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Sample records for sclerosis normal appearing

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlations between disability and spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foronda Jesus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What currently appears to be irreversible axonal loss in normal appearing white matter, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is of great interest in the study of Multiple Sclerosis. Our aim is to determine the axonal damage in normal appearing white matter measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to correlate this with the functional disability measured by Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scale, Neurological Rating Scale, Ambulation Index scale, and Expanded Disability Scale Score. Methods Thirty one patients (9 male and 22 female with relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis and a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale Score of 0–5.5 were recruited from four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain and included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans and neurological disability assessments were performed the same day. Results A statistically significant correlation was found (r = -0.38 p Conclusions There is correlation between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score and the NAA/Cr ratio in normal appearing white matter. The lack of correlation between the NAA/Cr ratio and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score indicates that the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite is not able to measure irreversible disability and would be more useful as a marker in stages where axonal damage is not a predominant factor.

  2. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Normal Appearing White Matter in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Krakauer, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to characterize location and extent of BBB disruptions in focal MS lesions. We employed quantitative T1 measurements before...

  3. Association between change in normal appearing white matter metabolites and intrathecal inflammation in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Mellergård

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS is associated not only with focal inflammatory lesions but also diffuse pathology in the central nervous system (CNS. Since there is no firm association between the amount of focal inflammatory lesions and disease severity, diffuse pathology in normal appearing white matter (NAWM may be crucial for disease progression. Immunomodulating treatments for MS reduce the number of focal lesions, but possible effects on diffuse white matter pathology are less studied. Furthermore, it is not known whether intrathecal levels of inflammatory or neurodegenerative markers are associated with development of pathology in NAWM. METHODS: Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS was used to investigate NAWM in 27 patients with relapsing MS before and after one year of treatment with natalizumab as well as NAWM in 20 healthy controls at baseline. Changes in (1H-MRS metabolite concentrations during treatment were also correlated with a panel of intrathecal markers of inflammation and neurodegeneration in 24 of these 27 patients. RESULTS: The group levels of (1H-MRS metabolite concentrations were unchanged pre- to posttreatment, but a pattern of high magnitude correlation coefficients (r = 0.43-0.67, p<0.0005-0.03 were found between changes in individual metabolite concentrations (total creatine and total choline and levels of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-1β and CXCL8. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a clinical improvement and a global decrease in levels of inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid during treatment, high levels of pro-inflammatory CXCL8 and IL-1β were associated with an increase in (1H-MRS metabolites indicative of continued gliosis development and membrane turnover in NAWM.

  4. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  5. [Total brain T2-hyperintense lesion-volume and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem in early lapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Lozano, A M; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Boscá-Blasco, I; Valero-Merino, C; Coret-Ferrer, F; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Martínez-Granados, B; Celda, B; Casanova-Estruch, B

    To evaluate the relationship between the total brain T2-hyperintense lesion volume (TBT2LV) and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem measured by 1H-MRS in a group of early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. 40 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively studied for two years. T2-weighted MR and 1H-MRS imaging were acquired at time of recruitment and at year two. The TBT2LV was calculated with a semiautomatic program; N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) resonances areas were integrated with jMRUI program and the ratios were calculated for four volume elements that represented the brainstem. At basal study we obtained an axonal loss (as a decrement of NAA/ Cho ratio) in the group of patients compared with controls (p = 0.017); this axonal loss increased at the second year of the follow-up for patients (NAA/Cho decrease, p = 0.004, and NAA/Cr decrease, p = 0.002) meanwhile control subjects had no significant metabolic changes. Higher lesion load was correlated with a poor clinical outcome, being the correlation between the basal TBT2LV and the Expanded Disability Status Scale at second year (r = 0.299; p = 0.05). Besides, axonal loss was not homogeneous for all multiple sclerosis patients, being stronger in the subgroup of patients with high basal TBT2LV (p = 0.043; ANOVA). Our data suggest that axonal damage is early in multiple sclerosis and higher in patients high basal TBT2LV, suggesting a possible relationship between these two phenomena.

  6. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging may show abnormalities in the normal-appearing cervical spinal cord from patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Miraldi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to evaluate “in vivo” the integrity of the normal-appearing spinal cord (NASC in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS compared to controls, using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Methods We studied 32 patients with MS and 17 without any neurologic disorder. Fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD and mean diffusivity (MD were calculated within regions of interest at C2 and C7 levels in the four columns of the spinal cord. Results At C2, FA value was decreased in MS patients. Besides, RD value was higher in MS than in controls. At C7, MD values were increased in MS. Conclusion The NASC in the right column of the cervical spinal cord showed abnormal FA, RD and MD values, which is possibly related to demyelination, since the FA abnormality was related to the RD and not to the AD.

  7. Analysis of normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis by tensor-based two-compartment model of water diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Obata, Takayuki; Yoshida, Mariko; Hori, Masaaki; Kamagata, Koji; Suzuki, Michimasa; Fukunaga, Issei; Kamiya, Kouhei; Aoki, Shigeki; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka; Inoue, Tomio

    2015-01-01

    To compare the significance of the two-compartment model, considering diffusional anisotropy with conventional diffusion analyzing methods regarding the detection of occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion-weighted images (nine b-values with six directions) were acquired from 12 healthy female volunteers (22-52 years old, median 33 years) and 13 female MS patients (24-48 years old, median 37 years). Diffusion parameters based on the two-compartment model of water diffusion considering diffusional anisotropy was calculated by a proposed method. Other parameters including diffusion tensor imaging and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were also obtained. They were compared statistically between the control and MS groups. Diffusion of the slow diffusion compartment in the radial direction of neuron fibers was elevated in MS patients (0.121 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) in comparison to control (0.100 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s), the difference being significant (P = 0.001). The difference between the groups was not significant in other comparisons, including conventional ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed method was applicable to clinically acceptable small data. The parameters obtained by this method improved the detectability of occult changes in NAWM compared to the conventional methods. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis by tensor-based two-compartment model of water diffusion

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    Tachibana, Yasuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Obata, Takayuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yoshida, Mariko; Hori, Masaaki; Kamagata, Koji; Suzuki, Michimasa; Fukunaga, Issei; Kamiya, Kouhei; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    To compare the significance of the two-compartment model, considering diffusional anisotropy with conventional diffusion analyzing methods regarding the detection of occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion-weighted images (nine b-values with six directions) were acquired from 12 healthy female volunteers (22-52 years old, median 33 years) and 13 female MS patients (24-48 years old, median 37 years). Diffusion parameters based on the two-compartment model of water diffusion considering diffusional anisotropy was calculated by a proposed method. Other parameters including diffusion tensor imaging and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were also obtained. They were compared statistically between the control and MS groups. Diffusion of the slow diffusion compartment in the radial direction of neuron fibers was elevated in MS patients (0.121 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) in comparison to control (0.100 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), the difference being significant (P = 0.001). The difference between the groups was not significant in other comparisons, including conventional ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed method was applicable to clinically acceptable small data. The parameters obtained by this method improved the detectability of occult changes in NAWM compared to the conventional methods. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of normal-appearing white matter in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulrajah, Sahayini; Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Jordan, Lori; Khaykin, Elizabeth; Izbudak, Izlem

    2009-01-01

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) frequently present with neurocognitive deficits which may be related to impaired white matter maturation. The purposes of our study were (a) to evaluate the white matter maturation in children and young adults with TSC by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) with age-matched healthy controls and (b) to determine the association of NAWM-ADC values with the severity of neurological symptoms in TSC patients. Twenty-three TSC patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging between January 2000 and January 2009 were studied. ADC values of NAWM were measured in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and in the pons. ADC data were compared with age-matched normative data derived from healthy controls. Patients were neurologically scored by a pediatric neurologist. Two-sample t tests and linear regression were conducted using STATA software. ADC values of NAWM were higher in TSC patients compared with healthy controls; the increase, however, only reached statistical significance in the frontal white matter and pons in the age group between 96 and 144 months and in the right parietal and occipital white matter in the age group above 144 months. There was no significant change in neurological severity score per unit increase in ADC measurement. ADC values of NAWM appear increased in TSC patients. The abnormal ADC values suggest that myelination may be delayed/impaired in TSC patients, which could explain global neurocognitive deficits. Larger prospective studies, including diffusion tensor imaging, are necessary to validate our results. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of normal-appearing white matter in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulrajah, Sahayini; Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jordan, Lori [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Khaykin, Elizabeth [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Mental Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Izbudak, Izlem [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) frequently present with neurocognitive deficits which may be related to impaired white matter maturation. The purposes of our study were (a) to evaluate the white matter maturation in children and young adults with TSC by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) with age-matched healthy controls and (b) to determine the association of NAWM-ADC values with the severity of neurological symptoms in TSC patients. Twenty-three TSC patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging between January 2000 and January 2009 were studied. ADC values of NAWM were measured in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and in the pons. ADC data were compared with age-matched normative data derived from healthy controls. Patients were neurologically scored by a pediatric neurologist. Two-sample t tests and linear regression were conducted using STATA software. ADC values of NAWM were higher in TSC patients compared with healthy controls; the increase, however, only reached statistical significance in the frontal white matter and pons in the age group between 96 and 144 months and in the right parietal and occipital white matter in the age group above 144 months. There was no significant change in neurological severity score per unit increase in ADC measurement. ADC values of NAWM appear increased in TSC patients. The abnormal ADC values suggest that myelination may be delayed/impaired in TSC patients, which could explain global neurocognitive deficits. Larger prospective studies, including diffusion tensor imaging, are necessary to validate our results. (orig.)

  11. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

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    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  12. MR imaging appearance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvlin, M.J.; Fielding, R.; Rajan, S.S.; Muraki, A.; Manz, G.; Schellinger, D.; Hackney, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have investigated fresh (normal) and fixed (histologically proven amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS]) cord specimens using high-resolution MR techniques in order to document, accurately and noninvasively, the internal structure of the spinal cord. Short TR/TE (500/27 [repetition time/echo time, msec]) and long TR/TE (2,00/54) spin-echo images were obtained in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes at 4.7 T (Varian), with inplane resolution of either 85 x 150 or 40 x 50 μm, section thickness of 0.8-1.5 mm. In the ALS cords, the bilateral degeneration of corticospinal tracts was well visualized as areas of high signal intensity on both short TR/TE and long TR/TE images

  13. Endometrial ablation: normal appearance and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drylewicz, Monica R; Robinson, Kathryn; Siegel, Cary Lynn

    2018-03-14

    Global endometrial ablation is a commonly performed, minimally invasive technique aimed at improving/resolving abnormal uterine bleeding and menorrhagia in women. As non-resectoscopic techniques have come into existence, endometrial ablation performance continues to increase due to accessibility and decreased requirements for operating room time and advanced technical training. The increased utilization of this method translates into increased imaging of patients who have undergone the procedure. An understanding of the expected imaging appearances of endometrial ablation using different modalities is important for the abdominal radiologist. In addition, the frequent usage of the technique naturally comes with complications requiring appropriate imaging work-up. We review the expected appearance of the post-endometrial ablated uterus on multiple imaging modalities and demonstrate the more common and rare complications seen in the immediate post-procedural time period and remotely.

  14. The thoracic paraspinal shadow: normal appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, H H; Kolbenstvedt, A

    1982-01-01

    The width of the right and left thoracic paraspinal shadows were measured at all levels in 200 presumably normal individuals. The paraspinal shadow could be identified in nearly all cases on the left side and in approximately one-third on the right. The range of variation was greater on the left side than one the right. The left paraspinal shadow was wider at the upper levels and in individuals above 40 years of age.

  15. Spinal cord normalization in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jiwon; Seigo, Michaela; Saidha, Shiv; Sotirchos, Elias; Zackowski, Kathy; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry; Diener-West, Marie; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord (SC) pathology is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and measures of SC-atrophy are increasingly utilized. Normalization reduces biological variation of structural measurements unrelated to disease, but optimal parameters for SC volume (SCV)-normalization remain unclear. Using a variety of normalization factors and clinical measures, we assessed the effect of SCV normalization on detecting group differences and clarifying clinical-radiological correlations in MS. 3T cervical SC-MRI was performed in 133 MS cases and 11 healthy controls (HC). Clinical assessment included expanded disability status scale (EDSS), MS functional composite (MSFC), quantitative hip-flexion strength ("strength"), and vibration sensation threshold ("vibration"). SCV between C3 and C4 was measured and normalized individually by subject height, SC-length, and intracranial volume (ICV). There were group differences in raw-SCV and after normalization by height and length (MS vs. HC; progressive vs. relapsing MS-subtypes, P normalization by length (EDSS:r = -.43; MSFC:r = .33; strength:r = .38; vibration:r = -.40), and height (EDSS:r = -.26; MSFC:r = .28; strength:r = .22; vibration:r = -.29), but diminished with normalization by ICV (EDSS:r = -.23; MSFC:r = -.10; strength:r = .23; vibration:r = -.35). In relapsing MS, normalization by length allowed statistical detection of correlations that were not apparent with raw-SCV. SCV-normalization by length improves the ability to detect group differences, strengthens clinical-radiological correlations, and is particularly relevant in settings of subtle disease-related SC-atrophy in MS. SCV-normalization by length may enhance the clinical utility of measures of SC-atrophy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Systemic sclerosis with normal or nonspecific nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichel, Fanny; Baudot, Nathalie; Gaitz, Jean-Pierre; Trad, Salim; Barbe, Coralie; Francès, Camille; Senet, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In systemic sclerosis (SSc), a specific nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) pattern is observed in 90% of cases and seems to be associated with severity and progression of the disease. To describe the characteristics of SSc patients with normal or nonspecific (normal/nonspecific) NVC. In a retrospective cohort study, clinical features and visceral involvements of 25 SSc cases with normal/nonspecific NVC were compared to 63 SSc controls with the SSc-specific NVC pattern. Normal/nonspecific NVC versus SSc-specific NVC pattern was significantly associated with absence of skin sclerosis (32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.004), absence of telangiectasia (47.8 vs. 17.3%, p = 0.006) and absence of sclerodactyly (60 vs. 25.4%, p = 0.002), and less frequent severe pulmonary involvement (26.3 vs. 58.2%, p = 0.017). Normal/nonspecific NVC in SSc patients appears to be associated with less severe skin involvement and less frequent severe pulmonary involvement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland

  18. Synthetic ossicular replacements: Normal and abnormal CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.D.; Zwillenberg, S.; Berger, A.S.; Granoff, D.W.; Popky, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous synthetic ossicular replacements are currently in use. The TORP conducts sound from the newly formed tympanic membrane to the oval window; the PORP is used when the stapes superstructure is maintained, being interposed between the tympanic membrane and the stapes capitulum. In 12 patients the surgical results of ossicular replacement procedures were good, which gave the author the opportunity to study the normal CT appearance. In an additional 10 patients CT was performed before surgical revision. Using CT, they have been able to diagnose subluxation and fibrous tissue fixation. In two patients the CT appearance was unremarkable, but at surgery lateralization of the graft was found, with a nonfunctioning interface

  19. CT appearance of the normal appendix in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburrini, Stefania; Brunetti, Arturo; Brown, Michele; Sirlin, Claude B.; Casola, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the normal range of the appendix on computed tomography (CT), (2) the correlation of patient age and sex with the visibility and appearance of the appendix on CT, and (3) the normal variations in wall thickness, intraluminal content, and location of the appendix. Three hundred seventy-two outpatients underwent abdominopelvic CT. The scans were reviewed on the picture archiving and communication system and appendiceal outer-to-outer wall diameter, wall thickness, location, content and its correlation with appendix diameter were analyzed. The appendix was visualized in 305/372 patients. Its location relative to the cecum was highly variable. The diameter range was 3-10 mm; in 42% of cases the diameter was greater than 6 mm. When the intraluminal content (185/305) was visualized, the diameter was slightly superior to the mean (p=0.0156). In 329 CT scans in which oral contrast material was given, the appendix was filled by contrast material in 74/329 patients. The appendix wall thickness was measurable in 22/305 patients (average 0.15 cm). There is significant overlap between the normal and abnormal CT appearance of the appendix. Consequently the diagnosis of acute appendicitis should be based not only on the appearance of the appendix but also on the presence of secondary signs. (orig.)

  20. Normal perinatal and paediatric postmortem magnetic resonance imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Barber, Joy L. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Department of Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    As postmortem imaging becomes more widely used following perinatal and paediatric deaths, the correct interpretation of images becomes imperative, particularly given the increased use of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging. Many pathological processes may have similar appearances in life and following death. A thorough knowledge of normal postmortem changes is therefore required within postmortem magnetic resonance imaging to ensure that these are not mistakenly interpreted as significant pathology. Similarly, some changes that are interpreted as pathological if they occur during life may be artefacts on postmortem magnetic resonance imaging that are of limited significance. This review serves to illustrate briefly those postmortem magnetic resonance imaging changes as part of the normal changes after death in fetuses and children, and highlight imaging findings that may confuse or mislead an observer to identifying pathology where none is present. (orig.)

  1. Ultrasonography of the equine shoulder: technique and normal appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tnibar, M A; Auer, J A; Bakkali, S

    1999-01-01

    This study was intended to document normal ultrasonographic appearance of the equine shoulder and anatomic landmarks useful in clinical imaging. Both forelimbs of five equine cadavers and both forelimbs of six live adult horses were used. To facilitate understanding of the images, a zoning system assigned to the biceps brachii and to the infraspinatus tendon was developed. Ultrasonography was performed with a real-time B-mode semiportable sector scanner using 7.5- and 5-MHz transducers. On one cadaver limb, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a system at 1.5 Tesla, T1-weighted spin-echo sequence. Ultrasonography images were compared to frozen specimens and MRI images to correlate the ultrasonographic findings to the gross anatomy of the shoulder. Ultrasonography allowed easy evaluation of the biceps brachii and the infraspinatus tendon and their bursae, the supraspinatus muscle and tendons, the superficial muscles of the shoulder, and the underlying humerus and scapula. Only the lateral and, partially, the caudal aspects of the humeral head could be visualized with ultrasound. Ultrasonographic appearance, orientation, and anatomic relationships of these structures are described. Ultrasonographic findings correlated well with MRI images and with gross anatomy in the cadavers' limbs.

  2. A subtraction pipeline for automatic detection of new appearing multiple sclerosis lesions in longitudinal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Diez, Yago; Freixenet, Jordi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, VICOROB Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Beltran, Brigitte [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Time-series analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is of great value for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and follow-up. In this paper, we present an unsupervised subtraction approach which incorporates multisequence information to deal with the detection of new MS lesions in longitudinal studies. The proposed pipeline for detecting new lesions consists of the following steps: skull stripping, bias field correction, histogram matching, registration, white matter masking, image subtraction, automated thresholding, and postprocessing. We also combine the results of PD-w and T2-w images to reduce false positive detections. Experimental tests are performed in 20 MS patients with two temporal studies separated 12 (12M) or 48 (48M) months in time. The pipeline achieves very good performance obtaining an overall sensitivity of 0.83 and 0.77 with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.14 and 0.18 for the 12M and 48M datasets, respectively. The most difficult situation for the pipeline is the detection of very small lesions where the obtained sensitivity is lower and the FDR higher. Our fully automated approach is robust and accurate, allowing detection of new appearing MS lesions. We believe that the pipeline can be applied to large collections of images and also be easily adapted to monitor other brain pathologies. (orig.)

  3. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  4. Differential diagnoses of the appearance of multiple sclerosis on MR tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, W.; Mariss, G.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the advantage of high sensitivity compared to other diagnostic imaging techniques in focal pathological lesions of the brain in multiple sclerosis patients. However, the specificity of this examination method is limited. Diseases of the central nervous system due to other, different causes could produce a similar magnetic resonance image. Clinically examined cases of malignant and toxic affections of the brain caused by inflammatory, degenerative, traumatic and vascular diseases are presented and compared with the changes occurring in multiple sclerosis. (orig.) [de

  5. 'Normal' and 'failing' mothers: Women's constructions of maternal subjectivity while living with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Chloe; Katz, Terri; Ussher, Jane M

    2017-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis causes physical and cognitive impairment that can impact women's experiences of motherhood. This study examined how women construct their maternal subjectivities, or sense of self as a mother, drawing on a framework of biographical disruption. A total of 20 mothers with a multiple sclerosis diagnosis took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcripts were analysed using thematic decomposition to identify subject positions that women adopted in relation to cultural discourses of gender, motherhood and illness. Three main subject positions were identified: 'The Failing Mother', 'Fear of Judgement and Burdening Others' and 'The Normal Mother'. Women's sense of self as the 'Failing Mother' was attributed to the impact of multiple sclerosis, contributing to biographical disruption and reinforced through 'Fear of Judgement and Burdening Others' within social interactions. In accounts of the 'Normal Mother', maternal subjectivity was renegotiated by adopting strategies to manage the limitations of multiple sclerosis on mothering practice. This allowed women to self-position as 'good' mothers. Health professionals can assist women by acknowledging the embodied impact of multiple sclerosis on maternal subjectivities, coping strategies that women employ to address potential biographical disruption, and the cultural context of mothering, which contributes to women's experience of subjectivity and well-being when living with multiple sclerosis.

  6. The Assessment of Structural Changes in MS Plaques and Normal Appearing White Matter Using Quantitative Magnetization Transfer Imaging (MTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Fooladi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS, affecting mostly young people at a mean age of 30 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most specific and sensitive methods in diagnosing and detecting the evolution of multiple sclerosis disease. But it does not have the ability to differentiate between distinct histopathological heterogeneities that occur in MS lesions and brain tissue.Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI is a relatively new MRI technique which can be used to examine the pathological processes of the brain parenchyma which occur in MS patients.This quantitative MRI technique can provide more complete information about the extent and nature of the brain tissue destruction in multiple sclerosis, which cannot be detected by conventional MRI. Material and Methods: In this study, twelve patients with relapsing-remitting MS and twelve healthy control subjects underwent conventional MR imaging including: T2-FSE, T1-SE and FLAIR sequences as well as quantitative magnetization transfer imaging. All the focal lesions were identified on T2-weighted images and were classified according to their signal hypointensity on T1-weighted scans. The white matter and MS lesions were segmented using a semi-automated system. MT ratio (MTR histogram analysis was performed for the brain white matter and the average MTR value was calculated for the classified MS lesions. Results: A significant reduction was found in MTR value of the normal appearing white matter (NAWM in patients with relapsing-remitting MS, suggesting that MS is a more diffuse disease, affecting the whole brain tissue. A wide range changes in MTR values can be observed in MS lesions. MTR reduction is correlated with the degree of lesion hypointensity on T1-weighted scans. The lower MTR values of lesions that appear progressively more hypointense on T1-weigted images reflect varying degrees of demyelination and

  7. Cerebral blood flow and red cell delivery in normal subjects and in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swank, R.L.; Roth, J.G.; Woody, D.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined in 77 normal females and 53 normal males of different ages and in 26 men and 45 women with multiple sclerosis by the inhalation of radioactive Xe133 method. In the normal subjects the CBF was relatively high in the teens and fell, at first rapidly and then slowly in both sexes with age. During adult life the flow in females was significantly higher than in males. The delivery of packed red cells (RCD) was determined by multiplying the CBF by the percentage concentration of red cells (HCT). The RCD for both sexes was nearly the same. In the patients with multiple sclerosis there occurred a progressive generalized decrease in CBF and in RCD with age which was significantly greater than observed in normal subjects. The rate of decrease in CBF and RCD correlated directly with the rate of progress of the disease

  8. Mural Thrombus in the Normal-Appearing Descending Thoracic Aorta of a Chronic Smoker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Habib; Hsu, Judy; Winchell, Patricia Jo; Daoko, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Thrombus formation in an atherosclerotic or aneurysmal descending thoracic aorta is a well-described, frequently encountered vascular condition. In comparison, thrombus formation in a normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta is reported far less often. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman who had splenic and renal infarctions secondary to embolic showers from a large, mobile thrombus in a morphologically normal proximal descending thoracic aorta. After the patient underwent anticoagulation, stent-grafting, and surgical bypass to correct an arterial blockage caused by the stent-graft, she resumed a relatively normal life. In contrast with other cases of a thrombotic but normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta, this patient had no known malignancy or systemic coagulative disorders; her sole risk factor was chronic smoking. We discuss our patient's case and review the relevant medical literature, focusing on the effect of smoking on coagulation physiology. PMID:24391341

  9. Signal Normalization Reduces Image Appearance Disparity Among Multiple Optical Coherence Tomography Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S

    2017-02-01

    To assess the effect of the previously reported optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal normalization method on reducing the discrepancies in image appearance among spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) devices. Healthy eyes and eyes with various retinal pathologies were scanned at the macular region using similar volumetric scan patterns with at least two out of three SD-OCT devices at the same visit (Cirrus HD-OCT, Zeiss, Dublin, CA; RTVue, Optovue, Fremont, CA; and Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). All the images were processed with the signal normalization. A set of images formed a questionnaire with 24 pairs of cross-sectional images from each eye with any combination of the three SD-OCT devices either both pre- or postsignal normalization. Observers were asked to evaluate the similarity of the two displayed images based on the image appearance. The effects on reducing the differences in image appearance before and after processing were analyzed. Twenty-nine researchers familiar with OCT images participated in the survey. Image similarity was significantly improved after signal normalization for all three combinations ( P ≤ 0.009) as Cirrus and RTVue combination became the most similar pair, followed by Cirrus and Spectralis, and RTVue and Spectralis. The signal normalization successfully minimized the disparities in the image appearance among multiple SD-OCT devices, allowing clinical interpretation and comparison of OCT images regardless of the device differences. The signal normalization would enable direct OCT images comparisons without concerning about device differences and broaden OCT usage by enabling long-term follow-ups and data sharing.

  10. Early or late appearance of "dropped head syndrome" in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourie-Devi, M; Nalini, A; Sandhya, S

    2003-05-01

    "Dropped head syndrome" caused by neck extensor weakness has been reported in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Previously published reports include isolated cases with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this report, nine patients with ALS and dropped head syndrome seen during a 20 year period are described. PATIENTS AND INVESTIGATIONS: Between 1981 and 2000, 683 patients with ALS were diagnosed, based on El Escorial criteria. Nine of these had profound neck extensor weakness observed as an early feature, or developing during the later stages of the disease. The protocol for evaluation included detailed clinical history, neurological examination, electromyography, and nerve conduction studies. Investigations were undertaken to exclude malignancy, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid dysfunction, and collagen vascular disease. The incidence of dropped head syndrome was 1.3%. The mean (SD) age of the affected patients was 53.3 (10.3) years (range 33 to 65), with an equal distribution of cases in the fourth to seventh decades. In six patients, head drop was an early feature (mean interval from onset of illness 11.6 months (range 3 to 24)); in three it was late (between three and eight years after onset). In five patients, mild neck flexor weakness was present in addition to severe extensor weakness. In all nine patients there were diffuse upper and lower motor neurone signs. None of the patients had difficulty in breathing but all had difficulty in swallowing and social embarrassment, both of which could be corrected by simple measures. Dropped head syndrome is an important clinical sign and usually occurs as an early feature within the first one to two years after the onset of ALS. The cause of dropped head syndrome in these nine cases could be easily established as ALS by the presence of generalised signs.

  11. Appearance of normal brain maturation on 1.5-T MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkovich, A.J.; Kjos, B.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of normal white-matter maturation as demonstrated by high-field-strength MR imaging, 82 normal infants were examined using a 1.5-T unit with spin-echo T1-weighted and T2-weighted pulse sequences. The infants ranged in age from 4 days to 2 years. The scans were assessed for qualitative changes of white matter relative to gray matter and correlated with the patient's age in 14 anatomic areas of the brain. The MR images showed that changes of brain maturation occur in an orderly manner, commencing in the brain stem and progressing to the cerebellum and the cerebrum. Changes from brain myelination were seen earlier on T1-weighted images than on T2-weighted images, possibly because of T1 shortening by the components of the developing myelin sheaths. The later changes on the T2-weighted images correlated best with the development of myelination, as demonstrated by histochemical methods. T1-weighted images were most useful to monitor normal brain development in the first 6 to 8 months of life; T2-weighted images were more useful after 6 months. The milestones in the MR appearance of normal maturation of the brain are presented. The milestones in the MR appearance of normal maturation of the brain are presented. Persistent areas of long T2 relaxation times are seen superior and dorsal to the ventricular trigone in all infants examined and should not be mistaken for ischemic change

  12. Anticlockwise swirl of mesenteric vessels: A normal CT appearance, retrospective analysis of 200 pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S., E-mail: sodhiks@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Bhatia, Anmol, E-mail: anmol_bhatia26@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Saxena, Akshay K., E-mail: fatakshay@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Rao, Katragadda L.N., E-mail: klnrao@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Menon, Prema, E-mail: menonprema@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: khandelwaln@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: The counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA is a normal and non-specific finding, which results in an incomplete swirl formation on CT scans. However, it has a potential to be misinterpreted as ‘midgut volvulus’ resulting in serious clinical implications. The study was done to determine the frequency and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA on CT in normal otherwise asymptomatic pediatric patients undergoing CT scan. Methods: In this IRB approved study, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT scan examinations of 200 consecutive pediatric patients (age range of 11 days to 18 years), which were performed for different clinical indications over a period of 10 months. They were evaluated for the absence or presence and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the mesenteric vessels. Results: Of the 200 patients, 128 (64%) patients showed no clockwise or anticlockwise rotation of mesenteric vessels. Counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA was seen in 72 (36%) patients. Further, the degree of rotation of vessels was also calculated, based on the criteria proposed by the authors. Conclusions: The counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA gives an appearance of mesenteric whirlpool in otherwise normal mesenteric vessels and can be misinterpreted as midgut volvulus. It is a normal CT appearance and is due to a variation in branching pattern of mesenteric vessels. Awareness of this normal branching pattern of mesenteric vessels is important to avoid an inadvertent laparotomy.

