WorldWideScience

Sample records for scooters

  1. Electric scooter pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, Zdenek; Dedek, Jan; Golembiovsky, Matej

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the issue of electric scooter development for educational and demonstration purposes on the Technical University of Ostrava. Electric scooter is equipped with a brushless motor with permanent magnets and engine controller, measuring and monitoring system for speed regulation, energy flow control and both online and off-line data analysis, visualization system for real-time diagnostics and battery management with balancing modules system. Implemented device brings a wide area for the following scientific research. This article also includes some initial test results and electric vehicles experiences.

  2. Adult Scandinavians' use of powered scooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Brandt, Åse

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate user satisfaction with characteristics of powered scooters (scooters), frequency of use, and factors predicting daily scooter use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SAMPLE: Adult scooter users (n = 59) in Denmark and Norway, mean age 74.5 (standard deviation 12.3) years. METHODS......: Structured face-to-face interviews. The NOMO 1.0, the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive devices (QUEST 2.0), and a study specific instrument were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were applied, and regression analyzes were used to investigate predictors for daily scooter use....... The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) served as a framework for classifying variables and guiding the investigation. RESULTS: Satisfaction with the scooter characteristics was high with most participants being very satisfied or quite satisfied (66.1-91.5%). Most scooters were...

  3. Low vision and mobility scooters: the experiences of individuals with low vision who use mobility scooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Keri S; Butler, Mary

    2018-05-09

    Older adults with low vision are a growing population with rehabilitation needs including support with community mobility to enable community participation. Some older adults with low vision choose to use mobility scooters to mobilize within their community, but there is limited research about the use by people with low vision. This paper describes a pilot study and asks the question: what are the experiences of persons with low vision who use mobility scooters? This study gathered the experiences of four participants with low vision, aged 51 and over, who regularly use mobility scooters. Diverse methods were used including a go-along, a semi-structured interview and a new measure of functional vision for mobility called the vision-related outcomes in orientation and mobility (VROOM). Four themes were found to describe experiences: autonomy and well-being, accessibility, community interactions and self-regulation. Discussion and implications: This study was a pilot for a larger study examining self-regulation in scooter users. However, as roles emerge for health professionals and scooters, the findings also provide evidence to inform practice, because it demonstrates the complex meaning and influences on performance involved in low vision mobility scooter use. Implications for rehabilitation Scooter use supports autonomy and well-being and community connections for individuals with both mobility and visual impairments. Low vision scooter users demonstrate self-regulation of their scooter use to manage both their visual and environmental limitations. Issues of accessibility experienced by this sample affect a wider community of footpath users, emphasizing the need for councils to address inadequate infrastructure. Rehabilitators can support their low vision clients' scooter use by acknowledging issues of accessibility and promoting self-regulation strategies to manage risks and barriers.

  4. Enabling Autonomous Navigation for Affordable Scooters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikai Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the technical success of existing assistive technologies, for example, electric wheelchairs and scooters, they are still far from effective enough in helping those in need navigate to their destinations in a hassle-free manner. In this paper, we propose to improve the safety and autonomy of navigation by designing a cutting-edge autonomous scooter, thus allowing people with mobility challenges to ambulate independently and safely in possibly unfamiliar surroundings. We focus on indoor navigation scenarios for the autonomous scooter where the current location, maps, and nearby obstacles are unknown. To achieve semi-LiDAR functionality, we leverage the gyros-based pose data to compensate the laser motion in real time and create synthetic mapping of simple environments with regular shapes and deep hallways. Laser range finders are suitable for long ranges with limited resolution. Stereo vision, on the other hand, provides 3D structural data of nearby complex objects. To achieve simultaneous fine-grained resolution and long range coverage in the mapping of cluttered and complex environments, we dynamically fuse the measurements from the stereo vision camera system, the synthetic laser scanner, and the LiDAR. We propose solutions to self-correct errors in data fusion and create a hybrid map to assist the scooter in achieving collision-free navigation in an indoor environment.

  5. Enabling Autonomous Navigation for Affordable Scooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaikai; Mulky, Rajathswaroop

    2018-06-05

    Despite the technical success of existing assistive technologies, for example, electric wheelchairs and scooters, they are still far from effective enough in helping those in need navigate to their destinations in a hassle-free manner. In this paper, we propose to improve the safety and autonomy of navigation by designing a cutting-edge autonomous scooter, thus allowing people with mobility challenges to ambulate independently and safely in possibly unfamiliar surroundings. We focus on indoor navigation scenarios for the autonomous scooter where the current location, maps, and nearby obstacles are unknown. To achieve semi-LiDAR functionality, we leverage the gyros-based pose data to compensate the laser motion in real time and create synthetic mapping of simple environments with regular shapes and deep hallways. Laser range finders are suitable for long ranges with limited resolution. Stereo vision, on the other hand, provides 3D structural data of nearby complex objects. To achieve simultaneous fine-grained resolution and long range coverage in the mapping of cluttered and complex environments, we dynamically fuse the measurements from the stereo vision camera system, the synthetic laser scanner, and the LiDAR. We propose solutions to self-correct errors in data fusion and create a hybrid map to assist the scooter in achieving collision-free navigation in an indoor environment.

  6. Manoeuvring space for electric wheelchairs and scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, D.J.M.; de Jong, G.E.; Verkroost, S.

    1996-01-01

    To be universally accessible the built environment must be adequately adapted to the needs of the widest possible range of users and to the use of mobility aids such as walking sticks, rollator walkers, manual wheelchairs and electric scooters. Delft University of Technology regularly conducts

  7. Development of combined brake system on front and rear brakes for scooter; Scooter yo zenkorin rendo brake system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Y; Itabashi, T; Shinohara, S; Honda, Y [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Scooters need appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution and each of front and rear brakes have been operated using right and left levers. This time, a low cost brakes with cable type combined brake system for small size scooter and a brakes with hydraulic type combined brake system for middle size scooter have been developed to obtain appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution. Both systems use convenient left lever to operate. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Energy-efficient light scooter; Energieeffizienter Leicht-Scooter im Gewichtsbereich eines Mofa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, A

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of feasibility study on the development of an energy-efficient lightweight scooter. The report looks at the low energy consumption and low CO{sub 2} emissions of ultra-lightweight vehicles and presents a market analysis. The state-of-the-art of electrically-powered two-wheel vehicles is reviewed. Further topics include technical feasibility, drive-system components and battery-management systems. Safety considerations and economical feasibility are examined, as are functional requirements. A vision for a ultra-lightweight scooter is presented and industrial production aspects are reviewed.

  9. Motorcycle and scooter speeds approaching urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D; Buchanan, J

    2012-09-01

    Five urban, uncontrolled T-intersections known to be motorcycle crash 'black spots' were monitored using instrumentation and a roadside observer. Two sets of twelve-hour observations were collected for each site (N≈100,000). Instrumentation recorded the 'events' of vehicles passing to measure, speed, direction, lane position, vehicle type (broadly characterised) and headway. Observers further recorded times of bicycle events, type of motorcycle (scooters or motorcycles), the behaviour of motorcycles and the use of 'high conspicuity' gear such as clothing or helmets. Results establish that motorcycles travel around 10% faster than the other traffic (car mean speed=34.97 km/h), with motorcycles travelling on average 3.3 km/h faster than cars. Motorcycles were 3.4 times more likely to be exceeding the speed limit than cars. Similar results are described for scooters. Also examined are the influences on mean speeds such as the time of day, the presence of a car at the t-intersection, and the influence of free headway. The results are compared for robustness across locations and days. It is concluded that in urban areas motorcycles are travelling significantly faster than other traffic. These findings are discussed against a concern to reduce motorcycle crashes by improving conspicuity and previous research that implicates a 'looked-but-failed-to-see' effect for car drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-wheeled scooter taxi: A safety analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three-wheel scooter taxis (TSR) form an essential part of public transport for the urban ... These low cost vehicles will remain a major mode of travel in the South Asian region ... commercial codes can be avoided for computational efficiency.

  11. De duurzaamste scooter komt uit Delft’, Inholland Composietenlab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoine Gerritse

    2014-01-01

    Het Inholland composietenlab en MKB-bedrijven hebben de duurzaamste scooter ter wereld ontwikkeld. De dragende constructie is gemaakt van lichtgewicht en extreem sterk composiet dat bestaat uit Nederlands vlas en natuurlijk harsen.

  12. Mobility scooter driving ability in visually impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel A; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M

    2018-06-01

    To investigate how well visually impaired individuals can learn to use mobility scooters and which parts of the driving task deserve special attention. A mobility scooter driving skill test was developed to compare driving skills (e.g. reverse driving, turning) between 48 visually impaired (very low visual acuity = 14, low visual acuity = 10, peripheral field defects = 11, multiple visual impairments = 13) and 37 normal-sighted controls without any prior experience with mobility scooters. Performance on this test was rated on a three-point scale. Furthermore, the number of extra repetitions on the different elements were noted. Results showed that visually impaired participants were able to gain sufficient driving skills to be able to use mobility scooters. Participants with visual field defects combined with low visual acuity showed most problems learning different skills and needed more training. Reverse driving and stopping seemed to be most difficult. The present findings suggest that visually impaired individuals are able to learn to drive mobility scooters. Mobility scooter allocators should be aware that these individuals might need more training on certain elements of the driving task. Implications for rehabilitation Visual impairments do not necessarily lead to an inability to acquire mobility scooter driving skills. Individuals with peripheral field defects (especially in combination with reduced visual acuity) need more driving ability training compared to normal-sighted people - especially to accomplish reversing. Individual assessment of visually impaired people is recommended, since participants in this study showed a wide variation in ability to learn driving a mobility scooter.

  13. Pediatric fractures during skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalavras, Charalampos; Nikolopoulou, Georgia; Essin, Daniel; Manjra, Nahid; Zionts, Lewis E

    2005-04-01

    Skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding are popular recreational and sporting activities for children and adolescents but can be associated with skeletal injury. The purpose of this study is to describe the frequency and characteristics of fractures resulting from these activities. Fractures from skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding compose a considerable proportion of pediatric musculoskeletal injuries. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Demographic data and injury characteristics were analyzed for all patients who presented to the pediatric fracture clinic of the level I trauma center from January 2001 to May 2002 after sustaining fractures due to skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding. Among a total of 2371 fractures, the authors identified 325 fractures (13.7%) that occurred during one of these activities. There were 187 patients (mean age, 13 years; 95% male) who sustained 191 skateboard-related fractures, 64 patients (mean age, 10.8 years; 54% male) who sustained 65 fractures while roller skating, and 66 patients (mean age, 9.7 years; 64% male) who sustained 69 fractures while riding a scooter. The forearm was fractured most often, composing 48.2% of skate-boarding fractures, 63.1% of roller-skating fractures, and 50.7% of fractures due to scooter riding. Of the forearm fractures, 94% were located in the distal third. In the skateboarding group, 10 of 191 (5.2%) fractures were open injuries of the forearm, compared to 6 of 2046 (0.3%) fractures caused by other mechanisms of injury (significant odds ratio, 18.8). Skateboarding, roller-skating, and scooter-riding accidents result in a large proportion of pediatric fractures. An open fracture, especially of the forearm, was more likely to be caused by skateboarding than by other mechanisms of injury. Use of wrist and forearm protective equipment should be considered in all children who ride a skateboard.

  14. Scooter Leasing : A Cradle-to-Cradle Sound Strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, F.H.J.; De Brito, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the application of the Cradle-to-Cradle approach to the electric scooter vehicle, and how the concept of leasing can be used as a means to make it operational. This research is a result of a research project with Eco-Movement, a Dutch firm currently selling electric

  15. Sustainable transport strategy for promoting zero-emission electric scooters in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-06-15

    In Taiwan, the government considers the zero-emission scooters to be a sustainable form of transport like walking, cycling and public transport, which play a vital role to support sustainable urban mobility. Therefore, the development of zero-emission scooters is an important strategy in constructing the sustainable transport network of Taiwan. It is also the government's priorities about the policy of emission-reduction and energy-conservation in the transportation sector. Recently, Taiwan launched a new program for subsidy of purchasing zero-emission scooters, which aimed to shift the petroleum-powered scooters to the electric scooters. The present paper is providing an update review of the promotional programs in developing zero-emission scooters in Taiwan. It introduces the status of the establishment and progress of policy, standards, subsidies to users and manufacturers, practice infrastructure, and technology development. Moreover, the contribution of replacing petrol scooters by zero-emission scooters such as battery-powered electric scooters and fuel cell scooters to reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and improvement in energy efficiency is evaluated. (author)

  16. Analysis and evaluation of hybrid scooter transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, Kuen-Bao [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Formosa University, 64 Wunhua Road, Huwei, Yuenlin 63208 (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents a new design concept of transmissions for the hybrid scooters. These transmissions consist of a one-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train and a two-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train to from a split power system and to combine the power of two power sources, a gasoline engine and an electric motor. In order to maximize the performance and reduce emissions, the transmissions can provide a hybrid scooter to run five operating modes: electric motor mode; engine mode; engine/charging mode; power mode, and regenerative braking mode. The main advantages of the transmissions proposed in this paper include the use of only one electric motor/generator, need not use clutch/brake for the shift of the operating modes, and high efficiency. The kinematics, power flow, and mechanical efficiency analyzes are performed; and according to these results, the evaluation of transmission power performances are accomplished. (author)

  17. The development of the 3. generation electric scooter in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, J.P.H.; Wu, C.T.; Hsu, C.T.; Wu, C.T.; Lo, S.-M.; Hsiau, C.

    2000-01-01

    At the present time, there are approximately 25,000 electric scooters in operation in Taiwan. Most of the customers so far have complained about the cruising range, vehicle weight, charging time, and vehicle cost. Two generations of electric scooters have already been developed by the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), the first generation used valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, while the second generation used nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. Production of the first generation of electric scooters began in September, 1999 while the second generation is still in the cost-down engineering phase. The Government had established mandatory sales regulations, and in order to support this program and improve the overall vehicle performance, ITRI is now developing the third generation, utilizing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, in addition to higher power-electronic efficiency systems. The stated objectives of the development program for the third generation are performance improvements of 25 per cent for weight, 50 per cent for the cruising range, 20 per cent for total energy efficiency, 300 per cent longer battery life at no cost increase after the government subsidy. If the goals are met, the third generation electric scooter could replace most of the 50 cc gasoline scooters in operation in Asia. Included in the presentation are the major technical facets of development for the third generation. Aluminum-casting frame is scheduled to replace the steel-welding frame. Lithium-ion battery is equipped with a battery management system to optimize battery cells and protect them. The phase angle and flux-weakening of the motor and controller are being optimized in order to increase the torque at low and high speed. The two-stage gear transmission is replaced with a single-stage timing belt transmission of a new design. The total efficiency of the vehicle will be monitored by a centralized vehicle energy management system that will control the

  18. Should visually impaired people drive slow motorised vehicles? : Evaluation of driving safety in mobility scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel; Brouwer, Wiebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobility scooters may help people with motor impairments maintain independent mobility. However, many users have comorbid disorders that can influence their ability to drive safely. Over the past few years, the media have drawn much attention to mobility scooter safety. Visual disorders

  19. Comparison of moped, scooter and motorcycle crash risk and crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ross A; Haworth, Narelle L

    2013-08-01

    The increased popularity of mopeds and motor scooters in Australia and elsewhere in the last decade has contributed substantially to the greater use of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) as a whole. As the exposure of mopeds and scooters has increased, so too has the number of reported crashes involving those PTW types, but there is currently little research comparing the safety of mopeds and, particularly, larger scooters with motorcycles. This study compared the crash risk and crash severity of motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive data cleansing was undertaken to separate motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in police-reported crash data covering the five years to 30 June 2008. The crash rates of motorcycles (including larger scooters) and mopeds in terms of registered vehicles were similar over this period, although the moped crash rate showed a stronger downward trend. However, the crash rates in terms of distance travelled were nearly four times higher for mopeds than for motorcycles (including larger scooters). More comprehensive distance travelled data is needed to confirm these findings. The overall severity of moped and scooter crashes was significantly lower than motorcycle crashes but an ordered probit regression model showed that crash severity outcomes related to differences in crash characteristics and circumstances, rather than differences between PTW types per se. Greater motorcycle crash severity was associated with higher (>80km/h) speed zones, horizontal curves, weekend, single vehicle and nighttime crashes. Moped crashes were more severe at night and in speed zones of 90km/h or more. Larger scooter crashes were more severe in 70km/h zones (than 60km/h zones) but not in higher speed zones, and less severe on weekends than on weekdays. The findings can be used to inform potential crash and injury countermeasures tailored to users of different PTW types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptive Backstepping Self-balancing Control of a Two-wheel Electric Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Ngoc Son

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an adaptive backstepping control law for a two-wheel electric scooter (eScooter with a nonlinear uncertain model. Adaptive backstepping control is integrated with feedback control that satisfies Lyapunov stability. By using the recursive structure to find the controlled function and estimate uncertain parameters, an adaptive backstepping method allows us to build a feedback control law that efficiently controls a self-balancing controller of the eScooter. Additionally, a controller area network (CAN bus with high reliability is applied for communicating between the modules of the eScooter. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the robustness and good performance of the proposed adaptive backstepping control.

