOOT2.0: An indirect grid shooting package for optimal control problems, with switching handling and embedded continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Martinon , Pierre; Gergaud , Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The SHOOT2.0 package implements an indirect shooting method for optimal control problems. It is specifically designed to handle control discontinuities, with an automatic switching detection that requires no assumptions concerning the number of switchings. Special care is also devoted to the computation of the Jacobian matrix of the shooting function, using the variational system instead of classical finite differences. The package also features an embedded continuation method and an automati...

  4. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker reveals genetic diversity of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an endangered medicinal orchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Paromik; Kumaria, Suman; Kumar, Shrawan; Tandon, Pramod

    2013-10-15

    Genetic variability in the wild genotypes of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. collected from different parts of Northeast India, was analyzed using a Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker system. A total of sixty individuals comprising of six natural populations were investigated for the existing natural genetic diversity. One hundred and thirty two (132) amplicons were produced by SCoT marker generating 96.21% polymorphism. The PIC value of the SCoT marker system was 0.78 and the Rp values of the primers ranged between 4.43 and 7.50. The percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) ranging from 25% to 56.82%, Nei's gene diversity (h) from 0.08 to 0.15 with mean Nei's gene diversity of 0.28, and Shannon's information index (I) values ranging from 0.13 to 0.24 with an average value of 0.43 were recorded. The gene flow value (0.37) and the diversity among populations (0.57) demonstrated higher genetic variation among the populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 43.37% of variation within the populations, whereas 56.63% variation was recorded among the populations. Cluster analysis also reveals high genetic variation among the genotypes. Present investigation suggests the effectiveness of SCoT marker system to estimate the genetic diversity of D. nobile and that it can be seen as a preliminary point for future research on the population and evolutionary genetics of this endangered orchid species of medicinal importance. © 2013.

  5. Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT Markers to Estimate Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Chinese Elymus sibiricus Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elymus sibiricus as an important forage grass and gene pool for improving cereal crops, that is widely distributed in West and North China. Information on its genetic diversity and relationships is limited but necessary for germplasm collection, conservation and future breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT markers were used for studying the genetic diversity and relationships among 53 E. sibiricus accessions from its primary distribution area in China. A total of 173 bands were generated from 16 SCoT primers, 159 bands of which were polymorphic with the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB of 91.91%. Based upon population structure analysis five groups were formed. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into two major clusters and three sub-clusters, similar to results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA showed that genetic variation was greater within geographical regions (50.99% than between them (49.01%. Furthermore, the study also suggested that collecting and evaluating E. sibiricus germplasm for major geographic regions and special environments broadens the available genetic base and illustrates the range of variation. The results of the present study showed that SCoT markers were efficient in assessing the genetic diversity among E. sibiricus accessions.

  6. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey N.; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is currently the largest-scale stem cell ophthalmology trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. Treatment approaches include a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal, intra-optic nerve, subretinal, and intravenous injection of autologous BMSCs according to the nature of the disease, the degree of visual loss, and any risk factors related to the treatments. Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy had visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters and Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. Visual field improvements were noted. Macular and optic nerve head nerve fiber layer typically thickened. No serious complications were seen. The increases in visual acuity obtained in our study were encouraging and suggest that the use of autologous BMSCs as provided in SCOTS for ophthalmologic mitochondrial diseases including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy may be a viable treatment option. PMID:27904503

  7. Genetic variation, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Switchgrass with ISSR, SCoT and EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yan, Haidong; Jiang, Xiaomei; Wang, Xiaoli; Huang, Linkai; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xinquan; Zhang, Lexin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate genetic variation, population structure, and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), 134 switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) samples were analyzed with 51 markers, including 16 ISSRs, 20 SCoTs, and 15 EST-SSRs. In this study, a high level of genetic variation was observed in the switchgrass samples and they had an average Nei's gene diversity index (H) of 0.311. A total of 793 bands were obtained, of which 708 (89.28 %) were polymorphic. Using a parameter marker index (MI), the efficiency of the three types of markers (ISSR, SCoT, and EST-SSR) in the study were compared and we found that SCoT had a higher marker efficiency than the other two markers. The 134 switchgrass samples could be divided into two sub-populations based on STRUCTURE, UPGMA clustering, and principal coordinate analyses (PCA), and upland and lowland ecotypes could be separated by UPGMA clustering and PCA analyses. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed an average r 2 of 0.035 across all 51 markers, indicating a trend of higher LD in sub-population 2 than that in sub-population 1 ( P  < 0.01). The population structure revealed in this study will guide the design of future association studies using these switchgrass samples.