  13. Anticlockwise swirl of mesenteric vessels: A normal CT appearance, retrospective analysis of 200 pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Bhatia, Anmol; Saxena, Akshay K.; Rao, Katragadda L.N.; Menon, Prema; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA is a normal and non-specific finding, which results in an incomplete swirl formation on CT scans. However, it has a potential to be misinterpreted as ‘midgut volvulus’ resulting in serious clinical implications. The study was done to determine the frequency and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA on CT in normal otherwise asymptomatic pediatric patients undergoing CT scan. Methods: In this IRB approved study, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT scan examinations of 200 consecutive pediatric patients (age range of 11 days to 18 years), which were performed for different clinical indications over a period of 10 months. They were evaluated for the absence or presence and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the mesenteric vessels. Results: Of the 200 patients, 128 (64%) patients showed no clockwise or anticlockwise rotation of mesenteric vessels. Counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA was seen in 72 (36%) patients. Further, the degree of rotation of vessels was also calculated, based on the criteria proposed by the authors. Conclusions: The counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA gives an appearance of mesenteric whirlpool in otherwise normal mesenteric vessels and can be misinterpreted as midgut volvulus. It is a normal CT appearance and is due to a variation in branching pattern of mesenteric vessels. Awareness of this normal branching pattern of mesenteric vessels is important to avoid an inadvertent laparotomy

  14. Imaging of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction: normal postsurgical appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala-Galiano, Andrea; Baeva, Maria; Jose Argueeso, Maria [Hospital ASEPEYO Coslada, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Ismael, Maryem [Hospital ASEPEYO Coslada, Department of Traumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    This article reviews the normal postsurgical anatomy and appearance of PCL reconstructions on MDCT and MRI with the different operative techniques considering the type of tibial fixation, use of a single or double bundle, type of tendon graft and the fixation material. Tunnel positioning, appearance of the ligament graft and findings at the donor site are considered. Imaging signs of PCL graft failure and its possible causes are discussed. Imaging manifestations of other potential complications of both the PCL graft and donor sites are described, such as laxity, impingement, arthrofibrosis, ganglion cyst formation or complications related to the fixation material. (orig.)

  15. Radiographic appearance of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and small children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic anatomy of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and children up to 4 years of age was investigated, partly on specimens, obtained at autopsy, with methods corresponding to clinical procedures, and partly on patients. A rather flat mandibular fossa and immature mandibular head were found at birth, whereas a well-developed articular tubercle and an adult-like radiographic appearance of the joint were found at about one year of age. No evident changes of the radiographic anatomy seemed to occur from one to 4 years of age. A striking similarity was observed between the dystrophic temporomandibular joint in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and micrognathia and the normal radiographic appearance in the first months of life, indicating an early involvement of this joint in patients developing micrognathia. (Auth.)

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayabas, Uner [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)], E-mail: ukayabas@inonu.edu.tr; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Department of Radiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis.

  17. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayabas, Uner; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis

  18. Foetal radiography for suspected skeletal dysplasia: technique, normal appearances, diagnostic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calder, Alistair D. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Offiah, Amaka C. [Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Despite advances in antenatal imaging and genetic techniques, post-delivery post-mortem foetal radiography remains the key investigation in accurate diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia manifesting in the foetus. Foetal radiography is best performed using pathology-specimen radiography equipment and is often carried out in the pathology department without involvement of the radiology unit. However, paediatric radiologists may be asked to interpret post-mortem foetal radiographs when an abnormality is suspected. Many foetal radiographs are carried out before 20 weeks' gestation, and the interpreting radiologist needs to be familiar with the range of normal post-mortem foetal appearances at different gestational ages, as well as the appearances of some of the more commonly presenting skeletal dysplasias, and will benefit from a systematic approach when assessing more challenging cases. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate various normal post-mortem foetal radiographic appearances, give examples of commonly occurring skeletal dysplasias, and describe an approach to establishing more difficult diagnoses. (orig.)

  19. Normal appearance and size of the diaphragmatic crura in children: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brengle, M.; Cohen, M.D.; Katz, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. The objectives of the study were to document the normal CT appearance and size of the crura of the diaphragm in children. Materials and methods. The CT scans of 80 children (0-15 years) were reviewed. The children were divided into eight age groups. The maximal transverse diameters of the right and left crura were measured. They were normalized by comparison with the transverse and anterior-posterior diameters of the 12th thoracic vertebra (T12) and the transverse abdominal diameter at T12. The crura were also evaluated as to whether their contour was smooth or nodular. Results. The diaphragmatic crura of smaller children appear large, relative to body size and the diameters of the T12 vertebral body, compared with those in older children. Crural width does not increase significantly with age. Additionally, the crura were found to have a greater tendency to be nodular in appearance in children under the age of 5 years than in older children. Conclusion. Diaphragmatic crura are more nodular and larger relative to body size in younger children. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Foetal radiography for suspected skeletal dysplasia: technique, normal appearances, diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, Alistair D.; Offiah, Amaka C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in antenatal imaging and genetic techniques, post-delivery post-mortem foetal radiography remains the key investigation in accurate diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia manifesting in the foetus. Foetal radiography is best performed using pathology-specimen radiography equipment and is often carried out in the pathology department without involvement of the radiology unit. However, paediatric radiologists may be asked to interpret post-mortem foetal radiographs when an abnormality is suspected. Many foetal radiographs are carried out before 20 weeks' gestation, and the interpreting radiologist needs to be familiar with the range of normal post-mortem foetal appearances at different gestational ages, as well as the appearances of some of the more commonly presenting skeletal dysplasias, and will benefit from a systematic approach when assessing more challenging cases. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate various normal post-mortem foetal radiographic appearances, give examples of commonly occurring skeletal dysplasias, and describe an approach to establishing more difficult diagnoses. (orig.)

  1. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  2. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenisch, Estelle V.; Alamo, Leonor T.; Gudinchet, Francois [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sekarski, Nicole [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hurni, Michel [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  3. Proton MR spectroscopy and MR imaging in acute and chronic multiple sclerosis - ringlike appearances in acute plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landtblom, A M [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Linkoeping Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Sjoeqvist, L [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Linkoeping Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Soederfeldt, B [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Linkoeping Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Nyland, H [Dept. of Neurology, Haukeland Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Thuomas, K Aa [Dept. of Radiology, Linkoeping Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    1995-05-01

    We wanted to compare the metabolite status of brain lesions in different clinical subtypes of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two acute MS lesions with ringlike appearances were also investigated. Twenty-three clinically stable MS patients, 2 patients with acute relapses, and 15 healthy individuals were examined by MR imaging and localized proton MRS. No metabolite differences were seen in plaques of different subtypes. Decreased NAA/Cr and NAA/choline ratios as well as increased inositol/CR ratios were observed in the plaques of the clinically stable or chronic active MS patients as compared with controls. The ring plaques had hyperintense cores with surrounding halos, separated from the cores by rings with low signal intensity in T2-weighted images. The core exhibited a prolonged T2 relaxation time. Proton spectra initially contained lactate. No differences between the metabolite status of nonacute plaques in different clinical subtypes could be detected. The ring plaques contained lactate signals indicating oedema, inflammation, and macrophage invasion, and may be transition forms between acute oedematous lesions and chronic demyelinated plaques. (orig.).

  4. Transvaginal ultrasound appearances of the ovary in normal women and hirsute women with oligomenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R

    1999-02-01

    The transvaginal ultrasound appearances of the ovary were determined in women with clinical and endocrine features of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and apparently normal women. At scan the number of small follicles were counted and ovarian volume was calculated. The maximum width of the ovarian cortex was also measured. Blood was sent for measurement of LH, FSH and testosterone. The women with oligomenorrhoea were scanned at random and the normal women were seen within the first 5 days of the start of menstruation. There were significant differences between median values for the 2 groups in terms of number of small follicles, ovarian volume and stromal width; the ovaries of the hirsute women had more follicles, were of larger volume, and had greater stromal width. The 2 ranges for number of follicles did overlap, however. Four hirsute oligomenorrhoeic women had a normal number of follicles; all 4 had the several clinical and endocrine features indicative of PCOD. These data suggest that the classical ultrasound features of PCOD are not consistently present and that the absence of increased follicularity at scan should not necessarily deter clinicians from making the functional diagnosis of PCOD.

  5. US of the Nongravid Cervix with Multimodality Imaging Correlation: Normal Appearance, Pathologic Conditions, and Diagnostic Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenberg, Joseph C; Yam, Benjamin L; Langer, Jill E; Jones, Lisa P

    2016-01-01

    The adult uterine cervix may exhibit a wide variety of pathologic conditions that include benign entities (eg, cervicitis, hyperplasia, nabothian cysts, cervical polyps, leiomyomas, endometriosis, and congenital abnormalities) as well as malignant lesions, particularly cervical carcinoma. In addition, lesions that arise in the uterine body may secondarily involve the cervix, such as endometrial carcinoma and prolapsed intracavitary masses. Many of these conditions can be identified and characterized at ultrasonography (US), which is considered the first-line imaging examination for the female pelvis. However, examination of the cervix is often cursory during pelvic US, such that cervical disease may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. Transabdominal US of the cervix may not afford sufficient spatial resolution to depict cervical disease in many patients; therefore, endovaginal US is considered the optimal technique. Use of supplemental imaging techniques, particularly the application of transducer pressure on the cervix, may be helpful. This review describes the normal appearance of the cervix at US, the appearance of cervical lesions and conditions that mimic abnormalities at US, and optimal US techniques for evaluation of the cervix. This information will help radiologists detect and diagnose cervical abnormalities more confidently at pelvic US. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  6. Observation of normal appearance and wall thickness of esophagus on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Fan; Mao Jingfang; Ding Jinquan; Yang Huanjun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to observe the appearance of normal esophagus, measure and record the thickness of esophageal wall in order to offer reference for estimating esophageal wall abnormalities and delineating gross tumor target of esophageal carcinomas on CT images. Materials and methods: From September 2006 to February 2007, 110 consecutive CT films from adult patients without esophageal diseases were collected and studied. On CT images the entire esophagus was divided into cervical, thoracic, retrocardiac and intraabdominal segments. The appearance of esophagus was described when the esophagus contracted or dilated. Thickness of esophageal wall and diameters of esophageal cavities were measured by hard-copy reading with a magnifying glass. Age, sex and the thickness of subcutaneous fat of each patient were recorded. Results: It was observed that the esophagus presented both contracted and dilated status on CT images. In each segment there were certain portions of esophagus in complete contraction or dilatation. 47 images (42.7%) showed contracted esophagus in each segment available for measurement. The largest wall thickness when esophagus was in contraction and dilatation was 4.70 (95%CI: 4.44-4.95) mm and 2.11 (95%CI: 2.00-2.23) mm, respectively. When contracting, the intraabdominal esophagus was thicker than the cervical, thoracic and retrocardiac parts, and the average thickness was 5.68 (95%CI: 5.28-6.09) mm, 4.67 (95%CI: 4.36-4.86) mm, 4.56 (95%CI: 4.31-4.87) mm, and 4.05 (95%CI: 3.71-4.21) mm, respectively. When the esophagus was dilating, the average esophageal wall thickness was between 1.87 and 2.70 mm. The thickest part was cervical esophagus. Thickness of esophageal wall was larger in males than that of females (5.26 mm vs. 4.34 mm p < 0.001). Age and the thickness of subcutaneous fat had no significant impact on the thickness of esophageal wall (p-value was 0.056 and 0.173, respectively). Conclusion: The Observation of normal appearance and

  7. Differences of optic disc appearance between normal tension and high tension glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojčić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term glaucoma is used to cover a wide range of diseases, whose main feature is optic neuropathy. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, the open angle glaucoma is arbitrarily divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of optic disc cup appearance between patients with NTG and HTG. Methods. Prospective study included 30 patients (60 eyes with NTG and 30 patients (60 eyes with HTG. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Examination of optic disc head was performed by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D superfield lens through a dilated pupil to observe qualitative and quantitative parameters. Visual fields were examined in all patients with the Octopus program G1, full threshold strategy (Octopus 500 EZ, Interzeag, Switzerland. Results. Vertical form of optic disc cup was present in 11 eyes with NTG (18.3% and three eyes with HTG (5% (p<0.05. A disc with localized tissue loss (polar notching on the inferior pole was observed in eight eyes with NTG (13.3% and in one eye with HTG (1.7% (p<0.01. Uniformly enlarged, round cup was more frequent in patients with HTG than NTG: 93.3% and 68.3% respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. The perceived differences indicate a complex multifactorial nature of glaucoma disease and a possible existence of two pathophysiological ways of optic disc changes within the same basic disease.

  8. Glioblastoma (GBM) effects on quantitative MRI of contralateral normal appearing white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Lam, Wilfred W; Myrehaug, Sten; Sahgal, Arjun; Stanisz, Greg J

    2018-03-28

    The objective was to investigate (with quantitative MRI) whether the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of glioblastoma (GBM) patients on the contralateral side (cNAWM) was different from NAWM of healthy controls. Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed GBM and nine healthy age-matched controls were MRI-scanned with quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST), and transverse relaxation time (T 2 )-mapping. MRI scans were performed after surgery and before chemo-radiation treatment. Comprehensive qMT, CEST, T 2 data were acquired. A two-pool MT model was fit to qMT data in transient state, to calculate MT model parameters [Formula: see text]. CEST signal was isolated by removing the contributions from the MT and direct water saturation, and CEST signal was calculated for Amide (CEST Amide ), Amine (CEST Amine ) and nuclear overhauser effect, NOE (CEST NOE ). There was no difference between GBM patients and normal controls in the qMT properties of the macromolecular pool [Formula: see text]. However, their free water pool spectrum was different (1/R a T 2a , patient  = 28.1 ± 3.9, 1/R a T 2a , control  = 25.0 ± 1.1, p = 0.03). This difference could be attributed to the difference in their T 2 time ([Formula: see text] = 83 ± 4, [Formula: see text] = 88 ± 1, p = 0.004). CEST signals were statistically significantly different with the CEST Amide having the largest difference between the two cohorts (CEST Amide,patient  = 2.8 ± 0.4, CEST Amide,control  = 3.4 ± 0.5, p = 0.009). CEST in cNAWM of GBM patients was lower than healthy controls which could be caused by modified brain metabolism due to tumor cell infiltration. There was no difference in MT properties of the patients and controls, however, the differences in free water pool properties were mainly due to reduced T 2 in cNAWM of the patients (resulting from structural changes and increased cellularity).

  9. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Appearance of Tissue Transglutaminase in Astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions: A Role in Cell Adhesion and Migration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, M.; Drukarch, B.; Bol, J.G.J.M.; van der Valk, P.; van Horssen, J.; Gerritsen, W.H.; Breve, J.J.P.; van Dam, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease mainly affecting young adults. A major pathological hallmark of MS is the presence of demyelinated lesions in the central nervous system. In the active phase of the disease, astrocytes become activated, migrate and contribute to local tissue

  11. The Comparison Study of Contralateral Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE Suppression in Normal Hearing Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Mohamadkhani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: A common auditory complaint of multiple sclerosis patients, is misunderstanding speech in the presence of background noise. Evidence from animal and human studies has suggested that the medial olivocochlear bundle may play an important role in hearing noise. The medial olivocochlear bundle function can be evaluated by the suppression effect of transient otoacoustic emission in response to contralateral acoustic stimulation. The present study was conducted to investigate the suppression effect of transient otoacoustic emission in multiple sclerosis patients. Materials & Methods: This analytical case-control study was conducted on 34 multiple sclerosis patients (24 female, 10 male, aged 20-50 years and 34 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2006. All cases were selected in simple random manner. The suppression effect of transient otoacoustic emission was evaluated by comparing the transient otoacoustic emission levels with and without contralateral acoustic stimulation. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and independent T- test. Results:There was no significant difference in transient otoacoustic emission levels of two groups, but a significantly reduced suppression effect of transient otoacoustic emission was found in multiple sclerosis patients, in compare with the controls. Conclusion: Outer hair cells activity in multiple sclerosis patients was normal but these patients presented low activity of the medial olivocochlear bundle system which could affect their ability to hear in the presence of background noise.

  12. Characteristic sonographic appearance of normal appendix in children: inner hypoechoic band without folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Noh Hyuck; Song, Soon Young; Lee, En Ja; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sup; Oh, Hwa En [College of Medicine, Kwandong Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Geun Seok [College of Medicine, Dongkook Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    To identify the characteristic ultrasonographic findings of the normal appendix in children in order to detect it more easily and so to exclude acute appendicitis from a diagnosis with more confidence. Among 64 patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain, 44 patients, excluding 15 patients diagnosed as acute appendicitis and 5 patients with non-visualization of the appendix due to severe ileus and obesity, were evaluated for the point of incidence, the thickness and the presence of folding of the inner hypoechoic band of the normal appendix. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 15 years with a mean age of 6.5 years. Two patients were operated on and we correlated the preoperative ultrasonographic findings with the histologic findings. In all the cases of the 44 patients with normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band was discovered, which was seen as a linear structure without folding along the whole length of appendix. This measured as 0.75 mm (0.3-1.5 mm) for the mean thickness. The inner hypoechoic band corresponded to the mucosal layer that had abundant lymphoid tissue on the histologic examination. For the pediatric normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band without folding is present, and this corresponds to the mucosal layer with abundant lymphoid tissue.

  13. Characteristic sonographic appearance of normal appendix in children: inner hypoechoic band without folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Noh Hyuck; Song, Soon Young; Lee, En Ja; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sup; Oh, Hwa En; Yang, Geun Seok

    2004-01-01

    To identify the characteristic ultrasonographic findings of the normal appendix in children in order to detect it more easily and so to exclude acute appendicitis from a diagnosis with more confidence. Among 64 patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain, 44 patients, excluding 15 patients diagnosed as acute appendicitis and 5 patients with non-visualization of the appendix due to severe ileus and obesity, were evaluated for the point of incidence, the thickness and the presence of folding of the inner hypoechoic band of the normal appendix. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 15 years with a mean age of 6.5 years. Two patients were operated on and we correlated the preoperative ultrasonographic findings with the histologic findings. In all the cases of the 44 patients with normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band was discovered, which was seen as a linear structure without folding along the whole length of appendix. This measured as 0.75 mm (0.3-1.5 mm) for the mean thickness. The inner hypoechoic band corresponded to the mucosal layer that had abundant lymphoid tissue on the histologic examination. For the pediatric normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band without folding is present, and this corresponds to the mucosal layer with abundant lymphoid tissue

  14. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, George A. [Harvard Medical School and Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  15. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  16. MRI appearance of radiation-induced changes of normal cervical tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noemayr, A.; Lell, M.; Bautz, W.; Sweeney, R.; Lukas, P.

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation causes specific MRI changes in anatomic morphology and signal intensity. To avoid misinterpretation, it is important to consider the potential radiation changes of normal tissue in MRI. The aim of this study was to describe the detected radiation effects on normal cervical tissues in MRI. Pretreatment and posttreatment MRI of 52 patients with primary neck tumors were evaluated retrospectively. The MR imaging was performed before initiating radiotherapy and at the end of the treatment period. Patients underwent follow-up studies within 24 months after the end of irradiation. Edema was the main radiation-induced effect. It was detected in the epiglottis, larynx, pharynx wall, retro- and parapharyngeal space, salivary glands, muscles, and subcutaneous tissue. In some cases the bone marrow of the mandible showed edema, due to osteonecrosis. We additionally detected fluid accumulation in the mastoid cells. Radiation caused volume reduction of the parotid gland, thickening of the pharynx wall, and fatty degeneration of bone marrow. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent method of depicting radiation-induced changes of normal tissue. Especially T2-weighted sequences allow the detection of even slight edema. It is important to be aware of the most common radiation-induced changes in MRI and to take them into account when assessing an examination. (orig.)

  17. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abernethy, L.J.; Qunibi, M.A.; Smith, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig

  18. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Qunibi, M.A. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Smith, C.S. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  19. Exercise left ventricular performance in patients with chest pain, ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiograms, and angiographically normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Sands, M.J.; Davies, R.A.; Wackers, F.J.; Alexander, J.; Lachman, A.S.; Williams, B.W.; Zaret, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was evaluated using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in 31 patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and angiographically normal coronary arteries at rest and during maximal upright bicycle exercise. 201 Tl imaging was done in all patients after treadmill exercise and in selected patients after ergonovine provocation. Resting left ventricular performance was normal in all patients. An abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise was detected in 12 of 31 patients. Regional dysfunction was present during exercise in four patients, all of whom also had abnormal global responses. Three of these 12 patients and two additional patients had exercise-induced 201 Tl perfusion defects. In all nine patients who underwent ergonovine testing, there was no suggestion of coronary arterial spasm. Thus, left ventricular dysfunction during exercise, in the presence of normal resting performance, was found in a substantial number of patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and normal coronary arteries

  20. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong

    1994-01-01

    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system

  1. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system.

  2. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  3. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  4. Flowing cerebrospinal fluid in normal and hydrocephalic states: Appearance on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Kortman, K.E.; Burgoyne, B.; Eng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The signal intensity of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct and lateral ventricles on magnetic resonance (MR) images was evaluated in 16 healthy individuals and in 32 patients with various forms of hydrocephalus (20 with chronic normal pressure hydrocephalus [NPH], seven with acute communicating hydrocephalus, and five with hydrocephalus ex vacuo [atrophy]). The low signal intensity frequently observed in the cerebral aqueduct is believed to reflect the pulsatile motion of CSF, which is related to the cardiac cycle. While this aqueductal flow void phenomenon can be observed in healthy individuals, it is most pronounced in patients with chronic, communicating NPH; is less evident in patients with acute, communicating hydrocephalus and is least evident in patients with atrophy. Ventricular compliance is known to be essentially normal in atrophy, mildly decreased in acute, communicating hydrocephalus; and severely decreased in NPH. The degree of aqueductal signal loss is believed to reflect the velocity of the pulsatile CSF motion, which in turn depends on the relative ventricular compliance and surface area

  5. Can ultrasound of plantar plate have normal appearance with a positive drawer test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Affiliated Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), São Paulo (Brazil); Mann, Tania Szejnfeld [Medical Assistant of Medicine and Surgery of the Foot and Ankle Group, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Puchnick, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.ddi@epm.br [Professor and Coordinator of Educational and Research Support, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Tertulino, Franklin de Freitas [Postgraduate Physician, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Cannato, Camila Testoni [Resident Physician, Department of Surgery, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Nery, Caio [Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa [Associate Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •We evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound to identify and measure the plantar plate. •We correlate ultrasound findings with those of physical examination and MRI. •Ultrasound and MRI measures of plantar plate were positively correlated. •Ultrasound is efficient in identifying and measuring plantar plate. •Ultrasound may complement physical examination. •Young asymptomatic subjects can present a grade I positive drawer test. -- Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reliability of ultrasound (US) examination in the identification and measurement of the metatarsophalangeal plantar plate (MTP-PP) in asymptomatic subjects and (2) to establish the correlation of US findings with those of physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), once it is an important tool in the evaluation of the instability syndrome of the second and third rays. Materials and Methods: US examinations of the second and third MTP-PPs were performed in eight asymptomatic volunteers, totaling 32 MTP joints, by three examiners with different levels of experience in musculoskeletal US. Plantar plate dimensions, integrity and echogenicity, the presence of ruptures, and confidence level in terms of structure identification were determined using conventional US. Vascular flow was assessed using power Doppler. US data were correlated with data from physical examination and MRI. Results: MTP-PPs were ultrasonographically identified in 100% of cases, always showing homogeneous hyperechoic features and no detectable vascular flow on power Doppler, with 100% certainty in identification for all examiners. There was excellent US inter-observer agreement for longitudinal measures of second and third toe MTP-PPs and for transverse measures of the second toe MTP-PP. The MTP drawer test was positive for grade 1 MTP instability in 34.4% of joints with normal US results. Transverse MTP-PP measures were significantly higher in individuals with positive

  6. Pediatric spinal bone marrow: assessment of normal age-related changes in the MRI appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebag, G.H.; Dubois, J.; Tabet, M.; Bonato, A.; Lallemand, D.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study of 100 children (0-15 years) without known bone marrow abnormality, was performed to elucidate the spectrum of the MRI appearance of spinal bone marrow with age on T1-weighted images at 0.5 T. Fatty marrow distribution and vertebral signal intensity (SI) relative to disk SI were noted in each subject, and allowed the identification of distinctive patterns. The spinal marrow patterns and their relative frequency for different age groupps were consistent with the known physiologic conversion from cellular to fatty marrow with age. Between the ages of 0 and 1 year, SI of corporeal ossification centers was similar or lower than SI of adjacent cartilage and disk in 87% of cases. Between the ages of 5 and 15 years, vertebral SI was higher than SI of adjacent disks in 90% of cases. A central or basivertebral zone of high SI consistent with focal fatty marrow was found in 16% and 31% of cases respectively. In conclusion, knowledge of these conversion patterns should serve as a practical aid in the interpretation of MRI examinations of the spine in children. (orig.)

  7. The influence of inhalation technique on Technegas particle deposition and image appearance in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, J.J.; James, J.M.; Shields, R.A.; Testa, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of inhalation technique on Technegas image quality and on fractional particle deposition. This was investigated in six normal volunteers using three different types of breathing pattern. Fractional deposition was determined by analysis of dynamic gamma camera images acquired during Technegas administration. Static lung images were subsequently acquired and assessed independently by three experienced observers. High-quality images were obtained in all cases although slight differences were noted. The images produced using a slow deep inspiration with a breath hold (i.e. the standard method) were of more uniform texture and also had the least gradient in activity from apex to base. The converse was true for a rapid inhalation technique. The average fractional deposition per breath was 55%, but this varied between individuals and with breathing pattern, being most influenced by the total duration of a breath. We conclude that for patient studies the standard inhalation technique is best, although variation to suit individual patients would be acceptable. (orig./MG)

  8. Superior Cervical Sympathetic Ganglion: Normal Imaging Appearance on 3T-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Joon Seon; Song, Min Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seung-Jun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ra Gyoung [Department of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon 22711 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seung Won; Park, Ji Eun [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Young Jin [Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 47392 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To identify superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (SCSG) and describe their characteristic MR appearance using 3T-MRI. In this prospective study, we recruited 53 consecutive patients without history of head and neck irradiation. Using anatomic location based on literature review, both sides of the neck were evaluated to identify SCSGs in consensus. SCSGs were divided into definite (medial to internal carotid artery [ICA] and lateral to longus capitis muscle [LCM]) and probable SCSGs based on relative location to ICA and LCM. Two readers evaluated signal characteristics including intraganglionic hypointensity of all SCSGs and relative location of probable SCSGs. Interrater and intrarater agreements were quantified using unweighted kappa. Ninety-one neck sites in 53 patients were evaluated after exclusion of 15 neck sites with pathology. Definite SCSGs were identified at 66 (73%) sites, and probable SCSGs were found in 25 (27%). Probable SCSGs were located anterior to LCM in 16 (18%), lateral to ICA in 6 (7%), and posterior to ICA in 3 (3%). Intraganglionic hypointensity was identified in 82 (90%) on contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. There was no statistical difference in the relative location between definite and probable SCSGs of the right and left sides with intragnalionic hypointensity on difference pulse sequences. Interrater and intrarater agreements on the location and intraganglionic hypointensity were excellent (κ-value, 0.749–1.000). 3T-MRI identified definite SCSGs at 73% of neck sites and varied location of the remaining SCSGs. Intraganglionic hypointensity was a characteristic feature of SCSGs.