  1. Ergonomic study and static analysis for new design of electric scooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzly, M. K.; Munirah, Anis; Shayfull, Z.; Saad, Mohd Sazli

    2017-09-01

    The purposes of this project are to design and diversify the function of a battery powered scooter frame which is more practical for the human factor in ergonomic and optimum design. The new design is based on ideas which are studied from existing scooter frame, United States Patent design and European States International Patent design. The final idea of concept design for scooter frame is based on concept chosen from the best characteristics and it is divided into three main difference ideas and the matrix evaluation method is applied. Analysis that applies to frame design, arm, rim and drive train component is based on Cosmos Express program. As a conclusion, the design that is produce are able to carry the maximum also has more practical features in ergonomic view.

  2. An energy management system for a directly-driven electric scooter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yee-Pien; Liu, Jieng-Jang; Hu, Tsung-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    An energy management system with an electronic gearshift and regenerative braking is presented to improve the gross efficiency and driving range of an electric scooter, driven directly by a four-phase axial-flux DC brushless wheel motor. The integration of stator windings, batteries, ultracapacitors, and a digital controller constitutes an energy management system, which features smooth electronic gear shifting and regenerative braking. The gross efficiency of the experimental scooter is improved in the drivable range by 20% with respect to that without regenerative braking. The battery-to-wheel efficiency was also above 70% for both low- and high-speed gears.

  3. An energy management system for a directly-driven electric scooter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yee-Pien, E-mail: ypyang@ntu.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jieng-Jang, E-mail: jjliu@ntu.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hu, Tsung-Hsien, E-mail: elvishu@artc.org.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-15

    An energy management system with an electronic gearshift and regenerative braking is presented to improve the gross efficiency and driving range of an electric scooter, driven directly by a four-phase axial-flux DC brushless wheel motor. The integration of stator windings, batteries, ultracapacitors, and a digital controller constitutes an energy management system, which features smooth electronic gear shifting and regenerative braking. The gross efficiency of the experimental scooter is improved in the drivable range by 20% with respect to that without regenerative braking. The battery-to-wheel efficiency was also above 70% for both low- and high-speed gears.

  4. An energy management system for a directly-driven electric scooter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee-Pien Yang; Jieng-Jang Liu; Tsung-Hsien Hu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei (China)

    2011-01-15

    An energy management system with an electronic gearshift and regenerative braking is presented to improve the gross efficiency and driving range of an electric scooter, driven directly by a four-phase axial-flux DC brushless wheel motor. The integration of stator windings, batteries, ultracapacitors, and a digital controller constitutes an energy management system, which features smooth electronic gear shifting and regenerative braking. The gross efficiency of the experimental scooter is improved in the drivable range by 20% with respect to that without regenerative braking. The battery-to-wheel efficiency was also above 70% for both low- and high-speed gears. (author)

  5. The impact of mobility scooters on their users. Does their usage help or hinder?: A state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreau, Roselle

    2015-06-01

    As older people start to have difficulty in walking many choose to use a mobility scooter to help them move around. Benefitting from improved design, mobility scooters are becoming an increasingly popular mobility device and are a common sight on many streets. However, very little is known about their usage or their impact in terms of either quality of life or functional health. Whilst mobility scooters may help to improve the quality of life of their users, it is also possible that the sedentary nature of their usage results in a decline of physical functionality and therefore reduced capabilities. Before any substantial research can be carried out it is crucial to understand the importance of a mobility scooter on the lives of the people that use them and to review the initial research published on the effect of scooter use on physical health. This paper is a state-of-the-art review. It describes the current research knowledge on mobility scooters, shows where gaps in knowledge exist and where future research needs to focus.

  6. All-terrain vehicle, trampoline and scooter injuries and their prevention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah

    2006-06-01

    Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Injuries specifically related to all terrain vehicles, trampolines and scooter usage can be devastating and are often preventable. Our understanding of how and why these injuries occur can aid in preventing morbidity and mortality. The popularity of all-terrain vehicles, nonmotorized scooters and trampolines has soared over recent years. This increased usage has led to a tremendous rise in injuries in children utilizing these recreational activities. Many of the injuries occur in younger children who may not possess the motor and cognitive skills necessary to safely engage in these activities. These activities lead to a number of head and extremity injuries, most of which can be attenuated by the use of protective gear such as helmets and protective padding. Understanding the nature of these injuries can lead to advocacy and hopefully legislation to prevent further injuries from occurring.

  7. Motion estimation by integrated low cost system (vision and MEMS) for positioning of a scooter "Vespa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, A.; Milan, N.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the automotive sector, especially in these last decade, a growing number of investigations have taken into account electronic systems to check and correct the behavior of drivers, increasing road safety. The possibility to identify with high accuracy the vehicle position in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is also another topic which attracts lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate time by time the position, orientation and velocity of the system. To this aim low cost GPS and MEMS (sensors can be used. In comparison to a four wheel vehicle, the dynamics of a two wheel vehicle (e.g. a scooter) feature a higher level of complexity. Indeed more degrees of freedom must be taken into account to describe the motion of the latter. For example a scooter can twist sideways, thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well, since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion with respect to four wheel vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a motorcycle ("Vespa" scooter), which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on the integration of GPS and INS sensors. Position and orientation of the scooter are derived from MEMS data and images acquired by on-board digital camera. A Bayesian filter provides the means for integrating the data from MEMS-based orientation sensor and the GPS receiver.

  8. Towards Hybrid Urban Mobility: Kick Scooter as a Means of Individual Transport in the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewska, Małgorzata; Macikowski, Bartosz

    2017-10-01

    The characteristic feature of a contemporary city is its inconvenience and oppressiveness caused by the hitherto dominant paradigm of urban planning based on car mobility. As a result, the inhabitants have to cope with air pollution, noise, spatial barriers, sedentary lifestyle and other factors which worsen their health and quality of life. Ecological and physically activating urban mobility thus plays an increasingly important role in the process of creating a friendly and healthy city. For many years, a steadily increasing share of bicycles in urban traffic has been observed. There are also other trending forms of non-motorized transport, such as in-line skates, skateboards, kick scooters, etc. Riding each of them can be regarded as a form of recreation or sport, but also as an ecological, physically activating means of urban mobility. The paper discusses the different forms of recreational mobility in the context of the possibility of combining it with city public transport, with particular emphasis on kick scooters. Kick scooters are becoming more and more popular, not only among children and youth, but also among adults, who use it mainly as a means of the non-motorised urban transport. Numerous publications from different parts of the world show a dynamic growth of this phenomenon. The aim of the article is also to answer the question in what extent the design of public space takes into consideration the use of these new forms of transport and recreation and, consequently, what aspects and requirements should be taken into account in the planning and design process. The paper presents the conclusions of a field study carried out with a group of students in Szczecin and Berlin. The aim of the research was to evaluate the possibilities of using kick scooters in big cities as a means of hybrid mobility combined with public transport by exploring the spectrum of public spaces (streets, squares, traffic nodes and hubs, public buildings, etc.) and testing the

  9. Documentation of and satisfaction with the service delivery process of electric powered scooters among adult users in different national contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Iwarsson, Susanne; Andersen, Mette C

    2013-01-01

    -up design based on a consecutive inclusion of 50 Danish and 86 Norwegian adults as they were about to be provided a scooter. A study-specific structured questionnaire for documentation of the SDP was administered. The Satisfaction with Assistive Technology Services was used for documenting user satisfaction...

  10. Lower extremity ulceration caused by medical scooter injury: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparone, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The motorized mobility scooter (MMS) provides considerable benefits to patients with mobility limitations. Nevertheless, safety concerns related to MMS use are an issue. With increased use because of increased life expectancy and chronic illness, there are a growing number of reports of MMS-related injuries, ranging from lacerations and contusions to fatalities. Comorbidities may also exacerbate wound care. Prevention of these injuries is greatly needed. The author presents 5 patients with lower-extremity ulceration caused by MMS injuries. To prevent these injuries, health care providers must carefully evaluate and monitor patients. Clinicians and MMS manufacturers also need to educate and train patients on the safe use of MMS devices, including the regular use of footwear. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  12. Performance Assessment and Scooter Verification of Nano-Alumina Engine Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Lue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance assessment and vehicle verification of nano-alumina (Al2O3 engine oil (NAEO were conducted in this study. The NAEO was produced by mixing Al2O3 nanoparticles with engine oil using a two-step synthesis method. The weight fractions of the Al2O3 nanoparticles in the four test samples were 0 (base oil, 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 wt. %. The measurement of basic properties included: (1 density; (2 viscosity at various sample temperatures (20–80 °C. A rotary tribology testing machine with a pin-on-disk apparatus was used for the wear test. The measurement of the before-and-after difference of specimen (disk weight (wear test indicates that the NAEO with 1.5 wt. % Al2O3 nanoparticles (1.5 wt. % NAEO was the chosen candidate for further study. For the scooter verification on an auto-pilot dynamometer, there were three tests, including: (1 the European Driving Cycle (ECE40 driving cycle; (2 constant speed (50 km/h; and (3 constant throttle positions (20%, 40%, 60%, and 90%. For the ECE40 driving cycle and the constant speed tests, the fuel consumption was decreased on average by 2.75%, while it was decreased by 3.57% for the constant throttle case. The experimental results prove that the engine oil with added Al2O3 nanoparticles significantly decreased the fuel consumption. In the future, experiments with property tests of other nano-engine oils and a performance assessment of the nano-engine-fuel will be conducted.

  13. Influence of driving cycles on Euro 3 scooter emissions and fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prati, Maria V.; Zamboni, Giorgio; Costagliola, Maria A.; Meccariello, Giovanni; Carraro, Chiara; Capobianco, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fuel consumption and emissions of Euro 3 scooters defined on different driving cycles. → Comparison of standard, real world driving cycles and measured urban speed patterns. → Statistical analysis of kinematic parameters to group driving cycle in clusters. → Clusters can explain pollutant and fuel consumption behaviour in hot conditions. → Cold start mixture enrichment strategy has a major influence on extra-emissions. - Abstract: Regulated pollutant emissions and fuel consumption were characterized at the exhaust of two Euro 3 4-stroke medium-size motorcycles during the execution of both standard and real world driving cycles. A principal component analysis was carried out to group in a cluster the driving cycles with similar kinematic parameters. Hot start results, analysed according to this cluster grouping, show that the main differences are explained by overall mean speed and high positive acceleration of driving cycles. Lower mean speeds produce higher CO 2 emission factors, while the influence on CO and HC is more complex. NO X are not significantly affected by the driving pattern. Inside the same cluster, the whole duration of the acceleration phases could discriminate emission behaviour. In-depth analysis of cold start results was conducted in order to assess the influence of the driving cycle and vehicle characteristics on cold start duration. Cold start extra emissions are more influenced by the duration of the enrichment phase than by the catalyst light-off. The larger number of accelerations occurring during real world driving cycles produces higher variability of air fuel ratio and hence higher cold start extra emissions.

  14. Niobium Solar Mobile Project — High Strength Niobium Microalloyed Steel as a Solution to Improve Electric Super Scooter and Motorcycle Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Terry; Kauppi, Erik; Flanagan, Lauren; Ribeio, Eduardo A. A. G.; Nogueira, Marcos A. Stuart; McCourtney, Ian

    This paper presents the advantages of replacing mild steel with high strength niobium microalloyed steel in the structure of Electric Super Scooters, Electric Cargo Motorcycles and Solar Charging Stations. The Mini-Fleet-in-a-Box concept was developed by Current Motor to guarantee mobility, efficiency and solar generated electricity. With the adoption of niobium microalloyed high strength steel for more than 90% of the Super Scooter and Motorcycle structures, it was possible to redesign the frame, resulting in a 31% weight reduction and a very modern and functional body. Together with a new powertrain, these changes were responsible for increasing Motorcycle autonomy by more than 15%, depending on average speed. The new frame design reduced the number of high strain points in the frame, increasing the safety of the project. The Solar Charging Station was built using the container concept and designed with high strength niobium microalloyed steel, which resulted in a weight reduction of 25%. CBMM's facility in Araxá, Brazil was selected in the second half of 2013 as the demonstration site to test the efficiency of the Super Scooter and Solar Charging Station. Each Super Scooter has run more than 2,000 km maintenance-free with an autonomy of more than 100 km per charge.

  15. The selection of flying roller as an effort to increase the power of scooter-matic as the main power of centrifugal pump for fire fighter motor cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Sutrisno, Himawan

    2018-03-01

    In densely populated settlements, fires often occur and cause losses. In some instances, the process of the occurrence of fires takes place so quickly that to reduce and avoid the occurrence of a fire disaster effort is required in accordance with the existing environmental condition. Fire fighter motorcycle by using motorcycle scooter-matic is considered suitable as one alternative to combating fire hazard in densely populated residential settlements. The use of motorcycle engines as the driving force of the pump often leads to unstable and not optimum power. Thus, the water spray on the centrifugal pump also becomes not maximum. To increase the engine power at scooter-matic engine idle rotation (700-2000 rpm), then the flying roller replacement with certain mass weight becomes an option. By selecting a 10 to 14 gram flying roller mass, the power analysis using a dynotest engine produces several variations. Of the calculation, the mass of a 14 gram flying roller provides a significant increase in motor power on the upper rotation. Meanwhile, on the lower power rotation using a flying roller with a mass of 10 grams provides an increase in power compared to a standard flying roller on a scooter matic motor engine. As a reference to the use of scooter-matic motor power as the pump power, the result of use of the flying roller with a mass of 10 grams becomes the best option.

  16. The E-bike : opportunities for commuter traffic. The potentials of using electric bicycles and –scooters in commuting traffic in relation to energy use, local emissions and the accessibility of a compact Dutch city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelmoer, Wiebe

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The electric bicycle and -scooter are entering the personal mobility market quickly due to a number of advantages over conventional modes of personal mobility. However, the effects of this relative new mode of transport are quite unknown. Therefo

  17. Identification of the characteristics of motorcycle and scooter tyres in the presence of large variations in inflation pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossalter, V.; Doria, A.; Giolo, E.; Taraborrelli, L.; Massaro, M.

    2014-10-01

    Stability and safety of road vehicles are largely affected by tyre properties. Single-track vehicles are characterised by weakly damped modes of vibration (weave and wobble) and therefore this phenomenon is even more important. This article focuses on the study of both steady-state and transient properties of motorcycle and scooter tyres in the presence of very low and very high inflation pressures. The steady-state properties are defined as lateral forces (side-slip and camber forces) and yaw torques (self-aligning and twisting). The transient properties are described in terms of relaxation length, which represents the distance needed to reach a certain percentage of the steady-state value of the tyre force. Experimental tests are carried out on a specific rotating disk machine. Three sets of tyres are analysed. Steady-state properties are measured by increasing step by step the values of camber and side-slip angles. Transient properties are studied carrying out tests with harmonic side-slip excitation and measuring the phase lag between the excitation (input) and the tyre force (output). Experimental results show important variations in tyre properties with inflation pressure with general trends of all the tested tyres and particular features related to the tyre's geometry. After the analysis and discussion of experimental results, the measured data are fitted by means of a specific version of the Magic Formula. The dependence of the Magic Formula's coefficients on inflation pressure is analysed and interpolation curves are given.