  8. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  9. Are we over-managing longleaf pine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is not loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) or slash pine (Pinus elliottii L.). There is the need for a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about longleaf pine. All too often we think of longleaf as an intolerant species, slow-grower, difficult to regenerate, and yet it dominated the pre...

  10. Guidelines for whitebark pine planting prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenda L. Scott; Ward W. McCaughey; Kay Izlar

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species in high-elevation ecosystems of the western United States. Unfortunately many fragile subalpine ecosystems are losing whitebark pine as a functional community component due to the combined effects of an introduced disease, insects and succession. Planting whitebark pine is one part of a multifaceted restoration...

  11. Analysis of sports injuries related with shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.

  12. Highly efficient in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of Adenosma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosma glutinosum (Linn.) Druce is an important aromatic plant, but no information is available regarding its regeneration, callus induction and proliferation from leaf explants. In this study, an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native A. glutinosum using leaf explants. Callus induction and shoots ...

  13. Efficient regeneration of plants from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. is one of the horticulturally important orchids of Nepal due to its beautiful yellowish flower and medicinal properties. The present study was carried out for plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of D. densiflorum by tissue culture technique. The shoot tip explants of this species, obtained ...

  14. Defense.gov Special Report: Fort Hood Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    identify possible insider threats, Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story Obama: Soldiers ," Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story President Praises Swift Response to Fort Hood Remarks on Fort Hood Shooting at White House McHugh, Odierno Address Fort Hood Shooting Before Congress

  15. Gene expression in arabidopsis shoot tips after liquid nitrogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...

  16. An Analysis of US School Shooting Data (1840-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradice, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and descriptive analysis of a data set of United States school shooting events. Three hundred forty-three shooting events are included, spanning 175 years of United States educational history. All levels of US educational institution are included. Events are included when a firearm is discharged, regardless of…

  17. How to talk (and not to talk) about school shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper-Hughes, N

    2018-01-01

    © RAI 2018 In this guest editorial, the author addresses the latest school shootings at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. This event is weighed up against reports written by prominent academics, including anthropologists, during previous school shootings.

  18. Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

    2010-01-01

    School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

  19. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989

  20. Shoot Differentiation in Callus Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1973-01-01

    promoted shoot differentiation. Gibberellic acid inhibited shoot formation weakly, but inhibited proper leaf blade formation. Root differentiation was rare. The callus cultures of Datura innoxia grew rapidly (100-fold in 4 weeks) on a slightly modified Murashige and Skoog medium (0.5 mg/l thiamin · HCl, p...

  1. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  2. Initiation and growth of shoots of Gongronema latifolia Benth stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant reduction in number of days to shoot initiation and growth in sawdust medium in the wet season. Sawdust and soil gave a better performance of the cuttings in opening of apical buds, initiation of shoots, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of vines, vine length and number of opposite leaves on vines ...