  9. Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion: Normal imaging appearance on 3T-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Song, Joon Seon [Dept. of Radiology, and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-09-15

    To identify superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (SCSG) and describe their characteristic MR appearance using 3T-MRI. In this prospective study, we recruited 53 consecutive patients without history of head and neck irradiation. Using anatomic location based on literature review, both sides of the neck were evaluated to identify SCSGs in consensus. SCSGs were divided into definite (medial to internal carotid artery [ICA] and lateral to longus capitis muscle [LCM]) and probable SCSGs based on relative location to ICA and LCM. Two readers evaluated signal characteristics including intraganglionic hypointensity of all SCSGs and relative location of probable SCSGs. Interrater and intrarater agreements were quantified using unweighted kappa. Ninety-one neck sites in 53 patients were evaluated after exclusion of 15 neck sites with pathology. Definite SCSGs were identified at 66 (73%) sites, and probable SCSGs were found in 25 (27%). Probable SCSGs were located anterior to LCM in 16 (18%), lateral to ICA in 6 (7%), and posterior to ICA in 3 (3%). Intraganglionic hypointensity was identified in 82 (90%) on contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. There was no statistical difference in the relative location between definite and probable SCSGs of the right and left sides with intragnalionic hypointensity on difference pulse sequences. Interrater and intrarater agreements on the location and intraganglionic hypointensity were excellent (κ-value, 0.749–1.000). 3T-MRI identified definite SCSGs at 73% of neck sites and varied location of the remaining SCSGs. Intraganglionic hypointensity was a characteristic feature of SCSGs.

  10. Evaluation of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale and Its Short Form in Systemic Sclerosis: Analysis from the UCLA Scleroderma Quality of Life Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Merz, Erin L; Clements, Philip J; Kafaja, Suzanne; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh

    2015-09-01

    Changes in appearance are common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and can significantly affect well-being. The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) measures body image dissatisfaction in persons with visible disfigurement; the Brief-Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (Brief-SWAP) is its short form. The present study evaluated the reliability and validity of SWAP and Brief-SWAP scores in SSc. A sample of 207 patients with SSc participating in the University of California, Los Angeles Scleroderma Quality of Life Study completed the SWAP. Brief-SWAP scores were derived from the SWAP. The structural validity of both measures was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliability of total and subscale scores was assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Convergent and divergent validity was evaluated using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 questionnaire. SWAP and Brief-SWAP total scores were highly correlated (r = 0.97). The 4-factor structure of the SWAP fit well descriptively; the 2-factor structure of the Brief-SWAP fit well descriptively and statistically. Internal consistencies for total and subscale scores were good, and results supported convergent and divergent validity. Both versions are suitable for use in patients with SSc. The Brief-SWAP is most efficient; the full SWAP yields additional subscales that may be informative in understanding body image issues in patients with SSc.

  11. Radiation-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing White Matter in Patients With Cerebral Tumors: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagesh, Vijaya; Tsien, Christina I.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ross, Brian D.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Junick, Larry; Cao Yue

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing white matter before, during, and after radiotherapy (RT) in cerebral tumor patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma, or benign tumor treated with RT were studied using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. The biologically corrected doses ranged from 50 to 81 Gy. The temporal changes were assessed before, during, and to 45 weeks after the start of RT. The mean diffusivity of water ( ), fractional anisotropy of diffusion, diffusivity perpendicular (λ perpendicular ) and parallel (λ parallel ) to white matter fibers were calculated in normal-appearing genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. Results: In the genu and splenium, fractional anisotropy decreased and , λ parallel , λ -perpendicular increased linearly and significantly with time (p -perpendicular had increased ∼30% in the genu and splenium, and λ parallel had increased 5% in the genu and 9% in the splenium, suggesting that demyelination is predominant. The increases in λ perpendicular and λ parallel were dose dependent, starting at 3 weeks and continuing to 32 weeks from the start of RT. The dose-dependent increase in λ perpendicular and λ parallel was not sustained after 32 weeks, indicating the transition from focal to diffuse effects. Conclusion: The acute and subacute changes in normal-appearing white matter fibers indicate radiation-induced demyelination and mild structural degradation of axonal fibers. The structural changes after RT are progressive, with early dose-dependent demyelination and subsequent diffuse dose-independent demyelination and mild axonal degradation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging is potentially a biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced white matter injury

  12. The esophageal transit in normal persons and in carrier of Chagas disease and progressive systemic sclerosis. A scintiscanning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.B. de.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study is determine, by a scintiscanning method, how 10 ml of water, swallowed at one time, transit by the esophagus of normal persons and carriers of diseases, that attacking the esophagus motility. The other aim was determine the characteristics of the transit by the esophagus in carriers of chagasic esophagus diseases and of progressive systemic sclerosis. The study of esophageal transit was made by the technetium 99, with a gamma camera for detecting and quantifying the radioactivity. Several images of the esophageal transit, with persons in supine and seat positions, for processing the radioactivity curves x time are studied and compared. (C.G.C.)

  13. Interictal SPECT in the pre surgical evaluation in epileptic patients with normal MRI or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Lucia H.N.; Ferraz-Filho, Jose R.L.; Lins-Filho, Mario L.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of interictal compared to ictal SPECT in the lateralization of the epileptogenic focus in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients that present with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Thirty patients with TLE, for whom MRI examinations were normal or who presented with bilateral MTS, were retrospectively studied. Using a confidence interval of 95% and a level of significance for p-value <0.05, an estimated agreement rate of 73% with a minimum agreement rate of 57% was calculated comparing interictal and ictal SPECTs. In conclusion the interictal SPECT is only useful when associated with the ictal SPECT and does not substitute it in the localization of epileptogenic areas in patients with normal MRI or bilateral MTS. (author)

  14. Interictal SPECT in the pre surgical evaluation in epileptic patients with normal MRI or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Lucia H.N. [Hospital de Base, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia. Centro Cirurgico de Epilepsia; Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Ferraz-Filho, Jose R.L. [Hospital de Base, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Lins-Filho, Mario L.M. [Hospital de Base, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Maciel, Marina G.; Yoshitake, Rafael; Filetti, Sarah V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of interictal compared to ictal SPECT in the lateralization of the epileptogenic focus in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients that present with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Thirty patients with TLE, for whom MRI examinations were normal or who presented with bilateral MTS, were retrospectively studied. Using a confidence interval of 95% and a level of significance for p-value <0.05, an estimated agreement rate of 73% with a minimum agreement rate of 57% was calculated comparing interictal and ictal SPECTs. In conclusion the interictal SPECT is only useful when associated with the ictal SPECT and does not substitute it in the localization of epileptogenic areas in patients with normal MRI or bilateral MTS. (author)

  15. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Gholizadeh, Shadi; Fox, Rina S; Jewett, Lisa R; Gottesman, Karen; Roesch, Scott C; Thombs, Brett D; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2018-01-17

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that can cause disfiguring changes in appearance. This study examined the structural validity, internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and measurement equivalence of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) across SSc disease subtypes. Patients enrolled in the Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network Cohort completed the SAAS and measures of appearance-related concerns and psychological distress. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the structural validity of the SAAS. Multiple-group CFA was used to determine if SAAS scores can be compared across patients with limited and diffuse disease subtypes. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine internal consistency reliability. Correlations of SAAS scores with measures of body image dissatisfaction, fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety, and depression were used to examine convergent validity. SAAS scores were hypothesized to be positively associated with all convergent validity measures, with correlations significant and moderate to large in size. A total of 938 patients with SSc were included. CFA supported a one-factor structure (CFI: .92; SRMR: .04; RMSEA: .08), and multiple-group CFA indicated that the scalar invariance model best fit the data. Internal consistency reliability was good in the total sample (α = .96) and in disease subgroups. Overall, evidence of convergent validity was found with measures of body image dissatisfaction, fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety, and depression. The SAAS can be reliably and validly used to assess fear of appearance evaluation in patients with SSc, and SAAS scores can be meaningfully compared across disease subtypes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  17. Normal magnetic resonance appearances of the temporomandibular joints in children and young adults aged 2-18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angenete, Oskar W.; Augdal, Thomas A.; Jellestad, Stig; Rygg, Marite; Rosendahl, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of normal appearances of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is paramount when assessing the joint for disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Reliable features defining normal TMJs in children are limited. To establish reliable normal standards for the TMJ at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We included children and young adults aged 2-18 years undergoing a head MRI for reasons not believed to affect the TMJs. We assessed TMJ anatomy and contrast enhancement using a high-resolution 3-D T1-weighted sequence. We noted joint fluid and bone marrow oedema based on a T2-weighted sequence. Three experienced radiologists read all examinations twice in consensus and defined intraobserver consensus agreement. We evaluated the TMJs in 101 children and young adults (45 female), mean age 10.7 years (range 2-18 years). The intraobserver consensus agreement for the assessment of anterior condylar inclination in the sagittal/oblique plane was moderate to good (Cohen κ=0.7 for the right side). Cohen κ for intraobserver consensus agreement for condylar shape in the coronal plane on a 0-2 scale was 0.4 for the right and 0.6 for the left. Intraobserver agreement for measurement of joint space height and assessment of bone marrow oedema was poor. There was a statistically significant increase in anterior inclination by age in the sagittal plane on a 0-2 scale (P<0.0001). Eighty percent of the condyles showed a rounded shape in the coronal plane while 20% showed mild flattening. Thirty-five of 36 right TMJs showed contrast enhancement (mild enhancement in 32 joints, moderate in 3 joints). Subjective assessment of the anterior condylar inclination in the sagittal/oblique plane and condylar flattening in the coronal plane can be considered precise features for describing TMJ anatomy in healthy children. There is an increasing anterior inclination by age. Mild contrast enhancement of the TMJs should be considered a normal finding. (orig.)

  18. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Chiaho; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto; Zhang, Yong; Li Yimei; Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4–39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54–59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6–5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7–59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response

  19. Macro-environment of breast carcinoma: frequent genetic alterations in the normal appearing skins of patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinfar, Farid; Beham, Alfred; Friedrich, Gerhard; Deutsch, Alexander; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Luschin, Gero; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2008-05-01

    Genetic abnormalities in microenvironmental tissues with subsequent alterations of reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells play a key role in the breast carcinogenesis. Although a few reports have demonstrated abnormal fibroblastic functions in normal-appearing fibroblasts taken from the skins of breast cancer patients, the genetic basis of this phenomenon and its implication for carcinogenesis are unexplored. We analyzed 12 mastectomy specimens showing invasive ductal carcinomas. In each case, morphologically normal epidermis and dermis, carcinoma, normal stroma close to carcinoma, and stroma at a distant from carcinoma were microdissected. Metastatic-free lymphatic tissues from lymph nodes served as a control. Using PCR, DNA extracts were examined with 11 microsatellite markers known for a high frequency of allelic imbalances in breast cancer. Losses of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability were detected in 83% of the skin samples occurring either concurrently with or independently from the cancerous tissues. In 80% of these cases at least one microsatellite marker displayed loss of heterozygosity or microsatellite instability in the skin, which was absent in carcinoma. A total of 41% of samples showed alterations of certain loci observed exclusively in the carcinoma but not in the skin compartments. Our study suggests that breast cancer is not just a localized genetic disorder, but rather part of a larger field of genetic alterations/instabilities affecting multiple cell populations in the organ with various cellular elements, ultimately contributing to the manifestation of the more 'localized' carcinoma. These data indicate that more global assessment of tumor micro- and macro-environment is crucial for our understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  20. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vikki; Brunetti, Vanessa; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Ashbury, Janet E; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

    2017-09-01

    Meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This research investigated the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels, a biomarker of DNA damage, in colon mucosa. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure (PhIP and meat mutagenicity) and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon tissue measured using 32 P-postlabelling among 202 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy. Gene-diet interactions between carcinogen exposure and genetic factors relevant to biotransformation and DNA repair were also examined. Genotyping was conducting using the MassARRAY ® iPLEX ® Gold SNP Genotyping assay. PhIP and higher meat mutagenicity exposures were not associated with levels of bulky DNA adducts in colon mucosa. The XPC polymorphism (rs2228001) was found to associate with bulky DNA adduct levels, whereby genotypes conferring lower DNA repair activity were associated with higher DNA adduct levels than the normal activity genotype. Among individuals with genotypes associated with lower DNA repair (XPD, rs13181 and rs1799179) or detoxification activity (GSTP1, rs1695), higher PhIP or meat mutagenicity exposures were associated with higher DNA adduct levels. Significant interactions between the XPC polymorphism (rs2228000) and both dietary PhIP and meat mutagenicity on DNA adduct levels was observed, but associations were inconsistent with the a priori hypothesized direction of effect. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens may be associated with increased DNA damage occurring directly in the colon among genetically susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glatiramer acetate treatment normalizes deregulated microRNA expression in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Waschbisch

    Full Text Available The expression of selected microRNAs (miRNAs known to be involved in the regulation of immune responses was analyzed in 74 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS and 32 healthy controls. Four miRNAs (miR-326, miR-155, miR-146a, miR-142-3p were aberrantly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from RRMS patients compared to controls. Although expression of these selected miRNAs did not differ between treatment-naïve (n = 36 and interferon-beta treated RRMS patients (n = 18, expression of miR-146a and miR-142-3p was significantly lower in glatiramer acetate (GA treated RRMS patients (n = 20 suggesting that GA, at least in part, restores the expression of deregulated miRNAs in MS.

  2. Arcuate ligament of the wrist: normal MR appearance and its relationship to palmar midcarpal instability: a cadaveric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Weiling; Peduto, Anthony J.; Aguiar, Rodrigo O.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic appearance of the scaphocapitate (SC) ligament and triquetrohamocapitate (THC) ligament, which are the radial and ulnar limbs of the composite arcuate ligament, a critical volar midcarpal stabilizing ligament. T1 spin-echo and 3D gradient-echo MR imaging in the standard, coronal oblique, and axial oblique planes were performed both before and following midcarpal arthrography in seven cadaveric wrists. The seven specimens were then sectioned in selected planes to optimally visualize the SC and THC ligaments. These specimens were analyzed and correlated with their corresponding MR images. The SC and THC ligaments can be visualized in MR images as structures of low signal intensity that form an inverted ''V'' joining the proximal and distal carpal rows. The entire ligamentous complex is best visualized with coronal and axial oblique MR imaging but can also be seen in standard imaging planes. SC and THC ligaments together form the arcuate ligament of the wrist. Their function is crucial to the normal functioning of the wrist. Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is a resulting condition when abnormalities of these ligaments occur. Dedicated MR imaging in the coronal and axial imaging planes can be performed in patients suspected of having PCMI. (orig.)

  3. Arcuate ligament of the wrist: normal MR appearance and its relationship to palmar midcarpal instability: a cadaveric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Weiling [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Sharp-Grossmont Hospital, Department of Radiology, La Mesa, CA (United States); Peduto, Anthony J. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Westmead Hospital and Western Clinical School of Sydney University, Department of Radiology, Sydney (Australia); Aguiar, Rodrigo O.C. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janerio (Brazil); Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic appearance of the scaphocapitate (SC) ligament and triquetrohamocapitate (THC) ligament, which are the radial and ulnar limbs of the composite arcuate ligament, a critical volar midcarpal stabilizing ligament. T1 spin-echo and 3D gradient-echo MR imaging in the standard, coronal oblique, and axial oblique planes were performed both before and following midcarpal arthrography in seven cadaveric wrists. The seven specimens were then sectioned in selected planes to optimally visualize the SC and THC ligaments. These specimens were analyzed and correlated with their corresponding MR images. The SC and THC ligaments can be visualized in MR images as structures of low signal intensity that form an inverted ''V'' joining the proximal and distal carpal rows. The entire ligamentous complex is best visualized with coronal and axial oblique MR imaging but can also be seen in standard imaging planes. SC and THC ligaments together form the arcuate ligament of the wrist. Their function is crucial to the normal functioning of the wrist. Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is a resulting condition when abnormalities of these ligaments occur. Dedicated MR imaging in the coronal and axial imaging planes can be performed in patients suspected of having PCMI. (orig.)

  4. MR spectroscopy of cervical spinal cord in patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaguelle; Kendi, Mustafa; Tan, Funda Uysal; Tellioglu, Serdar; Huvaj, Sinef

    2004-01-01

    MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain in patients with multiple sclerosis has been well studied. However, in vivo MRS of the spinal cord in patients with MR spectroscopy has not been reported to our knowledge. We performed MRS of normal-appearing cervical spinal cords in multiple sclerosis patients and in healthy controls. N-acetyl aspartate was shown to be reduced within the cervical spinal cord of multiple sclerosis patients when compared with healthy controls. This finding supports axonal loss and damage within even normal-appearing spinal cords of multiple sclerosis patients. (orig.)

  5. A comparision of Brain-Behavioral Systems in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kobra Moradi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare   Brain-Behavioral Systems in patient with multiple sclerocis (MS and normal individuals. Materials and Methods: This research was a post facto comparative study, subjects included  healthy persons and all patients with MS, which in summer and autumn 2013 referred to neurologists in the Lorestan province. Of the population using as samples, 117 cases (75 patients and 42 normal subjects were selected, then Gray- Wilson Personality Questionnaire was completed for them. To analyze the data, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA test  was used to compare the two groups. Results: The results showed, in BAS scales, people with MS had significantly lower scores than normal subjects Conclusion: What comes from findings indicates that a low score in behavioral activation as a pathological factors in chronic diseases such as MS is concerned and is in need of psychological treatment.

  6. Elevated interleukin-12 in progressive multiple sclerosis correlates with disease activity and is normalized by pulse cyclophosphamide therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comabella, M; Balashov, K; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1998-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is postulated to be a Th1-type cell-mediated autoimmune disease. We investigated cytokine profiles in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis by using intracytoplasmic staining. We found increased IL-12 production by monocytes and increased IFN-gamma production by T cells...

  7. Analysis of visual appearance of retinal nerve fibers in high resolution fundus images: a study on normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Radim; Tornow, Ralf P; Laemmer, Robert; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mayer, Markus A; Gazarek, Jiri; Jan, Jiri; Kubena, Tomas; Cernosek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  8. Analysis of Visual Appearance of Retinal Nerve Fibers in High Resolution Fundus Images: A Study on Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Kolar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL. This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  9. A comparison between the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and normal pressure hydrocephalus: is pulse wave encephalopathy a component of MS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Grant A; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Lea, Rodney A

    2016-09-22

    It has been suggested there is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, underlying the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is distinct from the more obvious immune-mediated attack on the white matter. Limited data exists indicating there is an alteration in pulse wave propagation within the craniospinal cavity in MS, similar to the findings in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). It is hypothesized MS may harbor pulse wave encephalopathy. The purpose of this study is to compare blood flow and pulse wave measurements in MS patients with a cohort of NPH patients and control subjects, to test this hypothesis. Twenty patients with MS underwent magnetic resonance (MR) flow quantification techniques. Mean blood flow and stroke volume were measured in the arterial inflow and venous out flow from the sagittal (SSS) and straight sinus (ST). The arteriovenous delay (AVD) was defined. The results were compared with both age-matched controls and NPH patients. In MS there was a 35 % reduction in arteriovenous delay and a 5 % reduction in the percentage of the arterial inflow returning via the sagittal sinus compared to age matched controls. There was an alteration in pulse wave propagation, with a 26 % increase in arterial stroke volume but 30 % reduction in SSS and ST stroke volume. The AVD and blood flow changes were in the same direction to those of NPH patients. There are blood flow and pulsation propagation changes in MS patients which are similar to those of NPH patients. The findings would be consistent with an underlying pulse wave encephalopathy component in MS.

  10. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  11. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi; Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens; Kruse, Bernd; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  12. Radiosensitivity of fibroblasts obtained from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a patient with neurofibromatosis (NF-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Smith, B.P.; Sigut, D.; Sackey, K.

    1990-01-01

    Fibroblast cells derived from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a neurofibromatosis (NF-6) patient were studied for radiosensitivity in comparison with two normal cell lines used as controls. No difference in radiosensitivity was observed between the patient's cell lines and the controls using acute gamma-irradiation. However, a markedly increased radiosensitivity of the fibroblasts obtained from the patient's skin of normal appearance was demonstrated after chronic gamma-irradiation. The cells from the cafe-au-lait spot showed intermediate sensitivity to chronic irradiation as compared with the control cell lines and the fibroblasts derived from the normal skin of the patient. These results showed the usefulness of chronic irradiation in detecting increased cellular radiosensitivity which may result from a unique DNA repair defect in an NF patient. We suggest that enhanced genetic changes in radiosensitive NF patients may lead to formation of cafe-au-lait lesions and certain tumors. Such a transformation may be associated with production of radiotolerant cells

  13. 7-Tesla Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging to Assess the Effects of Radiotherapy on Normal-Appearing Brain in Patients With Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, Janine M.; Chuang, Cynthia F.; Chang, Susan M.; Barani, Igor J.; Jimenez, Bert; Hess, Christopher P.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intermediate- and long-term imaging manifestations of radiotherapy on normal-appearing brain tissue in patients with treated gliomas using 7T susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods and Materials: SWI was performed on 25 patients with stable gliomas on a 7 Tesla magnet. Microbleeds were identified as discrete foci of susceptibility that did not correspond to vessels. The number of microbleeds was counted within and outside of the T2-hyperintense lesion. For 3 patients, radiation dosimetry maps were reconstructed and fused with the 7T SWI data. Results: Multiple foci of susceptibility consistent with microhemorrhages were observed in patients 2 years after chemoradiation. These lesions were not present in patients who were not irradiated. The prevalence of microhemorrhages increased with the time since completion of radiotherapy, and these lesions often extended outside the boundaries of the initial high-dose volume and into the contralateral hemisphere. Conclusions: High-field SWI has potential for visualizing the appearance of microbleeds associated with long-term effects of radiotherapy on brain tissue. The ability to visualize these lesions in normal-appearing brain tissue may be important in further understanding the utility of this treatment in patients with longer survival.

  14. Feeling Normal? Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with a Cleft Lip-Palate after Rhinoplasty with the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Andreas E; Reichelt, Andreas C; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2016-04-01

    -conceived appearance as measured by the DAS-59. Their assessment of self-appearance was comparable to that of a group of noncleft persons with concern about their appearance. Taken together, rhinoplasties, primary and revision, add to the psychosocial well-being and an improved self-perception enhancing quality of life and enabling a more normal life. Further research is needed to clarify how the low reduction found in the "negative self-concept" may be addressed successfully. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p 100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  16. Eyes with Suspicious Appearance of the Optic Disc and Normal Intraocular Pressure: Using Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics to Differentiate Those with and without Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego T Dias

    Full Text Available Among all glaucoma suspects, eyes with optic nerve head features suspicious or suggestive of early glaucoma are probably those that offer the greatest challenge for clinicians. In contrast with the robust longitudinal data published on ocular hypertension, there is no specific management guideline for these patients. Therefore, evaluating eyes with suspicious optic disc appearance and normal intraocular pressure (IOP, we sought to investigate potential differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics to differentiate those with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG from those with presumed large physiological optic disc cups (pLPC. In this observational case-control study, we consecutively enrolled individuals with pLPC and NTG. All eyes had vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR≥0.6 and untreated IOP<21 mmHg. Glaucomatous eyes had reproducible visual field defects. Eyes with pLPC required normal visual fields and ≥30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. Clinical and epidemiological parameters were compared between groups. Eighty-four individuals with pLPC and 40 NTG patients were included. Regarding our main results, NTG patients were significantly older and with a higher prevalence of Japanese descendants (p<0.01. Not only did pLPC eyes have smaller mean VCDR, but also larger optic discs (p≤0.04. There were no significant differences for gender, central corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent (p≥0.38. Significant odds ratios (OR were found for race (OR = 2.42; for Japanese ancestry, age (OR = 1.05, VCDR (OR = 5.03, and disc size (OR = 0.04; p≤0.04. In conclusion, in patients with suspicious optic disc and normal IOP, those with older age, Japanese ancestry, smaller optic discs, and larger VCDR are more likely to have NTG, and therefore, deserve deeper investigation and closer monitoring.

  17. Cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, H; Jønsson, A; Andresen, Jesper Graubæk

    2012-01-01

    of the cognitive impairment seen in MS and constitute a supplement to traditional measurement of T2 lesion volume. Materials and Methods - Fifty patients with clinically definite MS were included (38 women, 12 men). Patients were MR scanned, neuropsychologically tested, and evaluated clinically with the Kurtzke......Objectives - Although disease load in multiple sclerosis (MS) often is based on T2 lesion volumes, the changes in T2 of normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) are rarely considered. By means of magnetic resonance, (MR) we retrospectively investigated whether T2 changes in NABT explain part...... Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS). Voxel-wise T2 estimates and total T2 lesion volume were tested for correlations with eight cognitive domains, a general cognitive dysfunction factor (CDF), and the two clinical scales. Results - We found distinct...

  18. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Ming-Yuan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p < 0.001, uncorrected, cluster size >100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  19. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  20. 1H-MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing temporal white matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after irradiation: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei Feng; Qiu, Shi Jun; Wang, Hong Zhuo; Lv, Xiao Fei

    2013-01-01

    To detect radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe normal-appearing white mater (NAWM) following radiation therapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Seventy-five H(1)-MR spectroscopy and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) examinations were performed in 55 patients before and after receiving fractionated radiation therapy (total dose; 66-75GY). We divided the dataset into six groups, a pre-RT control group and five other groups based on time after completion of RT. N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatine (Cr), Cho/Cr, mean diffusibility (MD), functional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusibility (λ(⊥)), and axial diffusibility (λ(||)) were calculated. NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr decreased and λ(⊥) increased significantly within 1 year after RT compared with pre-RT. After 1 year, NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and λ(⊥) were not significantly different from pre-RT. In all post-RT groups, FA decreased significantly. λ(||) decreased within 9 months after RT compared with pre-RT, but was not significantly different from pre-RT more than 9 months after RT. DTI and H(1)-MR spectroscopy can be used to detect early radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe NAWM following radiation therapy for NPC. Metabolic alterations and water diffusion characteristics of temporal lobe NAWM in patients with NPC after RT were dynamic and transient. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Performance on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and cerebral blood flow in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haeseleer, M.; Steen, C.; Hoogduin, J. M.; van Osch, M. J. P.; Fierens, Y.; Cambron, M.; Koch, M. W.; De Keyser, J.

    BackgroundTo assess the relationship between performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and axonal metabolic integrity in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of the centrum semiovale in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). MethodsNormal

  2. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  3. Tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tuberous sclerosis has been described with a diagnostic triad, it is not present consistently in all cases. Variety of skin manifestations were reported in tuberous sclerosis. This studay was undertaken to assess the frequency of various skin changes in tuberous sclerosis. Ten consecutive cases of tuberous sclerosis were studied. Angiofibroma was the commonest cutaneous manifestation. Atypical fibroxanthoma, dermatofibroma and neurofibroma were also noticed as interesting associations.

  4. Cataracts, radiculomegaly, septal heart defects and hearing loss in two unrelated adult females with normal intelligence and similar facial appearance : Confirmation of a syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalfs, CM; Oosterwijk, JC; VanSchooneveld, MJ; Begeman, CJ; Wabeke, KB; Hennekam, RCM

    Two unrelated, adult females with normal intelligence are described. They show a similar clinical picture with a long and narrow face, congenital cataract, microphthalmia, microcornea, a high nasal bridge, a short nose, a broad nasal tip, a long philtrum, bilateral hearing loss, persistent primary

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  6. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  7. Bimonthly assessment of magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging parameters in multiple sclerosis: a 14-month, multicentre, follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesaros, S.; Rocca, M.A.; Sormani, M.P.; Valsasina, P.; Markowitz, C.; De Stefano, N.; Montalban, X.; Barkhof, F.; Ranjeva, J.P.; Sailer, M.; Kappos, L.; Comi, G.; Filippi, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the temporal evolution of damage within lesions and the normal-appearing white matter, measured using frequent magnetization transfer (MT) MRI, in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The relationship of MT ratio (MTR) changes with measures of lesion

  8. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  9. Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Esclerosis tuberosa Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations Child Neurology ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Esclerosis tuberosa Order NINDS Publications Definition Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) ...