  18. An Analysis of US Emergency Department Visits From Falls From Skiing, Snowboarding, Skateboarding, Roller-Skating, and Using Nonmotorized Scooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Brian H; Ribeiro, Kara; Henneman, Philip L

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the US incidence of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for falls from skiing, snowboarding, skateboarding, roller-skating, and nonmotorized scooters in 2011. The outcome was hospital admission from the ED. The primary analysis compared pediatric patients aged 1 to 17 years to adults aged 18 to 44 years. The analysis used ICD-9 E-codes E885.0 to E885.4 using discharge data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Approximately 214 000 ED visits met study criteria. Skiing injuries had the highest percentage of hospitalizations (3.30% in pediatric patients and 6.65% in adults 18-44 years old). Skateboard and snowboard injuries were more likely to require hospitalization than roller skating injuries in pediatric patients (odds ratio = 2.42; 95% CI = 2.14-2.75 and odds ratio = 1.83; 95% CI =1.55-2.15, respectively). In contrast, skateboard and snowboard injuries were less severe than roller-skating injuries in adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Design and simulation of a lithium-ion battery with a phase change material thermal management system for an electric scooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateeb, Siddique A.; Farid, Mohammed M.; Selman, J. Robert; Al-Hallaj, Said

    A lithium-ion battery employing a novel phase change material (PCM) thermal management system was designed for an electric scooter. Passive thermal management systems using PCM can control the temperature excursions and maintain temperature uniformity in Li-ion batteries without the use of active cooling components such as a fan, a blower or a pump found in air/liquid-cooling systems. Hence, the advantages of a compact, lightweight, and energy efficient system can be achieved with this novel form of thermal management system. Simulation results are shown for a Li-ion battery sub-module consisting of nine 18650 Li-ion cells surrounded by PCM with a melting point between 41 and 44 °C. The use of aluminum foam within the PCM and fins attached to the battery module were studied to overcome the low thermal conductivity of the PCM and the low natural convection heat transfer coefficient. The comparative results of the PCM performance in the presence of Al-foam and Al-fins are shown. The battery module is also simulated for summer and winter conditions. The effect of air-cooling on the Li-ion battery was also studied. These simulation results demonstrate the successful use of the PCM as a potential candidate for thermal management solution in electric scooter applications and therefore for other electric vehicle applications.

  20. Electric scooters : Batteries in the battle against ambient air pollution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, Job FM; An, Pham Le; Kirenga, Bruce J; Chavannes, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is a major global health threat, responsible for an estimated loss of 103 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2015,1,2 and a main contributor to numerous health problems, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.3,4 Within the traffic domain of air pollution, cars,

  1. Skader ved brug af løbehjul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Hareskov; Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Larsen, Søren Erik

    2002-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, skate-boards, in-liners, roller skates, and during the past years non-powered scooters have gained increasing popularity. This surge of enthusiasm has resulted in an increasing number of injuries involving scooters.......Since the beginning of the nineties, skate-boards, in-liners, roller skates, and during the past years non-powered scooters have gained increasing popularity. This surge of enthusiasm has resulted in an increasing number of injuries involving scooters....

  2. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. D Mohan. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 32 Issue 4 August 2007 pp 459-478. Three-wheeled scooter taxi: A safety analysis · S Mukherjee D Mohan T R Gawade · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The rollover propensity of a three-wheeled scooter taxi used extensively on SE Asian roads ...

  3. 49 CFR 571.123 - Standard No. 123; Motorcycle controls and displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... handgrip. If a motorcycle with an automatic clutch other than a scooter is equipped with a supplemental rear brake control, the control shall be located on the left handlebar. If a scooter with an automatic... equipped with self-proportioning or antilock braking devices utilizing a single control for front and rear...

  4. Prior Authorization of PMDs Demonstration - Status Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS implemented a Prior Authorization process for scooters and power wheelchairs for people with Fee-For-Service Medicare who reside in seven states with high...

  5. 76 FR 66128 - CFMOTO Powersports, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... consumer preference or marketing strategies. However, if such consumer preference is true, the requirement... definition of a scooter, and with an advertised 14 horsepower motor, did not meet the definition of a motor...

  6. Preventing head injuries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Playing contact sports, such as lacrosse, ice hockey, football Riding a skateboard, scooter, or in-line skates ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  7. Cavernous Angioma and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bike and scooter riding – Wear a helmet Skydiving Hiking Canoeing – Wear a life vest and helmet Caving ... 2000, he may not be eligible for government benefits such as Medicare/Medicaid or SSI. There are ...

  8. Kuu plaat : Interpol Antics. Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: "Interpol Antics", Scooter "Mind the Gap", Slide-Fifty "The Way Ahead", Psyhhoterror "Freddy, löö esimesena!", Riho Sibul "Must", Bossacucanova "Uma Batida Diferente", "Biscantorat - Sound of the spirit from Glenstal Abbey"

  9. Analysis of an employment of a gear ratio rate in CVT control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Szczepka, M.

    2016-09-01

    Continuously variable transmissions(CVTs) potentially ensure the selection of such a gear ratio that scooter fuel consumption can reach minimum value. Traditionally these CVT gearboxes are mechanically controlled, causing a gear ratio to be an engine revs function. This solution does not ensure optimum gear ratio. In this paper the solution for fuel optimal control problem is presented. The results obtained during brake stand research of scooter powertrains show the significant values of brake specific fuel consumption for the velocity that is maximum for a scooter according to highway code. With the introduction of CVT gearbox in which the selection of gear ratio can be controlled according to the worked out strategy the solution for fuel consumption problem is possible. Electromechanical actuators ensure the selection of a gear ratio independently of engine revs. Such type of construction solution makes working out the suitable control strategy that ensures decreasing of scooter fuel consumption possible. Presented strategies do not use precise optimization techniques. The CVT efficiency has a strong influence on transient operation. In the paper the control strategy owing to which fuel consumption decreases by over 40% is presented. The strategy was worked out on the basis of fuel consumption map for a defined scooter exploitation model. The possibilities of realization of the worked out strategy were tested on the brake test stand.

  10. Employees with Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a flexible work schedule and flexible use of leave time Allow work from home Provide a scooter or other mobility ... within reach range Move workstation close to other work areas, office equipment, and break rooms Situations and Solutions: A teacher with MG was having difficulty meeting the physical ...

  11. Negative g-Force Ocular Trauma Caused by a Rapidly Spinning Carousel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Moisseiev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with bilateral diffuse subconjunctival hemorrhages after spinning rapidly on a carousel attached to an electrical scooter. We present his clinical course and discuss the physics and pathophysiology of this unique mechanism of ocular trauma.

  12. Pop / Erkki Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Erkki, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Lionel Marchetti "RISS (l'avalanche)", Scooter "The Stadium Techno Experience", Kojak "Every Room On Every Floor", Mike Oldfield "Tubular Bells 2003", Stereophonics "You Gotta Go There To Come Back", Sleepy Sleepers "Kekkonen", M Ward "Transfiguratuon Of Vincent", Molotov "Dance And Dense Denso"

  13. 78 FR 54896 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... for Payment of Power Mobility Devices, including Power Wheelchairs and Power-Operated Vehicles; Use... term power mobility devices (PMDs) as power wheelchairs and power operated vehicles (POVs or scooters.... This rule also requires a face-to-face examination of the beneficiary by the physician or treating...

  14. Electric driving accelerated. Action Plan 2011-2015. Annex 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    The Dutch Action Plan for Electric Driving gives form and substance to the ambition of the Dutch government to accelerate the market introduction of electric cars in the Netherlands. This plan is not only focused on the electric passenger car. To promote the electrification of transport, also electric garbage trucks, buses, scooters and possibly pleasure boats are included in the plan. [nl

  15. 75 FR 49020 - CFMOTO Powersports, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... range without removal of the operator's left hand from the handgrip. If a motorcycle with an automatic... located on the left handlebar. If a scooter with an automatic clutch is equipped with a supplemental rear... braking devices utilizing a single control for front and rear brakes, the control shall be located and...

  16. Highlight report local initiatives. Experiences with electric transport; Highlight report lokale initiatieven. Ervaringen met elektrisch vervoer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    In March 2013 Linkingreen and XTNT started a survey on local electric transportation initiatives. The aim is to learn from the experiences, problems and obstacles of business users of electric vehicles: cars, vans or trucks, scooters, boats and special vehicles (e.g. garbage trucks) that are all-electric or plug-in (with plug). In this brief report, the main results are presented [Dutch] In maart 2013 is door Linkingreen en XTNT in opdracht van Agentschap NL een enquete uitgezet naar lokale initiatieven elektrisch vervoer. Doel is te leren wat de ervaringen, knelpunten en belemmeringen zijn van zakelijke gebruikers van elektrisch vervoer: personenauto's, bestel- of vrachtauto's, scooters, vaartuigen en bijzondere voertuigen (vuilniswagens etc.) die volledig elektrische of plug in (met stekker) zijn. In dit korte verslag zijn de belangrijkste resultaten opgenomen.

  17. X-ray and neutron diffraction determination of residual stresses in a pressed and welded component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, G.; Broda, M.; Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Quadrini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Problems connected with welding and pressing are very important in mechanical design, as these processed create microstructural alterations and internal stresses in the material that cannot be neglected. A pressing steel (FEP13) machine element is considered, designed to support a scooter engine. Two kinds of fatigue are to be supported by the component during operation: high loads at low frequency, due to the interaction of the scooter with the soil and low loads at high frequency due to the engine. The knowledge of the residual stress field occurring before operation is fundamental in order to perform theoretical predictions of the stress state during operation, and also to determine the loads to be used in fatigue tests which the component will be submitted to. The results of X-ray and neutron experiments are presented, carried out across a 'critical' weld in the component. (author)

  18. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen; Bertocci, Gina; Smalley, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD") passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82%) and manual WhMDs (80%) compared to scooters (39%), and this difference was significant (pinjuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  19. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Karmarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized and powered (scooter, standard, and customized mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  20. Libert-E Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  1. Uus plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest A-Ha "The Singles 1984-2004", Andrea Bocelli "Andrea", Def Leppard "Best Of", Elton John "Peachtree Road", Eminem "Encore", ERA "The Very Best Of", Jay-Z and Linkin Park "Callision Course", Kylie Minogue "Ultimate Kylie", Scooter "Mind the Gap", Shania Twain "Greatest Hits", Tina Turner "All The Best", "True Love 2", U2 "How To Dismantle An Atomic Bomb", "Bridget Jones. Soundtrack"

  2. Assessment of DoD Wounded Warrior Matters -- Camp Lejeune

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    wheelchairs, oxygen equipment, crutches , hospital beds, patient lifts, power scooters and nebulizers. The Naval Hospital Camp Lejeune’s lead MCM...on paper , it looked much different than the picture he had in his mind. Our interviews with Platoon Leaders reveal that they did not have an...noted that in the past year the MTF had used over 1.5 million sheets of paper processing paper work for medical boards. The current PEB backlog was

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement Permit Application by United States Steel Corp. Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, Ohio. Volume 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    substrate (bottom) in an aquatic environment. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) - The amount of dissolved oxygen required to meet the metabolic needs of...Furnace & Ladle Lining Removal 6 Dempster Dinosaur Diesel Scrap Box Handling 1 Lift-A-Loft Propane Maintenance Scaffold 2 Breezewagon Furnace Cooling 1...10,000 lb Electric Miscellaneous (Battery) Roll Shop 2 Dempster Dinosaur 15 cu yd - Diesel Scale Handling 30 ton (incl. Plate Mill) 3 Motor Scooter 4

  4. The Influence of Ambulatory Aid on Lower-Extremity Muscle Activation During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Michael; Bowden, Anton E; Baker, Spencer; Jensen, Ryan; Nichols, McKenzie; Seeley, Matthew K

    2018-05-10

    Foot and ankle injuries are common and often require a nonweight-bearing period of immobilization for the involved leg. This nonweight-bearing period usually results in muscle atrophy for the involved leg. There is a dearth of objective data describing muscle activation for different ambulatory aids that are used during the aforementioned nonweight-bearing period. To compare activation amplitudes for 4 leg muscles during (1) able-bodied gait and (2) ambulation involving 3 different ambulatory aids that can be used during the acute phase of foot and ankle injury care. Within-subject, repeated measures. University biomechanics laboratory. Sixteen able-bodied individuals (7 females and 9 males). Each participant performed able-bodied gait and ambulation using 3 different ambulatory aids (traditional axillary crutches, knee scooter, and a novel lower-leg prosthesis). Muscle activation amplitude quantified via mean surface electromyography amplitude throughout the stance phase of ambulation. Numerous statistical differences (P < .05) existed for muscle activation amplitude between the 4 observed muscles, 3 ambulatory aids, and able-bodied gait. For the involved leg, comparing the 3 ambulatory aids: (1) knee scooter ambulation resulted in the greatest vastus lateralis activation, (2) ambulation using the novel prosthesis and traditional crutches resulted in greater biceps femoris activation than knee scooter ambulation, and (3) ambulation using the novel prosthesis resulted in the greatest gastrocnemius activation (P < .05). Generally speaking, muscle activation amplitudes were most similar to able-bodied gait when subjects were ambulating using the knee scooter or novel prosthesis. Type of ambulatory aid influences muscle activation amplitude. Traditional axillary crutches appear to be less likely to mitigate muscle atrophy during the nonweighting, immobilization period that often follows foot or ankle injuries. Researchers and clinicians should consider

  5. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...This document announces a public meeting on a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline ancillary passenger revenues, computation of mishandled baggage rates, and collection of separate statistics for mishandled wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. During the public meeting, DOT staff will provide a summary of the proposals in the NPRM and seek input on costs and benefits associated with the implementation of the proposals.

  6. Exploring manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler manufacturing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep Singh, Chandan; Singh Khamba, Jaimal; Singh, Rajdeep; Singh, Navdeep

    2014-07-01

    The two wheeler industry of India is one of the most dependable industries as every person has at least a two wheeler with him, if not any four wheeler. Earlier there were scooters like Bajaj Chetak, Priya but with evolution of motorcycles like splendor, splendor+, etc. the scooter market started declining but with arrival of gearless scooters like Honda Activa, Scooty Pep, etc. the market place has become increasingly competitive in recent time and industries are facing tough test of improving products and thus market share. The competitiveness among industries is an important issue. Competency development is a vital tool to enhance the competitiveness of industries. Based, on aggregate performance of a firm, it comprehensively explores the varying importance of manufacturing competencies and drives of industrial competitiveness. Hence by, exploring the manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler industry, one can reflect the competitiveness of two wheeler manufacturing industry as a whole. This study presents various factors of manufacturing competencies affecting industrial competitiveness as the significance of these competencies is increasing day by day in two wheeler manufacturing industry.

  7. Test-retest reliability and agreement of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument in two Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Terje; Iwarsson, Susanne; Anttila, Heidi; Helle, Tina; Brandt, Ase

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate test-retest reliability, agreement, internal consistency, and floor- and ceiling effects of the Danish and Finnish versions of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument among adult users of powered wheelchairs (PWCs) or powered scooters (scooters). Test-retest design, two telephone interviews 7-18 days apart of 40 informants, with mean age of 67.5 (SD 13.09) years in the Danish; and 54 informants with mean age of 55.6 (SD 12.09) years in the Finnish sample. The intra-class correlation coefficient varied between 0.57 and 0.93 for items in the Danish and between 0.41 and 0.93 in the Finnish sample. The percentage agreement varied between 54.2 and 79.5 for items in the Danish and between 69.2 and 81.1 in the Finnish sample, while the Cronbach's alpha values varied between 0.87 and 0.96 in the two samples. A ceiling effect was found in all items of both samples. This study indicates that the SATS may be reliably administered for telephone interviews among adult PWC and scooter users, and give information about aspects of the service delivery process for quality development improvement purposes. Further psychometric testing of the SATS is required.

  8. Exploring manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler manufacturing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Chandan Deep; Khamba, Jaimal Singh; Singh, Rajdeep; Singh, Navdeep

    2014-01-01

    The two wheeler industry of India is one of the most dependable industries as every person has at least a two wheeler with him, if not any four wheeler. Earlier there were scooters like Bajaj Chetak, Priya but with evolution of motorcycles like splendor, splendor+, etc. the scooter market started declining but with arrival of gearless scooters like Honda Activa, Scooty Pep, etc. the market place has become increasingly competitive in recent time and industries are facing tough test of improving products and thus market share. The competitiveness among industries is an important issue. Competency development is a vital tool to enhance the competitiveness of industries. Based, on aggregate performance of a firm, it comprehensively explores the varying importance of manufacturing competencies and drives of industrial competitiveness. Hence by, exploring the manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler industry, one can reflect the competitiveness of two wheeler manufacturing industry as a whole. This study presents various factors of manufacturing competencies affecting industrial competitiveness as the significance of these competencies is increasing day by day in two wheeler manufacturing industry

  9. Multi-sources model and control algorithm of an energy management system for light electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Azidin, F.A.; Mohamed, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An energy management system (EMS) is developed for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. ► The battery, FC, SC, EMS, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are modeled and designed for the system. ► State-based logic control algorithms provide an efficient and feasible multi-source EMS for light electric vehicles. ► Vehicle’s speed and power are closely matched with the ECE-47 driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. ► Sources of energy changeover occurred at 50% of the battery state of charge level in heavy load conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents the multi-sources energy models and ruled based feedback control algorithm of an energy management system (EMS) for light electric vehicle (LEV), i.e., scooters. The multiple sources of energy, such as a battery, fuel cell (FC) and super-capacitor (SC), EMS and power controller, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are designed and modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The developed control strategies continuously support the EMS of the multiple sources of energy for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed and compared with that of the ECE-47 test drive cycle in terms of vehicle speed and load power. The results show that the designed vehicle’s speed and load power closely match those of the ECE-47 test driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. This study’s results suggest that the proposed control algorithm provides an efficient and feasible EMS for LEV.