  3. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  4. Modeling shoot-tip temperature in the greenhouse environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m -2 . Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)

  5. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.M.; Latham, K.; Mann, D.L.; Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Myint, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle,

  6. Pine creek geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Ewers, G.R.; Ferguson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline is a 66,000 km 2 inlier of Early Proterozoic metasediments, mafic and felsic intrusives and minor extrusives, surrounding small late Archaean granitic domes. Economic uranium occurrences cluster into three fields, with the Alligator Rivers field being the most significant. The metasediments are alluvial and reduced shallow-water pelites and psammites. Evaporitic carbonate developed on shallow shelves around Archaean islands. Basin development and sedimentation (c. 2000-1870 Ma) were related to gradual subsidence induced by crustal extension. Facies variations and volcanism were in places controlled by the extensional faults. The rocks were metamorphosed to lower the high grade, complexly folded, and intruded by numerous granitoids from c. 1870 to 1730 Ma. Late orogenic felsic volcanics accumulated in local rift systems. Middle Proterozoic sandstone was deposited on a peneplaned and deeply weathered surface from about 1650 Ma. Uranium is enriched in some Archaean and Proterozoic igneous rocks, but there is no local or regional enrichment of the metasedimentary hosts or of the unconformably overlying sandstone. There is no regional gravity, magnetic or radiometric character attributable to the region's significance as a uranium province; contrasts with surrounding sedimentary basins reflect expected differences in rock properties between a heterogeneous igneous/metamorphic region and relatively homogeneous undeformed and unmineralized sediments. Uranium-enriched Archaean and Proterozoic granitoids and felsic volcanics with labile U are likely though not exclusive source rocks. U was probably transported in oxidized low temperature solutions as uranyl complexes and precipitated in reduced, structurally controlled, low-pressure traps. All uranium occurrences are broadly classified as 'Proterozoic unconformity related'. Greatest potential for further discovery is offered in the Alligator Rivers field, where perhaps at least 3 to 5.5 times the

  7. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  8. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  9. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  10. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  11. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathee, Angela; Jager, Pieter de; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  12. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U- 14 C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U- 14 C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  13. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathee, Angela [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg (Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences), PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Jager, Pieter de [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); National Health Laboratory Service (Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, National Institute for Occupational Health), PO Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000 (South Africa); Naidoo, Shan [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Naicker, Nisha [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg, Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  14. Transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plants expressing a modified delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis with enhanced resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Yingchuan

    2003-02-01

    A synthetic version of the CRY1Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis has been used for the transformation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Expression vector pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) CRY1Ac coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator sequences, and the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected on media with kanamycin. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant calli, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. More than 60 transformed plants from independent transformation events were obtained for each loblolly pine genotype tested. The integration and expression of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern hybridization, by Northern blot analysis, and by Western blot analysis. Effective resistance of transgenic plants against Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud was verified in feeding bioassays with the insects. The transgenic plants recovered could represent a good opportunity to analyse the impact of genetic engineering of pine for sustainable resistance to pests using a B. thuringiensis insecticidal protein. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform.

  15. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  16. Structure-function relationships in highly modified shoots of cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2006-11-01

    Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

  17. Peatland pines as a proxy for water table fluctuations: disentangling tree growth, hydrology and possible human influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanić, Marko; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Läänelaid, Alar; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke; Stajić, Branko; Wilmking, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Dendrochronological investigations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on Männikjärve peatland in central Estonia showed that annual tree growth of peatland pines can be used as a proxy for past variations of water table levels. Reconstruction of past water table levels can help us to better understand the dynamics of various ecological processes in peatlands, e.g. the formation of vegetation patterns or carbon and nitrogen cycling. Männikjärve bog has one of the longest water table records in the boreal zone, continuously monitored since 1956. Common uncertainties encountered while working with peatland trees (e.g. narrow, missing and wedging rings) were in our case exacerbated with difficulties related to the instability of the relationship between tree growth and peatland environment. We hypothesized that the instable relationship was mainly due to a significant change of the limiting factor, i.e. the rise of the water table level due to human activity. To test our hypothesis we had to use several novel methods of tree-ring chronology analysis as well as to test explicitly whether undetected missing rings biased our results. Since the hypothesis that the instable relationship between tree growth and environment was caused by a change in limiting factor could not be rejected, we proceeded to find possible significant changes of past water table levels using structural analysis of the tree-ring chronologies. Our main conclusions were that peatland pines can be proxies to water table levels and that there were several shifting periods of high and low water table levels in the past 200 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity in Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) accessions using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, David Okeh; Afiukwa, Celestine Azubike; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Ogbu, Kenneth Idika; Ojuederie, Omena Bernard; Ude, George Nkem