  10. Normal levels of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 and daytime sleepiness during attacks of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and monosymptomatic optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, S; Jennum, P J; Korsholm, K

    2008-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that multiple sclerosis (MS), the hypothalamic sleep-wake regulating neuropeptide hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) and the sleep disorder narcolepsy may be connected. Thus, the major pathophysiological component of narcolepsy is lack of hcrt-1. Dysfunction of the hypocretin system....../ml). No statistically significant differences were found between attack and remission. MRI scans revealed no hypothalamic lesions. The results show that the hypocretin system is intact and sleepiness is not typical in RRMS and MON without hypothalamic lesions on MRI....

  11. The patient had a normal magnetic resonance imaging and temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to a porencephalic cyst but showed structural lesions (hippocampal sclerosis)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Teppei; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Aoki, Tsukasa; Fujiomto, Ayataka; Osuka, Satoru; Matsumura, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Patients with a porencephalic cyst frequently develop intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We report a surgically-treated male patient with intractable mesial TLE (mTLE) secondary to a porencephalic cyst. Although magnetic resonance imaging showed no hippocampal abnormalities, long-term video-electrocorticography revealed seizure onset discharges in the hippocampus. Temporal lobectomy brought an end to the patient's seizures. Hippocampal sclerosis was histopathologically confirmed (dual pathology). Careful evaluation of hippocampal epileptogenicity is required, and temporal lobectomy, which is less invasive than hemispherectomy, can be a treatment of choice for patients with mTLE secondary to a porencephalic cyst. PMID:25667851

  12. Spatial Correlation of Pathology and Perfusion Changes within the Cortex and White Matter in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, A D; Vitorino, R; Hojjat, S-P; Ma, A Y; Zhang, L; Lee, L; Carroll, T J; Cantrell, C G; Figley, C R; Aviv, R I

    2018-01-01

    The spatial correlation between WM and cortical GM disease in multiple sclerosis is controversial and has not been previously assessed with perfusion MR imaging. We sought to determine the nature of association between lobar WM, cortical GM, volume and perfusion. Nineteen individuals with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 19 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 19 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Quantitative MR perfusion imaging was used to derive CBF, CBV, and MTT within cortical GM, WM, and T2-hyperintense lesions. A 2-step multivariate linear regression (corrected for age, disease duration, and Expanded Disability Status Scale) was used to assess correlations between perfusion and volume measures in global and lobar normal-appearing WM, cortical GM, and T2-hyperintense lesions. The Bonferroni adjustment was applied as appropriate. Global cortical GM and WM volume was significantly reduced for each group comparison, except cortical GM volume of those with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis versus controls. Global and lobar cortical GM CBF and CBV were reduced in secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis compared with other groups but not for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis versus controls. Global and lobar WM CBF and CBV were not significantly different across groups. The distribution of lobar cortical GM and WM volume reduction was disparate, except for the occipital lobes in patients with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis versus those with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Moderate associations were identified between lobar cortical GM and lobar normal-appearing WM volume in controls and in the left temporal lobe in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. No significant associations occurred between cortical GM and WM perfusion or volume. Strong correlations were observed between cortical-GM perfusion, normal appearing WM and lesional perfusion, with respect to each global and lobar region within HC, and

  13. Amyloid PET in pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Cortés-Martínez, Ana; Pytel, Vanesa; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Carreras, José Luis; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    Pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis is a rare form of demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Positron emission tomography (PET) using amyloid-tracers has also been suggested as a marker of damage in white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis due to the nonspecific uptake of these tracers in white matter. We present the case of a 59 year-old woman with a pathological-confirmed pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis, who was studied with the amyloid tracer 18 F-florbetaben. The patient had developed word-finding difficulties and right hemianopia twelve years ago. In that time, MRI showed a lesion on the left hemisphere with an infiltrating aspect in frontotemporal lobes. Brain biopsy showed demyelinating areas and inflammation. During the following years, two new clinical relapses occurred. 18 F-florbetaben PET showed lower uptake in the white matter lesion visualized in the CT and MRI images. Decreased tracer uptake was also observed in a larger area of the left hemisphere beyond the lesions observed on MRI or CT. White matter lesion volume on FLAIR was 44.2mL, and tracer uptake change between damaged white matter and normal appearing white matter was - 40.5%. Standardized uptake value was inferior in the pseudotumoral lesion than in the other white matter lesions. We report the findings of amyloid PET in a patient with pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis. This case provides further evidence on the role of amyloid PET in the assessment of white matter and demyelinating diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral administration of choline does not affect metabolic characteristics of gliomas and normal-appearing white matter, as detected with single-voxel 1H-MRS at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, Mikhail F.; Iseki, Hiroshi; Takakura, Kintomo; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Ono, Yuko; Usukura, Masao; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Kubo, Osami; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2009-01-01

    The present study was done for evaluation of the possible influence of the oral administration of choline on metabolic characteristics of gliomas detected with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Thirty patients (22 men and eight women; mean age 38±15 years) with suspicious intracranial gliomas underwent single-voxel long-echo (TR 2,000 ms, TE 136 ms, 128-256 acquisitions) 1 H-MRS of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter before and several hours (median, 3 h; range, 1.2-3.7 h) after ingestion of choline with prescribed dose of 50 mg/kg (median actual dose, 52 mg/kg; range, 48-78 mg/kg). Investigations were done using 1.5 T clinical magnetic resonance imager. The volume of the rectangular 1 H-MRS voxel was either 3.4 or 8 cm 3 . At the time of both spectroscopic examinations, similar voxels' positioning and size and technical parameters of 1 H-MRS were used. Surgery was done in 27 patients within 1 to 68 days thereafter. In all cases, more than 80% resection of the neoplasm was attained. There were 12 low-grade gliomas and 15 high-grade gliomas. MIB-1 index varied from 0% to 51.7% (median, 13.8%). Statistical analysis did not disclose significant differences of any investigated metabolic parameter of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue and distant normal-appearing white matter between two spectroscopic examinations. Single-voxel 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T could not detect significant changes of the metabolic characteristics of gliomas, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter after oral administration of choline. (orig.)

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging of the optic tracts in multiple sclerosis: association with retinal thinning and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; Smith, Seth A; Ozturk, Arzu; Farrell, Sheena K; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2011-04-01

    Visual disability is common in multiple sclerosis, but its relationship to abnormalities of the optic tracts remains unknown. Because they are only rarely affected by lesions, the optic tracts may represent a good model for assessing the imaging properties of normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging was performed on 34 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 healthy volunteers. The optic tracts were reconstructed by tractography, and tract-specific diffusion indices were quantified. In the multiple-sclerosis group, peripapillary retinal nerve-fiber-layer thickness and total macular volume were measured by optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity at 100%, 2.5%, and 1.25% contrast was examined. After adjusting for age and sex, optic-tract mean and perpendicular diffusivity were higher (P=.002) in multiple sclerosis. Lower optic-tract fractional anisotropy was correlated with retinal nerve-fiber-layer thinning (r=.51, P=.003) and total-macular-volume reduction (r=.59, P=.002). However, optic-tract diffusion indices were not specifically correlated with visual acuity or with their counterparts in the optic radiation. Optic-tract diffusion abnormalities are associated with retinal damage, suggesting that both may be related to optic-nerve injury, but do not appear to contribute strongly to visual disability in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  17. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig P; Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2015-01-01

    in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and here, for the first time, we present a study on the capability of blood-brain barrier permeability in predicting conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis and a direct comparison...... with cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation, cellular trafficking and blood-brain barrier breakdown. To this end, we applied dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to measure blood-brain barrier permeability in 39 patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis, all referred for imaging...... fluid as well as levels of CXCL10 and MMP9 in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging, may provide novel pathological information as a marker of neuroinflammation related to multiple sclerosis, to some extent...

  18. Nutritional management of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intradialytic parenteral nutrition, nutritional management, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis ... reflection of fluid retention and the underlying inflammatory process, ... The patient appeared weak and frail, with severe generalised muscle ... was recommended on diagnosis of EPS to prevent further peritoneal.

  19. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  20. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  2. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  3. H-1 MR spectroscopy of the brain in multiple sclerosis subtypes with analysis of the metabolite concentrations in gray and white matter : initial findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, PE; Mostert, JP; Oudkerk, M; De Keyser, J

    Many MR spectroscopy (MRS) studies of multiple sclerosis (MS) have focussed on metabolism in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in white matter lesions (WML). In this study, eight patients suffering from primary or secondary progressive MS (PPMS/SPMS) and seven patients with

  4. Effects of Ginger Supplementation on Cell Cycle Biomarkers in the Normal-Appearing Colonic Mucosa of Patients at Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Results from a Pilot, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citronberg, Jessica; Bostick, Roberd; Ahearn, Thomas; Turgeon, D. Kim; Ruffin, Mack T.; Djuric, Zora; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E.; Zick, Suzanna M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the effects of ginger on apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa, we randomized 20 people at increased risk for colorectal cancer to 2.0 g of ginger or placebo daily for 28 days in a pilot trial. Overall expression and distributions of Bax, Bcl-2, p21, hTERT and MIB-1 (Ki-67) in colorectal crypts in rectal mucosa biopsies were measured using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Relative to placebo, Bax expression in the ginger group decreased 15.6% (p = 0.78) in the whole crypts, 6.6% (p = 0.95) in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, and 21.7% (p = 0.67) in the lower 60% (proliferative zone) of crypts; however, there was a 19% increase (p = 0.14) in Bax expression in the upper 40% relative to the whole crypt. While p21 and Bcl-2 expression remained relatively unchanged, hTERT expression in the whole crypts decreased by 41.2% (p = 0.05); the estimated treatment effect on hTERT expression was larger in the upper 40% of crypts (−47.9%; p = 0.04). In the ginger group, MIB-1 expression decreased in the whole crypts, upper 40% of crypts, and lower 60% of crypts by 16.9% (p = 0.39), 46.8% (p = 0.39), and 15.3% (p = 0.41), respectively. These pilot study results suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in the normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis and differentiation relative to proliferation—especially in the differentiation zone of the crypts, and support a larger study to further investigate these results. PMID:23303903

  5. Abnormalities of small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Cinotti, A.; Cavallari, L.; Orzincolo, C.; Dovigo, L.; Trotta, F.; Menegale, G.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 21 subjects (2 males and 19 females) affected with systemic sclerosis, was examined by small bowel (oral and intubation methods) and colon enema. The underlying process responsible for abnormalities in the small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis is a variable and pacthy destruction of the muscularis propria, that produces the structural and functional changes detected on X-ray: Pathologic condition is the same affecting the esophagus. The scout film of the abdomen often reveals colonic distension and fecal impaction, so that it may be quite difficult to prepare adequately the patients for a barium enema. Peristalsis may be virtually absent in short segments, and transit time may be several time longer than that in normal patients. For these reasons, intestinal pseudo-obstruction may appear in systemic sclerosis. The observed radiographic changes are: 1) in the small bowel: a) dilatation of the gut, especially in its proximal portions (duodenum and jejunum), in which the valvulae conniventes are straightened, normal or thinned; b) presence of diverticula, 2-4 cm in diameter, with hemispherical shape without the neck-like opening into the bowel lumen; 2) in the colon, the characteristic finding is an increase in size of individual haustra, forming sacculations or pseudo-diverticula, usually on the antemesenteric border of the transverse colon, better demonstrated on post-evacuation film. Moreover, loss of colonic haustration is also observed associated to colonic elongation and dilatation

  6. Height, shape and anterior-posterior diameter of pituitary gland on magnetic resonance imaging among patients with multiple sclerosis compared to normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Hossein Ali; Ahmadi-Pour, Habibeh; Khodadoust, Mohammad

    2017-10-07

    Background: Several studies indicate contribution of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease. This study was designed to determine whether there is an effective difference in pituitary height, shape, and anterior-posterior diameter (APD) between patients with MS and the control group. Methods: In this study, sagittal pituitary height and APD of 134 men and women (64 patients with MS and 70 healthy subjects as control group) were measured by T1 sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All the subjects were free of sellar or parasellar pathology without a history of surgical intervention or prolactin affecting drugs like bromocriptine and cabergoline or corticosteroid consumption. Results: Mean height of pituitary gland was 6.62 ± 1.43 and 5.78 ± 1.15 mm for patients and the control group, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Mean APD was 10.40 ± 1.29 mm for the group of patients and 10.25 ± 1.41 mm for the control group, respectively, without significant differences. 46.9%, 37.5%, and 15.6% of patients had flat, convex, and concave hypophyseal surfaces, respectively. This rate was 50%, 30%, and 20% among the control group, respectively. There was no significant difference between our measurements among patients on whom imaging study was performed at time of disease onset with others. Conclusion: Mean height of pituitary gland among patients with MS was significantly greater than the control group (P = 0.001). So can we consider the same etiology for pituitary hypertrophy among patients with MS as a hypothesis?

  7. Multiple sclerosis pathogenesis: missing pieces of an old puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanzadeh, Reza; Brück, Wolfgang; Minagar, Alireza; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-08

    Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) was considered to be a CD4 T cell-mediated CNS autoimmunity, compatible with experimental autoimmune encephalitis model, which can be characterized by focal lesions in the white matter. However, studies of recent decades revealed several missing pieces of MS puzzle and showed that MS pathogenesis is more complex than the traditional view and may include the following: a primary degenerative process (e.g. oligodendroglial pathology), generalized abnormality of normal-appearing brain tissue, pronounced gray matter pathology, involvement of innate immunity, and CD8 T cells and B cells. Here, we review these findings and discuss their implications in MS pathogenesis.

  8. Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, H; Andersen, B; Wanscher, B

    2004-01-01

    We used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance to obtain paired biopsies from the brains of four patients with clinical definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Samples were analyzed for the immunoreactivity (IR) of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms [inducible, neuronal......NOS expressing cells in active lesions. NOS IR expressing cells were widely distributed in plaques, in white and gray matter that appeared normal macroscopically, and on MR. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was highly expressed in intraparenchymal vascular endothelial cells of MS patients. A control group matched for age...

  9. T2 hyperintense signal in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with MRI signs of hippocampal sclerosis and in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with normal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Bruno Yukio; Coan, Ana Carolina; Yasuda, Clarissa Lin; Cendes, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Increased MRI T2 signal is commonly present not only in the hippocampus but also in other temporal structures of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and it is associated with histological abnormalities related to the epileptogenic lesion. This study aimed to verify the distribution of T2 increased signal in temporal lobe structures and its correlations with clinical characteristics of TLE patients with (TLE-HS) or without (TLE-NL) MRI signs of hippocampal sclerosis. We selected 203 consecutive patients: 124 with TLE-HS and 79 with TLE-NL. Healthy controls (N=59) were used as a comparison group/comparative group. T2 multiecho images obtained via a 3-T MRI were evaluated with in-house software. T2 signal decays were computed from five original echoes in regions of interest in the hippocampus, amygdala, and white matter of the anterior temporal lobe. Values higher than 2 standard deviations from the mean of controls were considered as abnormal. T2 signal increase was observed in the hippocampus in 78% of patients with TLE-HS and in 17% of patients with TLE-NL; in the amygdala in 13% of patients with TLE-HS and in 14% of patients with TLE-NL; and in the temporal lobe white matter in 22% of patients with TLE-HS and in 8% of patients with TLE-NL. Group analysis demonstrated a significant difference in the distribution of the T2 relaxation times of the hippocampus (ANOVA, ptemporal lobe white matter (ptemporal lobe white matter (ANOVA, p=0.025) for patients with TLE-NL compared with controls. The average signal from the hippocampus ipsilateral to the epileptogenic zone was significantly higher in patients with no family history of epilepsy (two-sample T-test, p=0.005). Increased T2 signal occurs in different temporal structures of patients with TLE-HS and in patients with TLE-NL. The hippocampal hyperintense signal is more pronounced in patients without family history of epilepsy and is influenced by earlier seizure onset. These changes in T2 signal may be

  10. "Understanding my ALS". Experiences and reflections of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives on participation in peer group rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-26

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into experiences and reflections of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives concerning the peer group rehabilitation programme "More Life - Less Illness". This qualitative study used the Interpretive Description methodology with Symbolic Interactionism as the analytical framework. Eighteen programme participants representing persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 8) and relatives (n = 10) were included. Data consisted of individual interviews and participant observation. The analysis revealed two categorical themes, "Sense of Community Building" and "Understanding my ALS", which represented the participants' experiences and reflections on peer group rehabilitation. Through the analysis, it became apparent that "Sense of Community Building" gave rise to an increased and personalised understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among the participants. As a part of the continuous processing of the knowledge gained, "Facing Facts" and "Retaining Normality" appeared as subthemes regarding the participants' ability to live a less dependent and more meaningful life. This study of peer group rehabilitation for persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives indicates that programme participation leads to positive experiences in terms of living a shared meaningful life despite severe disability. The findings may guide practice to develop longitudinal peer group rehabilitation programmes with joint inclusion of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer group rehabilitation may facilitate an increased and personalised understanding of what it means to live with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A programme design with six months of sequential sessions enables a continuous processing of shared experiences and gained knowledge. Joint participation of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their relatives supports both their internal

  11. Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ≥7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

  12. Unusual renal angiomyolipoma in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with tuberous sclerosis and a normal intravenous urogram 5 years previously presented with a large and palpable upper pole renal mass. Since patients with tuberous sclerosis have small bilateral hamartomas, a Wilms' tumor was suspected. In retrospect, inhomogeneous nephrograms should have alerted the radiologist to the multiplicity of other small lesions. Also, a partially lucent rim should have substantiated that the lesion was not a Wilms' tumor. (orig.) [de

  13. Multiple Sclerosis: Pathogenesis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Loma, Ingrid; Heyman, Rock

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It affects approximately 400,000 people in the United States and onset is usually during young adulthood. There are four clinical forms of MS, of which relapsing remitting type is the most common. As the etiology of MS is unknown, finding a cure will remain challenging. The main mechanism of injury appears to be inflammation and 8 agents are now FDA approved to help control MS. Th...

  14. Fatigue and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area Donate Donate ... of MS What Causes MS? Who Gets MS? Multiple Sclerosis FAQs Types of MS Related Conditions Symptoms & Diagnosis ...

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging in children with tuberous sclerosis complex: tract-based spatial statistics assessment of brain microstructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikou, Anastasia K; Xydis, Vasileios G; Astrakas, Loukas G; Nakou, Iliada; Tzarouchi, Loukia C; Tzoufi, Meropi; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    There is evidence of microstructural changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. To evaluate major white matter tracts in children with tuberous sclerosis complex using tract-based spatial statistics diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis. Eight children (mean age ± standard deviation: 8.5 ± 5.5 years) with an established diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex and 8 age-matched controls were studied. The imaging protocol consisted of T1-weighted high-resolution 3-D spoiled gradient-echo sequence and a spin-echo, echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences in the diffusion indices were evaluated using tract-based spatial statistics. Tract-based spatial statistics showed increased axial diffusivity in the children with tuberous sclerosis complex in the superior and anterior corona radiata, the superior longitudinal fascicle, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, the uncinate fascicle and the anterior thalamic radiation. No significant differences were observed in fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity between patients and control subjects. No difference was found in the diffusion indices between the baseline and follow-up examination in the patient group. Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex have increased axial diffusivity in major white matter tracts, probably related to reduced axonal integrity.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging in children with tuberous sclerosis complex: tract-based spatial statistics assessment of brain microstructural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikou, Anastasia K.; Xydis, Vasileios G.; Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Nakou, Iliada; Tzoufi, Meropi

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence of microstructural changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. To evaluate major white matter tracts in children with tuberous sclerosis complex using tract-based spatial statistics diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis. Eight children (mean age ± standard deviation: 8.5 ± 5.5 years) with an established diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex and 8 age-matched controls were studied. The imaging protocol consisted of T1-weighted high-resolution 3-D spoiled gradient-echo sequence and a spin-echo, echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences in the diffusion indices were evaluated using tract-based spatial statistics. Tract-based spatial statistics showed increased axial diffusivity in the children with tuberous sclerosis complex in the superior and anterior corona radiata, the superior longitudinal fascicle, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, the uncinate fascicle and the anterior thalamic radiation. No significant differences were observed in fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity between patients and control subjects. No difference was found in the diffusion indices between the baseline and follow-up examination in the patient group. Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex have increased axial diffusivity in major white matter tracts, probably related to reduced axonal integrity. (orig.)

  17. In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Tobias; Fan, Qiuyun; Treaba, Constantina Andrada; Ouellette, Russell; Herranz, Elena; Mangeat, Gabriel; Louapre, Céline; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Klawiter, Eric C; Sloane, Jacob A; Mainero, Caterina

    2017-11-01

    Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P test) and lower fractional anisotropy (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test) suggestive of less coherent underlying fibre orientation. Additionally, the normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis subjects had diffusely lower intracellular volume fractions than the white matter in controls (P = 0.029 by unpaired

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging in children and adolescents with tuberous sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Demet [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich Schiller University, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); Kirikkale Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kirirkale (Turkey); Mentzel, Hans-J.; Loebel, Ulrike; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Kaiser, Werner A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich Schiller University, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); Guellmar, Daniel [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich Schiller University, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University, Biomagnetic Centre, Clinic of Neurology, Jena (Germany); Rating, Tina; Brandl, Ulrich [Friedrich Schiller University, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Jena (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is characterised by benign hamartomatous lesions in many organs. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect microstructural changes in pathological processes. To determine apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps in children with TS and to investigate the diffusion properties in cortical tubers, white-matter lesions, perilesional white matter, and contralateral normal-appearing white matter, and to compare the results with ADC and FA maps of normal age- and sex-matched volunteers. Seven children and adolescents (age range 2-20 years) suffering from TS were included. MRI was performed on a 1.5-T scanner using a transmit/receive coil with T1-W and T2-W spin-echo and FLAIR sequences. DT images were acquired by using a single-shot echo-planar pulse sequence. Diffusion gradients were applied in six different directions with a b value of 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC was higher in cortical tubers than in the corresponding cortical location of controls. ADC values were higher and FA values were lower in white-matter lesions and perilesional white matter than in both the contralateral normal-appearing white matter of patients and in controls. There were no significant differences for both ADC and FA values in the normal-appearing white matter of patients with TS compared to controls. DTI provides important information about cortical tubers, white-matter abnormalities, and perilesional white matter in patients with TS. (orig.)

  19. Imaging Surrogates of Disease Activity in Neuromyelitis Optica Allow Distinction from Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lucy; Kolind, Shannon; Brazier, Alix; Leite, Maria Isabel; Brooks, Jonathan; Traboulsee, Anthony; Jenkinson, Mark; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Palace, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating lesions of the central nervous system are a common feature of both neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. Despite this similarity, it is evident clinically that the accumulation of disability in patients with neuromyelitis optica is relapse related and that a progressive phase is very uncommon. This poses the question whether there is any pathological evidence of disease activity or neurodegeneration in neuromyelitis optica between relapses. To investigate this we conducted a longitudinal advanced MRI study of the brain and spinal cord in neuromyelitis optica patients, comparing to patients with multiple sclerosis and controls. We found both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of diffusely distributed neurodegenerative surrogates in the multiple sclerosis group (including thalamic atrophy, cervical cord atrophy and progressive widespread diffusion and myelin water imaging abnormalities in the normal appearing white matter) but not in those with neuromyelitis optica, where localised abnormalities in the optic radiations of those with severe visual impairment were noted. In addition, between relapses, there were no new silent brain lesions in the neuromyelitis optica group. These findings indicate that global central nervous system neurodegeneration is not a feature of neuromyelitis optica. The work also questions the theory that neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis is a chronic sequela to prior inflammatory and demyelinating pathology, as this has not been found to be the case in neuromyelitis optica where the lesions are often more destructive.

  20. Imaging Surrogates of Disease Activity in Neuromyelitis Optica Allow Distinction from Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Matthews

    Full Text Available Inflammatory demyelinating lesions of the central nervous system are a common feature of both neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. Despite this similarity, it is evident clinically that the accumulation of disability in patients with neuromyelitis optica is relapse related and that a progressive phase is very uncommon. This poses the question whether there is any pathological evidence of disease activity or neurodegeneration in neuromyelitis optica between relapses. To investigate this we conducted a longitudinal advanced MRI study of the brain and spinal cord in neuromyelitis optica patients, comparing to patients with multiple sclerosis and controls. We found both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of diffusely distributed neurodegenerative surrogates in the multiple sclerosis group (including thalamic atrophy, cervical cord atrophy and progressive widespread diffusion and myelin water imaging abnormalities in the normal appearing white matter but not in those with neuromyelitis optica, where localised abnormalities in the optic radiations of those with severe visual impairment were noted. In addition, between relapses, there were no new silent brain lesions in the neuromyelitis optica group. These findings indicate that global central nervous system neurodegeneration is not a feature of neuromyelitis optica. The work also questions the theory that neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis is a chronic sequela to prior inflammatory and demyelinating pathology, as this has not been found to be the case in neuromyelitis optica where the lesions are often more destructive.

  1. Socket sclerosis--an obstacle for orthodontic space closure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertel, Sebastian

    2009-07-01

    Socket sclerosis is a rare reaction to tooth extraction resulting in high-density bone in the center of the alveolar process, where, under normal circumstances, cancellous bone is to be expected. In an adult orthodontic patient, routine extractions of the mandibular first permanent bicuspids were performed, resulting in socket sclerosis and unsuccessful orthodontic space closure. Orthodontic mini-implants were inserted to augment anchorage and aid in space closure. In the presence of socket sclerosis, conventional orthodontic mechanics failed to close the extraction spaces. However, with absolute anchorage in place, space closure occurred at a nearly normal rate. After treatment, no signs of socket sclerosis were discernible on the periapical radiographs. Socket sclerosis can be an obstacle for orthodontic space closure if traditional mechanics are employed. However, mini-implant-reinforced anchorage can lead to successful space closure, resulting in complete resolution of the sclerotic sites.

  2. Normal sacroiliac joint: a CT study of asymptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogler, J.B. III; Brown, W.H.; Helms, C.A.; Genant, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    The sacroiliac (SI) joints of 45 asymptomatic subjects were prospectively studied to define better the normal appearance of SI joints on CT scans and therby attach appropriate significance to CT signs of sacroiliitis. Joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, erosions, ankylosis, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and symmetry were evaluted. The results indicate that the SI joints demonstrate symmetry in patients under the age of 30 (100% of subjects in this age group). Those CT findings of sacroiliitis that occurred infrequently in the asymptomatic population, and hence may represent good indicators of sacroiliac disease, include increased sacral subchondral sclerosis in subjects under the age of 40 (11%), bilateral or unilateral uniform joint space of less than 2 mm (2% or 0%, respectively), erosions (2%), and intraarticular ankylosis (0%)

  3. CT appearance of splenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelson, D.S.; Cohen, B.A.; Armas, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Splenosis is an unusual complication of splenic trauma. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of splenosis is described. One should consider this diagnosis when faced with a history of splenic trauma and multiple round or oval masses at CT.

  4. CT appearance of splenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.S.; Cohen, B.A.; Armas, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Splenosis is an unusual complication of splenic trauma. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of splenosis is described. One should consider this diagnosis when faced with a history of splenic trauma and multiple round or oval masses at CT

  5. On Multiple Appearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    reduction and epoché to focus on how dancing bodies appear in a stage context. To test these tools’ ability to explore dancing bodies from a third-person perspective, I analyse the Danish choreographer Kitt Johnson’s solo performance Drift (2011) - focussing on her shifting physical appearance. While...... phenomenology helps me to describe the multiple and radically different guises that Johnson assumes in her piece, my analysis, ultimately, does not aim to distil a truer, more real being from her appearances as is often the case in phenomenological philosophy. I complement my analytical approach...... with the Deleuzian notion of becoming animal and suggest that Johnson stages what could, in Judith Butler’s terms, be called a critical contingency of bodily appearance....

  6. Variable radiosensitivity in fibroblasts from patients with tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Arima, M.; Ohno, K.