  10. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

  12. ENET News July 2003 - Information on energy research - French issue; ENET News, Juillet 2003, No 55 francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2003-07-01

    The July 2003 issue of ENET News, a magazine on energy research in Switzerland published three times a year, presents several articles on and around the topic of geothermal energy. Further articles cover the topics of decentralised power supply, environment-friendly small hydropower, adsorption refrigeration for African clinics, optimisation of wood-fired boilers, biofuels and noise abatement issues concerning heat pump applications. Also, a fuel-cell based mobile power pack and an electric scooter are described. Further articles take a look at nuclear fusion and the development of a gas-motor based combined heat and power system.

  13. ENET News July 2003 - Information on energy research - German issue; ENET News, Juli 2003, Nr. 55 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2003-07-01

    The July 2003 issue of ENET News, a magazine on energy research in Switzerland published three times a year, presents several articles on and around the topic of geothermal energy. Further articles cover the topics of decentralised power supply, environment-friendly small hydropower, adsorption refrigeration for African clinics, optimisation of wood-fired boilers, biofuels and noise abatement issues concerning heat pump applications. Also, a fuel-cell based mobile power pack and an electric scooter are described. Further articles take a look at nuclear fusion and the development of a gas-motor based combined heat and power system.

  14. CERN safety week

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Following an increase in the number of accidents in 2008, the Safety Commission is organising a CERN safety week from 8 to 12 June for riders of bicycles, scooters and motorbikes. We invite you to take part in the programme, which will be held in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) and will consist of an exhibition, organised events and hands-on activities, including demonstrations of emergency braking, a driving simulator, simulation of what it feels like to drive under the influence of alcohol, demonstrations by the Fire Brigade, video projections, etc. There will also be a number of prizes to be won. Please sign up via your DSO.

  15. A paediatric case of bilateral mandibular condyle fracture presenting with bloody otorrhoea following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yat Chun; Au-Yeung, Kwan Leong

    2017-04-22

    A 7-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with bilateral bloody otorrhoea after falling from his scooter. Skull base fracture was suspected. CT showed no evidence of skull base fracture but bilateral mandibular condyle and external acoustic canals fractures. We report this case to illustrate a rare possibility of bilateral external acoustic canal fracture associated with condylar fracture in trauma patients presented with bloody otorrhoea. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A new two-phase homopolar switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mi-Ching; Huang, Chien-Chin; Huang, Zheng-Yi

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a novel 2-phase homopolar switched reluctance motor (SRM), whose design successfully avoids dead-zone problems that afflict low cost 1- and/or 2-phase SRMs. Unlike conventional radial-winding-radial-gap motors, the proposed SRM has an interior stator that is of the pancake type with axial winding. Such a design allows for a high slot-fill factor and is suitable for implementation as a flat pancake-shaped stator. An efficient, compact prototype was produced with TMS320F240 DSP driving control unit. Experimental results indicate that the present SRM design has the potential to be used for electric bicycles and scooters.

  17. STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF THE FRAME OF A TRAILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia MEDVECKÁ-BEŇOVÁ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A trailer for carrying a small boat or water scooters was designed for a private sector company. It was a category O1 non-braked trailer with a gross weight up to 750 kg and a height-adjustable traction device. The frame must be designed and installed in such a way that, during its proposed lifetime, it will withstand all the loads and influences that may occur during construction and operation with an appropriate level of reliability. The designed frame of the trailer is a welded galvanized structure. The article is devoted to the problems related to the stress analysis of a trailer frame.

  18. A Rare Complete Metacarpal Pseudoepiphysis in a Teenager With a Scaphoid Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Rachel B; Colberg, Ricardo E

    2017-11-01

    A 13-yr-old adolescent boy presented with wrist pain after falling off a scooter onto his outstretched hand. Radiographs revealed a nondisplaced hairline fracture of the scaphoid bone and an irregular radiolucent line in the proximal metaphysis of the second metacarpal bone, consistent with an anomalous growth plate, or complete pseudoepiphysis. Complete pseudoepiphysis is a rare finding, with only a few cases reported. Learning about the common locations of growth plates and the radiographic differences between normal, injured, and anomalous growth plates can help decrease physician error and improve patient outcomes.

  19. Effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing crashes, the first cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Matteo; Strandroth, Johan; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Fildes, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing real-life crashes. Since the European Parliament has voted on legislation making ABS mandatory on all new motorcycles over 125 cc from 2016, the fitment rate in Europe is likely to increase in the coming years. Though previous research has focused on mostly large displacement motorcycles, this study used police reports from Spain (2006-2009), Italy (2009), and Sweden (2003-2012) in order to analyze a wide range of motorcycles, including scooters, and compare countries with different motorcycling habits. The statistical analysis used odds ratio calculations with an induced exposure approach. Previous research found that head-on crashes were the least ABS-affected crash type and was therefore used as the nonsensitive crash type for ABS in these calculations. The same motorcycle models, with and without ABS, were compared and the calculations were carried out for each country separately. Crashes involving only scooters were further analyzed. The effectiveness of motorcycle ABS in reducing injury crashes ranged from 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12-36) in Italy to 29% (95% CI, 20-38) in Spain, and 34% (95% CI, 16-52) in Sweden. The reductions in severe and fatal crashes were even greater, at 34% (95% CI, 24-44) in Spain and 42% (95% CI, 23-61) in Sweden. The overall reductions of crashes involving ABS-equipped scooters (at least 250 cc) were 27% (95% CI, 12-42) in Italy and 22% (95% CI, 2-42) in Spain. ABS on scooters with at least a 250 cc engine reduced severe and fatal crashes by 31% (95% CI, 12-50), based on Spanish data alone. At this stage, there is more than sufficient scientific-based evidence to support the implementation of ABS on all motorcycles, even light ones. Further research should aim at understanding the injury mitigating effects of motorcycle ABS, possibly in combination with combined braking systems.

  20. Test-retest reliability and cross validation of the functioning everyday with a wheelchair instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Tamara L; Holm, Margo B; Schmeler, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability and content validity of an outcomes tool designed to measure the effectiveness of seating-mobility interventions on the functional performance of individuals who use wheelchairs or scooters as their primary seating-mobility device. The instrument, Functioning Everyday With a Wheelchair (FEW), is a questionnaire designed to measure perceived user function related to wheelchair/scooter use. Using consumer-generated items, FEW Beta Version 1.0 was developed and test-retest reliability was established. Cross-validation of FEW Beta Version 1.0 was then carried out with five samples of seating-mobility users to establish content validity. Based on the content validity study, FEW Version 2.0 was developed and administered to seating-mobility consumers to examine its test-retest reliability. FEW Beta Version 1.0 yielded an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) Model (3,k) of .92, p content validity results revealed that FEW Beta Version 1.0 captured 55% of seating-mobility goals reported by consumers across five samples. FEW Version 2.0 yielded ICC(3,k) = .86, p content validity of FEW Version 2.0 was confirmed. FEW Beta Version 1.0 and FEW Version 2.0 were highly stable in their measurement of participants' seating-mobility goals over a 1-week interval.

  1. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Frost

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD" passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82% and manual WhMDs (80% compared to scooters (39%, and this difference was significant (p< 0.01. Nonuse or misuse of the occupant restraint system occurred during 88% of WhMD trips, and was most frequently due to vehicle operator neglect in applying the shoulder belt. Despite the absence of incidents or injuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  2. Development of a direct methanol fuel cell system for the power segment below 5 kW; Entwicklung eines Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzellensystems der Leistungsklasse kleiner 5 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noelke, M.

    2006-10-20

    The attractiveness of electrical conversion of liquid methanol in a fuel cell is defined by its simple storage and high energy density. Therefore, direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) qualifies for applications in portable systems and mobile application in the kW-class. The goal of this work is to develop and demonstrate an improved and optimized peripheral DMFC system compared to the current level of technology. The selected mobile application is the retrofit of the energy supply of a ''Scooter'' with a fuel cell system. The required size reduction and the simplification of the DMFC system are realized by an integrated concept, which combines ideally the peripheral system and the fuel cell. A profound analysis of the stack and the peripheral components is a prerequisite for an optimized design. A detailed modelling and understanding of the stack behaviour establish the starting point of this work. The influence of the most important operating parameters like stack temperature, cell voltage, current density, air ratio and methanol concentration is captured accurately by the developed model and validated by experimental data. This shapes the frame work of the following system design approach. For this the clearly defined task of the peripheral system are investigated individually for alternatives and the best option is selected for the final solution. For selecting the right pumps and blowers available products and prototypes are characterized and checked for the system requirements. The investigation and the modelling of the exhaust gas condenser lead to an optimized component design for the ''Scooter'' DMFC design. Additionally, the integration of the anode loop is accomplished consisting of the supply lines, the circulating pump, the gas separator and the exhaust line. The direct coupling of the fuel cell with a lithium-ion battery as an option for electrical conditioning is investigated. In the system modelling the influence

  3. Evaluation of performance and emissions characteristics of methanol blend (gasohol) in a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Dima; Ilie, Dumitru; Dragos, Tutunea

    2017-10-01

    Alternative fuels for use in internal combustion engines have become recently in attention due the strict regulations regarding the environmental protection, emissions and to reduce the dependency of the fossil fuels. One choice is the use of methanol as it can be produce from renewable sources and blended with gasoline in any proportion. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of methanol - gasoline blends regarding performance, combustion and emission characteristics with gasoline. Five different blends M5, M10, M15, M20 and M25 were tested in a single cylinder spark ignition engine typically used in scooters applications. The experimental results in engine performance show a decrease of torque and power up to 10 %and in emissions characteristics a CO, CO2, HC. It can be concluded that gasohol is viable option to be used in gasoline engines to replace partially the fossil fuel.

  4. Failure modes of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric bicycle applications in deep discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yonglang; Tang, Shengqun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Meng, Gang; Yang, Shijun [Hubei Camel Storage Battery Co. Ltd., Gucheng 441705 (China)

    2009-06-01

    The 36 or 48 V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery packs have been widely applied to the power sources of electric bicycles or light electric scooters in China. The failure modes of the 12 V/10 Ah VRLA batteries have been studied by the cycle life test at C{sub 2} discharge rate and 100% depth of discharge (DOD). It indicates that the main cause of the battery failure in this cycle duty is the softening and shedding of positive active mass (PAM) rather than individual water loss, recombination efficiency or sulfation, etc. When the electrolyte saturation falls to a certain extent, the high oxygen recombination current leads to the depolarization of the negative plate and the shift of the positive plate to a higher potential. The violent oxygen evolution accelerates the softening of PAM and the end of cycle life. (author)

  5. Towards Indoor Transportation Mode Detection using Mobile Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2015-01-01

    Transportation mode detection is a growing field of research, in which a variety of methods have been developed for detecting transportation modes foremost for outdoor travels. It has been employed in application areas such as public transportation, environmental footprint profiling, and context......-aware mobile assistants. For indoor travels the problem of transportation mode detection has received comparatively little attention, even though diverse transportation modes, such as biking, electric vehicles, and scooters, are used indoors, especially in large building complexes. The potential applications...... are diverse, may also extend beyond indoor variants of the above outdoor applications, and include, e.g., scheduling and progress tracking for mobile workers, management of vehicular resources, and navigation support. However, for indoor transportation mode detection, both the physical environment as well...

  6. Analysis of the minimum swerving distance for the development of a motorcycle autonomous braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Federico; Savino, Giovanni; Pierini, Marco; Baldanzini, Niccolò

    2013-10-01

    In the recent years the autonomous emergency brake (AEB) was introduced in the automotive field to mitigate the injury severity in case of unavoidable collisions. A crucial element for the activation of the AEB is to establish when the obstacle is no longer avoidable by lateral evasive maneuvers (swerving). In the present paper a model to compute the minimum swerving distance needed by a powered two-wheeler (PTW) to avoid the collision against a fixed obstacle, named last-second swerving model (Lsw), is proposed. The effectiveness of the model was investigated by an experimental campaign involving 12 volunteers riding a scooter equipped with a prototype autonomous emergency braking, named motorcycle autonomous emergency braking system (MAEB). The tests showed the performance of the model in evasive trajectory computation for different riding styles and fixed obstacles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  8. A cross-sectional study examining multiple mobility device use and fall status among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Marcia L; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Asano, Miho

    2014-01-01

    To document the prevalence of multiple mobility device use among adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) (≥ 55 years) and examine the association between falls status (faller/non-faller) and the number of mobility devices used. Cross-sectional data generated through telephone interviews with 353 participants was used for this secondary analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to address the first study purpose. Multiple device use was measured by the number of devices used, which ranged from 0 (never use a cane, walker, manual wheelchair, or power wheelchair/scooter) to 4 (use all four mobility devices at least some of the time). Logistic regression analysis was used to address the second purpose, with fall status used as the dependent variable (non-fallers [falls, this association requires further research to determine directionality.

  9. Food Access Patterns and Barriers among Midlife and Older Adults with Mobility Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined where midlife and older adults with a mobility disability accessed food outside the home in King County, Washington, USA, how they travelled to these food destinations, and facilitators and barriers to food access using qualitative interviews. Thirty-five adults aged ≥50 years with a mobility disability (defined as use of an assistive device for mobility were interviewed. Supplemental objective information was obtained from a Global Positioning System device worn by participants for 3 days. Participants primarily accessed food at grocery stores, restaurants, and coffee shops/cafés. The most common transportation modes were walking, obtaining a ride from friends, motorized chair/scooter, and public transit. Location and proximity of food destinations were factors affecting participants’ ability to access these destinations. Adequate space, ease of entry, available amenities such as restrooms, and helpful people were facilitators for participants to access food outside the home.

  10. Hybrid systems with lead-acid battery and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossen, Andreas; Garche, Juergen; Doering, Harry; Goetz, Markus; Knaupp, Werner; Joerissen, Ludwig

    Hybrid systems, based on a lead-acid battery and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) give the possibility to combine the advantages of both technologies. The benefits for different applications are discussed and the practical realisation of such systems is shown. Furthermore a numerical model for such a hybrid system is described and results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries and PEMFC shows advantages in case of applications with high peak power requirements (i.e. electric scooter) and applications where the fuel cell is used as auxiliary power supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of fuel cells at partial load operation results in a good fuel economy for recharging of lead-acid batteries with a fuel cell system.

  11. A New Hybrid Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells-Battery Power System with Efficiencies Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chung-Hsing; Shieh, Jenn-Jong

    Hybrid systems, based on lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), give the possibility of combining the benefit of both technologies. The merits of high energy density and power density for different applications are discussed in this paper in recognition of the practical realization of such hybrid power systems. Furthermore, experimental data for such a hybrid system is described and the results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries and PEMFCs shows advantages in cases of applications with high peak power requirements, such as electric scooters and applications where the fuel cell (FC) is used as an auxiliary power-supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of FCs operating with a partial load results in a good fuel economy for the purpose of recharging batteries within a FC system.

  12. What Type of Knowledge Provides Valid Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne

    evaluations of task-surface heights in elderly people’s homes. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 109-119. Kohlbacher, F. (2006). The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research. Forum: Qualitative social research sozialforschung (FQS), Open Journal Systems, vol 7, No1. Kozey, J.W. & Das, B. (2004...... accessibility aspects such as either reach, seat height or space requirements • Targeted primarily industrial workstation design and only wheelchair/scooter users • Addressed positions (standing/seated) and sex difference with respect to reach • Was generated in lab-like environments, using methods...... of the validity of housing standards. Therefore, it is reasonable to question what type of knowledge that provides the most valid standards addressing accessibility and explore the consequences of using an alternative approach. The idea was thus to examine the validity of a set of housing standards using a so...

  13. Teaching physical activities to students with significant disabilities using video modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I; Mizrachi, Sharona V; Sabielny, Linsey M; Jimenez, Eliseo D

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of video modeling on teaching physical activities to three adolescents with significant disabilities. The study implemented a multiple baseline across six physical activities (three per student): jumping rope, scooter board with cones, ladder drill (i.e., feet going in and out), ladder design (i.e., multiple steps), shuttle run, and disc ride. Additional prompt procedures (i.e., verbal, gestural, visual cues, and modeling) were implemented within the study. After the students mastered the physical activities, we tested to see if they would link the skills together (i.e., complete an obstacle course). All three students made progress learning the physical activities, but only one learned them with video modeling alone (i.e., without error correction). Video modeling can be an effective tool for teaching students with significant disabilities various physical activities, though additional prompting procedures may be needed.