    2017-11-17

    Assessment of genetic diversity of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea) accessions using informative molecular markers is imperative for their genetic improvement and conservation. Use of efficacious molecular markers to obtain the required knowledge of the genetic diversity within the local and regional germplasm collections can enhance the overall effectiveness of cowpea improvement programs, hence, the comparative assessment of Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and Start codon targeted (SCoT) markers in genetic diversity of V. unguiculata accessions from different regions in Nigeria. Comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of eighteen accessions from different locations in Nigeria was investigated using ISSR and SCoT markers. DNA extraction was done using Zymogen Kit according to its manufacturer's instructions followed by amplifications with ISSR and SCoT and agarose gel electrophoresis. The reproducible bands were scored for analyses of dendrograms, principal component analysis, genetic diversity, allele frequency, polymorphic information content, and population structure. Both ISSR and SCoT markers resolved the accessions into five major clusters based on dendrogram and principal component analyses. Alleles of 32 and 52 were obtained with ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Numbers of alleles, gene diversity and polymorphic information content detected with ISSR were 9.4000, 0.7358 and 0.7192, while SCoT yielded 11.1667, 0.8158 and 0.8009, respectively. Polymorphic loci were 70 and 80 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Both markers produced high polymorphism (94.44-100%). The ranges of effective number of alleles (Ne) were 1.2887 ± 0.1797-1.7831 ± 0.2944 and 1.7416 ± 0.0776-1.9181 ± 0.2426 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. The Nei's genetic diversity (H) ranged from 0.2112 ± 0.0600-0.4335 ± 0.1371 and 0.4111 ± 0.0226-0.4778 ± 0.1168 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Shannon's information index (I) from ISSR and SCoT were 0

  19. Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L

    2013-09-01

    Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved.

  20. Longleaf Pine: An Updated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer; Charles K. McMahon

    1996-01-01

    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest figured prominently in the cultural and economic development of the South. What was once one of the most extensive forest ecosystems in North America has now become critically endangered (6). At the time of European settlement, this ecosystem dominated as much as 92 million acres throughout the...

  1. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator

    1978-01-01

    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  2. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  3. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  4. Methodology of shooting training using modern IT techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzbeler, Grzegorz; Struniawski, Jarosław

    2017-08-01

    Mastering, improvement, shaping and preservation of skills of safe, efficient and effective use of the firearm requires the use of relevant methodology of conducting the shooting training. However reality of police trainings does not usually allow for intensive training shooting with the use of ammunition. An alternative solution is the use of modern training technologies. Example of this is the "Virtual system of improvement tactics of intervention services responsible for security and shooting training." Introduction of stimulator to police trainings will enable complete stuff preparation to achieve its tasks, creating potential of knowledge and experience in many areas, far exceeding the capabilities of conventional training.

  5. Shoot multiplication of Paphiopedilum orchid through in vitro cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waraporn

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... regulators could remain higher shoot multiplication than in other media. The micropropagation ... stalk nodes, buds, root tips and rhizome segments. For mass ... plants, the future mass-market orchids will most likely be.

  6. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

  7. Effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) pulsing on in vitro shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Research Cluster, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Accepted 12 ... number of bud formation in shoot cultures of Musa acuminata cv. ... In tissue culture, plant growth regulators (PGR) are.

  8. Roots & Shoots: A model for active environmental protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar is facing severe environmental problems. One approach to engage possible future stakeholders and to raise awareness for environmental concerns is the Roots & Shoots program. On the following the program and its philosophy are presented.

  9. In vitro shoot multiplication and conservation of Caralluma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-30

    Burm. f.) Merrill. In Vitro Cell Deve. Biol. Plant. 41: 124-128. Thomas TD, Shankar S (2009). Multiple shoot induction and callus regeneration in Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight & Arnott, a rare medicinal plant. Plant Biotechnol.