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that some of the cultured cell strains derived from patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) showed hypersensitivity to gamma-rays or a radiomimetic chemical. Thirteen fibroblast cell strains from 11 patients with TS were examined for their sensitivity to x-rays as determined from their colony-forming ability. All strains derived from normal-appearing skin of patients, either sporadic or familial cases, showed sensitivity within the normal control range. Five cell strains originating from tumorous skin of 3 patients did not show hypersensitivity. It was concluded that the sensitivity to x-rays of cultured cells of TS is essentially normal. However, the mean D0 or D10 values of the strains from tumorous skin tended to be lower compared to those for normal skin of patients. In addition, the hypersensitivity to x-rays was confirmed in the cell strains of TS which had been shown to be hypersensitive to gamma-rays. These results appear to indicate that at least some of the cells of TS are liable to change to exhibit a hypersensitive trait in unknown acquired conditions

  7. Leukocyte-derived microparticles and scanning electron microscopic structures in two fractions of fresh cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachau Anne C

    2012-09-01

    lipid appearance, sticking together in a viscous batter. The quantitative increase in scanning electron microscopy findings corresponded to the flow cytometry result of an increase in leukocyte-derived microparticles. Conclusions Microparticles represent subcellular arrangements that can influence the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and may serve as biomarkers for underlying cellular disturbances. The increased number of leukocyte-derived microparticles with normal cell counts in cerebrospinal fluid may contribute to the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis inflammatory process by formation of immune complexes of prion-like propagation, possibly due to misfolded proteins. The two complementary methods used in this report may be additional tools for revealing the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, for early diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of clinical trials, long-term follow-up studies and elucidating the pathophysiology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  8. Magnetic resonance in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotti, G.; Caputo, D.; Cazzullo, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed in more than 200 patients with clinical suspicion or knowledge of Multiple Sclerosis. One hundred and forty-seven (60 males and 87 females) had MR evidence of multiple sclerosis lesions. The MR signal of demyelinating plaques characteristically has prolonged T1 and T2 relaxation times and the T2-weighted spin-echo sequences are generally superior to the T1-weighted images because the lesions are better visualized as areas of increased signal intensity. MR is also able to detect plaques in the brainstem, cerebellum and within the cervical spinal cord. MR appears to be an important, non-invasive method for the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and has proven to be diagnostically superior to CT, evoked potentials (EP) and CSF examination. In a selected group of 30 patients, with the whole battery of the relevant MS studies, MR was positive in 100%, CT in 33,3%, EP in 56% and CSF examination in 60%. In patients clinically presenting only with signs of spinal cord involvement or optic neuritis or when the clinical presentation is uncertain MR has proven to be a very useful diagnostic tool for diagnosis of MS by demonstrating unsuspected lesions in the cerebral hemispheres. (orig.)

  9. Wedgelet Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2004-01-01

    Statistical region-based segmentation methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images based on learning the variation in shape and pixel intensities in a training set. For low resolution 2D images correspondences can be recovered reliably....... The wedgelet regression trees employed are based on triangular domains and estimated using cross validation. The wedgelet regression trees are functional descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. The wedgelet enhanced appearance model...

  10. Tuberculous peritonitis: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, R.D.; Hunter, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    Rare, sporadic cases of tuberculous peritonitis do occur in the United States and other advanced countries. Because there are few descriptions of the CT appearance of the peritoneal forms of tuberculous (TB), this report illustrates a case of tuberculous peritonitis with prominent CT findings and discusses the differentiation of this entity from other, more common diseases

  11. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament.

  12. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament

  13. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Statistical region-based registration methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images. At low resolution, images correspondences can be recovered reliably in real-time. However, as resolution increases this becomes infeasible due...... representation are superior to wavelet representations at high dimensionality-reduction rates. At low reduction rates an edge enhanced wavelet representation provides better segmentation accuracy than the full standard AAM model....

  14. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  15. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented

  16. Realistic Material Appearance Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří; Hatka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 81 (2010), s. 13-14 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : bidirectional texture function * texture modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/RO/haindl-realistic material appearance modelling.pdf

  17. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  18. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  19. Uterine Leiomyoma: Hysterosalpingographic Appearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of genital tract. The etiology of myomasis unknown. Leiomyoma shows a broad spectrum of radiographic appearances depending on thenumber, size, and location of the tumor. The diagnostic method for uterine leiomyomas is basedprimarily on the clinical situation. Despite of the varied diagnostic options such as; transvaginalsonography, sonohysterography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy and MRI; hysterosalpingography isstill one of the valuable imaging methods for identification of uterine leiomyoma.The various features of the proved leiomyoma are illustrated in this pictorial review. The incidence,risk factors and clinical features will also be discussed briefly.

  20. Wavelet Enhanced Appearance Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Forchhammer, Søren; Cootes, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    Generative segmentation methods such as the Active Appearance Models (AAM) establish dense correspondences by modelling variation of shape and pixel intensities. Alas, for 3D and high-resolution 2D images typical in medical imaging, this approach is rendered infeasible due to excessive storage......-7 wavelets on face images have shown that segmentation accuracy degrades gracefully with increasing compression ratio. Further, a proposed weighting scheme emphasizing edges was shown to be significantly more accurate at compression ratio 1:1, than a conventional AAM. At higher compression ratios the scheme...

  1. Appearance is a function of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Gregory L; Rankin, Marlene K

    2010-03-01

    Increasingly, third-party insurers deny coverage to patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities because these are not seen as "functional." Recent facial transplants have demonstrated that severely deformed patients are willing to undergo potentially life-threatening surgery in search of a normal physiognomy. Scant quantitative research exists that objectively documents appearance as a primary "function" of the face. This study was designed to establish a population-based definition of the functions of the human face, rank importance of the face among various anatomical areas, and determine the risk value the average person places on a normal appearance. Voluntary adult subjects (n = 210) in three states aged 18 to 75 years were recruited using a quota sampling technique. Subjects completed study questionnaires of demography and bias using the Gamble Chance of Death Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The face ranked as the most important anatomical area for functional reconstruction. Appearance was the fifth most important function of the face, after breathing, sight, speech, and eating. Normal facial appearance was rated as very important for one to be a functioning member of American society (p = 0.01) by 49 percent. One in seven subjects (13 percent) would accept a 30 to 45 percent risk of death to obtain a "normal" face. Normal appearance is a primary function of the face, based on a large, culturally diverse population sample across the lifespan. Normal appearance ranks above smell and expression as a function. Restoration of facial appearance is ranked the most important anatomical area for repair. Normal facial appearance is very important for one to be a functional member of American society.

  2. Related B cell clones populate the meninges and parenchyma of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Laura; Willis, Simon N; Rodig, Scott J; Caron, Tyler; Almendinger, Stefany E; Howell, Owain W; Reynolds, Richard; O'Connor, Kevin C; Hafler, David A

    2011-02-01

    In the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis, B cell aggregates populate the meninges, raising the central question as to whether these structures relate to the B cell infiltrates found in parenchymal lesions or instead, represent a separate central nervous system immune compartment. We characterized the repertoires derived from meningeal B cell aggregates and the corresponding parenchymal infiltrates from brain tissue derived primarily from patients with progressive multiple sclerosis. The majority of expanded antigen-experienced B cell clones derived from meningeal aggregates were also present in the parenchyma. We extended this investigation to include 20 grey matter specimens containing meninges, 26 inflammatory plaques, 19 areas of normal appearing white matter and cerebral spinal fluid. Analysis of 1833 B cell receptor heavy chain variable region sequences demonstrated that antigen-experienced clones were consistently shared among these distinct compartments. This study establishes a relationship between extraparenchymal lymphoid tissue and parenchymal infiltrates and defines the arrangement of B cell clones that populate the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis.

  3. Balo's concentric sclerosis; value of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Kuruvilla, A.; Korah, I.P.; Alexander, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report two cases of Balo's concentric sclerosis that demonstrate the typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of concentric rings of demyelination involving the superficial and deep white matter and sparing the cortex. In both cases biopsy was not performed as MRI findings and multi-mode evoked potential studies were consistent with demyelinating illness. The theories regarding the pathogenesis of this peculiar appearance are briefly reviewed. Balo's concentric sclerosis is a very rare type of demyelinating disease characterized pathologically by large alternating lamellae of demyelinated and myelinated white matter arranged in a concentric pattern. This progressive disease is more often found in young male adults and is more common in the Philippines. Balo's concentric sclerosis is considered an unusual variant of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, some authors believe it to be a different entity. Although the pathogenesis of the concentric sclerosis is debated, the cause of demyelination is generally presumed to be the same as that of multiple sclerosis. There is striking resemblance between the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance and the histopathological features of MS. Not all cases may show a typical MR appearance. Prior to MR imaging, most of them were diagnosed at post-mortem. To our knowledge, few cases have been diagnosed by MR imaging in life. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Thallium-201 for myocardial imaging: appearance of the normal heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.J.; Bailey, I.; Strauss, H.W.; Rouleau, J.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Pitt, B.

    1976-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion images were obtained from 13 healthy adults after tracer administration both at rest and at maximal stress. On the rest-injected scan, tracer was seen in left ventricular myocardium, liver, and spleen. In two subjects with resting tachycardia, the right ventricular myocardium was slightly visualized after tracer injection at rest. When tracer was administered at stress, the left ventricular activity was more nearly homogeneous and the left ventricle was better defined on the scan. The left-ventricle-to-lung-background activity ratio increased from 2.4 at rest to 3.4 at stress. The right ventricular myocardium was seen on the stress-injected scan. Phantom studies, performed to define the optimum position for visualization of lesions, showed that small lesions were best defined when seen either en face or in tangent. Scans should be performed at stress whenever possible and multiple views are essential

  5. Circulating antibody to myelin basic protein in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggins, J.A.; Taylor, A.; Caspary, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Sera from multiple sclerosis patients with relapsing-remitting disease and normal subjects were tested for antibody to myelin basic protein by a sensitive radioimmunoassay. The results showed a marginally decreased titre in multiple sclerosis superimposed on a seasonal variation. There was no correlation with the clinical state of the patients. Results are discussed briefly in relation to humoral antibody function in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalitis. (author)

  6. Saliency Changes Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzel, Dirk; Schönhammer, Josef; Burra, Nicolas; Born, Sabine; Souto, David

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the deployment of attention is linked to saliency. In contrast, very little is known about how salient objects are perceived. To probe the perception of salient elements, observers compared two horizontally aligned stimuli in an array of eight elements. One of them was salient because of its orientation or direction of motion. We observed that the perceived luminance contrast or color saturation of the salient element increased: the salient stimulus looked even more salient. We explored the possibility that changes in appearance were caused by attention. We chose an event-related potential indexing attentional selection, the N2pc, to answer this question. The absence of an N2pc to the salient object provides preliminary evidence against involuntary attentional capture by the salient element. We suggest that signals from a master saliency map flow back into individual feature maps. These signals boost the perceived feature contrast of salient objects, even on perceptual dimensions different from the one that initially defined saliency. PMID:22162760

  7. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  8. Multiple sclerosis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This volume proceedings contains four contributions which are in INIS scope, dealing with MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and assessment of disease activity. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. Rehabilitation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation becomes of major importance in the preservation of physical, psychological and social functioning. Approximately 80% of patients have multiple sclerosis for more than 35 years and most will develop disability at some point......, a paradigm shift is taking place and it is now increasingly acknowledged that exercise therapy is both safe and beneficial. Robot-assisted training is also attracting attention in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation. Several sophisticated commercial robots exist, but so far the number of scientific studies...... promising. This drug has been shown to improve walking ability in some patients with multiple sclerosis, associated with a reduction of patients' self-reported ambulatory disability. Rehabilitation strategies involving these different approaches, or combinations of them, may be of great use in improving...

  10. MR imaging of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, Hiroshi; Monzawa, Shuichi (Yamanashi Medical College, Nakakoma (Japan). Hospital); Araki, Tsutomu (and others)

    1992-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) provides a sensitive method for mapping the normal and pathological distribution of iron in the brain. High field strength MR imaging (1.5 T) was used to evaluate eight patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 49 neurological normal control patients. All eight ALS patients showed decreased signal intensity in the motor cortex on T2-weighted images, while only one of the normal control patients showed this finding. The results suggested that the decreased signal intensity in the motor cortex in ALS was caused by the deposition of iron in this area. (author).

  11. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Reem H A; Nassef, Amr A

    2010-02-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem disease where functional and structural abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Recently, transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhages have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. Evaluate brain changes in patients with systemic sclerosis using MRI. Thirty female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. An age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain MR examination. Central nervous system involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on MR evaluation than in the age-related control group, signifying a form of central nervous system vasculopathy. Such foci showed no definite correlation with disease duration, yet they showed significant correlation to severity of peripheral vascular disease, headaches, fainting attacks and depression in the group under study. Asymptomatic as well as symptomatic central nervous system ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and MRI is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging perfusion is associated with disease severity and activity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Piotr [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Owren Nygaard, Gro [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Oslo (Norway); Bjoernerud, Atle [Intervention Center, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Gulowsen Celius, Elisabeth [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Flinstad Harbo, Hanne [University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Oslo (Norway); Kristiansen Beyer, Mona [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Department of Life Sciences and Health, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    The utility of perfusion-weighted imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare baseline normalized perfusion measures in subgroups of newly diagnosed MS patients. We wanted to test the hypothesis that this method can differentiate between groups defined according to disease severity and disease activity at 1 year follow-up. Baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion sequence was performed on a 1.5-T scanner in 66 patients newly diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS. From the baseline MRI, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) maps were generated. Normalized (n) perfusion values were calculated by dividing each perfusion parameter obtained in white matter lesions by the same parameter obtained in normal-appearing white matter. Neurological examination was performed at baseline and at follow-up approximately 1 year later to establish the multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS) and evidence of disease activity (EDA). Baseline normalized mean transit time (nMTT) was lower in patients with MSSS >3.79 (p = 0.016), in patients with EDA (p = 0.041), and in patients with both MSSS >3.79 and EDA (p = 0.032) at 1-year follow-up. Baseline normalized cerebral blood flow and normalized cerebral blood volume did not differ between these groups. Lower baseline nMTT was associated with higher disease severity and with presence of disease activity 1 year later in newly diagnosed MS patients. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether baseline-normalized perfusion measures can differentiate between disease severity and disease activity subgroups over time. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging perfusion is associated with disease severity and activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, Piotr; Owren Nygaard, Gro; Bjoernerud, Atle; Gulowsen Celius, Elisabeth; Flinstad Harbo, Hanne; Kristiansen Beyer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The utility of perfusion-weighted imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare baseline normalized perfusion measures in subgroups of newly diagnosed MS patients. We wanted to test the hypothesis that this method can differentiate between groups defined according to disease severity and disease activity at 1 year follow-up. Baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion sequence was performed on a 1.5-T scanner in 66 patients newly diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS. From the baseline MRI, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) maps were generated. Normalized (n) perfusion values were calculated by dividing each perfusion parameter obtained in white matter lesions by the same parameter obtained in normal-appearing white matter. Neurological examination was performed at baseline and at follow-up approximately 1 year later to establish the multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS) and evidence of disease activity (EDA). Baseline normalized mean transit time (nMTT) was lower in patients with MSSS >3.79 (p = 0.016), in patients with EDA (p = 0.041), and in patients with both MSSS >3.79 and EDA (p = 0.032) at 1-year follow-up. Baseline normalized cerebral blood flow and normalized cerebral blood volume did not differ between these groups. Lower baseline nMTT was associated with higher disease severity and with presence of disease activity 1 year later in newly diagnosed MS patients. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether baseline-normalized perfusion measures can differentiate between disease severity and disease activity subgroups over time. (orig.)

  14. Lung commitment in Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, Jorge A; Araque G, Julio Mario; Camargo P, Carlos B

    1992-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare hereditary anomaly characterized by hamartomas in many parts of the body. Lung involvement is found in only one of 100 cases. In this case report we present a patient with lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis

  15. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  16. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  17. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Academic Dept. of Radiology; Bolton, P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Section of Developmental Psychiatry; Verity, C. [Addenbrooke`s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)

  18. Primary progressive multiple sclerosis in the Polish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Brola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was the epidemiological analysis and evaluation of selected clinical and sociodemographic factors in Polish patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Methods: The study included patients from 7 provinces in central and eastern Poland registered in the Registry of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis on 31 December 2016. The incidence of various forms of the disease was compared, and clinical, demographic and social disparities between relapsing-remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis were analysed. Results: Of 3,199 registered patients, 2,188 persons (66.2% had the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis, 774 (24.2% had the secondary progressive type and 307 (9.6% suffered from primary progressive disease. The first symptoms of primary progressive multiple sclerosis appeared almost 10 years later than in patients with the relapsing-remitting type (39.2 ± 11.4 vs. 29.8 ± 9.8. The period from the first symptoms to diagnosis was more than twice as long in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (5.8 ± 3.4 as in those with relapsing-remitting disease (2.4 ± 1.6. The average degree of disability in the Expanded Disability Status Scale was similar and amounted to 3.2 ± 2.1 for relapsing-remitting and 3.6 ± 2.4 for primary progressive multiple sclerosis. The relapsing-remitting form was observed more often in women (2.4:1, and the primary progressive form appeared with equal frequency in both sexes (1:1. Disease-modifying treatment was received by 34% of patients with relapsing-remitting and in only 1.9% of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Conclusions: The primary progressive form affects approximately 10% of Polish patients with multiple sclerosis. The first symptoms appear at about 40 years of age with equal frequency in both sexes, and its diagnosis takes more than twice as much time as in the case of relapsing-remitting multiple

  19. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, K.; Magyar, L.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role

  20. Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Steen, V.D.; Uretsky, B.F.; Owens, G.R.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thallium defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury

  1. Primary lateral sclerosis mimicking atypical parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlinah, Ibrahim M; Bhatia, Kailash P; Østergaard, Karen

    2007-01-01

    of the atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here we describe five patients initially referred with a diagnosis of levodopa-unresponsive atypical parkinsonism (n = 4) or primary progressive multiple sclerosis (n = 1), but subsequently found to have features consistent with PLS instead. Onset age varied from 49 to 67......Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), the upper motor neurone variant of motor neurone disease, is characterized by progressive spinal or bulbar spasticity with minimal motor weakness. Rarely, PLS may present with clinical features resembling parkinsonism resulting in occasional misdiagnosis as one...... in all patients. Anterior horn cell involvement developed in three cases. Early gait disturbances resulting in falls were seen in all patients and none of them responded to dopaminergic medications. Two patients underwent dopamine transporter (DaT) SPECT scanning with normal results. Other features...

  2. Pulmonary function and dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, S C; Utell, M J; Rudick, R A; Herndon, R M

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary function was studied in 25 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis with a range of motor impairment. Forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) were normal in the ambulatory patients (mean greater than or equal to 80% predicted) but reduced in bedridden patients (mean, 38.5%, 31.6%, and 36.3% predicted; FCV, MVV, and MEP, respectively) and wheelchair-bound patients with upper extremity involvement (mean, 69.4%, 50.4%, and 62.6% predicted; FVC, MVV, and MEP, respectively). Forced vital capacity, MVV, and MEP correlated with Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status scores (tau = -0.72, -0.70, and -0.65) and expiratory muscle weakness occurred most frequently. These findings demonstrate that marked expiratory weakness develops in severely paraparetic patients with multiple sclerosis and the weakness increases as the upper extremities become increasingly involved.

  3. Hippocampal sclerosis: correlation of MR imaging findings with surgical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Sung Ho; Nam, Hyun Woo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Cho, Woo Ho

    2001-01-01

    Atrophy and a high T2 signal of the hippocampus are known to be the principal MR imaging findings of hippocampal sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not individual MRI findings correlate with surgical outcome in patients with this condition. Preoperative MR imaging findings in 57 consecutive patients with pathologically-proven hippocampal sclerosis who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were followed-up for 24 months or more were retrospectively reviewed, and the results were compared with the postsurgical outcome (Engel classification). The MR images included routine sagittal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted spin-echo images, and oblique coronal T1-weighted 3D gradient-echo and T2-weighted 2D fast spin-echo images obtained on either a 1.5 T or 1.0 T unit. The images were visually evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to the outcome; their focus was the presence or absence of atrophy and a high T2 hippocampal signal. Hippocampal atrophy was seen in 96% of cases (55/57) [100% (53/53) of the good outcome group (Engel class I and II), and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group (class III and IV)]. A high T2 hippocampal signal was seen in 61% of cases (35/57) [62% (33/53) of the good outcome group and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group]. All 35 patients with a high T2 signal had hippocampal atrophy. 'Normal' hippocampus, as revealed by MR imaging, occurred in 4% of patients (2/57), both of whom showed a poor outcome (Engel class III). The presence or absence of hippocampal atrophy correlated well with surgical outcome (p 0.05). Compared with a high T2 hippocampal signal, hippocampal atrophy is more common and correlates better with surgical outcome. For the prediction of this, it thus appears to be the more useful indicator

  4. Motor network efficiency and disability in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldizli, Özgür; Sethi, Varun; Muhlert, Nils; Liu, Zheng; Samson, Rebecca S.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Ron, Maria A.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A.M.; Miller, David H.; Chard, Declan T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a composite MRI-based measure of motor network integrity, and determine if it explains disability better than conventional MRI measures in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Tract density imaging and constrained spherical deconvolution tractography were used to identify motor network connections in 22 controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), and normalized volume were computed in each tract in 71 people with relapse onset MS. Principal component analysis was used to distill the FA, MTR, and tract volume data into a single metric for each tract, which in turn was used to compute a composite measure of motor network efficiency (composite NE) using graph theory. Associations were investigated between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the following MRI measures: composite motor NE, NE calculated using FA alone, FA averaged in the combined motor network tracts, brain T2 lesion volume, brain parenchymal fraction, normal-appearing white matter MTR, and cervical cord cross-sectional area. Results: In univariable analysis, composite motor NE explained 58% of the variation in EDSS in the whole MS group, more than twice that of the other MRI measures investigated. In a multivariable regression model, only composite NE and disease duration were independently associated with EDSS. Conclusions: A composite MRI measure of motor NE was able to predict disability substantially better than conventional non-network-based MRI measures. PMID:26320199

  5. Seizures in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Polman, Susan; De Keyser, Jacques

    Seizures have long been recognized to be part of the disease spectrum of multiple sclerosis (MS). While they occur in only a minority of patients with MS, epileptic seizures can have serious consequences. The treatment of MS can be epileptogenic, and antiepileptic treatment can conversely worsen the

  6. Zinc in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredholt, Mikkel; Fredriksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    In the last 35 years, zinc (Zn) has been examined for its potential role in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). This review gives an overview of the possible role of Zn in the pathogenesis of MS as well as a meta-analysis of studies having measured Zn in serum or plasma in patients with MS...

  7. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, J. L.; Topsøe Mailand, M.

    2017-01-01

    An association between certain vaccinations and onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been debated. Based on PubMed, we made a thorough literature review and included all relevant studies, 51 on MS and 15 on optic neuritis (ON). Case studies were excluded. With the exception of a live...

  8. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mia Topsøe; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2017-01-01

    on the database PubMed. The study found no change in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination against hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza, measles–mumps–rubella, variola, tetanus, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), polio, or diphtheria. No change in risk of relapse...

  9. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis

  10. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-10-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

  11. Diffusion tensor MR imaging evaluation of the corpus callosum of patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, Fernanda; Domingues, Romeu Cortes; Papais-Alvarenga, Regina M.; Gasparetto, Emerson L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the normal-appearing white matter of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Method: Fifty-seven patients with diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS and 47 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. A conventional MR imaging protocol and a DTI sequence were performed. One neuro radiologist placed the regions of interest (ROIs) in the FA maps in five different portions of the normal-appearing CC (rostrum, genu, anterior and posterior portion of the body and splenium) in all cases. The statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The FA values were lower in the MS patients compared with the controls (p<0.05) in the following CC regions: rostrum (0.720 vs 0.819), anterior body (0.698 vs 0.752), posterior body (0.711 vs 0.759) and splenium (0.720 vs 0.880). Conclusion: In this series, there was a robust decrease in the FA in all regions of the normal-appearing CC, being significant in the rostrum, body and splenium. This finding suggests that there is a subtle and diffuse abnormality in the CC, which could be probably related to myelin content loss, axonal damage and gliosis. (author)

  12. Short-term evolution of spinal cord damage in multiple sclerosis: a diffusion tensor MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theaudin, M.; Denier, C.; Adams, D. [AP-HP, CHU Bicetre, Service de Neurologie Adultes, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); INSERM, UMR788, Faculte de Medecine Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Saliou, G. [AP-HP, CHU Bicetre, Service de Neuroradiologie, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Ducot, B. [INSERM, U1018, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Faculte de Medecine Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Deiva, K. [Service de Neuropediatrie, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Ducreux, D. [INSERM, UMR788, Faculte de Medecine Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); AP-HP, CHU Bicetre, Service de Neuroradiologie, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2012-10-15

    The potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect spinal cord abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis has already been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to apply DTI techniques to multiple sclerosis patients with a recently diagnosed spinal cord lesion, in order to demonstrate a correlation between variations of DTI parameters and clinical outcome, and to try to identify DTI parameters predictive of outcome. A prospective single-centre study of patients with spinal cord relapse treated by intravenous steroid therapy was made. Patients were assessed clinically and by conventional MRI with DTI sequences at baseline and at 3 months. Sixteen patients were recruited. At 3 months, 12 patients were clinically improved. All but one patient had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values than normal subjects in either inflammatory lesions or normal-appearing spinal cord. Patients who improved at 3 months presented a significant reduction in the radial diffusivity (p = 0.05) in lesions during the follow-up period. They also had a significant reduction in the mean ADC (p = 0.002), axial diffusivity (p = 0.02), radial diffusivity (p = 0.02) and a significant increase in FA values (p = 0.02) in normal-appearing spinal cord. Patients in whom the American Spinal Injury Association sensory score improved at 3 months showed a significantly higher FA (p = 0.009) and lower radial diffusivity (p = 0.04) in inflammatory lesion at baseline compared to patients with no improvement. DTI MRI detects more extensive abnormalities than conventional T2 MRI. A less marked decrease in FA value and more marked decreased in radial diffusivity inside the inflammatory lesion were associated with better outcome. (orig.)

  13. Short-term evolution of spinal cord damage in multiple sclerosis: a diffusion tensor MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theaudin, M.; Denier, C.; Adams, D.; Saliou, G.; Ducot, B.; Deiva, K.; Ducreux, D.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect spinal cord abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis has already been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to apply DTI techniques to multiple sclerosis patients with a recently diagnosed spinal cord lesion, in order to demonstrate a correlation between variations of DTI parameters and clinical outcome, and to try to identify DTI parameters predictive of outcome. A prospective single-centre study of patients with spinal cord relapse treated by intravenous steroid therapy was made. Patients were assessed clinically and by conventional MRI with DTI sequences at baseline and at 3 months. Sixteen patients were recruited. At 3 months, 12 patients were clinically improved. All but one patient had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values than normal subjects in either inflammatory lesions or normal-appearing spinal cord. Patients who improved at 3 months presented a significant reduction in the radial diffusivity (p = 0.05) in lesions during the follow-up period. They also had a significant reduction in the mean ADC (p = 0.002), axial diffusivity (p = 0.02), radial diffusivity (p = 0.02) and a significant increase in FA values (p = 0.02) in normal-appearing spinal cord. Patients in whom the American Spinal Injury Association sensory score improved at 3 months showed a significantly higher FA (p = 0.009) and lower radial diffusivity (p = 0.04) in inflammatory lesion at baseline compared to patients with no improvement. DTI MRI detects more extensive abnormalities than conventional T2 MRI. A less marked decrease in FA value and more marked decreased in radial diffusivity inside the inflammatory lesion were associated with better outcome. (orig.)

  14. Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudick, R.A.; Stuart, W.H.; Calabresi, P.A.; Confavreux, C.; Galetta, S.L.; Radue, E.W.; Lublin, F.D.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Wynn, D.R.; Lynn, F.; Panzara, M.A.; Sandrock, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon beta is used to modify the course of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Despite interferon beta therapy, many patients have relapses. Natalizumab, an alpha4 integrin antagonist, appeared to be safe and effective alone and when added to interferon beta-1a in preliminary studies.

  15. Will the real multiple sclerosis please stand up?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stys, P.K.; Zamponi, G.W.; van Minnen, J.; Geurts, J.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be an autoimmune, inflammatory disease of the CNS. In most patients, the disease follows a relapsing - remitting course and is characterized by dynamic inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the CNS. Although on the surface MS may appear consistent with a

  16. Severe Neurological Involvement In Tuberous Sclerosis: A Report Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a genetic disorder characterised by the triad of cutaneous lesions, epilepsy and mental retardation. TS is known to have a wide clinical spectrum, with some affected individuals having only the cutaneous manifestations, normal IQ and no seizures, while others are severely affected having ...

  17. Menstrually related worsening of symptoms in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorgdrager, A; DeKeyser, J

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the menstrual cycle influences multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms. Seventy-two normally menstruating women (aged 20-50 years) with MS were interviewed. Of the 60 patients with a relapsing-remitting form of MS (RR-MS), 26 (43%) regularly

  18. Interferon Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alajbegovic, Azra; Deljo, Dervis; Alajbegovic, Salem; Djelilovic-Vranic, Jasminka; Todorovic, Ljubica; Tiric-Campara, Merita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) differ: treatment of relapse, treatment slow the progression of the disease (immunomodulators and immunosuppression), and symptomatic treatment. The aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the application of interferon therapy in the treatment of MS-E: Process the disease, patients with multiple sclerosis who have passed the commission for multiple sclerosis at the Neurology Clinic of Clinical Center of Sarajevo University as a refere...