  14. Introductory Education for Mechanical Engineering by Exercise in Mechanical Disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshio; Asakawa, Naoki; Iwamori, Satoru

    An introductory program “Exercise for engineers in mechanical disassembly” is an exercise that ten students of every team disassemble a motor scooter to the components and then assemble again to the initial form in 15 weeks. The purpose of this program is to introduce mechanical engineering by touching the real machine and learning how it is composed from various mechanical parts to the students at the early period after the entrance into the university. Additional short lectures by young teachers and a special lecture by a top engineer in the industry encourage the students to combine the actual machine and the mechanical engineering subjects. Furthermore, various educations such as group leader system, hazard prediction training, parts filing are included in this program. As a result, students recognize the importance of the mechanical engineering study and the way of group working.

  15. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Pu; Chen, Deng-Kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Sui-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.

  16. PEM-Scoot - Control system and analysis of operation; PEM-Scoot. Steuerung und Betriebsanalyse. Diplomarbeit 2006/07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegeli, M.; Kaiser, R.

    2007-07-01

    This diploma thesis presented at the Bernese University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland, describes a project concerning a new drive technology. The PEM-Scoot is a scooter with an electric drive which is powered by a fuel cell, using hydrogen and oxygen stored in two pressure cylinders. That only water is exhausted during operation is considered to be an important advantage. The work done in the project consisted on the one hand of the writing of software for the control and putting it into service and, on the other hand, of various driving tests carried out in order to optimise the control software for stand-alone handling. The planning of the project is described, as are the various components used. The software for the operation of the vehicle is described in detail. The results of driving tests are presented. The report is complemented with a comprehensive appendix.

  17. 'Special' non-human actors in the 'inclusive' early childhood classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Karen; Millei, Zsuzsa; Petersen, Eva Bendix

    2015-01-01

    of classrooms. In this article, we pay attention to ‘special’ non-human actors present in an ‘inclusive’ early childhood classroom. These ‘special’ non-human actors are so named as they operate in the classroom as objects specific for the child with a diagnosis. The ‘special’ non-human actors, in the specific...... case the wrist band, the lock and the scooter board, take on meaning within discourses in the ‘inclusive’ classroom. We illuminate how these non-human actors contribute to the constitution of the ‘normal’ and the regulation of educators and children. To trouble the working of power and the control...

  18. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  19. Investigation of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes Using Cassini ISS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David S.; Showman, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the ISS onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial 5-micron hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but a diffuse western edge serving as a nebulous boundary with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-iike 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. This raises the possibility that the plumes and fast-moving clouds are at higher altitudes, because their speed does not match previously published zonal wind profiles. Most profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby waves controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed. Instead, our expanded data set demonstrating the rapid flow of these scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. This research was supported by a NASA JDAP grant and the NASA Postdoctoral Program.

  20. Relationship between wheelchair durability and wheelchair type and years of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Pearlman, Jon; Cooper, Rosemarie; Jefferds, Alexandra; Connor, Sam; Cooper, Rory A

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the durability of wheelchairs according to American National Standard for Wheechairs/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (ANSI/RESNA) Wheelchair Standards and wheelchair type as well as year of test. A retrospective study design with a sample of 246 wheelchairs that were tested in accordance with the ANSI/RESNA standards from 1992 to 2008 including four types of wheelchairs: manual wheelchair (MWC), electrical powered wheelchair (EPW), scooters and pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair (PAPAW). Unconditional binary logic regression analysis was chosen to evaluate the relationship between test results and test year as well as wheelchair type. Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center. Wheelchair durability test result (fatigue test: pass or fail) There was no significant correlation between the year when tested and equivalent cycles. A significant relation was found between test results and wheelchair type (Wald score = 10.845, degree of freedom = 3, p = 0.013) with scooters having a significantly higher pass ratio than MWC (OR = 15.629, 95% CI = 2.026-120.579). EPW also had significantly higher pass ratio than MWC (OR = 1.953, 95% CI = 1.049-3.636). No significant difference on pass ratio was found between PAPAW and MWC. No significant improvements in wheelchair test results during the time frame from 1992 to 2008 were discovered. Wheelchair standard tests should be conducted to assure minimum quality of the wheelchairs and for improving the design of wheelchairs. Although the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair durability test procedures have remained consistent, it does not appear that the introduction of new materials, designs and the availability of test data have improved wheelchair fatigue life.

  1. A new method to discriminate secondary organic aerosols from different sources using high-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, M. F.; Decarlo, P. F.; Chirico, R.; Tritscher, T.; Clairotte, M.; Mohr, C.; Crippa, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-02-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) represents a significant and often major fraction of the non-refractory PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter da car and a two-stroke Euro 2 scooter were characterized with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) and compared to SOA from α-pinene. The emissions were sampled from the chimney/tailpipe by a heated inlet system and filtered before injection into a smog chamber. The gas phase emissions were irradiated by xenon arc lamps to initiate photo-chemistry which led to nucleation and subsequent particle growth by SOA production. Duplicate experiments were performed for each SOA type, with the averaged organic mass spectra showing Pearson's r values >0.94 for the correlations between the four different SOA types after five hours of aging. High-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS) showed that the dominant peaks in the MS, m/z 43 and 44, are dominated by the oxygenated ions C2H3O+ and CO2+, respectively, similarly to the relatively fresh semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) observed in the ambient aerosol. The atomic O:C ratios were found to be in the range of 0.25-0.55 with no major increase during the first five hours of aging. On average, the diesel SOA showed the lowest O:C ratio followed by SOA from wood burning, α-pinene and the scooter emissions. Grouping the fragment ions revealed that the SOA source with the highest O:C ratio had the largest fraction of small ions. The HR data of the four sources could be clustered and separated using principal component analysis (PCA). The model showed a significant separation of the four SOA types and clustering of the duplicate experiments on the first two principal components (PCs), which explained 79% of the total variance. Projection of ambient SV-OOA spectra resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed that this approach could be useful to identify large contributions of the tested SOA sources to SV-OOA. The first results from this

  2. High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Pristine Explosion Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Krabill, W.; Garvin, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to effectively capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained high resolution digital elevation models of several pristine explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Terrain Mapper (ATM), operated by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to obtain DEMs with 1 m spacing and 10 cm vertical errors of 4 main craters and many other craters and collapse pits. The main craters that were mapped are Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, and Danny Boy. The 370 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of a controlled detonation of a 100 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a simple crater. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also mapped by ATM. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m) craters were also important targets for ATM as they were excavated in hard basalt and therefore have much rougher ejecta. This will allow study of ejecta patterns in hard rock as well as engineering tests of crater and rock avoidance and rover trafficability. In addition to the high resolution DEMs, crater geometric characteristics, RMS roughness maps, and other higher-order derived data products will be generated using these data. These will provide constraints for models of landing hazards on Mars and for rover trafficability. Other planned studies will include ejecta size-frequency distribution at the resolution of the DEM and at finer resolution through air photography and field measurements

  3. The buzz on buzz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, R

    2000-01-01

    Word-of-mouth promotion has become an increasingly potent force, capable of catapulting products from obscurity into runaway commercial successes. Harry Potter, collapsible scooters, the Chrysler PT Cruiser, and The Blair Witch Project are all recent examples of the considerable power of buzz. Yet many top executives and marketing managers are misinformed about the phenomenon and remain enslaved to some common myths. In her article, author Renée Dye explores the truth behind these myths. Myth 1: Only outrageous or edgy products are buzz-worthy. That's simply not true. The most unlikely products, like prescription drugs, can generate tremendous buzz. Myth 2: Buzz just happens. Not so, says Dye. Buzz is increasingly the result of shrewd marketing tactics in which companies seed a vanguard group, ration supplies, use celebrity endorsements, leverage the power of lists, and initiate grassroots marketing. Myth 3: The best buzz-starters are your best customers. Often, a counterculture has a greater ability to start buzz. Myth 4: To profit from buzz, you must act first and fast. In fact, copycat companies can reap substantial profits if they know when and when not to jump in. Myth 5: The media and advertising are needed to create buzz. When used either too early or too much, the media and advertising can squelch buzz before it ignites. As globalization and brand proliferation continue, writes Dye, buzz may come to dominate the shaping of markets. Indeed, companies that are unable to control buzz may soon find the phenomenon controlling them.

  4. Green vehicle : slippery turn; Vehicule vert : virage difficile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, C. [POC Communications Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-05-01

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs.

  5. Rehabilitative technology use among individuals with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Shree; Andrews, Jennifer; Campbell, Kim; Meaney, F John

    2016-01-01

    To document use of rehabilitative technology among individuals with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) among sites of the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research network (MD STARnet). Data from 362 caregivers who participated in the MD STARnet caregiver interview between April 2006 and March 2012 (54.7% response rate) were analyzed to assess the type, frequency and duration of use of assistive technology. Caregiver reports of technology use by individuals with DBMD across five MD STARnet sites in the US demonstrated significant regional differences in the proportion of individuals who had ever used night splints (36.9%-73.0%), standers (3.1%-22.2%) and scooters (10.7%-54.5%). Among individuals who used night splints 59.7% stopped using them at a mean age of 10.3 years after a mean duration of 2.9 years in spite of the current recommendation to continue using them through the non-ambulatory phase. Results of this comprehensive survey document the frequency of assistive device use by individuals with DBMD in the USA and also provides data on differences across the sites. Further research is needed to understand the reasons for and the impact of these differences on clinical outcomes and health related quality of life of individuals with DBMD.

  6. Hoverboards: spectrum of injury and association with an uncommon fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapiro, Andrew H.; Lall, Neil U.; Anton, Christopher G.; Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Self-balancing electric scooters, commonly known as hoverboards, are a new and popular consumer item with recognized fall hazards. The spectrum of injuries associated with hoverboard use has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to determine the spectrum of radiologically apparent injuries associated with hoverboard use. We retrospectively reviewed all imaging studies interpreted at our institution for hoverboard-related injuries during an 8-month period. We recorded patient demographics and injury characteristics. Thirty-two of the 47 pediatric patients imaged for hoverboard-related injury had radiologically detectable injuries, all fractures. Fifty percent of these 32 patients were female and 50% were male, with a mean age of 12.4 years. There were 42 fractures total, all involving the appendicular skeleton, with 74% in the upper extremities and 26% in the lower extremities. Thirty-eight percent of the fractures involved the physis. A distinct injury pattern was seen in three patients who sustained open distal phalanx juxta-epiphyseal fractures. Most of the fractures sustained during hoverboard use are commonly seen in everyday pediatric radiology practice, with an overall pattern paralleling that reported in association with skateboard use. However an otherwise uncommon fracture, the distal phalanx juxta-epiphyseal fracture, was identified in association with hoverboard use, and this finding has important treatment implications including need for irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and potential surgical fixation. (orig.)

  7. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1991-03-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Dynamic behaviour of Li batteries in hydrogen fuel cell power trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneri, O.; Migliardini, F.; Capasso, C.; Corbo, P.

    A Li ion polymer battery pack for road vehicles (48 V, 20 Ah) was tested by charging/discharging tests at different current values, in order to evaluate its performance in comparison with a conventional Pb acid battery pack. The comparative analysis was also performed integrating the two storage systems in a hydrogen fuel cell power train for moped applications. The propulsion system comprised a fuel cell generator based on a 2.5 kW polymeric electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack, fuelled with compressed hydrogen, an electric drive of 1.8 kW as nominal power, of the same typology of that installed on commercial electric scooters (brushless electric machine and controlled bidirectional inverter). The power train was characterized making use of a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on driving cycles with different acceleration/deceleration rates and lengths. The power flows between fuel cell system, electric energy storage system and electric drive during the different cycles were analyzed, evidencing the effect of high battery currents on the vehicle driving range. The use of Li batteries in the fuel cell power train, adopting a range extender configuration, determined a hydrogen consumption lower than the correspondent Pb battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicle, with a major flexibility in the power management.

  9. Hoverboards: spectrum of injury and association with an uncommon fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapiro, Andrew H.; Lall, Neil U.; Anton, Christopher G.; Trout, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Self-balancing electric scooters, commonly known as hoverboards, are a new and popular consumer item with recognized fall hazards. The spectrum of injuries associated with hoverboard use has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to determine the spectrum of radiologically apparent injuries associated with hoverboard use. We retrospectively reviewed all imaging studies interpreted at our institution for hoverboard-related injuries during an 8-month period. We recorded patient demographics and injury characteristics. Thirty-two of the 47 pediatric patients imaged for hoverboard-related injury had radiologically detectable injuries, all fractures. Fifty percent of these 32 patients were female and 50% were male, with a mean age of 12.4 years. There were 42 fractures total, all involving the appendicular skeleton, with 74% in the upper extremities and 26% in the lower extremities. Thirty-eight percent of the fractures involved the physis. A distinct injury pattern was seen in three patients who sustained open distal phalanx juxta-epiphyseal fractures. Most of the fractures sustained during hoverboard use are commonly seen in everyday pediatric radiology practice, with an overall pattern paralleling that reported in association with skateboard use. However an otherwise uncommon fracture, the distal phalanx juxta-epiphyseal fracture, was identified in association with hoverboard use, and this finding has important treatment implications including need for irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and potential surgical fixation. (orig.)

  10. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Circular Development and Investment Possibilities (Transport, Energy and Building Related to International Sports Event Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Bálint

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport sectors for the 2017-2030 period. The main criterion is the integration of ‘circular economy’. For sectors which operate with high material and energy consumption, the consideration of circular economy principles may prove to be important for sustainable development. Through planning highvolume sports and worldwide events, the usual development strategy for traffic systems focuses on public transport and rentable vehicles (f. e. electric scooter, or bicycle which can decrease CO2 emissions via modern technological solutions. Regarding the buildings, sports arenas and related facilities, besides the existing low-carbon solutions, the functions of buildings must be expanded and their usage prolonged. The management of waste left after the life cycle is expended has to be pre-planned. These are the options for making the sector’s GHG emissions decrease apart from circular tenders, which can be further combined with SMART energetic solutions.

  12. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, B.J.; Dickson, D.L.; Dickson, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  13. A sensitive spectrophotometric determination of nitrogen dioxide in the working atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Parmar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in various environmental samples is described. Nitrogen dioxide in air was fixed as nitrite ion in alkaline sodium arsenite absorbing solution. The nitrite formed was diazotized with p−aminoacetophenone in acidic medium which was subsequently coupled with phloroglucinol to give yellow−orange dye in alkaline medium having an absorption maximum at 420 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 0.008 − 0.12 μg mL-1 of nitrogen dioxide and has a molar absorptivity of 2.875 x 105 L mol-1 cm-1. Optimum reaction conditions for diazotization, full colour development and the effect of variables like temperature, time and pH have been studied. Detailed studies to check the collection efficiency and NO2:NO2- stoichiometric ratio has been carried out. The reaction has been successfully applied for the detection of nitrogen dioxide in cigarette smoke, scooter exhaust, and workroom air.

  14. Development of a thin-shaped lightweight MF battery for motorcycles. Nirinshayo usugata keiryo maintenance free battery no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Onozuka, T. (Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Uemichi, S. (Yuasa Battery Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes a thin-shaped lightweight maintenance free motorcycle battery used in a motor scooter, a new product from Honda Motors launching its sales in 1992, as well as the related structural development thereof. The points aimed at in the development include more utilization of available space in a vehicle, improved maintainability, and adoption of perfect instant activation system (dry-charged system) which makes a battery serviceable upon initial filling of electrolyte. Attentions have been given on reducing the battery volume by 30% and weight by 20% compared with the conventional batteries, and ensuring interchangeability, leakage-free performance, and free and easy replacement. Contrivances for practical application have been given on assuring low-temperature high-rate discharge performance for reliable engine starting. Devised also are the thinner battery plates, better vibration resistance, longer life, uniformed plate thickness, higher separator porosity, and better stability in plate group pressurization. Better performance than the conventional batteries was realized by improving parts construction and mounting systems, including one-touch terminal connection, fast coupling of terminal posts, soldering, and fuse built-in couplers. The battery has superior appearance and design. 18 figs.

  15. Function combined method for design innovation of children's bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Tingting; Chen, Huijuan

    2013-03-01

    As children mature, bike products for children in the market develop at the same time, and the conditions are frequently updated. Certain problems occur when using a bike, such as cycle overlapping, repeating function, and short life cycle, which go against the principles of energy conservation and the environmental protection intensive design concept. In this paper, a rational multi-function method of design through functional superposition, transformation, and technical implementation is proposed. An organic combination of frog-style scooter and children's tricycle is developed using the multi-function method. From the ergonomic perspective, the paper elaborates on the body size of children aged 5 to 12 and effectively extracts data for a multi-function children's bike, which can be used for gliding and riding. By inverting the body, parts can be interchanged between the handles and the pedals of the bike. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the components and structural design, body material, and processing technology of the bike. The study of Industrial Product Innovation Design provides an effective design method to solve the bicycle problems, extends the function problems, improves the product market situation, and enhances the energy saving feature while implementing intensive product development effectively at the same time.