  10. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  11. In-vitro morphogenesis of corn (Zea mays L.) : I. Differentiation of multiple shoot clumps and somatic embryos from shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H; Srinivasan, C; Sticklen, M B

    1992-07-01

    In-vitro methods have been developed to regenerate clumps of multiple shoots and somatic embryos at high frequency from shoot tips of aseptically-grown seedlings as well as from shoot apices of precociously-germinated immature zygotic embryos of corn (Zea mays L.). About 500 shoots were produced from a shoot tip after eight weeks of culture (primary culture and one subculture of four weeks) in darkness on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (MS) supplemented with 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate (CH) and 9 μM N(6)-benzyladenine (BA). In this medium, shoots formed in shoot tips as tightly packed "multiple shoot clumps" (MSC), which were composed of some axillary shoots and many adventitious shoots. When the shoot tips were cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 9 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), most of the shoots in the clumps were adventitious in origin. Similar shoot tips cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 4.5 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-D regenerated many somatic embryos within eight weeks of culture. Somatic embryos were produced either directly from the shoot apical meristems or from calli derived from the shoots apices. Both the MSC and the embryos produced normal shoots on MS medium containing 2.25 μM BA and 1.8 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). These shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 3.6 μM IBA, and fertile corn plants were grown in the greenhouse. The sweet-corn genotype, Honey N Pearl, was used for the experiments described above, but shoot-tip cultures from all of 19 other corn genotypes tested also formed MSC on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH and 9 μM BA.

  12. DETECTING LASER SPOT IN SHOOTING SIMULATOR USING AN EMBEDDED CAMERA

    OpenAIRE

    Soetedjo, Aryuanto; Mahmudi, Ali; Ibrahim Ashari, M.; Ismail Nakhoda, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an embedded camera system for detecting laser spot in the shooting simulator. The proposed shooting simulator uses a specific target box, where the circular pattern target is mounted. The embedded camera is installed inside the box to capture the circular pattern target and laser spot image. To localize the circular pattern automatically, two colored solid circles are painted on the target. This technique allows the simple and fast color tracking to trac...

  13. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  14. Direct shoot organogenesis of Digitalis trojana Ivan., an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Digitalis trojana Ivan. was developed via adventitious shoot regeneration. Leaf explants were cultured on MS which were supplemented with different concentrations of NAA (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/ml) and BAP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/ml) for shoot formation.

  15. Naturally Occurring Compound Can Protect Pines from the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer; J.L. Hayes

    1995-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, is the most destructive insect pest of southern pine forests. This tiny insect, smaller than a grain of rice, is responsible for killing pine timber worth millions of dollars on a periodic basis in Louisiana.

  16. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  17. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    longleaf pine forests (Figure 1) for the diverse values they provide. These forests afford abundant recreational opportunities like hiking , bird...combined herbicide-fertilizer treatments that might benefit planted longleaf pine seedlings after planting. In addition to measuring longleaf pine

  18. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  19. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  20. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  1. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  2. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  3. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  4. Bio-composites made from pine straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang

    2004-01-01

    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  5. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP. It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots showed that the production of diterpenoids, carnosic acid/carnosol ratio, as well as, contents of rosmarinic acid were also affected by the treatment with triacontanol. The highest stimulation effect of triacontanol was observed on the production of carnosol, where the treatment with 20 µg l l-1 increased the content of this diterpenoid 4.5-fold compared to that in the control (sage shoots growing on MS basal medium, only.