  19. Ovarian metastases: Computed tomographic appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Hulnick, D.H.; Bosniak, M.A.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomographic scans of 34 patients with ovarian metastases were reviewed to assess the radiographic appearances and to correlate these with the primary neoplasms. Primary neoplasms were located in the colon (20 patients), breast (six), stomach (five), small bowel (one), bladder (one), and Wilms tumor of the kidney (one). The radiographic appearance of the metastatic lesions could be described as predominantly cystic (14 lesions), mixed (12 lesions), or solid (seven lesions). The cystic and mixed lesions tended to be larger in overall diameter than the solid. The metastases from gastric carcinoma appeared solid in four of five cases. The metastases from the other neoplasms had variable appearances simulating primary ovarian carcinoma

  20. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case-control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980-2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry...... and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique...

  1. [Multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2016-12-16

    Today, the care of patients with multiple sclerosis and those around them represents a clinical and therapeutic challenge for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study is to analyse the appearance of multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television, and to reflect upon the image it has in these media. Several representative works that have addressed multiple sclerosis were reviewed, and many of them were seen to offer a very true-to-life vision of the disease. Likewise, a review was also conducted of the most relevant films and TV series that, on occasions, offer the general public a close look at the impact of the disease on patients or relatives, although they are sometimes somewhat exaggerated for the sake of increased dramatic effect and offer a slightly distorted view of reality. Literature largely reflects the real epidemiology, the symptoms and development of the disease, while less attention seems to be given to the diagnostic and therapeutic options open to patients. Cinema and television have offered a correct image but sometimes with the addition of more dramatic effects. It is important for literature, cinema and television to offer a realistic view of this neurological disease so as to make it better known among the public and to help lessen the stigma attached to it.

  2. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffoli, A.; Micheletti, E.; Capra, R.; Mattioli, F.; Marciano', N.

    1991-01-01

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  3. Suicide and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, N

    1992-01-01

    In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...... with an onset of the disease within the period 1953-85, or for whom MS was diagnosed in the same period. Fifty three of the 5525 cases in the onset cohort group committed suicide. Using the figures from the population death statistics by adjustment to number of subjects, duration of observation, sex, age......, and calendar year at the start of observation, the expected number of suicides was calculated to be nearly 29. The cumulative lifetime risk of suicide from onset of MS, using an actuarial method of calculation, was 1.95%. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide in MS was 1.83. It was highest for males...

  4. The radiological appearances of thalassaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Madani, G.; Chaudhuri, R.; Wilson, L.F.; Dick, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The skeletal changes of untreated thalassaemia result from ineffective erythropoiesis and expansion of the bone marrow and affect every part of the skeleton. These changes include osteoporosis, growth retardation, platyspondyly and kyphosis. Erythropoiesis occurs at extra-medullary sites, most commonly resulting in a paraspinal mass but occasionally affecting organs containing pluripotential stem cells. Repeated transfusion unaccompanied by iron chelation causes haemosiderosis; iron is deposited at various sites causing functional impairment. Iron-chelation therapy with desferrioxamine (DFX) prevents haemosiderosis but causes a skeletal dysplasia predominantly affecting the rapidly growing long bones, in particular the distal ulna, and causing irregularity and sclerosis of the physeal-metaphyseal junction and splaying of the metaphysis. DFX also exacerbates the observed growth retardation. DFX-induced skeletal dysplasia may herald toxicity, which is associated with visual and auditory impairment. Therefore, careful balancing of the transfusion regimen and iron-chelation therapy is required. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive technique for the detection of DFX-induced dysplasia

  5. The radiological appearances of thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, P.A. [St Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: philippatyler@msn.com; Madani, G. [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Chaudhuri, R. [Whittington Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Wilson, L.F. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Dick, E.A. [St Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    The skeletal changes of untreated thalassaemia result from ineffective erythropoiesis and expansion of the bone marrow and affect every part of the skeleton. These changes include osteoporosis, growth retardation, platyspondyly and kyphosis. Erythropoiesis occurs at extra-medullary sites, most commonly resulting in a paraspinal mass but occasionally affecting organs containing pluripotential stem cells. Repeated transfusion unaccompanied by iron chelation causes haemosiderosis; iron is deposited at various sites causing functional impairment. Iron-chelation therapy with desferrioxamine (DFX) prevents haemosiderosis but causes a skeletal dysplasia predominantly affecting the rapidly growing long bones, in particular the distal ulna, and causing irregularity and sclerosis of the physeal-metaphyseal junction and splaying of the metaphysis. DFX also exacerbates the observed growth retardation. DFX-induced skeletal dysplasia may herald toxicity, which is associated with visual and auditory impairment. Therefore, careful balancing of the transfusion regimen and iron-chelation therapy is required. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive technique for the detection of DFX-induced dysplasia.

  6. Fast Newton active appearance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are statistical models of shape and appearance widely used in computer vision to detect landmarks on objects like faces. Fitting an AAM to a new image can be formulated as a non-linear least-squares problem which is typically solved using iterative methods. Owing to

  7. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bošnjak-Pašić, Marija; Vidrih, Branka; Miškov, Snježana; Demarin, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by multifocal inflammatory destruction of myelin, axonal damage and loss of oligodendrocytes. The disease is carried through two stages: inflammatory and degenerative. The most common form of disease in approximately 85% of the cases is RRMS (relapsing-remitting form). The treatment of MS is divided into: treatment of the acute phase of illness, prevention of new relapses and di...

  8. Midkine and multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination with subsequent neuronal damage in the CNS. MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been thought as autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated diseases. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune tolerance, and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCreg) drive the development of inducible Treg cells. Thus, a dysfunction in the d...

  9. Rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsik-Gidlewska, Anna M; Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Klimkiewicz, Robert; Janczewska, Katarzyna; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to present a strategy of rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis on the basis of the latest developments in the field of physiotherapy. The publications on the problem discuss a wide range of methods of physiotherapy that can be used in order to reduce the degree of disability and alleviate the symptoms associated with the disease. The complexity of the disease, the difficulty in determining the appropriate treatment and a wide range of symptoms require a comprehensive approach to the patient, which would include both pharmacology and neurorehabilitation. Rehabilitation, which includes psychotherapy and symptomatic therapy, is regarded nowadays as the best form of treatment for multiple sclerosis. An indepth diagnostic assessment of functional status and prognosis should be carried out before the start of the rehabilitation process. The prognosis should take into account the mental state, the neurological status and the awareness of the patient. The kinesiotherapy program in multiple sclerosis is based on a gradation of physiotherapy which assumes a gradual transition from basic movements to more complex ones till global functions are obtained. The most appropriate form of treatment is functional rehabilitation combined with physical procedures. Recent reports indicate the need for aerobic training to be included in the rehabilitation program. The introduction of physical activities, regardless of the severity of the disease, will reduce the negative effects of akinesia, and thus increase the functional capabilities of all body systems.

  10. Capillaroscopy 2016: new perspectives in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pizzorni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by early impairment of the microvascular system. Nailfold microangiopathy and decreased peripheral blood perfusion are typical clinical aspects of SSc. The best method to evaluate vascular injury is nailfold videocapillaroscopy, which detects peripheral capillary morphology, and classifies and scores the abnormalities into different patterns of microangiopathy. Microangiopathy appears to be the best evaluable predictor of the disease development and has been observed to precede the other symptoms by many years. Peripheral blood perfusion is also impaired in SSc, and there are different methods to assess it: laser Doppler and laser speckle techniques, thermography and other emerging techniques.

  11. MDCT imaging of calcinosis in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, V.; Becce, F.; Feydy, A.; Guérini, H.; Campagna, R.; Allanore, Y.; Drapé, J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Calcinosis is a typical feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and can be found in many different tissues including the superficial soft tissues, periarticular structures, muscles, and tendons. It can also provoke erosive changes on bones. Investigation is conducted most often with plain radiographs. However, when a more detailed assessment is necessary, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is helpful owing to its multiplanar reformat (MPR) ability. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the various appearances of calcinosis in SSc patients as visualized at MDCT

  12. Evolution, Appearance, and Occupational Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Little

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a “kernel of truth” in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term “task-congruent selection” to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases

  13. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  14. Seven-Tesla Magnetization Transfer Imaging to Detect Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Lim, Su-Yin; Tanasescu, Radu; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Mougin, Olivier E; Tench, Christopher R; Whitehouse, William P; Gowland, Penny A; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2018-03-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 Tesla (T) field strength is the most sensitive modality for detecting white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. While 7T FLAIR is effective in detecting cortical lesions, it has not been fully optimized for visualization of white matter lesions and thus has not been used for delineating lesions in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of 7T magnetization-transfer-weighted (MT w ) images in the detection of white matter lesions compared with 3T-FLAIR. Fifteen patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 6 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 healthy participants were scanned with 7T 3-dimensional (D) MT w and 3T-2D-FLAIR sequences on the same day. White matter lesions visible on either sequence were delineated. Of 662 lesions identified on 3T-2D-FLAIR images, 652 were detected on 7T-3D-MT w images (sensitivity, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 97% to 99%). The Spearman correlation coefficient between lesion loads estimated by the two sequences was .910. The intrarater and interrater reliability for 7T-3D-MT w images was good with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 98.4% and 81.8%, which is similar to that for 3T-2D-FLAIR images (ICC 96.1% and 96.7%). Seven-Tesla MT w sequences detected most of the white matter lesions identified by FLAIR at 3T. This suggests that 7T-MT w imaging is a robust alternative for detecting demyelinating lesions in addition to 3T-FLAIR. Future studies need to compare the roles of optimized 7T-FLAIR and of 7T-MT w imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  15. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Denmark 1950-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Joan; Meulengracht Flachs, Esben; Stenager, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system of unknown aetiology. Its prevalence varies by ethnicity and place: persons of northern European descent are at increased risk while persons living at lower latitudes appear to be protected against the disease. The Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry is a national registry established in 1956 after a population-based survey which receives information from numerous sources. It is considered to be more than 90% complete, with a validity of 94%. Using data from the Registry, we calculated prevalences per 100,000 inhabitants....... The standardized prevalence of multiple sclerosis increased from 58.8 (95% confidence interval: 54.9-62.7) in 1950 to 154.5 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 148.8-160.2) in 2005, and the female to male ratio increased from 1.31 in 1950 to 2.02 in 2005. The increase in prevalence is due to both increased...

  16. Spinal-cord swelling in acute multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Seiji; Tashiro, Kunio; Naganuma, Mutsuo; Hida, Kazutoshi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Abe, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    Despite the frequent involvement of the spinal cord by multiple sclerosis, reports concerning neuroradiological findings regarding these lesions have been limited; most of them have demonstrated a normal or small spinal cord. Two cases of acute paraparesis showed evidence of spinal-cord swelling on myelography and CT myelography, initially suggesting the diagnosis of an intramedullary tumor. Spinal-cord swelling was demonstrated more clearly on CT myelography than on conventional myelography. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made with the aid of the CSF findings, the clinical course, and the contracting-cord sign. The ''contracting-cord sign'' means the diminution of the spinal-cord diameter in the chronic stage. Since acute multiple sclerosis may produce spinal-cord swelling simulating a tumor, careful investigations are necessary to avoid unwarranted surgical interventions. (author)

  17. Multiple sclerosis in children: an update on clinical diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Amy; Ghezzi, Angelo; Bar-Or, Amit; Mikaeloff, Yann; Tardieu, Marc; Banwell, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The clinical features, diagnostic challenges, neuroimaging appearance, therapeutic options, and pathobiological research progress in childhood—and adolescent—onset multiple sclerosis have been informed by many new insights in the past 7 years. National programmes in several countries, collaborative research efforts, and an established international paediatric multiple sclerosis study group have contributed to revised clinical diagnostic definitions, identified clinical features of multiple sclerosis that differ by age of onset, and made recommendations regarding the treatment of paediatric multiple sclerosis. The relative risks conveyed by genetic and environmental factors to paediatric multiple sclerosis have been the subject of several large cohort studies. MRI features have been characterised in terms of qualitative descriptions of lesion distribution and applicability of MRI aspects to multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria, and quantitative studies have assessed total lesion burden and the effect of the disease on global and regional brain volume. Humoral-based and cell-based assays have identified antibodies against myelin, potassium-channel proteins, and T-cell profiles that support an adult-like T-cell repertoire and cellular reactivity against myelin in paediatric patients with multiple sclerosis. Finally, the safety and efficacy of standard first-line therapies in paediatric multiple sclerosis populations are now appreciated in more detail, and consensus views on the future conduct and feasibility of phase 3 trials for new drugs have been proposed. PMID:25142460

  18. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  19. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  20. Is impaired cerebral vasoreactivity an early marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aude; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jeremy; Molino, François; Maréchal, Bénédicte; Picot, Marie-Christine; Ayrignac, Xavier; Carra, Clarisse; Bauchet, Luc; Krainik, Alexandre; Labauge, Pierre; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    The link between cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive status in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential decrease of cerebral vasoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate it with cognitive status. Thirty-three patients with multiple sclerosis (nine progressive and 24 remitting forms, median age: 39 years, 12 males) and 22 controls underwent MRI with a hypercapnic challenge to assess cerebral vasoreactivity and a neuropsychological assessment. Cerebral vasoreactivity, measured as the cerebral blood flow percent increase normalised by end-tidal carbon dioxide variation, was assessed globally and by regions of interest using the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Non-parametric statistics tests were used to assess differences between groups, and associations were estimated using linear models. Cerebral vasoreactivity was lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in cognitively normal patients (p=0.004) and was associated with education level in patients (R 2 = 0.35; p = 0.047). There was no decrease in cerebral vasoreactivity between patients and controls. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis may be mediated through decreased cerebral vasoreactivity. Cerebral vasoreactivity could therefore be considered as a marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis. • Cerebral vasoreactivity does not differ between multiple sclerosis patients and controls. • Cerebral vasoreactivity measure is linked to cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. • Cerebral vasoreactivity is linked to level of education in multiple sclerosis.

  1. Electrophysiological evidence for a defect in the processing of temporal sound patterns in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Sprague, L; Vaz Pato, M

    2002-11-01

    To assess the processing of spectrotemporal sound patterns in multiple sclerosis by using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to complex harmonic tones. 22 patients with definite multiple sclerosis but mild disability and no auditory complaints were compared with 15 normal controls. Short latency AEPs were recorded using standard methods. Long latency AEPs were recorded to synthesised musical instrument tones, at onset every two seconds, at abrupt frequency changes every two seconds, and at the end of a two second period of 16/s frequency changes. The subjects were inattentive but awake, reading irrelevant material. Short latency AEPs were abnormal in only 4 of 22 patients, whereas long latency AEPs were abnormal to one or more stimuli in 17 of 22. No significant latency prolongation was seen in response to onset and infrequent frequency changes (P1, N1, P2) but the potentials at the end of 16/s frequency modulations, particularly the P2 peaking approximately 200 ms after the next expected change, were significantly delayed. The delayed responses appear to be a mild disorder in the processing of change in temporal sound patterns. The delay may be conceived of as extra time taken to compare the incoming sound with the contents of a temporally ordered sensory memory store (the long auditory store or echoic memory), which generates a response when the next expected frequency change fails to occur. The defect cannot be ascribed to lesions of the afferent pathways and so may be due to disseminated brain lesions visible or invisible on magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Absence of airway secretion accumulation predicts tolerance of noninvasive ventilation in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Nadia; Vallet, Anne-Evelyne; Petitjean, Thierry; Le Cam, Pierre; Peysson, Stéphane; Guérin, Claude; Dailler, Frédéric; Jay, Sylvie; Cadiergue, Vincent; Bouhour, Françoise; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Camdessanche, Jean-Philippe; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Philit, François; Beuret, Pascal; Bin-Dorel, Sylvie; Vial, Christophe; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2013-09-01

    To assess factors that predict good tolerance of noninvasive ventilation (NIV), in order to improve survival and quality of life in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We conducted a prospective study in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and requiring NIV. The primary end point was NIV tolerance at 1 month. Subjects, several of whom failed to complete the study, were classified as "tolerant" or "poorly tolerant," according to the number of hours of NIV use (more or less than 4 h per night, respectively). Eighty-one subjects, 73 of whom also attended the 1-month follow-up visit, participated over 34 months. NIV tolerance after the first day of utilization predicted tolerance at 1 month (77.6% and 75.3% of subjects, respectively). Multivariate analysis disclosed 3 factors predicting good NIV tolerance: absence of airway secretions accumulation prior to NIV onset (odds ratio 11.5); normal bulbar function at initiation of NIV (odds ratio 8.5); and older age (weakly significant, odds ratio 1.1). Our study reveals 3 factors that are predictive of good NIV tolerance, in particular the absence of airway secretion accumulation, which should prompt NIV initiation before its appearance.

  3. Histogram analysis of diffusion measures in clinically isolated syndromes and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chunshui; Lin Fuchun; Liu Yaou; Duan Yunyun; Lei Hao; Li Kuncheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of our study were to employ diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based histogram analysis to determine the presence of occult damage in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), to compare its severity with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to determine correlations between DTI histogram measures and clinical and MRI indices in these two diseases. Materials and methods: DTI scans were performed in 19 CIS and 19 RRMS patients and 19 matched healthy volunteers. Histogram analyses of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were performed in normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT), normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (NAGM). Correlations were analyzed between these measures and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores, T 2 WI lesion volumes (LV) and normalized brain tissue volumes (NBTV) in CIS and RRMS patients. Results: Significant differences were found among CIS, RRMS and control groups in the NBTV and most of the DTI histogram measures of the NABT, NAWM and NAGM. In CIS patients, some DTI histogram measures showed significant correlations with LV and NBTV, but none of them with EDSS. In RRMS patients, however, some DTI histogram measures were significantly correlated with LV, NBTV and EDSS. Conclusion: Occult damage occurs in both NAGM and NAWM in CIS, but the severity is milder than that in RRMS. In CIS and RRMS, the occult damage might be related to both T2 lesion load and brain tissue atrophy. Some DTI histogram measures might be useful for assessing the disease progression in RRMS patients

  4. Application of diffusional kurtosis imaging to detect occult brain damage in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wenshu; Chan, Koon Ho; Hui, Edward S; Lee, Chi Yan; Hu, Yong; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung

    2016-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are two common types of inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Early distinction of NMO from MS is crucial but quite challenging. In this study, 13 NMO spectrum disorder patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 3.0 ± 1.7, ranging from 2 to 6.5; disease duration of 5.3 ± 4.7 years), 17 relapsing-remitting MS patients (EDSS of 2.6 ± 1.4, ranging from 1 to 5.5; disease duration of 7.9 ± 7.8 years) and 18 healthy volunteers were recruited. Diffusional kurtosis imaging was employed to discriminate NMO and MS patients at the early or stable stage from each other, and from healthy volunteers. The presence of alterations in diffusion and diffusional kurtosis metrics in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and diffusely increased mean diffusivity (MD) in the cortical normal-appearing gray matter (NAGM) favors the diagnosis of MS rather than NMO. Meanwhile, normal diffusivities and kurtosis metrics in all NAWM as well as increases in MD in the frontal and temporal NAGM suggest NMO. Our results suggest that diffusion and diffusional kurtosis metrics may well aid in discriminating the two diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Tuberous sclerosis: diffusion MRI findings in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion MRI has mainly been used for detection of acute ischemia, and for distinction of cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. We applied diffusion MRI in patients with tuberous sclerosis in order to evaluate diffusion imaging characteristics of parenchymal changes. Five children with known tuberous sclerosis were included in this study. The MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T MR unit. Diffusion MRI was obtained using the echo-planar imaging sequence. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from the abnormal brain parenchyma were calculated directly from automatically generated ADC maps. Seven normal children were available for comparison. In this control group the mean ADC value of the normal white matter was 0.84±0.12 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. In tuberous sclerosis patients the mean ADC value of the white matter hamartomas (n=20) was apparently high (1.52±0.24 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) compared with that of normal white matter. The ADC value of calcified hamartomas was ''zero''. The ADC value within a giant cell tumor was 0.89 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, similar to that of normal cerebral white matter. The ADC maps were superior to b=1000 s/mm 2 (true diffusion) images with respect to lesion evaluation, and they provided mathematical information on tissue integrity. With respect to detection of the exact numbers and sizes of the parenchymal hamartomas fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were superior to ADC maps. It is believed that diffusion MRI can be useful in evaluation of various parenchymal changes associated with tuberous sclerosis. Further studies on tuberous sclerosis, and on various brain lesions, would provide increasing data on this relatively new MRI sequence. (orig.)

  6. Natalizumab therapy of multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest disabling neurological disease of young and middle-aged adults affecting 1 million persons world wide. The illness begins with a relapsing-remitting MS course in 85%-90% of patients; the other 10%-15% have a primary progressive onset MS. Our current understanding is that MS is an autoimmune disorder with an inflammatory T-cell attack on myelin or some component of the oligodendrocyte--myelin structure. Relapses of disease activity result in plaques of demyelination with destruction of myelin and, to a lesser, extent axons. Lymphocytes within the central nervous system tissue recruit more cells leading to an inflammatory cascade that causes myelin damage, axonal disruption, and neuronal death. If the plaque occurs in a vocal area of the central nervous system then symptoms relating to that area result. However, magnetic resonance imaging shows that approximately 10 times more lesions occur in asymptomatic areas of the brain. Recovery from an initial relapse may appear relatively complete but persistent inflammation results in axonal injury and residual disability results. With time and accumulated lesion load, secondary degeneration of denuded axons results in the phase of secondary progressive MS usually 15-20 years after onset.

  7. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  8. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  9. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  10. Adolescent perceptions of cigarette appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Allison; Moodie, Crawford; MacKintosh, Anne M; Hastings, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    To reduce the possibility of cigarette appearance misleading consumers about harm caused by the product, the European Commission's draft Tobacco Products Directive proposed banning cigarettes implied a more pleasant and palatable smoke for young smokers. A long brown cigarette was viewed as particularly unattractive and communicated a stronger and more harmful product. This exploratory study provides some support that standardising cigarette appearance could reduce the appeal of cigarettes in adolescents and reduce the opportunity for stick design to mislead young smokers in terms of harm. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Appearance, discrimination, and reaction qualifications

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    When are selectors for advantaged social positions morally justified in giving weight to the appearance of the candidates? In order to address this issue adequately, we need to know when a person’s appearance can be a legitimate qualification for a position. Some of the hardest cases are jobs that involve interacting with clients or customers who prefer to deal with good-looking employees or who respond more favourably to them. But there is also a wide range of difficult cases in which an unc...

  12. Phonological Fluency Strategy of Switching Differentiates Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Messinis, L.; Kosmidis, M. H.; Vlahou, C.; Malegiannaki, A. C.; Gatzounis, G.; Dimisianos, N.; Karra, A.; Kiosseoglou, G.; Gourzis, P.; Papathanasopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensi...

  13. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  14. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  15. Optical appearance of white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  16. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  17. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  18. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. CT appearance of amiodarone-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, A.A.; Hayward, C.

    1989-01-01

    Basal peripheral pleuroparenchymal opacities are described on CT of early cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, asbestosis and bleomycin pneumonitis. These diseases may be caused by free radical effects on phospholipid metabolism causing cell wall damage. Amiodarone hydrochloride alters phospholipid synthesis metabolically. Amiodarone pneumonitis might be expected to show similar CT appearances. Sixteen patients who have developed new respiratory symptoms while taking amiodarone have been scanned prone and supine and at inspiration and expiration by means of a scanner with 2-mm sections at 1-cm intervals. All have been previously healthy nonsmokers with no relevant occupational history. Previous chest radiographs have been normal. Results are presented

  20. Owl's eye appearance: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Mukul; Asha, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Hyper-functioning thyroid nodule may present various scintigraphic appearances on thyroid scans. Autonomously hyper functioning thyroid nodules often show degenerative changes. These changes may give rise to peripheral photopenic areas on a thyroid scan. In this report we present a case of hyper functioning nodule showing appearance of an owl's eye. Although rare, such pattern can be seen in a variety of benign and malignant thyroid conditions. A 42-year-old man presented with a solitary thyroid nodule in the right lobe and weight loss for four months. The thyroid hormone profile confirmed hyperthyroidism. Thyroid function testing revealed T4=136.8 nmol/l (Normal = 66.0-181.0 nmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) = 0.283 (Normal =0.27- 4.2 μIU/ml). Antithyroglobulin antibodies and antimicrosmal antibodies were negative. The patient was referred for thyroid scan and uptake. A Thyroid scan was obtained after the intravenous injection of 5 mCi (185MBq) of 99m Tc pertechnetate. Anterior view obtained using a parallel hole collimator. The scan showed peripheral photopenic area with a central focal area of increased uptake giving the appearance of 'Owl's eye'. 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake was increased. A scintigraphic 'Owl's eye' sign has been described in thyroid cyst, benign autonomous nodule and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. This Owl's eye pattern appears to be caused by a focus of functioning tissue overlapping a large cold area in a nodule that has cystic,degenerative and necrotic changes in the middle of a benign and malignant pathology. Hyper functioning nodules may scintigraphically show Owl's eye pattern due to intra nodular degeneration, with residual hyper functioning tissue within or overlapping the degenerative area

  1. Balo`s concentric sclerosis; value of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.; Kuruvilla, A.; Korah, I.P. [Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamilnadu, (India). Department of Radiodiagnosis; Alexander, M. [Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamilnadu, (India). Department of Neurosciences

    1999-08-01

    We report two cases of Balo`s concentric sclerosis that demonstrate the typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of concentric rings of demyelination involving the superficial and deep white matter and sparing the cortex. In both cases biopsy was not performed as MRI findings and multi-mode evoked potential studies were consistent with demyelinating illness. The theories regarding the pathogenesis of this peculiar appearance are briefly reviewed. Balo`s concentric sclerosis is a very rare type of demyelinating disease characterized pathologically by large alternating lamellae of demyelinated and myelinated white matter arranged in a concentric pattern. This progressive disease is more often found in young male adults and is more common in the Philippines. Balo`s concentric sclerosis is considered an unusual variant of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, some authors believe it to be a different entity. Although the pathogenesis of the concentric sclerosis is debated, the cause of demyelination is generally presumed to be the same as that of multiple sclerosis. There is striking resemblance between the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance and the histopathological features of MS. Not all cases may show a typical MR appearance. Prior to MR imaging, most of them were diagnosed at post-mortem. To our knowledge, few cases have been diagnosed by MR imaging in life. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 15 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Association between systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis: lupoid sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Yimy F; Martinez, Jose B; Fernandez, Andres R; Quintana, Gerardo; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Rondon, Federico; Gamarra, Antonio Iglesias

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with/without antiphospholipid syndrome are autoimmune illnesses. It has been described in many occasions the association of these two illnesses and the clinical picture of MS with characteristics of laboratory of SLE. When they affect to the central nervous system they can make it in a defined form for each illness or they can also make it in interposed or combined form of the two illnesses what has been called lupoid sclerosis; making that in some cases difficult the differentiation of the two illnesses and therefore to address the treatment. We present four cases of lupoid sclerosis, discuss the clinical and laboratory characteristics of this entity and we make a differentiation of the multiple sclerosis with the neurological affectation of SLE especially for images and laboratory results.

  3. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  4. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...... cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might...

  5. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yanwei; Zhang Jingwen; Wu Jianlin; Zhou Yong; Li Mingwu; Lei Zhen; Shi Lifu

    2006-01-01

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  6. Benign chondroblastoma - malignant radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Treugut, H.; Mueller, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    The very rare benign chondroblastoma occasionally invades soft tissues and may grow beyond the epiphysis into the metaphysis. In the present case such a tumour did not show the typical radiological appearances, but presented malignant features both on plain films and on the angiogram. The importance of biopsy of tumours which cannot be identified with certainty must be stressed before radical surgery is carried out.

  7. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  8. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  9. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kransdorf, M.J.; Murphey, M.D.; Temple, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.)

  10. The imaging appearance of crayons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, Aaron S.; Jones, Blaise V.; Lall, Neil U.; Tawfik, Kareem O.