  16. Fuel cell two-wheelers : good market potential in Shanghai and suggestions for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Yu, Z.; Gong, H.

    2005-01-01

    A feasibility study on the market potential of 2-wheel fuel cell vehicles in Shanghai, China was presented. The Chinese government has recently invested a considerable amount of money in fuel cell technology research programs. However, 2-wheel fuel cell vehicles are not included in the program's plans. Considering future transportation models and examining market demand, it was anticipated that the 2-wheel fuel cell vehicles have an enormous market potential in China. An outline of market demands was presented. Issues concerning technological availability, hydrogen supply availability and government policies were considered. An economic overview of Shanghai was presented. International trends in fuel cell vehicles were reviewed, as well as issues concerning traffic and environmental impacts. Recommended policies for development were presented. Supply and demand issues were also considered. At present, 2-wheelers are only at the conceptual and demonstration stage. A graduated commercial framework for fuel cell bicycles and scooters was presented, which included initial production and medium scale production phases as well as the development of a hydrogen supply network over a period of 9 years. It was concluded that, as there are more than 9 million bicycles and over 300,000 motorcycles in Shanghai, there is potentially a huge market and a good base the development phases and gradual commercialization of 2-wheel fuel cell vehicles. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  17. 1994 JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan) Spring Convention Proceedings. No. 941 (115-165); JSAE 1994 nen shunki taikai gakujutsu koenkai maezurishu. No.941, 115-165

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-20

    The science conference on the automotive technology research and development was held on May 11-13, 1994 in Yokohama, and 165 papers were reported. As for driving simulation(DS) for vehicles, reports are made on driving simulator with large displacement motion base - its evolution and the development of basic research tool, experimental analysis of avoidance maneuver using a driving simulator, comparison of handling characteristics between a driving simulator for tracked vehicles and a real vehicle, etc. As to auto parts, pitting fatigue strength of caburized gears, evaluation of corrosion protection of automotive chromated galvanized bolts, development of aluminum powder metallurgy composites for cylinder liners, development of a new nitrided stainless steel piston ring, etc. Further studied were made on development of new protocol for in-vehicle LAN, development of YONDEN electric vehicle `PIVOT,` development of electric scooter for practical use, etc. With regard to diesel engines, reported were diesel combustion improvement and emissions reduction with high pressure fuel injection, exhaust emission behaviors of a heavy duty diesel engine under various driving conditions, etc.

  18. Semantic Enrichment of Movement Behavior with Foursquare--A Visual Analytics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert; Thom, Dennis; Ertl, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, many approaches have been developed that efficiently and effectively visualize movement data, e.g., by providing suitable aggregation strategies to reduce visual clutter. Analysts can use them to identify distinct movement patterns, such as trajectories with similar direction, form, length, and speed. However, less effort has been spent on finding the semantics behind movements, i.e. why somebody or something is moving. This can be of great value for different applications, such as product usage and consumer analysis, to better understand urban dynamics, and to improve situational awareness. Unfortunately, semantic information often gets lost when data is recorded. Thus, we suggest to enrich trajectory data with POI information using social media services and show how semantic insights can be gained. Furthermore, we show how to handle semantic uncertainties in time and space, which result from noisy, unprecise, and missing data, by introducing a POI decision model in combination with highly interactive visualizations. Finally, we evaluate our approach with two case studies on a large electric scooter data set and test our model on data with known ground truth.

  19. Noise pollution in Lahore and the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to know the current status of noise levels in Lahore as compared to NEQS . Sound Level Meter model 211 FS Quest Electronics with a 50-120 dBA selectable range was used in the current investigation. Study relates to road traffic noise, aircraft noise at city airports, rail traffic noise, noise levels in urban centers and occupational noise. Investigation revealed that nine main commercial centers, six public hospital and ten educational institution of Lahore had values higher than NEQS (85 dBA). Maximum noise producing vehicles on Lahore roads are scooter producing a noise of 90, 86 and 87 dBA. There are forty airports in operation in the country and the aircraft being used has higher noise level varying from 16 to 120 dBA. Based on age and length of service permanent hearing damage has been observed in skilled industrial workers. Risk from hearing damage of industrial workers can be reduced by the use of some form of ear protection. Ear plugs can reduce noise levels by 15 to 35 dBA according to their design and fit. Industrial noise from heavy machinery can be reduced by anti-vibration mountings. Noisy work area in industry should be either isolated or surrounded by baffles. The most appealing approach to reduce noise problems in communities due to aircraft operation is reduction of the noise generated by the aircraft and land use planning. (author)

  20. A Method for Consensus Reaching in Product Kansei Evaluation Using Advanced Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Pu

    2017-01-01

    Consumers' opinions toward product design alternatives are often subjective and perceptual, which reflect their perception about a product and can be described using Kansei adjectives. Therefore, Kansei evaluation is often employed to determine consumers' preference. However, how to identify and improve the reliability of consumers' Kansei evaluation opinions toward design alternatives has an important role in adding additional insurance and reducing uncertainty to successful product design. To solve this problem, this study employs a consensus model to measure consistence among consumers' opinions, and an advanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm combined with Linearly Decreasing Inertia Weight (LDW) method is proposed for consensus reaching by minimizing adjustment of consumers' opinions. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented and the details are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter design evaluation. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for reaching a consensus through searching optimal solutions by PSO and improving the reliability of consumers' evaluation opinions toward design alternatives according to Kansei indexes.

  1. Light mobility applications towards public education and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceviz, Y.; Eroglu, M.; Akfidan, T.; Altinel, S.; Yazici, M.S. [UNIDO-ICHET - International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-07-01

    International Center for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (ICHET) has been implementing measures to demonstrate potential benefits of the ''hydrogen and fuel cell systems'' in developing countries. As part of applied R and D activities, various prototype vehicles (a small tri-wheel scooter, a four-passenger cart integrated with a 2 kW fuel cell, a mobile caravan with wind, solar and fuel cell power and a forklift with the necessary fuelling options and controls) were demonstrated utilizing hydrogen as fuel. Performance analysis, sizing of the various system components and modeling will be carried out as part of applied R and D program. A long-term objective of the projects is to push for use of fuel cell powered light mobile vehicles in public places and encourage local industry to manufacturer similar vehicles and explore market potential for such use. As a benefit of this activity, public awareness on applications of renewable and fuel cell technologies will increase and viability of such systems will be demonstrated to change public perception. (orig.)

  2. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    2007-01-01

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials. (author)

  3. Green vehicle : slippery turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs

  4. Guide du calcul en mécanique valider le comportement des systèmes techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Spenlé, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Ce guide couvre l’essentiel des programmes de la Première STI2D aux sections de BTS pour les compétences liées à la mécanique. Pour prendre en compte les nouveautés pédagogiques, cette nouvelle édition évolue vers des systèmes « grand public » (robotique humanoïde, cycle trainer, power-ball…) ou des systèmes liés au développement durable(éolienne, scooter électrique…). Points forts - Un guide qui tient compte des orientations du nouveau programme de STI2D : - systèmes vibratoires ; - accéléromètres, effet gyroscopique ; - développement de l’énergétique. - Les disciplines Génie mécanique/Génie électrique sont décloisonnées: - introduction de dispositifs pluri-techniques ; - présentation d’interfaces liant la partie opérative à la partie commande ; - introduction de la conversion de l’énergie électrique en énergie mécanique et réciproquement, étude comportementale, point de fonctionnement, définition des grandeurs associées. - Le caractère expérimental, ...

  5. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  6. Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of

  7. Machine vision and mechatronics in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The contributions for this book have been gathered over several years from conferences held in the series of Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice, the latest of which was held in Ankara, Turkey. The essential aspect is that they concern practical applications rather than the derivation of mere theory, though simulations and visualization are important components. The topics range from mining, with its heavy engineering, to the delicate machining of holes in the human skull or robots for surgery on human flesh. Mobile robots continue to be a hot topic, both from the need for navigation and for the task of stabilization of unmanned aerial vehicles. The swinging of a spray rig is damped, while machine vision is used for the control of heating in an asphalt-laying machine.  Manipulators are featured, both for general tasks and in the form of grasping fingers. A robot arm is proposed for adding to the mobility scooter of the elderly. Can EEG signals be a means to control a robot? Can face recognition be ac...

  8. Men's and women's perspectives on using a powered mobility device: benefits and societal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Cecilia; Iwarsson, Susanne; Brandt, Ase; Norin, Lizette; Månsson Lexell, Eva

    2014-11-01

    To describe how men and women experience their use of powered wheelchairs (PW) and powered scooters (PS) in everyday occupations, in the home and in society at large. A qualitative research approach with focus-group methodology was used. Four focus groups were created, with men and women as well as PW and PS users in different groups. Applying a descriptive approach, data were analysed according to the principles described by Krueger. Three categories emerged and revealed that even though use of PW and PS increased independence and enabled everyday occupations, participants struggled to be independent powered mobility device (PMD) users. They experienced many accessibility problems in dwellings and in society, described similarly by users of PW and PS. Men and women experienced their use of (PMD) differently, especially in relation to the service delivery process. The study contributes with new knowledge on accessibility for PW and PS users and related service delivery processes, stating that gender differences regarding provision and training must be taken into account. Occupational therapists can contribute to an enhanced understanding of PMD users' challenges in person-environment-occupation transactions in the home and society, and thereby promote occupational justice for PMD users.

  9. A new method to discriminate secondary organic aerosols from different sources using high-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Heringa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents a significant and often major fraction of the non-refractory PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter da < 1 μm mass. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA is an important contributor to the OA and can be formed from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors. Here we present results from the characterization of SOA produced from the emissions of three different anthropogenic sources. SOA from a log wood burner, a Euro 2 diesel car and a two-stroke Euro 2 scooter were characterized with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS and compared to SOA from α-pinene.

    The emissions were sampled from the chimney/tailpipe by a heated inlet system and filtered before injection into a smog chamber. The gas phase emissions were irradiated by xenon arc lamps to initiate photo-chemistry which led to nucleation and subsequent particle growth by SOA production.

    Duplicate experiments were performed for each SOA type, with the averaged organic mass spectra showing Pearson's r values >0.94 for the correlations between the four different SOA types after five hours of aging. High-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS showed that the dominant peaks in the MS, m/z 43 and 44, are dominated by the oxygenated ions C2H3O+ and CO2+, respectively, similarly to the relatively fresh semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA observed in the ambient aerosol. The atomic O:C ratios were found to be in the range of 0.25–0.55 with no major increase during the first five hours of aging. On average, the diesel SOA showed the lowest O:C ratio followed by SOA from wood burning, α-pinene and the scooter emissions. Grouping the fragment ions revealed that the SOA source with the highest O:C ratio had the largest fraction of small ions.

    The HR data of the four sources could be clustered and separated using

  10. Dimensionnement des actionneurs électriques alimentés à fréquence variable sous faible tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedinger, J.-M.; Vilain, J.-P.

    1999-09-01

    In Part I we present a multidisciplinary analysis model for the prediction of functional connections between the design variables and the electromagnetical, electrical and thermal performances of a brushless permanent magnet motor. In this paper we have elaborated a design methodology for electrical motors supplied from a variable-frequency low-voltage source. The objective is to take into account the influence of the inverter's dynamics from the beginning of the design, for the same reasons as we do for electromechanical and thermal constraints. The procedure is based on a Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization method. Two techniques are used to take into account the influence of the inverter: the first one develops the performance analysis with the multidisciplinary model; the second one considers the inverter's current reference as a supplementary optimization variable for the control of the design. Optimization difficulties linked to the chopping of the converter are discuted in connection with a sensitivity analysis of the torque, with respect to the inverter's current reference; a method is proposed to enhance the performances of the algorithm. The method has been applied to the design of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor used in the propulsion system of an electrical scooter; evolution of the design with the complexity level of analysis model is evidenced. Dans une première partie nous avons développé un modèle d'analyse pluridisciplinaire qui établissait les dépendances fonctionnelles entre les variables de conception et les performances magnéto-électro-thermiques d'un moteur brushless à aimants permanents. Dans cet article nous décrivons une procédure de dimensionnement adaptée à la conception de la machine alimentée à fréquence variable sous faible tension. L'objectif est d'intégrer la dynamique du convertisseur électronique dès la phase initiale du dimensionnement, au même titre que les spécifications

  11. "I'm very visible but seldom seen": consumer choice and use of mobility aids on public transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Carolyn A; Rawat, Vijay; Sullivan, John; Tay, Richard; Naweed, Anjum; Gudimetla, Prasad

    2017-11-28

    The number of mobility aid users continues to rise as the population ages. While mobility aid users rely on public transport due to its affordability, evidence suggests access can be difficult. This study aims to describe people who use mobility aids to access public transport and the role of public transport access in influencing mobility aid choice. Sixty-seven mobility aid users participated in telephone surveys which predominantly used a structured quantitative format. Data were analysed descriptively and any additional comments were simply categorized. Thirty-six participants were female (54%), with a total sample mean age of 58.15 years (SD = 14.46). Seventy-two percent lived in metropolitan areas, 48% lived alone, and the sample experienced a variety of conditions including spinal cord injury (37%) and arthritis (18%). Sixty-four percent of all respondents used two or more mobility aids including powered wheelchairs, scooters and walking frames. The most important features when choosing a mobility aid were reliability, turning ability and size. Fifty-two percent of all respondents strongly agreed that public transport is generally accessible. While work continues to ensure that public transport vehicles and stations are fully accessible, mobility aid users must manage current infrastructure and access a system which has been shown through this research to have many limitations. Mobility aid users, vendors and health professionals need to work together to identify mobility aids that fulfil needs, and are reliable and safe, so that mobility aid users are both "visible and seen" when accessing the public transport network. Implications for rehabilitation Some mobility aid users experience difficulties accessing and using public transport and further research is required to ensure the whole public transport network is fully accessible to people using mobility aids. Many people have more than one seated mobility aid, suggesting people can choose different

  12. Effects of transit bus interior configuration on performance of wheeled mobility users during simulated boarding and disembarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James A; Steinfeld, Edward

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of low-floor bus designs and related regulatory standards in the U.S. have resulted in substantial improvements in public transit accessibility. However, passengers using wheeled mobility devices still experience safety concerns and inefficiencies in boarding, disembarking, and interior circulation on low-floor buses. This study investigates effects of low-floor bus interior configuration and passenger crowding on boarding and disembarking efficiency and safety. Users of manual wheelchairs (n = 18), powered wheelchairs (n = 21) and electric scooters (n = 9) simulated boarding and disembarking in three interior layout configurations at low and high passenger crowding conditions on a full-scale laboratory mock-up of a low-floor bus. Dependent measures comprised task times and critical incidents during access ramp use, fare payment, and movement to and from the doorway and wheeled mobility securement area. Individual times for unassisted boarding ranged from 15.2 to 245.3 s and for disembarking ranged from 9.1 to 164.6 s across layout and passenger crowding conditions. Nonparametric analysis of variance showed significant differences and interactions across vehicle design conditions, passenger load and mobility device type on user performance. The configuration having electronic on-board fare payment, rear-bus entrance doorways and adjacent device securement areas demonstrated greatest efficiency and safety. High passenger load adversely impacted efficiency and frequency of critical incidents during on-board circulation across all three layouts. Findings have broader implications for improving transit system efficiency and quality of service across the spectrum of transit users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy consumption and cost analysis of hybrid electric powertrain configurations for two wheelers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Paul D.; Roser, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyse several driving cycles to for the preliminary design of hybrid two wheelers. • Simulation of alternate configurations to compare achievable driving range and economy. • Demonstrate that pure electric vehicles provide cost benefits over the vehicle life. • Hybrid and plug-in hybrid two wheelers have comparable costs to conventional vehicles. - Abstract: The development of hybrid electric two wheelers in recent years has targeted the reduction of on road emissions produced by these vehicles. However, added cost and complexity have resulted in the failure of these systems to meet consumer expectations. This paper presents a comparative study of the energy economy and essential costs of alternative forms of small two wheelers such as scooters or low capacity motorcycles. This includes conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric variants. Through simulations of vehicle driving range using two popular driving cycles it is demonstrated that there is considerable benefit in fuel economy realised by hybridising such vehicles. However, the added costs associated with electrification, i.e. motor/generator, power electronics, and energy storage provide a significant cost obstacle to the purchase of such vehicles. Only the pure electric configuration is demonstrated to be cost effective over its life in comparison to conventional two wheelers. Both the hybrid electric and plug-in equivalents must overcome significant upfront costs to be cost competitive with conventional vehicles. This is demonstrated to be achieved if the annual driving range of the vehicle is increased substantially from the assumed mean. Given the shorter distances travelled by most two wheeler drivers it can therefore be concluded that the development of similar hybrid electric vehicles are unlikely to achieve the desired acceptance that pure electric or conventional equivalents currently achieve

  14. A novel control and physical realization of a clean hybrid hydrogen fuel-cell/battery low-power personal electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Andrew N.