  6. 137Cs accumulation in components of pine stands in Polessye of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.P.; Orlov, A.A.; Gusarevich, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Distribution of 137 Cs specific activity in structural components of Scotch pine in different parts of crone and tree trunk (according the height) was analyzed; the average value 137 Cs transfer factor (TF) for all investigated components was calculated. Decreasing of 137 Cs specific activity and values of TF from upper crone part through middle to the lowest one has been shown for the majority pine crone components in edatops B 2 and B 3 . It was drown a calculation that 137 Cs specific activities and TF values stably decreased in tree trunk components from upper part through middle to the lowest one in edatop B 3 . In edatop B 2 decreasing of 137 Cs specific activity and TF values for external and internal bark was also revealed in the same direction. The decreasing of 137 Cs specific activity and TF values for wood was revealed from upper part of the trunk to middle one and their increasing to the lowest tree trunk part. It was shown that physiologically active organs and tissues in the pine are characterized by the maximum accumulation: one-year-o;d shoots, one-year-old needles, internal bark. It was drown an important conclusion that part of tree trunk (according to its height), which used as fuel wood and construction materials, is a strong modification factor of 137 Cs content in complete product and this fact should be taken into account for forest cutting activities. (author)

  7. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  8. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  9. In vitro co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: a biotechnological approach to study pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Sena, Inês; Vieira da Silva, Inês; Ribeiro, Bruno; Barbosa, Pedro; Ascensão, Lia; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were established as a biotechnological tool to evaluate the effect of nematotoxics addition in a host/parasite culture system. The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), was detected for the first time in Europe in 1999 spreading throughout the pine forests in Portugal and recently in Spain. Plant in vitro cultures may be a useful experimental system to investigate the plant/nematode relationships in loco, thus avoiding the difficulties of field assays. In this study, Pinus pinaster in vitro cultures were established and compared to in vivo 1 year-old plantlets by analyzing shoot structure and volatiles production. In vitro co-cultures were established with the PWN and the effect of the phytoparasite on in vitro shoot structure, water content and volatiles production was evaluated. In vitro shoots showed similar structure and volatiles production to in vivo maritime pine plantlets. The first macroscopic symptoms of PWD were observed about 4 weeks after in vitro co-culture establishment. Nematode population in the culture medium increased and PWNs were detected in gaps of the callus tissue and in cavities developed from the degradation of cambial cells. In terms of volatiles main components, plantlets, P. pinaster cultures, and P. pinaster with B. xylophilus co-cultures were all β- and α-pinene rich. Co-cultures may be an easy-to-handle biotechnological approach to study this pathology, envisioning the understanding of and finding ways to restrain this highly devastating nematode.

  10. Seasonal influences on the rooting response of Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rooting ability of the vegetative cutting depends upon the various factors: age, size, and diameter of cutting, season, rooting substrate and concentration of the applied growth hormone. For assessing the seasonal variation in rooting ability of shoot, cuttings were taken from 4 year old hedges. Shoot cuttings were collected after every two months of hedging spring (March, summer (June, autumn (September and winter (December and treated with 4000 ppm Indole Butyric Acid (IBA, mixed with talc powder and planted in vermiculite filled beds. Suitable control was also maintained, wherein only talc powder was applied to the basal portion of cuttings. Periodical observations were taken on cuttings, with regard to root initiation. The cuttings were uprooted after 12 weeks of planting and observations were recorded. Highly significant differences were observed between root length, shoot length, number of roots per cutting and rooting percentage. This has led to the evaluation of a standard technique for application of mass clonal propagation of Chir pine during summer season (June, which would result into a good success in rooting percentage. This technique could also be helpful in the establishment of germplasm banks of desired genotypes and Clonal Seed Orchards (CSOs. Further, this will also help in overcoming the problem of stock and scion incompatibility, which is commonly faced, when Clonal Seed Orchards are established through grafted material. 

  11. Growth and photosynthetic responses of two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in a polluted industrial region in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.S.; Kayama, M.; Jin, H.O.; Lee, C.H.; Izuta, T.; Koike, T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pollutants on two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in an industrial region in Korea, using a physiological approach. The concentrations of fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) in the atmosphere, in precipitation and soil water at the damaged site were all significantly higher than at a control site. Moreover, the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in pine needles were significantly higher, and essential elements and chlorophyll in needles were significantly lower at the damaged site than at the control site. The photosynthetic capacities, shoot length and survival statistics of needles of the two pines were all significantly reduced at the damaged site compared to the control site, especially P. rigida. Based on our comparison of photosynthetic responses and the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in needles of the two pine species, P. koraiensis is more resistant to excess Mn in its needles than P. rigida. - Pinus koraiensis seems to be more pollution tolerant than Pinus rigida