    2017-01-01

    A crayon fragment was determined to be the source of a foreign body inflammatory process in the masticator space of a 15-month-old boy. The appearance of the crayon on CT and MR imaging was unexpected, leading to a further analysis of the imaging features of crayons. To investigate and characterize the imaging appearance of crayons at CT and MRI. The authors obtained CT and MR images of 22 crayons from three manufacturers and three non-pigmented crayons cast by the authors. CT attenuation of the crayons and diameter of the MRI susceptibility signal dropout were plotted versus brand and color. All crayons demonstrated a longitudinal central hypo-attenuating tract. Crayon attenuation varied by brand and color. All of the crayons demonstrated a signal void on T1 and T2 imaging and signal dropout on susceptibility-weighted imaging, the diameter of which varied by brand and color. Understanding the imaging appearance of crayons could help in the correct identification of a crayon as a foreign body on imaging studies, even when it is located in unusual places. (orig.)

  11. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  12. MR appearance of central neurocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.H.; Han, M.H.; Kim, D.G.; Chi, J.G.; Suh, D.C.; Kim, S.J.; Cha, S.H.; Han, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    To provide a detailed description of the MR appearances of central neurocytoma, MR images of 13 patients with central neurocytoma were retrospectively reviewed and compared with CT examinations. The histology was confirmed by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. In 12 patients the tumors were histologically benign and located in the anterior part of the lateral ventricle, 6 of which extended to the 3rd ventricle. There was one case of a histologically malignant variant involving the thalamus and lateral ventricle. The tumors were primarily solid, but contained cysts (85%, 11/13), calcifications (69%, 9/13), and signal void from tumor vessels (62%, 8/13), frequently producing heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Most of the solid portion appeared isointense or slightly hyperintense relative to the cerebral cortex on all MR pulse sequences. Calcifications were iso- or hypointense on MR, making them difficult to characterize with MR alone. Intratumoral hemorrhage was seen in 2 patients on MR but not on CT. Contrast enhancement was variable in degree and pattern. Coronal and sagittal MR images were valuable in evaluating the tumor extent and origin site, and in planning the surgical approach. It is concluded that MR imaging appears to be more useful than CT in the overall evaluation of central neurocytoma, even though calcification is better characterized with CT. (orig.)

  13. The imaging appearance of crayons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, Aaron S.; Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lall, Neil U. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ochsner Health System, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Tawfik, Kareem O. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A crayon fragment was determined to be the source of a foreign body inflammatory process in the masticator space of a 15-month-old boy. The appearance of the crayon on CT and MR imaging was unexpected, leading to a further analysis of the imaging features of crayons. To investigate and characterize the imaging appearance of crayons at CT and MRI. The authors obtained CT and MR images of 22 crayons from three manufacturers and three non-pigmented crayons cast by the authors. CT attenuation of the crayons and diameter of the MRI susceptibility signal dropout were plotted versus brand and color. All crayons demonstrated a longitudinal central hypo-attenuating tract. Crayon attenuation varied by brand and color. All of the crayons demonstrated a signal void on T1 and T2 imaging and signal dropout on susceptibility-weighted imaging, the diameter of which varied by brand and color. Understanding the imaging appearance of crayons could help in the correct identification of a crayon as a foreign body on imaging studies, even when it is located in unusual places. (orig.)

  14. Axonal loss in the multiple sclerosis spinal cord revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Natalia; Carassiti, Daniele; Altmann, Daniel R; Baker, David; Schmierer, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Preventing chronic disease deterioration is an unmet need in people with multiple sclerosis, where axonal loss is considered a key substrate of disability. Clinically, chronic multiple sclerosis often presents as progressive myelopathy. Spinal cord cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed using MRI predicts increasing disability and has, by inference, been proposed as an indirect index of axonal degeneration. However, the association between CSA and axonal loss, and their correlation with demyelination, have never been systematically investigated using human post mortem tissue. We extensively sampled spinal cords of seven women and six men with multiple sclerosis (mean disease duration= 29 years) and five healthy controls to quantify axonal density and its association with demyelination and CSA. 396 tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin and immuno-stained for myelin basic protein and phosphorylated neurofilaments. Measurements included total CSA, areas of (i) lateral cortico-spinal tracts, (ii) gray matter, (iii) white matter, (iv) demyelination, and the number of axons within the lateral cortico-spinal tracts. Linear mixed models were used to analyze relationships. In multiple sclerosis CSA reduction at cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels ranged between 19 and 24% with white (19-24%) and gray (17-21%) matter atrophy contributing equally across levels. Axonal density in multiple sclerosis was lower by 57-62% across all levels and affected all fibers regardless of diameter. Demyelination affected 24-48% of the gray matter, most extensively at the thoracic level, and 11-13% of the white matter, with no significant differences across levels. Disease duration was associated with reduced axonal density, however not with any area index. Significant association was detected between focal demyelination and decreased axonal density. In conclusion, over nearly 30 years multiple sclerosis reduces axonal density by 60% throughout the spinal cord. Spinal cord cross sectional area

  15. Current concepts in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiethoelter, Horst; Dichgans, Johannes

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains 9 articles dealing with the use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and positron emitted tomography in the diagnosis and staging of multiple sclerosis. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  17. Multiple Sclerosis After Infectious Mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  18. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive...

  19. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social

  20. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzone, Santina, E-mail: santina.bruzzone@unige.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Battaglia, Florinda [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Mannino, Elena [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Parodi, Alessia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Fruscione, Floriana [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Basile, Giovanna [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Filaci, Gilberto [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-{beta}, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  1. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Santina; Battaglia, Florinda; Mannino, Elena; Parodi, Alessia; Fruscione, Floriana; Basile, Giovanna; Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura; Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia; Filaci, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. ► ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. ► UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. ► SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-β, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  2. Altered inhibition in Tuberous Sclerosis and Type IIb cortical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talos, Delia M.; Sun, Hongyu; Kosaras, Bela; Joseph, Annelise; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Poduri, Annapurna; Madsen, Joseph R.; Black, Peter M.; Jensen, Frances E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The most common neurological symptom of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is early-life refractory epilepsy. As previous studies have shown enhanced excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission in TSC and FCD brains, we hypothesized that neurons associated with these lesions may also express altered GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated inhibition. Methods Expression of the GABAAR subunitsα1 and α4, the Na+-K+-2Cl− (NKCC1), and the K+−Cl− (KCC2) transporters in human TSC and FCD Type II specimens were analyzed by Western blot and double label immunocytochemistry. GABAAR responses in dysplastic neurons from a single case of TSC were measured by perforated-patch recording and compared to normal-appearing cortical neurons from a non-TSC epilepsy case. Results TSC and FCD Type IIb lesions demonstrated decreased expression of the GABAAR α1, increased NKCC1 and decreased KCC2 levels. In contrast, FCD Type IIa lesions showed decreased α4, and increased expression of both NKCC1 and KCC2 transporters. Patch clamp recordings from dysplastic neurons in acute slices from TSC tubers demonstrated excitatory GABAAR responses that were significantly attenuated by the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide, in contrast to hyperpolarizing GABAAR-mediated currents in normal neurons from non-TSC cortical slices. Interpretation Expression and function of GABAARs in TSC and FCD IIb suggests the relative benzodiazepine insensitivity and more excitatory action of GABA compared to FCD IIa. These factors may contribute to resistance of seizure activity to anticonvulsants that increase GABAergic function, and may justify add-on trials of the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide for the treatment of TSC and FCD Type IIb related epilepsy. PMID:22447678

  3. Neuroinflammatory component of gray matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Elena; Giannì, Costanza; Louapre, Céline; Treaba, Constantina A; Govindarajan, Sindhuja T; Ouellette, Russell; Loggia, Marco L; Sloane, Jacob A; Madigan, Nancy; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ward, Noreen; Mangeat, Gabriel; Granberg, Tobias; Klawiter, Eric C; Catana, Ciprian; Hooker, Jacob M; Taylor, Norman; Ionete, Carolina; Kinkel, Revere P; Mainero, Caterina

    2016-11-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), using simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) imaging with 11 C-PBR28, we quantified expression of the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of activated microglia/macrophages, in cortex, cortical lesions, deep gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) lesions, and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) to investigate the in vivo pathological and clinical relevance of neuroinflammation. Fifteen secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) patients, 12 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 14 matched healthy controls underwent 11 C-PBR28 MR-PET. MS subjects underwent 7T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation, and neurological and cognitive evaluation. 11 C-PBR28 binding was measured using normalized 60- to 90-minute standardized uptake values and volume of distribution ratios. Relative to controls, MS subjects exhibited abnormally high 11 C-PBR28 binding across the brain, the greatest increases being in cortex and cortical lesions, thalamus, hippocampus, and NAWM. MS WM lesions showed relatively modest TSPO increases. With the exception of cortical lesions, where TSPO expression was similar, 11 C-PBR28 uptake across the brain was greater in SPMS than in RRMS. In MS, increased 11 C-PBR28 binding in cortex, deep GM, and NAWM correlated with neurological disability and impaired cognitive performance; cortical thinning correlated with increased thalamic TSPO levels. In MS, neuroinflammation is present in the cortex, cortical lesions, deep GM, and NAWM, is closely linked to poor clinical outcome, and is at least partly linked to neurodegeneration. Distinct inflammatory-mediated factors may underlie accumulation of cortical and WM lesions. Quantification of TSPO levels in MS could prove to be a sensitive tool for evaluating in vivo the inflammatory component of GM pathology, particularly in cortical lesions. Ann Neurol 2016;80:776-790. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  4. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Scintigraphic appearances of Gaucher's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Araki, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Sanshin; Yamada, Kayoko; Seto, Kazuhiko

    1985-01-01

    Gaucher's disease is an inborn error of metabolism in which glucocerebroside accumlates within reticuloendotherial cells of spleen, liver and bone marrow. The scintigraphic appearances are described in a 19-year-old man with Gaucher's disease. The colloid scan showed increased uptake in the lung and bone marrow of legs where the reticuloendotherial system was activated. The bone scan demonstrated increased activity in the metaphyseal and diaphyseal region infiltrated by Gaucher's cell. Ga-67 was thought to be accumlated in the progressive focus of the disease. (author)

  6. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  7. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-K.; Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C.; Cazzato, R.L.; Duddalwar, V.A.; Chang, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  8. Optical appearance of distant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.; Kline, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the recent evolutionary and K-corrections of Bruzual and Kron to predict the optical appearance of galaxies spanning a wide range of magnitudes and redshifts. It is found that nearly all galaxies with J< or approx. =25 are resolved in 1-arcsec seeing. At fixed apparent magnitude, galaxies with large redshifts are more diffuse in appearance than those at small z. This fact causes the most distant galaxies at any magnitude level to be missed, and, depending on the measurement algorithm employed, may cause the luminosities of detected galaxies to be seriously underestimated. Both of these effects deserve consideration when attempting to interpret number counts of faint galaxies. Observations made with the Space Telescope are expected to resolve nearly all galaxies at J< or approx. =27.5; however, several factors conspire to render Space Telescope observations less effective than certain ground-based CCD observations for the optical detection of distant galaxies. Finally, we note that most of our conclusions are unaffected by changes in the assumed cosmology

  9. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  10. Multiple sclerosis and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Pavisian, Bennis

    2017-06-01

    Mortality rates are elevated in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) relative to the general population. There is, however, some uncertainty whether suicide contributes to this. Epidemiological data suggest that the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide in MS is approximately twice that of the general population with younger males in the first few years following diagnosis most at risk. Rates of suicidal intent, a potential harbinger of more self-destructive behavior, are also elevated, but the frequency with which intent is followed by suicide is not known. Depression, severity of depression, social isolation, and alcohol abuse are associated with thoughts of suicide. The variables linked with suicide and suicidal intent are therefore well defined and should be readily available from routine clinical inquiry. While vigilance on the part of clinicians is required, particularly in the context of high-risk patients, it is also recognized that prevention is dependent on full disclosure of intent.

  11. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  12. Ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Ben, R. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Dehghanpisheh, K.; Chatham, W.W.; Alarcon, G.S. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Lee, D.H.; Oakes, J. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Surgery

    2006-11-15

    We describe the ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads. Retrospective analysis of imaging in a series of five patients initially referred for evaluation of periarticular soft-tissue swelling of the hands involving the dorsum of the PIP and MP joints. Two patients had associated Dupuytren's contractures. Ultrasound and radiographs of the hands in all patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical history and physical exams. Radiographs in four patients demonstrated dorsal soft-tissue thickening. Ultrasound exams showed increased dorsal subcutaneous thickening, with either diffuse or focal hypoechoic areas corresponding to the areas of soft-tissue fullness identified on physical exam. No erosions or synovial proliferation were identified either by radiographs or ultrasound of the underlying joints. Knuckle pads can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from synovitis on physical examination. Musculoskeletal ultrasound can quickly identify these superficial lesions and exclude underlying synovial proliferation.

  13. Gender-related differences in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ying-qian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although multiple sclerosis (MS affects both women and men, women are more susceptible to MS than men with increasing incidence and prevalence. Accumulating evidence indicates that gender appears to play a critical role in the development, efficacy and prognosis of MS, and therefore should be considered as an independent influencing factor. In this review, factors that can potentially explain the gender-biased observations in MS are discussed, which include incidence and prevalence, mechanism, course and prognosis, imaging, treatment principles.

  14. Frontal assessment battery and frontal atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Miyata, Jun; Obi, Tomokazu; Kubota, Manabu; Yoshizumi, Miho; Yamazaki, Kinya; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Murai, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the potential utility of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) in assessing cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the association between the FAB score and regional gray matter volume, and ascertained whether the regional brain alterations related to cognitive impairments occur in relatively mild stage of ALS. Materials and Methods Twenty?four ALS patients with a Mini?Mental State Examination score of >23, a normal score ...

  15. MRI and SPECT findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukada, F.; Sawada, H.; Seriu, N.; Shindou, K.; Nishitani, N.; Kameyama, M.

    1992-01-01

    MRI was performed in 21 patients and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p- 123 I iodoamphetamine in 16 patients, to visualize upper motor neurone lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal along the course of the pyramidal tract in the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in 4 of 21 patients. SPECT images were normal in 4 patients, but uptake was reduced in the cerebral cortex that includes the motor area in 11. (orig.)

  16. Hearing disorders in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Miriam; Levine, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that is both a focal inflammatory and a chronic neurodegenerative disease. The focal inflammatory component is characterized by destruction of central nervous system myelin, including the spinal cord; as such it can impair any central neural system, including the auditory system. While on the one hand auditory complaints in MS patients are rare compared to other senses, such as vision and proprioception, on the other hand auditory tests of precise neural timing are never "silent." Whenever focal MS lesions are detected involving the pontine auditory pathway, auditory tests requiring precise neural timing are always abnormal, while auditory functions not requiring such precise timing are often normal. Azimuth sound localization is accomplished by comparing the timing and loudness of the sound at the two ears. Hence tests of azimuth sound localization must obligatorily involve the central nervous system and particularly the brainstem. Whenever a focal lesion was localized to the pontine auditory pathway, timing tests were always abnormal, but loudness tests were not. Moreover, a timing test that included only high-frequency sounds was very often abnormal, even when there was no detectable focal MS lesion involving the pontine auditory pathway. This test may be a marker for the chronic neurodegenerative aspect of MS, and, as such could be used to complement the magnetic resonance imaging scan in monitoring the neurodegenerative aspect of MS. Studies of MS brainstem lesion location and auditory function have led to advances in understanding how the human brain processes sound. The brain processes binaural sounds independently for time and level in a two-stage process. The first stage is at the level of the superior olivary complex (SOC) and the second at a level rostral to the SOC. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: tuberous sclerosis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 42. Citation on PubMed Northrup H, Koenig MK, Pearson DA, Au KS. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. 1999 Jul ... Tuberous sclerosis complex: advances in diagnosis, genetics, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Aug;57(2): ...

  19. Multiple Sclerosis: Can It Cause Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multiple sclerosis and epilepsy? Answers from B Mark Keegan, M.D. Epileptic seizures are more common in ... controlled with anti-seizure medication. With B Mark Keegan, M.D. Lund C, et al. Multiple sclerosis ...

  20. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evidence-based Guideline for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on emotional disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) and summarizes the ...

  1. Most Scottish neurologists do not apply the 2010 McDonald criteria when diagnosing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, R; Davenport, R; Williams, A

    2015-03-01

    The diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis have evolved over time and currently the 2010 McDonald criteria are the most widely accepted. These criteria allow the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis to be made at the clinically isolated syndrome stage provided certain criteria are met on a single magnetic resonance brain scan. Our hypothesis was that neurologists in Scotland did not use these criteria routinely. We sent a SurveyMonkey questionnaire to all Scottish neurologists (consultants and trainees) regarding the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Our questionnaire response rate was 65/99 (66%). Most Scottish neurologists were aware of the criteria and 31/58 (53%) felt that they were using these routinely. However, in a clinical vignette designed to test the application of these criteria, only 5/57 (9%) of neurologists appeared to use them. Scottish neurologists' use of the 2010 McDonald criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis varies from practitioners' perception of their use of these criteria.

  2. Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Susan H.; Griffith, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized entity. This article reviews the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis, its prevalence, its relationship to different types of multiple sclerosis, and its contribution to long-term functional prognosis. The discussion also focuses on the key elements of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis which distinguish it from other forms of cognitive impairment. Therapeutic interventions potentially effective for the co...

  3. Hippocampal Sclerosis in Older Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D.; Powell, Suzanne Z.; Schulz, Paul E.; Takei, Hidehiro; Rivera, Andreana L.; Jackson, Robert E.; Roman, Gustavo; Jicha, Gregory A.; Nelson, Peter T.

    2018-01-01

    Context Autopsy studies of the older population (≥65 years of age), and particularly of the “oldest-old” (≥85 years of age), have identified a significant proportion (~20%) of cognitively impaired patients in which hippocampal sclerosis is the major substrate of an amnestic syndrome. Hippocampal sclerosis may also be comorbid with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and Lewy body disease. Until recently, the terms hippocampal sclerosis of aging or hippocampal sclerosis dementia were applied in this context. Recent discoveries have prompted a conceptual expansion of hippocampal sclerosis of aging because (1) cellular inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) are frequent; (2) TDP-43 pathology may be found outside hippocampus; and (3) brain arteriolosclerosis is a common, possibly pathogenic, component. Objective To aid pathologists with recent recommendations for diagnoses of common neuropathologies in older persons, particularly hippocampal sclerosis, and highlight the recent shift in diagnostic terminology from HS-aging to cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS). Data Sources Peer-reviewed literature and 5 autopsy examples that illustrate common age-related neuropathologies, including CARTS, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing CARTS from late-onset frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology and from advanced Alzheimer disease with TDP-43 pathology. Conclusions In advanced old age, the substrates of cognitive impairment are often multifactorial. This article demonstrates common and frequently comorbid neuropathologic substrates of cognitive impairment in the older population, including CARTS, to aid those practicing in this area of pathology. PMID:28467211

  4. Facial appearance affects science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, Ana I; Callan, Mitchell J; Skylark, William J

    2017-06-06

    First impressions based on facial appearance predict many important social outcomes. We investigated whether such impressions also influence the communication of scientific findings to lay audiences, a process that shapes public beliefs, opinion, and policy. First, we investigated the traits that engender interest in a scientist's work, and those that create the impression of a "good scientist" who does high-quality research. Apparent competence and morality were positively related to both interest and quality judgments, whereas attractiveness boosted interest but decreased perceived quality. Next, we had members of the public choose real science news stories to read or watch and found that people were more likely to choose items that were paired with "interesting-looking" scientists, especially when selecting video-based communications. Finally, we had people read real science news items and found that the research was judged to be of higher quality when paired with researchers who look like "good scientists." Our findings offer insights into the social psychology of science, and indicate a source of bias in the dissemination of scientific findings to broader society.

  5. Scintigraphic appearance of Alzheimer diesase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Johnson, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a devastating affliction of the elderly that has reached epidemic proportions. It produces regional abnormalities of brain blood flow and metabolism that may have diagnostic utility. In this paper the author determine the predictive value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT for detecting AD based on the prospective study of 132 consecutive patients coming to their nuclear medicine clinical unit for evaluation of memory loss or cognitive abnormalities. The final diagnosis was determined during clinical follow-up of 10.1 months ± 10.8. A final diagnosis was established in 113 patients, 52 of whom had AD. The probability of AD was 0.19 for normal perfusion 0.82 for bilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects, 0.77 for bilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects with additional defects, 0.57 for unilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects with or without additional defects, 0.25 for defects not involving the posterotemporal and/or parietal cortex, and 0.0 for small cortical defects. Of nine patients with bilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects with AD, six had Parkinson disease dementia

  6. Multi-slice echo-planar spectroscopic MR imaging provides both global and local metabolite measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Henrik Kahr; Tscherning, Thomas; Sorensen, Per Soelberg

    2005-01-01

    MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides information about neuronal loss or dysfunction by measuring decreases in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a metabolite widely believed to be a marker of neuronal viability. In multiple sclerosis (MS), whole-brain NAA (WBNAA) has been suggested as a marker of disease...... progression and treatment efficacy in treatment trials, and the ability to measure NAA loss in specific brain regions early in the evolution of this disease may have prognostic value. Most spectroscopic studies to date have been limited to single voxels or nonlocalized measurements of WBNAA only......, measurements of metabolites in specific brain areas chosen after image acquisition (e.g., normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter (GM), and lesions) can be obtained. The identification and exclusion of regions that are inadequate for spectroscopic evaluation in global assessments can significantly...

  7. HLA-DRB*1501 associations with magnetic resonance imaging measures of grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldizli, Özgür; Sethi, Varun; Pardini, Matteo; Tur, Carmen; Mok, Kin Y; Muhlert, Nils; Liu, Zheng; Samson, Rebecca S; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Yousry, Tarek A; Houlden, Henry; Hardy, John; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2016-05-01

    The HLA-DRB*1501 haplotype influences the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is not known how it affects grey matter pathology. To assess HLA-DRB(*)1501 effects on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical grey matter pathology. Whole and lesional cortical grey matter volumes, lesional and normal-appearing grey matter magnetization transfer ratio were measured in 85 people with MS and 36 healthy control subjects. HLA-DRB(*)1501 haplotype was determined by genotyping (rs3135388). No significant differences were observed in MRI measures between the HLA-DRB(*)1501 subgroups. The HLA-DRB(*)1501 haplotype is not strongly associated with MRI-visible grey matter pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging appearance of bone and joint in long-term dialysis recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiayi; Wang Wu; Hong Wen; Huang Zhenguo; Ren An; Zhang Xuezhe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI characters of hemodialysis-related osteoarthropathy in long-term dialysis recipients, and to evaluate the diagnostic value of X-ray, CT, and MRI on hemodialysis-related osteoarthropathy. Methods: The shoulders, hips, wrists and lumbar' vertebraes of 32 patients underwent X-ray and CT examinations. Twenty-six of them received MRI examinations. Results: In X-ray of 32 patients, 28 appeared osteoporosis, 11 showed bone resorption, 6 had cystic lesions, 11 had bone sclerosis, 1 had joint swelling, and 19 had soft tissue calcification. In CT of 32 patients, 32 appeared osteoporosis, 9 showed bone resorption, 12 had cystic lesions, 11 had bone sclerosis, 3 had joint swelling, and 19 had soft tissue calcification. In MRI of 26 patients, 6 appeared osteoporosis, 2 showed bone resorption, 14 showed cystic lesions, 5 had bone sclerosis, 15 had joint swelling, and 1 showed soft tissue calcification. Conclusions: X-rays plain film is the first choice for the diagnosis of hemodialysis-related osteopathy, and MRI is the first choice for the diagnosis of hemodialysis-related arthropathy. CT and MRI is pretty useful in the diagnosis of hemodialysis-related osteoarthropathy. (authors)

  9. Modelling the appearance of heritage metallic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. MacDonald

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polished metallic surfaces exhibit a high degree of specularity, which makes them difficult to reproduce accurately. We have applied two different techniques for modelling a heritage object known as the Islamic handbag. Photogrammetric multi-view stereo enabled a dense point cloud to be extracted from a set of photographs with calibration targets, and a geometrically accurate 3D model produced. A new method based on photometric stereo from a set of images taken in an illumination dome enabled surface normals to be generated for each face of the object and its appearance to be rendered, to a high degree of visual realism, when illuminated by one or more light sources from any angles. The specularity of the reflection from the metal surface was modelled by a modified Lorentzian function.

  10. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  11. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  12. [Cognitive function in patients with systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straszecka, J; Jonderko, G; Kucharz, E J; Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Kotulska, A; Bogdanowski, T

    1997-09-01

    Central nervous system involvement is seldom reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Cognitive functions were determined in 21 patients with definite SSc and 42 healthy controls. Thyroid function was also measured in order to eliminate the effect of hypothyroidism on cognitive functioning. It was found that the SSc patients with normal thyroid function showed defective long-term and recent memory, learning ability, criticism, perception and visuo-perceptual skills, their simple reaction time was prolonged. Similar but less advanced cognitive defects were shown in the SSc patients with overt or latent hypothyroidism. The obtained results indicate that the central nervous system involvement is more common in patients with SSc than it has been reported earlier.

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyagi, A

    2012-02-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common, progressive motor neurone disease but is rare in the obstetric population. Only 4 cases have been described in the English literature since 1975. We describe a 29 year old woman who presented with ataxia, lower limb weakness and dysarthria 4 weeks after the birth of her first child. The symptoms had onset during the pregnancy but had not been considered remarkable. There were clinical features of upper and lower motor neurone involvement without any sensory loss. MRI of brain and spine was normal. CSF analysis was negative. EMG studies confirmed the presence of widespread anterior horn cell dysfunction compatible with ALS. The patient was commenced on Riluzole and has progressed clinically, at 12 months post diagnosis.

  14. Falls in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Patricia N; Shumway-Cook, Anne; Bamer, Alyssa M; Johnson, Shana L; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kraft, George H

    2011-07-01

    To examine incidence, associated factors, and health care provider (HCP) response to falls in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional retrospective design. Community setting. Four hundred seventy-four persons with MS. Mailed survey questionnaire examined incidence, risk factors, and HCP response to falls in persons with MS who were dwelling in the community. Univariate and multiple ordinal regression analysis identified variables associated with single and multiple falls. Falls, causes and perceived reasons for falls, and HCP response. A total of 265 participants (58.2%) reported one or more falls in the previous 6 months, and 58.5% of falls were medically injurious. Trips/slips while walking accounted for 48% of falls. Factors associated with falls included use of a cane or walker (odds ratio [OR] 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-4.14), income falls; recommended strategies included safety strategies (53.2%), use of gait assistive devices (42.1%), exercise/balance training (22.2%), and home modifications (16.6%). Factors associated with falls in persons with MS are similar to those in other populations with neurologic diseases. Despite the high incidence of falls, fewer than 50% of people with MS receive information about prevention of falls from an HCP. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  16. Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Susan H.; Griffith, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized entity. This article reviews the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis, its prevalence, its relationship to different types of multiple sclerosis, and its contribution to long-term functional prognosis. The discussion also focuses on the key elements of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis which distinguish it from other forms of cognitive impairment. Therapeutic interventions potentially effective for the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis are reviewed including the effects of disease modifying therapies and the use of physical and cognitive interventions. PMID:16720960

  17. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C.L. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Sahdev, A.; Rockall, A.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Singh, N. [Department of Pathology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Cancer Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm{sup 3}) and mucinous (6358.2 cm{sup 3}) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  18. Living with uncertainty and hope: A qualitative study exploring parents' experiences of living with childhood multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Denise; Kirk, Susan

    2017-06-01

    Background There is growing recognition that multiple sclerosis is a possible, albeit uncommon, diagnosis in childhood. However, very little is known about the experiences of families living with childhood multiple sclerosis and this is the first study to explore this in depth. Objective Our objective was to explore the experiences of parents of children with multiple sclerosis. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews with 31 parents using a grounded theory approach were conducted. Parents were sampled and recruited via health service and voluntary sector organisations in the United Kingdom. Results Parents' accounts of life with childhood multiple sclerosis were dominated by feelings of uncertainty associated with four sources; diagnostic uncertainty, daily uncertainty, interaction uncertainty and future uncertainty. Parents attempted to manage these uncertainties using specific strategies, which could in turn create further uncertainties about their child's illness. However, over time, ongoing uncertainty appeared to give parents hope for their child's future with multiple sclerosis. Conclusion Illness-related uncertainties appear to play a role in generating hope among parents of a child with multiple sclerosis. However, this may lead parents to avoid sources of information and support that threatens their fragile optimism. Professionals need to be sensitive to the role hope plays in supporting parental coping with childhood multiple sclerosis.