    With the rapid continuation of global warming, high concentrations of pollutants, and foreign oil conflicts, the green energy push has now begun to manifest into great advancements in renewable or clean energies. Fuel-cells have a promising future for mobile power such as the automotive industry, distributed generation, and portable auxiliary power supplies. The type of fuel-cell that has the most focus today is the hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell. It is widely accepted that a fuel-cell cannot effectively supply a dynamic load on its own. In order to correct this drawback and make the fuel-cell system useful for all occasions, a hybrid FC/storage device system needs to be implemented. In this type of system, a balance is created between the high-energy fuel-cell and the high-power storage devices. In this thesis, a hybrid fuel-cell system topology favorable for use in a "personal" electric vehicle such as a scooter is proposed. This topology consists of a fuel-cell connected directly to the batteries and load via a DC link converter. The converter is used to manage the flow of power within the system. In order to have this flow of power to be stable and within operational limits of the devices, a novel adaptive control algorithm implementing six transfer functions based on six major operating conditions is developed. The development of the adaptive algorithm and the implementation of hardware tests were carried out by Matlab/Simulink and dSPACE. The results of the tests showed that the control algorithm was successful at regulating power flow as well as facilitating DC link stability and accuracy at the major operating points.

  15. Epidemiology of road traffic injury patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Isaac W; Gupta, Shivam; Tetali, Shailaja; Josyula, Lakshmi K; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Rao, Mohan; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-12-01

    Road traffic injuries kill more people in India than in any other country in the world, and these numbers are rising with increasing population density and motorization. Official statistics regarding road traffic injuries are likely subject to underreporting. This study presents results of a surveillance program based at a public tertiary hospital in Hyderabad, India. All consenting patients who presented to the casualty ward after a road traffic injury over a 9-month period were enrolled. Interviews were performed and data abstracted from clinical records by trained research assistants. Data included demographics, injury characteristics, risk factors, safety behaviors, and outcomes. A total of 5,298 patients were enrolled; their mean age was 32.4 years (standard deviation 13.8) and 87.3% were men; 58.2% of patients were injured while riding a motorcycle or scooter, 22.5% were pedestrians, and 9.2% used motorized rickshaws. The most frequent collision type was skid or rollover (40.9%). Male victims were younger than female victims and were overrepresented among motorized 2-wheeler users. Patients were most frequently injured from 1600 to 2400. A total of 27.3% of patients were admitted. Hospital mortality was 5.3%, and 48.2% of deaths were among motorized 2-wheeler users. This is one of the few prospective, hospital-based studies of road traffic injury epidemiology in India. The patient population in this study was similar to prior hospital-based studies. When compared to government surveillance systems, this study showed motorized 2-wheeler users to be more frequently represented among the overall population and among fatalities. Further research should be done to develop interventions to decrease mortality associated with 2-wheeled vehicles in India. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Self-reported difficulty and preferences of wheeled mobility device users for simulated low-floor bus boarding, interior circulation and disembarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor L; Lenker, James A; Steinfeld, Edward

    2017-11-13

    Low ridership of public transit buses among wheeled mobility device users suggests the need to identify vehicle design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low-floor bus interior seating configuration and passenger load on wheeled mobility device user-reported difficulty, overall acceptability and design preference. Forty-eight wheeled mobility users evaluated three interior design layouts at two levels of passenger load (high vs. low) after simulating boarding and disembarking tasks on a static full-scale low-floor bus mockup. User self-reports of task difficulty, acceptability and design preference were analyzed across the different test conditions. Ramp ascent was the most difficult task for manual wheelchair users relative to other tasks. The most difficult tasks for users of power wheelchairs and scooters were related to interior circulation, including moving to the securement area, entry and positioning in the securement area and exiting the securement area. Boarding and disembarking at the rear doorway was significantly more acceptable and preferred compared to the layouts with front doorways. Understanding transit usability barriers, perceptions and preferences among wheeled mobility users is an important consideration for clinicians who recommend mobility-related device interventions to those who use public transportation. Implications for Rehabilitation In order to maximize community participation opportunities for wheeled mobility users, clinicians should consider potential public transit barriers during the processes of wheelchair device selection and skills training. Usability barriers experienced by wheeled mobility device users on transit vehicles differ by mobility device type and vehicle configurations. Full-scale environment simulations are an effective means of identifying usability barriers and design needs in people with mobility impairments and may

  17. Impact of Pilates Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R.D.; Andrushko, Justin W.; Renshaw, Doug W.; Chilibeck, Philip D.; Farthing, Jonathan P.; Danielson, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pilates is a series of exercises based on whole-body movement and may improve mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates on walking performance in people with MS. Methods: 30 individuals with MS who were not restricted to a wheelchair or scooter (Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale score Pilates (twice weekly) and massage therapy (once weekly) or once-weekly massage therapy only (control group). The Pilates was delivered in a group setting (five to ten participants per session). The primary outcome was change in walking performance (6-Minute Walk Test) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included functional ability (Timed Up and Go test), balance (Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale), flexibility (sit and reach test), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), core endurance (plank-hold test), and muscle strength and voluntary activation (quadriceps). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Walking distance increased by a mean (SD) of 52.4 (40.2) m in the Pilates group versus 15.0 (34.1) m in the control group (group × time, P = .01). Mean (SD) time to complete the Timed Up and Go test decreased by 1.5 (2.8) seconds in the Pilates group versus an increase of 0.3 (0.9) seconds in the control group (group × time, P = .03). There were no other significant differences between groups over time. Conclusions: Pilates improved walking performance and functional ability in persons with MS and is a viable exercise option to help manage the disease. PMID:29670495

  18. Impact of Pilates Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R D; Andrushko, Justin W; Renshaw, Doug W; Chilibeck, Philip D; Farthing, Jonathan P; Danielson, Jana; Evans, Charity D

    2018-01-01

    Pilates is a series of exercises based on whole-body movement and may improve mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates on walking performance in people with MS. 30 individuals with MS who were not restricted to a wheelchair or scooter (Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale score Pilates (twice weekly) and massage therapy (once weekly) or once-weekly massage therapy only (control group). The Pilates was delivered in a group setting (five to ten participants per session). The primary outcome was change in walking performance (6-Minute Walk Test) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included functional ability (Timed Up and Go test), balance (Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale), flexibility (sit and reach test), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), core endurance (plank-hold test), and muscle strength and voluntary activation (quadriceps). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. Walking distance increased by a mean (SD) of 52.4 (40.2) m in the Pilates group versus 15.0 (34.1) m in the control group (group × time, P = .01). Mean (SD) time to complete the Timed Up and Go test decreased by 1.5 (2.8) seconds in the Pilates group versus an increase of 0.3 (0.9) seconds in the control group (group × time, P = .03). There were no other significant differences between groups over time. Pilates improved walking performance and functional ability in persons with MS and is a viable exercise option to help manage the disease.

  19. A High Torque Segmented Outer Rotor Permanent Magnet Flux Switching Motor for Motorcycle Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbadiwe I Enwelum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric scooters also known as electric motorcycle are viable and personal means of road transportation have been making their ways into the world markets now because in them, combustion engine with the use of fuel oil for propulsion have been completely eliminated for economic and environmental imperatives. Electric motor which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is used to overcome the complication of combustion engine. As it is, everyone is opting for combustion engine free and fuel-less type of vehicle. For this reason, manufacturers have exhibited interest, making research on electric motor very attractive. Meanwhile, surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM has been successfully developed having output torque of 110 Nm, the assembly of motor lacked mechanical strength between the rotor yoke and the mounted permanent magnet (PM which heats up during speed operation, resulting to poor performance. To overcome the challenges laced with SPMSM, this paper presents a novel design of 24 stator 14 pole outer rotor-permanent magnet flux switching motor (SOR-PMFSM capable of high torque and high performance. It employs an unconventional segmented rotor which has short flux path flow. It also embraces alternate stator tooth windings to reduce material cost. Design specifications and restriction with input DC current are the same with SPMSM. The 2D-FEA by JMAG, version 14 is used to examine the performance of the proposed motor in terms of cogging torque, back-emf, average torque, power and efficiency. Preliminary results showed that torque, power output and efficiency of the proposed motor are 1.9Nm times, 5.8kW times more than SPMSM and efficiency of 84% thus, can sustain acceleration for long distance travel.

  20. Assistive Technology: Use and Service Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ghasemzadeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As individuals with long-term disabilities and other older adults face declines in health and function, there is a greater need for assistive technology (AT or assistive devices and environmental interventions (EI to help them maintain their independence and community participation. These aids can help older adults and individuals with disabilities function in work, home, recreational, and other community settings as they encounter age related or disability related changes. Assistive Technology refers to products, devices or equipment that are used to maintain, increase or improve the functional capabilities of people with disabilities. A thorough assessment of the individual’s preferences and needs must be conducted before an assistive device is obtained. If one type of device is inadequate to meet an individual’s needs, it should not be assumed that there are no viable alternatives. Individuals’ use of AT and the type of technology used may change over time or as they age. Low-tech aids, such as canes or walkers, or high-tech aids, such as manual or power wheelchairs or scooters, are used to help individuals achieve mobility. Assistive Technologies to aid in communication currently range from low-tech devices such as books to high-tech, augmentative communication devices, which are computers. Computer technology can help individuals become more independent and can enhance their ability to overcome a wide range of limitations. Accessibility can involve more than architectural structure. AT for use in the environment can also increase individuals’ ability to function within their environment. Advancements in AT will occur in the technology itself, the services associated with the technology, and in the government policies and programs relative to AT. There will more widespread use of universal design, with less special-purpose AT required.

  1. Mobility device use in older adults and incidence of falls and worry about falling: findings from the 2011-2012 national health and aging trends study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Nancy M; Wallace, Robert B; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Mroz, Tracy M; Patel, Kushang V

    2015-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of mobility device use in community-dwelling older adults in the United States and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling according to type and number of mobility devices used. Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011-12 National Health and Aging Trends Study. In-person interviews in the homes of study participants. Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries (n=7,609). Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, 1-year fall history and worry about falling. Twenty-four percent of adults aged 65 and older reported mobility device use in 2011, and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with nonwhite race and ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multimorbidity, and obesity (all Pfalls and recurrent falls was not associated with the use of multiple devices or any particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users than in nonusers. The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher than results from previous national surveys, and multiple device use is common in those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with greater incidence of falls. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  3. Injuries and helmet use related to non-motorized wheeled activities among pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, H; Brussoni, M

    2014-07-01

    Patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) for injuries resulting from recreational activities represent a unique source of information on important directions for injury prevention efforts. We describe the epidemiology of non-motorized wheeled activity-related injury in pediatric patients presenting to Canadian EDs as well as patients' helmet use. Data for the years 2004 to 2009 were abstracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national ED injury surveillance program in fifteen hospitals. Most of the 28 618 children aged 1 to 16 years injured during non-motorized wheeled activities were injured while cycling, followed by skateboarding. Most injuries occurred among boys. Children injured on scooters tended to be younger whereas skateboarders were the oldest. On average, the number of all injuries decreased by 6% over the time period. Falls were the most common mechanism of injury; 8.3% of patients had head injuries, which were seen more often among cyclists than other wheeled-activity users. Helmet use was greatest among cyclists (62.2%) and lowest among skateboarders (32.9%). Injured patients presenting to EDs in jurisdictions with legislation mandating helmet use had 2.12 greater odds of helmet use and 0.86 lesser odds of head injury compared with those presenting in jurisdictions without helmet laws. These results provide further evidence that legislation mandating helmet use may be an effective way of reducing injury among all wheeled-activity users. The small number of patients who presented with helmet use and protective gear (59.4% overall) suggests that this remains an area for intervention.

  4. Mandibular Fracture Patterns at a Medical Center in Central Taiwan: A 3-Year Epidemiological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fu-Yu; Wu, Chao-I; Cheng, Hsu-Tang

    2017-12-01

    Mandibular fractures constitute a major portion of maxillofacial trauma and may lead to considerable functional and aesthetic sequelae if treatment is inadequate or delayed. An epidemiology study on mandibular fractures may guide the preventive efforts of the Taiwan public health care system. Therefore, a retrospective review was conducted at a medical center in central Taiwan to evaluate the current mandibular fracture epidemiology.The medical records and digitized radiographs of 198 patients who received treatment for mandibular fractures during a 3-year period (from October 2010 to September 2013) at a medical center in central Taiwan were reviewed to obtain demographic and injury data.The average age was 29.4 years (3-82 years). Patients aged 21 to 30 years sustained the most mandibular fractures (62 patients, 31.3%). The overall sex distribution (male to female) ratio was 1.8. Motor-vehicle accidents (MVAs) were the most common mechanism of injury (162 patients, 82%), and scooter and motorcycle riders wearing partial-coverage helmets constituted the majority of patients. A chart review identified 198 patients with 335 mandibular fractures; 113 patients (57.1%) had multiple mandibular fractures. The most common fracture sites were the symphysis and parasymphysis regions (38.9%), followed by the condyle (26.0%), angle (14.3%), body (14.3%), and ramus (6.6%).MVAs are the major cause of mandibular fractures in central Taiwan, and patients aged Taiwan. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Auditory and visual reaction time and peripheral field of vision in helmet users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbupillai Adhilakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fatal accidents are more in two wheeler drivers compared to four wheeler drivers. Head injury is of serious concern when recovery and prognosis of the patients are warranted, helmets are being used for safety purposes by moped, scooters and motorcycle drivers. Although, helmets are designed with cushioning effect to prevent head injuries but there are evidences of increase risk of neck injuries and reduced peripheral vision and hearing in helmet users. A complete full coverage helmets provide about less than 3 percent restrictions in horizontal peripheral visual field compared to rider without helmet. The standard company patented ergonomically designed helmets which does not affect the peripheral vision neither auditory reaction time. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the peripheral field of vision and auditory and visual reaction time in a hypertensive, diabetic and healthy male and female in order to have a better insight of protective characteristics of helmet in health and disease. Method: This pilot study carried out on age matched male of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetic and female subject of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetics. The field of vision was assessed by Lister’s perimeter whereas auditory and visual reaction time was recorded with response analyser. Result : Gender difference was not noted in peripheral field of vision but mild difference was found in auditory reaction time for high frequency and visual reaction time for both red and green colour in healthy control. But lateral and downward peripheral visual field was found reduced whereas auditory and visual reaction time was found increased in both hypertensive and diabetic subject in both sexes. Conclusion: Peripheral vision, auditory reaction time and visual reaction time in hypertensive and diabetics may lead to vulnerable accident. Helmet use has proven to reduce extent of injury in motorcyclist and

  6. An evaluation model for low carbon island policy: The case of Taiwan's green transportation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappey, Amy J.C.; Trappey, Charles; Hsiao, C.T.; Ou, Jerry J.R.; Li, S.J.; Chen, Kevin W.P.

    2012-01-01

    Conserving energy and reducing carbon emissions have become the common responsibility of the international community. During the year 2010, the Taiwan government planned a four-year project budgeted at 300 million US dollars, called “The Penghu Low Carbon Island Development Project.” The policy objective is to use Penghu Island (population 85,000) as a test platform to evaluate new ways to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions before attempting to replicate the policies on Taiwan Island. For Taiwan, a zero carbon island green transportation policy will regulate the total number of electric scooters, the total number of gasoline motorcycles, influence government subsidy incentives, and create the need for new motorcycle license issuing and control. These factors interact with each other to form a complex and dynamic system that impacts policy as well as the current way of life. In this study, a system dynamics approach is designed to construct a model for evaluating the green transportation policy on Penghu Island. Simulations are conducted to model green transportation system behavior and related policy effects in a smaller, controlled environment before creating policies for Taiwan Island that will impact the lives of over 23 million people. - Highlights: ► Provides an overview of Taiwan's Penghu Low Carbon Island Development Project. ► Develops a systems dynamics approach for green transportation policy assessment. ► Provides causal analysis of social, economic, and environmental factors. ► Demonstrates that the proposed policy cannot meet the CO 2 reduction goals. ► Alternative policies can be evaluated using the proposed approach.