  12. Spatial relationships between nitrogen status and pitch canker disease in slash pine planted adjacent to a poultry operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Zamora, Isabel; Bliss, Christine; Jokela, Eric J.; Comerford, N.B.; Grunwald, Sabine; Barnard, E.; Vasquez, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Pitch canker disease (Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell) causes serious shoot dieback, reduced growth and mortality in pines found in the southern and western USA, and has been linked to nutrient imbalances. Poultry houses with forced-air ventilation systems produce nitrogen (N) emissions. This study analyzed spatial correlations between pitch canker disease and foliar, forest floor, soil, and throughfall N in a slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) plantation adjacent to a poultry operation in north Florida, USA. Tissue and throughfall N concentrations were highest near the poultry houses and remained elevated for 400 m. Disease incidence ranged from 57-71% near the poultry houses and was spatially correlated with N levels. Similarly, stem mortality ranged from 41-53% in the most heavily impacted area, and declined to 0-9% at distances greater than 400 m. These results suggest that nutritional processes exacerbate changes in disease susceptibility and expression in slash pine. - Local emissions from poultry production appear to significantly contribute to the spatial distribution of N and pitch canker disease in managed slash pine ecosystems

  13. Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, C; Terradas, J

    1995-06-01

    Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots.

  14. A questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour: assessing content validity in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Helen S; Watson, Tony; Emery, Jon D; Lee, Amanda J; Murchie, Peter

    2011-08-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the content validity of a questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians. Australia has the highest melanoma incidence worldwide but has developed a culture of skin cancer avoidance with a long history of skin cancer primary prevention campaigns of proven effectiveness. Scotland has lower incidence, but has shown a greater rate of increase between 1985 and 2007. There is an urgent need in Scotland, therefore, to identify those groups at greatest risk and provide them with effective preventative advice. A self-administered postal survey was completed by four groups formed from convenience samples in two geographical locations (Northeast Scotland and Western Australia). In univariate analysis scores on personal risk, level of concern, protective behaviour, and knowledge were compared by nationality, previous skin cancer diagnosis and personally knowing someone with melanoma. Multivariate linear regression analysis modelled the influence of potential predictor variables upon each of the scores. 540 people completed the questionnaire, 273 Scots (50.6%). 133 (24.6%) Scots and 83 (15.4%) Australians previously had melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer, whilst 120 (22.2%) Scots and 190 (35.2%) Australians personally knew someone with melanoma. Australians had higher knowledge (p behaviour (p behaviours in Australians than in Scottish people. This was expected and supports the content validity of the questionnaire and its value as a future research tool in the Scottish population.

  15. Learning from the social construction of environmental indicators: From the retrospective to the pro-active use of SCOT in technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Darnmann, Sven; Lentsch, Justus

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the challenges, advantages and limitations of the pro-active use of the social construction of technology (SCOT) to improve the methods applied in the development of technology for use by a broad range of actors. Our example is the development of environmental indicators...

  16. Growth of pine ecosystems as a function of climate and pollution load. A regional case study; Wachstum von Kiefern-Oekosystemen in Abhaengigkeit von Klima und Stoffeintrag. Eine regionale Fallstudie auf Landschaftsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhard, M.

    1999-12-01

    An analysis on landscape level was performed to investigate the growth of Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the research area of 'Duebener Heide' under the impact of rapidly changing pollution loads and to evaluate their further development. Central to the work was a spatial database, installed using a geographic information system (GIS). This database enabled the statistical analysis of relationships and correlations between the growth of the pine stands, the influence of pollution impacts and the natural site characteristics. The results of emission and immission modelling gave detailed evaluation of the pollution load over the investigated area. The spatial information database was linked with a process-based growth model called FORSANA. The resulting regional model was used to simulate forest growth on stand level for variable time periods. The plausibility of the simulation results of the model was checked for the influence of different patterns of pollution using the data available for the investigated area. Simulation runs were also made with these data to estimate the further development of the pine stand under various climate and emission scenarios. (orig.)