  7. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  8. Requirements and Markets for Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    , if required on all trucks and busses, and they would save many lives. For electric bikes, scooters and cars, there is no limit to more intelligent control and energy efficiency. Effective individual mobility, compatible with the environment, is another matter of global competition, of public well-being and of a related public policy.

  9. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  10. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  11. Identifying factors affecting the safety of mid-block bicycle lanes considering mixed 2-wheeled traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Chan, Ching-Yao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chengcheng

    2017-10-03

    Electric bikes (e-bikes) have been one of the fastest growing trip modes in Southeast Asia over the past 2 decades. The increasing popularity of e-bikes raised some safety concerns regarding urban transport systems. The primary objective of this study was to identify whether and how the generalized linear regression model (GLM) could be used to relate cyclists' safety with various contributing factors when riding in a mid-block bike lane. The types of 2-wheeled vehicles in the study included bicycle-style electric bicycles (BSEBs), scooter-style electric bicycles (SSEBs), and regular bicycles (RBs). Traffic conflict technology was applied as a surrogate measure to evaluate the safety of 2-wheeled vehicles. The safety performance model was developed by adopting a generalized linear regression model for relating the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and regular bikes to the operating speeds of BSEBs, SSEBs, and RBs in mid-block bike lanes. The frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes increased with an increase in the operating speeds of e-bikes and the volume of e-bikes and bikes and decreased with an increase in the width of bike lanes. The large speed difference between e-bikes and bikes increased the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes in mid-block bike lanes. A 1% increase in the average operating speed of e-bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes by 1.48%. A 1% increase in the speed difference between e-bikes and bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes/bikes by 0.16%. The conflict frequency in mid-block bike lanes can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The factors that significantly affected the frequency of rear-end conflicts included the operating speeds of e-bikes, the speed difference between e-bikes and regular bikes, the volume of e-bikes, the volume of bikes, and the width of bike lanes. The

  12. Patterns of recruitment of the sand smelt (Atherina presbyter on rocky intertidal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Almada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese coast is located in a biogeographical transition zone between temperate and subtropical waters making it especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Several fish species struggle to cope with these annual changing conditions, particularly species that strongly depend on intertidal habitats which are expected to endure higher ecological fluctuations. Sand smelt young recruits and larvae were collected at the west coast of Portugal in the intertidal by hand-netting, and in the subtidal with light traps and scuba diving with plankton nets attached to scooters (Parede/Avencas: 38º 41’ N, 9º 21’W and Arrábida: 38º 28’ N, 8º 59’W, respectively. Due to the morphological similarities with other congeneric species young specimens were regularly collected and identified through genetic analysis. All samples were assigned to the same species: A. presbyter. Results showed that A. presbyter is one of the most abundant non-resident fish species in these rocky coastal areas, representing 49% (n=93.958 of the total number of individuals sighted in the intertidal from 2009-2015, but only 0.55% of the total number of individuals sampled in the subtidal (n=176 with both methods from 2011-2013. Distribution patterns showed that recruits (TL 0.8-6.8 cm concentrated within the intertidal area between March and December. Younger cohorts (TL 0.8-1.2 cm are captured almost exclusively in these areas including confined intertidal channels and large pools between March and August, suggesting that reproduction and spawning can occur for a period of 6 months. Inter-annual seasonal variations from 2009 to 2015 showed irregular water temperature profiles, especially in 2011 and 2012, which may dramatically affect the reproductive success of this species, not only reducing the number of recruits but also shortening the recruitment period from 10 to 5 months. Globally, 46% of the coastlines have experienced a significant decrease in the

  13. A few seconds to have an accident, a long time to recover: consequences for road accident victims from the ESPARR cohort 2 years after the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Charlène; Charnay, Pierrette; Tardy, Hélène; Chossegros, Laetitia; Carnis, Laurent; Hours, Martine

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the consequences of a road accident in adults, taking account of the type of road user, and to determine predictive factors for consequences at 2 years. Prospective follow-up study. The cohort was composed of 1168 victims of road traffic accidents, aged ≥16 years. Two years after the accident, 912 victims completed a self-administered questionnaire. Weighted logistic regression models were implemented to compare casualties still reporting impact related to the accident versus those reporting no residual impact. Five outcomes were analysed: unrecovered health status, impact on occupation or studies, on familial or affective life, on leisure or sport activities and but also the financial difficulties related to the accident. 46.1% of respondents were motorised four-wheel users, 29.6% motorised two-wheel (including quad) users, 13.3% pedestrians (including inline skate and push scooter users) and 11.1% cyclists. 53.3% reported unrecovered health status, 32.0% persisting impact on occupation or studies, 25.2% on familial or affective life, 46.9% on leisure or sport activities and 20.2% still had accident-related financial difficulties. Type of user, adjusted on age and gender, was linked to unrecovered health status and to impact on leisure or sport activities. When global severity (as measured by NISS) was integrated in the previous model, type of user was also associated with impact on occupation or studies. Type of user was further associated with impact on occupation or studies and on leisure or sport activities when global severity and the sociodemographic data obtained at inclusion were taken into account. It was not, however, related to any of the outcomes studied here, when the models focused on the injured body region. Finally, type of road user did not seem, on the various predictive models, to be related to financial difficulties due to the accident or to impact on familial or affective life. Overall, victims

  14. Social determinants of rest deprivation amongst Ghanaian women: national and urban-rural comparisons with data from a cross-sectional nationally representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull Torill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rest deprivation (rest/napping/sleep 6 or less hours daily is a clinically recognised risk factor for poor health, but its epidemiology is little studied. This study reports prevalence's and social correlates of rest deprivation in Ghana. Methods Data are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women ages 15-49 were recruited in a national sampling design. Respondents were 4,916 women in the national sample, a sub-sample of 530 women in the three northernmost rural regions and a sub-sample of 853 women in urban Greater Accra. Results Prevalence's of rest deprivation were 0.13% nationally, 14.5% in Greater Accra and 16.8% in the North. The significant correlates nationally were age, education, wealth index, Christian religion and literacy. In Accra, they were age, wealth index, having household electricity, and possession of a refrigerator, a stove and a mobile phone. In the North, they were education, occupation, drinking water source, possession of motorcycle/scooter, Christian religion, literacy, and possession of a clock and a cupboard. In logistic regression analyses controlling for age in the national sample, the significant odds ratios were 1.40 for no education compared to secondary and higher education, 0.78-0.43 for the four poorer wealth quintiles compared to the richest wealth index quintile, and 0.55 for Christian religion compared to all others. Also controlling for age, the significant odds ratios in Accra were 2.15 for the second richest wealth quintile compared to the richest quintile and 0.16 for possession of a mobile phone. In the North they were 0.49 for Christian religion compared to all others, 1.87 for having a protected compared to an unprotected water source, and 0.41 for having a cupboard in the home. Conclusions Education, wealth and religion were related to rest deprivation nationally but not in the urban and rural regions (except for religion in the North. This suggests caution in

  15. Co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meneses, Carmen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents. The analyzed behaviors were sexual activity, the use of alcohol and other drugs, violent conduct and behaviors related to driving mopeds or scooters. The sample consisted of 4,091 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18, all of them enrolled in one of the four compulsory years of secondary education, the approximate equivalents of the 7th to 10th grades in the US educational system. Cluster analysis indicates that there are four risk profiles, one of which is the profile with the greatest risk and the highest co-occurrence of risk behaviors. This group represents 13% of the sample and is noteworthy for using illegal drugs, driving under the influence of drugs and other activities carried out under the influence of alcohol. Differences have been found among the various profiles according to sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, grade, perception of the family’s economic situation and ethnicity. The findings are discussed and some suggestions are given for prevention intervention.

    Este trabajo examina la concurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo en adolescentes españoles. Los comportamientos analizados fueron la actividad sexual, el consumo de alcohol y otras drogas, conductas violentas y comportamientos en la conducción de ciclomotores o motocicletas. La muestra incluye 4.091 adolescentes de 13 a 18 años, perteneciente a educación secundaria obligatoria. Los resultados obtenidos muestran cuatro perfiles de riesgo, siendo uno de ellos el perfil de más alto riesgo y concurrencia de comportamientos arriesgados. Este grupo supone el 13% en el que destacan las conductas de consumo de drogas lícitas, conducir bajo los efectos de droga y otras conductas realizadas bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se encuentran diferencias entre estos perfiles y las características sociodemográficas como el sexo, el curso, la percepción sobre la economía familiar y

  16. Risky behavior of drivers of motorized two wheeled vehicles in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Lalit

    2006-01-01

    Motorized two-wheeled vehicles (MTV) account for a large proportion of road traffic in India and the riders of these vehicles have a high risk of road traffic injuries. We report on the availability of drivers licenses, use of a helmet, driver behavior, and condition of vehicles for MTV drivers in Hyderabad, a city in India Drivers of a MTV aged >16 years were interviewed at petrol filling stations There were 4,183 MTV drivers who participated in the study. Four hundred sixty one (11%; 95% CI 9.7-12.3%) drivers had not obtained a drivers license and 798 (21.4%) had obtained a license without taking the mandatory driving test. Two thousand nine hundred twenty (69.8%; 95% CI 67.9-71.7%) drivers reported no/very occasional use of a helmet, the significant predictors of which included that those driving borrowed a MTV (odds ratio 7.90; 95% CI 3.40-18.40) or driving moped/scooterette/scooter as compared with motorcycle (3.32; 2.76-3.98), lower education (3.10; 2.66-3.61), age >45 years (2.41; 1.63-3.57), and males (1.57; 1.16-2.13). Two thousand five hundred and eight (59.9%) drivers reported committing a traffic law violation at least once within the last 3 months. Overall, 1,222 (29.2%) drivers reported ever being caught by traffic police for a traffic law violation with data on violations available for 1,205 of these drivers, of whom 680 (56.4%) paid a fine, 310 (25.7%) paid by bribe, and 215 (17.8%) made no payment. The proportion of those who did not make payment for committed violation was significantly higher among females (46.8%) than males (16.3%). Two thousand fifty two (49%) of all MTVs had no rearview mirror These data suggest the need to enact and enforce policy interventions for improving the drivers license system, mandatory use of a helmet, effective traffic law enforcement, and ensuring good vehicle condition to reduce the risk factors that potentially contribute to mortality and morbidity in road traffic crashes in MTV drivers in Indian cities.

  17. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2009; Energieforschung 2009. Ueberblicksberichte/Recherche energetique 2009. Rapports de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2009 that were made by the heads of the following program-groups covered by Swiss energy research: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economy-society area. Under the comprehensive topic of efficient energy use, building concepts compatible with the '2000-Watt Society', Minergie-P 'passive' housing, calculation and dynamic simulation tools, sustainable building projects and developments in the building insulation area are mentioned along with refurbishment topics, the use of solar-thermal energy and electrical efficiency. In the traffic area, lightweight vehicles, drive systems - including hybrid systems - are reported on, as are electric scooters, vehicle-to-grid power storage and inter-modal transport systems. In the accumulators area, various new systems are looked at. With respect to electrical technology, work on electricity storage, conversion and high-temperature superconductors are reported on. Alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. Developments in the information and communications area are noted. 'Smart metering', standby losses and lift drives are reported on, as are household appliances and lighting systems. In the electricity area, the interaction of electricity grid and communication systems as well as future energy networks are reported on. In the heat pump and combined heat and power generation area, improving thermodynamic processes, integral system optimisation and high-efficiency systems as well as environment-friendly refrigerants and magnetic heat-pumps are discussed. Combustion topics reviewed include how research basics can be improved, numerical simulation methods, large diesel engines, catalytic reactions, the use of biogenic fuels and exhaust gas treatment. The 'Power Station 2020' and carbon capture and storage program reports on combined heat and power

  18. Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shun-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Song, Jian; Peng, Bao-Cheng; Yuan, Dong; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Qi, Ping-Ping

    In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP ( n=806) were much higher than those of the controls ( n=413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who

  19. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2009; Energieforschung 2009. Ueberblicksberichte/Recherche energetique 2009. Rapports de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2009 that were made by the heads of the following program-groups covered by Swiss energy research: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economy-society area. Under the comprehensive topic of efficient energy use, building concepts compatible with the '2000-Watt Society', Minergie-P 'passive' housing, calculation and dynamic simulation tools, sustainable building projects and developments in the building insulation area are mentioned along with refurbishment topics, the use of solar-thermal energy and electrical efficiency. In the traffic area, lightweight vehicles, drive systems - including hybrid systems - are reported on, as are electric scooters, vehicle-to-grid power storage and inter-modal transport systems. In the accumulators area, various new systems are looked at. With respect to electrical technology, work on electricity storage, conversion and high-temperature superconductors are reported on. Alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. Developments in the information and communications area are noted. 'Smart metering', standby losses and lift drives are reported on, as are household appliances and lighting systems. In the electricity area, the interaction of electricity grid and communication systems as well as future energy networks are reported on. In the heat pump and combined heat and power generation area, improving thermodynamic processes, integral system optimisation and high-efficiency systems as well as environment-friendly refrigerants and magnetic heat-pumps are discussed. Combustion topics reviewed include how research basics can be improved, numerical simulation methods, large diesel engines, catalytic reactions, the use of biogenic fuels and exhaust gas treatment. The 'Power Station 2020' and carbon capture and storage

  20. Fuel cell - An alternative for power and heat generating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubcu, Victor; Ursescu, Gabriel; Zubcu, Dorina Silvia; Miler, Mihai Cristian

    2004-01-01

    One of the most promising energy generating technologies is the fuel cell (FC) because of its high efficiency and low emissions. There are even zero chemical emissions FC and cogeneration plants based on FC generate low heat emissions too. FC was invented 160 years ago but it was usually used only since 1960 in space missions. A FC farm tractor was tested 40 years ago. FC was again taken into account by power engineering since 1990 and it is now considered a credible alternative to power and heat generating. The thermal power engineers (and not only they) have two problems of cardinal importance for mankind to solve: - Energy saving (by increasing of energy generating efficiency) and - Environmental protection (by reducing chemical and heat emissions). The possibilities to use FC to generate power and heat are practically endless: on the earth, in the air and outer space, by and under water, in numberless areas of human activities. FC are now powering buses, cars, trains, boats, plains, scooters, highway road signs etc. There are already miniature FC for portable electronics. Homes, schools, hospitals, institutes, banks, police stations, etc are using FC to generate power and heat for their facilities. The methane gas produced by wastewater treatment plants and landfills is converted into electricity by using FC. Being less expensive than nuclear and solar source of energy, FC is now generally used in the space missions (in addition FC generates water). In this work an analysis of the possibilities to use FC especially for combined power and heat generating is presented. FC is favourite as energy source in space missions because it is less expensive than nuclear or solar sources. All major automobile companies have FC powered automobiles in testing stage. Mini FC for phone, laptop, and electronics are already on market. FC will be use to pagers, video recorders, small portable tools, miniature robots, special devices as hearing aid various devices, smoke detectors

  1. Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shunhua Ye; Wei Zhou; Jian Song; Baocheng Peng; Dong Yuan; Yuanming Lu; Pingping Qi [Shanghai Medical University (China). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2000-07-01

    In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP (n = 806) were much higher than those of the controls (n = 413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who

  2. Kinderen buiten beeld. De leefsituatie van ongedocumenteerde kinderen in Nederland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayke Kromhout

    2015-03-01

    . Since we did not manage to find enough children in Utrecht who would agree to an interview within the research period, we expanded the area of recruitment to the three other major cities in the Netherlands: Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague.“Only” 45 children without a permanent residence are recorded in the education files of the City of Utrecht. Our survey and calls to schools and early development centres revealed that seven undocumented children live in Utrecht. Most of the intermediaries that we approached indicated that they did not have enough time to participate in the study.The interviews resulted in the following findings. Of the 29 children, 16 were born in the Netherlands. More than half are growing up without a father. The children form part of a total of 21 families. All of these children attend school. They have a social network that they can fall back on and that supports them in practical matters but also in legal procedures. Most of the children aspire to a future in the Netherlands. A large number of the children indicate that they lack basic needs such as school supplies, toys, (sports clothing or a bike. Of the 21 families to which the children belong, seven are completely dependent on donations. The children also say they suffer from the many relocations that they have gone through and their cramped housing conditions. Furthermore, the children indicate that there are many things they cannot do, such as work, obtain a scooter or driving license, visit places where they will need to show identification, or travel abroad.Determining the actual number of undocumented children in the Netherlands and Utrecht turned out to be quite challenging. The scientific literature, municipal database and the intermediaries who were approached did not provide conclusive information about the group. It was not possible to establish an exact number for the City of Utrecht based on the numbers that we found.The children who were interviewed reported problems that