  17. Resource Limitations Influence Growth and Vigor of Idaho Fescue, a Common Understory Species in Pacific Northwest Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Carr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in under-canopy resource availability associated with elevated ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. abundance can negatively influence understory vegetation. Experimental evidence linking under-canopy resource availability and understory vegetation is scarce. Yet this information would be beneficial in developing management strategies to recover desired understory species. We tested the effects of varying nitrogen (N and light availability on Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer, the dominant understory species in ponderosa pine/Idaho fescue plant associations in eastern Oregon. In a greenhouse experiment, two levels of N (50 kg∙N∙ha−1 and 0 kg∙N∙ha−1 and shade (80% shade and 0% shade were applied in a split-plot design to individual potted plants grown in soil collected from high abundance pine stands. Plants grown in unshaded conditions produced greater root (p = 0.0027 and shoot (p = 0.0017 biomass and higher cover values (p = 0.0378 compared to those in the shaded treatments. The addition of N had little effect on plant growth (p = 0.1602, 0.5129, and 0.0853 for shoot biomass, root biomass, and cover, respectively, suggesting that soils in high-density ponderosa pine stands that lack understory vegetation were not N deficient and Idaho fescue plants grown in these soils were not N limited. Management activities that increase under-canopy light availability will promote the conditions necessary for Idaho fescue recovery. However, successful restoration may be constrained by a lack of residual fescue or the invasion of more competitive understory vegetation.

  18. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rivas-Ubach, A.; Sardans, J.; Hódar, J. A.; Garcia-Porta, J.; Guenther, A.; Paša-Tolic, L.; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Peňuelas, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 21 (2017), s. 8976-8988 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Grant - others:Akademie věd České Republiky(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : drought * evolutionary processes * folivory * herbivorous attack * metabolomics * Pinus sylvestris * processionary moth * sympatric subspecies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016

  19. The history of mercury pollution near the Spolana chlor-alkali plant (Neratovice, Czech Republic) as recorded by Scots pine tree rings and other bioindicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šimeček, Martin; Shanley, J. B.; Rohovec, Jan; Hojdová, Maria; Houška, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 586, 15 May (2017), s. 1182-1192 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14762S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : point source * Hg emissions * dendrochemistry * bioindicators * soil * bark * needles * Pinus sylvestris * electrolysis * caustic soda Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  20. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblages inhabiting Scots pine stands of Puszcza Piska Forest: six-year responses to a tornado impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skłodowski, Jarosław; Garbalińska, Paulina

    2011-01-01

    Ground beetle assemblages were studied during 2003-08 in the Pisz Forest by comparing stands disturbed by a tornado to undisturbed control stands. The following exploratory questions were put forward. (1) How do the carabid assemblages change during six years following the tornado impact? (2) Does the carabid assemblage recovery begin during the six first post-tornado years? To assess the state of carabid assemblages we used two indices: the MIB (Mean Individual Biomass) and the SPC (Sum of Progressive Characteristics). Carabid assemblages in the disturbed and in the control stands, as expressed by these two indices, were compared using the length of a regression distance (sample distance in a MIB:SPC coordinate system). A cluster analysis revealed that the assemblages of the disturbed and the control stands were different. The tornado-impacted stands produced lower carabid catch rates, but species richness was significantly higher there than in the control stands. They hosted lower proportions of individuals of European species, of large zoophages, and of forest and brachypterous species, than the control stands. The observed reduction in SPC and MIB, and an increase in the regression distances may indicate that the carabid assemblages had not started to recover from the tornado-caused disturbance. Carabid assemblages apparently responded to the tornado in two steps. Firstly, the first three years were characterized by moderate decreases of index values. Secondly, from the fourth to the sixth year after the tornado, many observed changes became magnified. We did not observe clear signals of the recovery of forest carabid assemblages during the six follow-up years.