  19. Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions in Multislice Myelin Water Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Djamsched Faizy

    Full Text Available To assess neuroprotection and remyelination in Multiple Sclerosis (MS, we applied a more robust myelin water imaging (MWI processing technique, including spatial priors into image reconstruction, which allows for lower SNR, less averages and shorter acquisition times. We sought to evaluate this technique in MS-patients and healthy controls (HC.Seventeen MS-patients and 14 age-matched HCs received a 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI examination including MWI (8 slices, 12 minutes acquisition time, T2w and T1mprage pre and post gadolinium (GD administration. Black holes (BH, contrast enhancing lesions (CEL and T2 lesions were marked and registered to MWI. Additionally, regions of interest (ROI were defined in the frontal, parietal and occipital normal appearing white matter (NAWM/white matter (WM, the corticospinal tract (CST, the splenium (SCC and genu (GCC of the corpus callosum in patients and HCs. Mean values of myelin water fraction (MWF were determined for each ROI.Significant differences (p≤0.05 of the MWF were found in all three different MS-lesion types (BH, CEL, T2 lesions, compared to the WM of HCs. The mean MWF values among the different lesion types were significantly differing from each other. Comparing MS-patients vs. HCs, we found a significant (p≤0.05 difference of the MWF in all measured ROIs except of GCC and SCC. The mean reduction of MWF in the NAWM of MS-patients compared to HCs was 37%. No age, sex, disability score and disease duration dependency was found for the NAWM MWF.MWF measures were in line with previous studies and lesions were clearly visible in MWI. MWI allows for quantitative assessment of NAWM and lesions in MS, which could be used as an additional sensitive imaging endpoint for larger MS studies. Measurements of the MWF also differ between patients and healthy controls.

  20. Synaptic pathology in the cerebellar dentate nucleus in chronic multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Monika; Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Lohrberg, Melanie; Antel, Jack P; Prineas, John W; Palkovits, Miklós; Wolff, Joachim R; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2017-11-01

    In multiple sclerosis, cerebellar symptoms are associated with clinical impairment and an increased likelihood of progressive course. Cortical atrophy and synaptic dysfunction play a prominent role in cerebellar pathology and although the dentate nucleus is a predilection site for lesion development, structural synaptic changes in this region remain largely unexplored. Moreover, the mechanisms leading to synaptic dysfunction have not yet been investigated at an ultrastructural level in multiple sclerosis. Here, we report on synaptic changes of dentate nuclei in post-mortem cerebella of 16 multiple sclerosis patients and eight controls at the histological level as well as an electron microscopy evaluation of afferent synapses of the cerebellar dentate and pontine nuclei of one multiple sclerosis patient and one control. We found a significant reduction of afferent dentate synapses in multiple sclerosis, irrespective of the presence of demyelination, and a close relationship between glial processes and dentate synapses. Ultrastructurally, we show autophagosomes containing degradation products of synaptic vesicles within dendrites, residual bodies within intact-appearing axons and free postsynaptic densities opposed to astrocytic appendages. Our study demonstrates loss of dentate afferent synapses and provides, for the first time, ultrastructural evidence pointing towards neuron-autonomous and neuroglia-mediated mechanisms of synaptic degradation in chronic multiple sclerosis. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  1. “Neuropathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and its variants”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Shahram; Stauffer, Jennifer E.; Schulte, Derek J.; Ravits, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinical syndrome named for its neuropathological hallmark: degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal anterior horn and motor cortex and loss of axons in the lateral columns of the spinal cord. The signature neuropathological molecular signature common to almost all sporadic ALS and most familial ALS is TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions. The neuropathological and molecular neuropathological features of ALS variants primarly lateral sclerosis and progressive muscular atrophy are less certain, but also appear to share the primary features of ALS. A number of genetic causes including mutations in SOD1, FUS, and C9orf72 comprise a disease spectrum and all demonstrate distinctive molecular and neuropathological signatures. Neuropathology will continue to play to a key role in solving the puzzle of ALS pathogenesis. PMID:26515626

  2. Midkine and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination with subsequent neuronal damage in the CNS. MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been thought as autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated diseases. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T-cell (Treg) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune tolerance, and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCreg) drive the development of inducible Treg cells. Thus, a dysfunction in the development of Treg and DCreg leads to the development of autoimmune diseases. However, the factors that regulate Treg and DCreg are largely unknown. We recently showed that removal of midkine (MK) suppressed EAE due to an expansion of the Treg cell population as well as a decrease in the numbers of autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells. MK decreased the Treg cell population by suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT5, which is essential for the expression of Foxp3, the master transcriptional factor of Treg cell differentiation. Furthermore, MK reduces the DCreg cell population by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3, which is critical for DCreg development. Blockade of MK signalling by a specific RNA aptamer significantly elevated the population of DCreg and Treg cells and ameliorated EAE without detectable adverse effects. Therefore, the inhibition of MK may provide an effective therapeutic strategy against autoimmune diseases including MS. This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Quality and quantity of diffuse and focal white matter disease and cognitive disability of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomboi, Giuseppe; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N; Pellegrini, Stefano; Stern, Susan K; Gallo, Antonio; Auh, Sungyoung; Evangelou, Iordanis E; Agarwal, Jhalak; Pellicano, Clelia; Ohayon, Joan M; Cantor, Fredric K; Ehrmantraut, Mary; McFarland, Henry F; Kane, Robert L; Bagnato, Francesca

    2011-04-01

    Using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated the relationships between white matter (WM) lesion volume (LV), normal-appearing WM (NAWM) normalized volume, WM-lesion and NAWM magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs), brain parenchyma fraction (BPF), and cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-four patients and 24 healthy volunteers (age, sex, and years of education-matched) underwent a 3.0 Tesla (3T) scan and evaluation of depression, fatigue, and CI using the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) battery. In this clinically relatively well-preserved cohort of patients (median score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale=1.5), CI was detected on Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II), and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. MT data were available in 19 pairs on whom correlation analyses were performed. Associations were seen between SDMT and normalized NAWM volume (P=.034, r=.502), CVLT-II long delay and normalized NAWM volume (P=.012, r=.563), WM-LV (P=.024, r=.514), and BPF (P=.002, r=.666). The use of 3T MRI in a sample of clinically stable MS patients shows the importance of WM disease in hampering processing speed and word retrieval. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  4. Cranial Neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Hayriye Sorgun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that cranial neuropathy findings could be seen in the neurologic examination of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, although brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may not reveal any lesion responsible for the cranial nerve involvement. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of brainstem and cranial nerve involvement, except for olfactory and optic nerves, during MS attacks, and to investigate the rate of an available explanation for the cranial neuropathy findings by lesion localization on brain MRI. METHODS: Ninety-five attacks of 86 MS patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a complete neurological examination, and cranial nerve palsies (CNP were determined during MS attacks. RESULTS: CNP were found as follows: 3rd CNP in 7 (7.4%, 4th CNP in 1 (1.1%, 5th CNP in 6 (6.3%, 6th CNP in 12 (12.6%, 7th CNP in 5 (5.3%, 8th CNP in 4 (4.2%, and 9th and 10th CNP in 2 (2.1% out of 95 attacks. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO was detected in 5 (5.4%, nystagmus in 37 (38.9%, vertigo in 9 (6.3%, and diplopia in 14 (14.7% out of 95 attacks. Pons, mesencephalon and bulbus lesions were detected in 58.7%, 41.5% and 21.1% of the patients, respectively, on the brain MRI. Cranial nerve palsy findings could not be explained by the localization of the lesions on brainstem MRI in 5 attacks; 2 of them were 3rd CNP (1 with INO, 2 were 6th CNP and 1 was a combination of 6th, 7th and 8th CNP. CONCLUSION: The most frequently affected cranial nerve and brainstem region in MS patients is the 6th cranial nerve and pons, respectively. A few of the MS patients have normal brainstem MRI, although they have cranial neuropathy findings in the neurologic examination.

  5. The diagnostic imaging and interventional therapy of hepatic angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Jian; Xu Wei; Zhu Jiehui

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate imaging diagnosis, differential diagnosis, surgery and interventional therapy of hepatic angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis. Methods: Clinical features, imaging appearances and interventional therapy for 2 cases of HAML in TS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The features of HAML in TS are as following: (1) Two cases were female with no history of hepatitis and hepatocirrhosis, liver function test and alpha fetoprotein were normal: (2) the tumor was shown as a multiple hyper-echoic mass with sharp margin on ultrasonography; well defined, fat density and intensity mass on computerized tomography (CT); hypervascular mass with early drainage of hepatic vein and tumor staining on angiography. (3) One case underwent interventional therapy. After 42 month follow up, the tumor was found to be diminished in size. Another case was under monitored with only the enucleating of left renal mass. The hepatic tumor showed no change after 10 months. Conclusions: The imaging appearances of HAML in TS are relatively characteristic. Super selective arterial embolization is an effective treatment for HAML in TS

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging applications in multiple sclerosis patients using 3T magnetic resonance: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testaverde, Lorenzo; Caporali, Laura [University ' ' Sapienza' ' of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Venditti, Eugenio; Grillea, Giovanni [U.O.C. Neuroradiologia, I.R.C.C.S. ' ' Neuromed' ' , Pozzilli (Italy); Colonnese, Claudio [University ' ' Sapienza' ' of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); U.O.C. Neuroradiologia, I.R.C.C.S. ' ' Neuromed' ' , Pozzilli (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    This study evaluated patients with multiple sclerosis using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values. We investigated the possible statistically significant variation of MD and FA in different MS patients, compared simultaneously, putting in comparison their normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and white matter affected by disease (plaques), both during activity and in remission, with normal white matter (NWM) of control subjects. Statistical analysis using Levene's test for comparison of variances revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences between FA values of the NWM of the controls and those of NAWM and active or inactive lesions, of the patients in the study. However, the differences between MD values of the NWM of the controls and those of NAWM and active or inactive lesions of the patients in the study were judged not significant (P > 0.05). Imaging of MS using MRI techniques is constantly searching for reproducible quantitative parameter. This study shows how these parameters can be identified in the MD and FA values, and thus suggests the implementation of MRI routine protocols for diagnosing MS with the DTI analysis, since it can provide valuable information otherwise unobtainable. (orig.)

  7. Neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, J. L.; de Seze, J.; Lana-Peixoto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that preferentially targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. The clinical presentation may suggest multiple sclerosis (MS), but a highly specific serum autoantibody against the astrocytic water channel...

  8. [Biological treatment of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P.S.; Sellebjerg, F.

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 interferon (IFN)beta was the first biopharmaceutical product to be approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). In 2006 the more potent monoclonal antibody natalizumab was approved. Presently, a number of monoclonal antibodies are being studied, including ale...

  9. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic

  10. The danish multiple sclerosis registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Stenager, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Registry was established in 1956. Content: The register comprises data on all Danes who had MS in 1949 or who have been diagnosed since. Data on new cases and updated information on persons with an MS diagnosis already notified are continuously...

  11. The immunogenetics of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, A.

    2008-01-01

    with complex genetic backgrounds. HLA controls immune response genes and HLA associations indicate the involvement of autoimmunity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) was one of the first conditions proven to be HLA associated involving primarily HLA class II factors. We review how HLA studies give fundamental...

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Rinck, P.A.; Nilsen, G.; Romslo, I.

    1991-01-01

    In 26 patients with multiple sclerosis 100% responded abnormally to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Lesions in the posterior fossa were observed in 18 patients. The auditory brain stem response was abnormal in 15 patients, and 22 had abnormal immunoglobulins in the cerebrospinal fluid. The correlation between abnormalities of the auditory brain stem response and the magnetic resonance images was greatest in a subgroup where the two investigations were performed within a ten day interval. Results from magnetic resonance imaging, evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid investigations were used to reclassify 13 of 15 patients with clinically ''possible'' or ''probable''multiple sclerosis to a higher level using Poser's criteria. Evoked potentials (the auditory brain stem response in particular) correlated best with clinical multiple sclerosis category. The authors recommend that the magnetic resonance imaging is established as a first-hand investigation in evaluation of multiple sclerosis. Evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid investigations may prove to be more specific, however, and these investigations should also be performed as a routine. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-04-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS.

  14. Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haeseleer, Miguel; Cambron, Melissa; Vanopdenbosch, Ludo; De Keyser, Jacques

    Three types of vascular dysfunction have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). First, findings from epidemiological studies suggest that patients with MS have a higher risk for ischaemic stroke than people who do not have MS. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but might involve endothelial

  15. Role of thalamic diffusion for disease differentiation between multiple sclerosis and ischemic cerebral small vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztoprak, Bilge; Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Salk, Ismail; Topalkara, Kamil; Erkoc, Mustafa F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) both harbor multiple, T2-hyperintense white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We aimed to determine the microstructural changes via diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in normal appearing thalami. We hypothesized that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values would be different in CSVD and MS, since the extent of arterial involvement is different in these two diseases. DWI was performed for 50 patients with CSVD and 35 patients with MS along with gender- and age-matched controls whose conventional MRI revealed normal findings. DWI was done with 1.5 Tesla MR devices using echo planar imaging (EPI) for b = 0, 1000 s/mm 2 . ADC values were obtained from the thalami which appeared normal on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Standard oval regions of interest (ROIs) of 0.5 cm 2 which were oriented parallel to the long axis of the thalamus were used for this purpose. The mean ADC value of the thalamus was (0.99 ± 0.16) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in patients with CSVD, whereas the mean ADC value was (0.78 ± 0.06) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in the control group. The mean ADC value was significantly higher in patients with CSVD compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The mean ADC values of the thalamus were (0.78 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in MS patients, and (0.75 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in the control group, which are not significantly different (p > 0.05). Our study revealed a difference in the diffusion of the thalami between CSVD and MS. DWI may aid in the radiological disease differentiation. (orig.)

  16. Role of thalamic diffusion for disease differentiation between multiple sclerosis and ischemic cerebral small vessel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztoprak, Bilge; Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Salk, Ismail [Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sivas (Turkey); Topalkara, Kamil [Bayindir Hospital, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Erkoc, Mustafa F. [Bozok University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) both harbor multiple, T2-hyperintense white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We aimed to determine the microstructural changes via diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in normal appearing thalami. We hypothesized that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values would be different in CSVD and MS, since the extent of arterial involvement is different in these two diseases. DWI was performed for 50 patients with CSVD and 35 patients with MS along with gender- and age-matched controls whose conventional MRI revealed normal findings. DWI was done with 1.5 Tesla MR devices using echo planar imaging (EPI) for b = 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC values were obtained from the thalami which appeared normal on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Standard oval regions of interest (ROIs) of 0.5 cm{sup 2} which were oriented parallel to the long axis of the thalamus were used for this purpose. The mean ADC value of the thalamus was (0.99 ± 0.16) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in patients with CSVD, whereas the mean ADC value was (0.78 ± 0.06) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group. The mean ADC value was significantly higher in patients with CSVD compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The mean ADC values of the thalamus were (0.78 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in MS patients, and (0.75 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group, which are not significantly different (p > 0.05). Our study revealed a difference in the diffusion of the thalami between CSVD and MS. DWI may aid in the radiological disease differentiation. (orig.)

  17. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A; Brenowitz, Willa D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    .03), and larger vessel areas (P < 0.03) than controls. Unlike the arterioles, CD34-immunoreactive capillaries had dimensions that were unchanged in cases with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing versus controls. Arteriolosclerosis appears specific to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing brains, because brains with Alzheimer's disease pathology did not show the same morphological alterations. We conclude that there may be a pathogenetic change in aged human brain arterioles that impacts multiple brain areas and contributes to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.

  18. Clinical Characteristics of Connective Tissue Nevi in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex With Special Emphasis on Shagreen Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Michelle A; Nathan, Neera; Oyerinde, Oyetewa; Wang, Ji-An; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Brown, G Thomas; Moss, Joel; Darling, Thomas N

    2017-07-01

    , fibroblasts grown from shagreen patches expressed higher levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 than paired fibroblasts from normal-appearing skin. Tuberous sclerosis complex-related connective tissue nevi are not limited to the lower back, and occasionally present on the central or upper back, buttocks, or thighs. Elastic fibers are typically decreased. Recognition of these variable presentations can be important for TSC diagnosis.

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one

  1. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchanian, Mhair-armen Hagop [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes a search for ve appearance in the two-detector long-baseline MINOS neutrino experiment at Fermilab, based on a data set representing an exposure of 8.2×1020 protons on the NuMI target. The analysis detailed herein represents an increase in sensitivity to the θ13 mixing angle of approximately 25% over previous analyses, due to improvements in the event discriminant and fitting technique. Based on our observation, we constrain the value of θ13 further, finding 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13< 0.12(0.20) at the 90% confidence level for δCP = 0 and the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. The best-fit value is 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13 = 0.041+0.047 -0.031(0.079+0.071 -0.053) under the same assumptions. We exclude the θ 13 = 0 hypothesis at the 89% confidence level.

  2. Does vagotomy protect against multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundbøll, Jens; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Adelborg, Kasper; Svensson, Elisabeth

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between vagotomy and multiple sclerosis. We conducted a matched cohort study of all patients who underwent truncal or super-selective vagotomy and a comparison cohort, by linking Danish population-based medical registries (1977-1995). Hazard ratios (HRs) for multiple sclerosis, adjusting for potential confounders were computed by means of Cox regression analysis. Median age of multiple sclerosis onset corresponded to late onset multiple sclerosis. No association with multiple sclerosis was observed for truncal vagotomy (0-37 year adjusted HR=0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-1.74) or super-selective vagotomy (0-37 year adjusted HR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.79-2.09) compared with the general population. We found no association between vagotomy and later risk of late onset multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanken, K.; Bosse, M.; Möhrke, K.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Kastrup, A.; Antal, A.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

  4. Effects of influenza vaccination and influenza illness on exacerbations in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1998-01-01

    Despite reports that influenza vaccination appears to be safe in multiple sclerosis there is uncertainty which patients may benefit from it. By using a questionnaire we compared the effects of influenza illness (1995-1996 season) and influenza vaccination (autumn of 1996) on neurologic symptoms in

  5. Metabolic Changes in the Visual Cortex Are Linked to Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Florian; Bock, Markus; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Waiczies, Helmar; Schwenteck, Thomas; Dörr, Jan; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Mohr, Christian; Weinges-Evers, Nicholetta; Ittermann, Bernd; Wuerfel, Jens T.; Paul, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the damage to the retinal nerve fiber layer as part of the anterior visual pathway as well as an impairment of the neuronal and axonal integrity in the visual cortex as part of the posterior visual pathway with complementary neuroimaging techniques, and to correlate our results to patients' clinical symptoms concerning the visual pathway. Design, Subjects and Methods Survey of 86 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that were subjected to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measurement by optical coherence tomography, to a routine MRI scan including the calculation of the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 tesla, quantifying N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentrations in the visual cortex and normal-appearing white matter. Results RNFLT correlated significantly with BPF and visual cortex NAA, but not with normal-appearing white matter NAA. This was connected with the patients' history of a previous optic neuritis. In a combined model, both BPF and visual cortex NAA were independently associated with RNFLT. Conclusions Our data suggest the existence of functional pathway-specific damage patterns exceeding global neurodegeneration. They suggest a strong interrelationship between damage to the anterior and the posterior visual pathway. PMID:21494672

  6. The CT appearance of ''reversible'' cerebral pseudoatrophy in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron, Z.; Kozlowska, R.; Grzegorzewski, M.; Nawrot, M.; Bulawska, I.

    1995-01-01

    The CT appearance of ''reversible'' cerebral pseudoatrophy resulting from anorexia nervosa was demonstrated. The CT studies were performed in 3 young women with typical clinical course of anorexia nervosa. In all of them computed tomography revealed dilatation of the subarachnoid fluid space. After 5 months of therapy the follow-up scans have reverted to normal in all cases. (author)

  7. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  8. The moderated relationship of appearance valence on appearance self consciousness: development and testing of new measures of appearance schema components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Moss

    Full Text Available This paper describes the creation and psychometric properties of two independent measures of aspects of appearance schematicity--appearance salience and valence, assessed by the CARSAL and CARVAL, and their relation to appearance self-consciousness. Five hundred and ninety two participants provided data in a web based task. The results demonstrate the sound psychometric properties of both scales. This was demonstrated by good item total characteristics, good internal reliability of each scale, and the independence of the two scales shown through principal components analysis. Furthermore, the scales show independent and moderated relationships with valid measures of appearance related psychosocial distress. Negatively valenced appearance information was associated with increased appearance self-consciousness. More crucially, the impact of negative valence on appearance self-consciousness was exacerbated by the moderating effect increased salience of appearance.

  9. Topical sirolimus for the treatment of angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Levent Cinar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The skin is one of the most affected organs in tuberous sclerosis complex and angiofibromas are seen in almost 80% of such patients. These benign tumors impose a great psycho-social burden on patients. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of topical sirolimus for facial angiofibromas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Methods: This was a prospective, single-blinded, cross-over study which involved twelve patients. We investigated the effect and safety of topical 0.1% sirolimus, which was obtained by crushing sirolimus tablets and mixing it with petrolatum. The patients were asked to apply the cream to one side of their face, and vaseline to the other side. The effect of topical sirolimus was evaluated using the “facial angiofibroma severity index.” Results: There was a significant improvement in the redness and extension of the tumors on the sides to which the active ingredient was applied. Some side effects such as itching and irritation occurred in three patients, which were treated with topical hydrocortisone cream. Conclusion: Topical sirolimus appears to be a promising, fairly well tolerated treatment for facial angiofibromas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although its efficacy diminishes with time, repetitive usage is effective.

  10. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  11. Multiple sclerosis in magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, M.; Walecki, J.; Stelmasiak, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The authors analyzed MR examination of 277 patients with multiple sclerosis. White matter hyperintesities in brain were found in 270 of them, in spinal cord in 32. The most frequently they were found in periventricular white matter, in subcortical localization and in the corpus callosum. MR examination allows the estimate the activity of the disease on the basis of the presence of edema around the plaques and their contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA. About one third of all cases were accompanied by cortical brain atrophy (the most often seen in the frontal lobes), subcortical brain atrophy was less frequent. In about two third of all cases the corpus callosum atrophy was found. MR examination is a highly sensitive method of multiple sclerosis diagnosis, of the assessment of its activity and progression. (author)

  12. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple sclerosis and herpesvirus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and its etiology is believed to have both genetic and environmental components. Several viruses have already been implicated as triggers and there are several studies that implicate members of the Herpesviridae family in the pathogenesis of MS. The most important characteristic of these viruses is that they have periods of latency and exacerbations within their biological sanctuary, the central nervous system. The Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 viruses are the members that are most studied as being possible triggers of multiple sclerosis. According to evidence in the literature, the herpesvirus family is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of this disease, but it is unlikely that they are the only component responsible for its development. There are probably multiple triggers and more studies are necessary to investigate and define these interactions.

  14. Sclerosis: Implications for Interhemispheric Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lunardelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with 35-year history of multiple sclerosis, who showed alien hand signs, a rare behavioural disorder that involves unilateral goal-directed movements that are contrary to the individual's intention. Alien hand syndrome has been described in multiple sclerosis (MS only occasionally and is generally suggestive of callosal disconnection. The patient presented also with bilateral limb apraxia and left hand agraphia, raising the possibility of cortical dysfunction or disconnection, in addition to corpus callosum and white matter involvement. Her specific pattern of symptoms supports the role of the corpus callosum in interhemispheric communication for complex as well as fine motor activities and may indicate that it can serve as both an inhibitory and excitatory function depending on task demands.

  15. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W H

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done. PMID:6707558

  16. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W H

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  17. Treatment Satisfaction in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Glanz, Bonnie I.; Musallam, Alexander; Rintell, David J.; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L.; Healy, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with inconvenient methods of administration, significant side effects, and low adherence rates. This study was undertaken to compare treatment satisfaction in MS patients treated with interferon beta-1a intramuscular (IFNβ-1a IM), interferon beta-1a subcutaneous (IFNβ-1a SC), glatiramer acetate (GA), and natalizumab (NTZ), and to examine the associations between treatment satisfaction ra...

  18. Estrogen Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Stefan M; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2009-01-01

    Currently available treatments for multiple sclerosis reduce inflammatory lesions on MRI and decrease clinical relapses but have limited effects on disability. Novel treatment options that target both the inflammatory as well as the neurodegenerative component of the disease are therefore needed. A growing body of evidence from basic science and clinical studies supports the therapeutic potential of estrogens in MS. Mechanisms of action include both immunomodulatory and directly neuroprotecti...

  19. The Assessment of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Sensory Processing Sensitivity and Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeil Soleymani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive emotional regulation strategies, sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal people. Materials and Methods: Statistical population of this study was all of patients with multiple sclerosis that referred to M.S association of Iran in the tehran. Sample of this study was 30 individuals of patients with multiple sclerosis selected by available sampling method and were matched with 30 individuals of normal people. Two groups completed cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated that there is significant difference between two groups in view of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in which the mean of scores of patients with multiple sclerosis in maladaptive strategies of self- blame, catastrophizing and other blame were more than normal people and mean of scores of them in adaptive strategies of positive refocusing, positive reappraisal and putting into perspective were less than normal people. The results also indicated that there is a significant difference between two groups in anxiety sensitivity and sensory processing sensitivity. Conclusion: The most of emotional problems in patients with multiple sclerosis can be the result of more application of maladaptive strategies of cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and high anxiety sensitivity.

  20. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  1. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neltner, Janna H.; Abner, Erin L.; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Smith, Charles D.; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A.; Brenowitz, Willa D.; Van Eldik, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    -immunoreactive arterioles had thicker walls (P ageing versus controls. Arteriolosclerosis appears specific to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing brains, because brains with Alzheimer’s disease pathology did not show the same morphological alterations. We conclude that there may be a pathogenetic change in aged human brain arterioles that impacts multiple brain areas and contributes to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing. PMID:24271328

  3. Atypical imaging appearances of intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, S. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Adams, W.M. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Mukonoweshuro, W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: William.mukonoweshuro@phnt.swest.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Meningiomas are the commonest primary, non-glial intracranial tumours. The diagnosis is often correctly predicted from characteristic imaging appearances. This paper presents some examples of atypical imaging appearances that may cause diagnostic confusion.

  4. Multiple sclerosis: current immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cuevas-García

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed on its origin: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration. In this review, the immune reaction main components and neurodegeneration present in multiple sclerosis are analyzed, as well as the inflammatory cascade associated with demyelination. Available treatments’ main purpose is to modulate aspects related to the adaptive immune response (B and T cells. The therapeutic challenge will be antigen-specific immune-tolerance induction, for example, with the use of tolerance protocols with peptides or DNA or nanoparticles vaccines. Future therapies should aim to control innate components (microglia, macrophages, astrocytes and to promote remyelination. To optimize the treatment, a combined therapeutic approach targeting the control of inflammatory and neurodegenerative components of the disease and monitoring of biomarkers will be necessary.

  5. Remote infarct of the temporal lobe with coexistent hippocampal sclerosis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Jordan M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    In patients undergoing surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis remains the most commonly observed pathology. In addition to hippocampal sclerosis, 5% to 30% of these resections on magnetic resonance imaging contain a second independently epileptogenic lesion, commonly referred to as dual pathology. A second etiology of seizure activity, as seen in dual pathology, may serve as an important cause of treatment failure in striving for post-operative seizure control. Dual pathology, consisting of hippocampal sclerosis and a remote infarct of the adjacent cortex, has been rarely reported. Cases of pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2012 (n = 349) were reviewed, and 7 cases of coexistent infarct (2%) formed the study group. Seven individuals (mean age, 29years; range, 5-47 years) with a mean epilepsy duration of 12.5years (3.3-25 years) and a mean pre-surgery frequency of 15 seizures per week (range, 0.5-56 seizures/week) were followed up postoperatively for a mean duration of 64months (range, 3-137 months). Pathologically, the most common form of hippocampal sclerosis observed was International League against Epilepsy type Ib or severe variant (n = 4). Four of the six individuals with post-surgery follow-up were seizure free at last encounter. The reported incidence of dual pathology, including hippocampal sclerosis and remote infarct, is low (2% in the present study) but may indicate a slightly increased risk of developing hippocampal sclerosis in the setting of a remote infarct. Surgical intervention for such cases anecdotally appears effective in achieving seizure control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain MRI screening showing evidences of early central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Sabry, Yousriah Y; Nasef, Amr A

    2011-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune collagen disease where structural and functional abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. The objective of this study is to detect subclinical as well as clinically manifest cerebral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging. As much as 30 female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years old, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. Age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain magnetic resonance examination. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on magnetic resonance evaluation than in age-related control group, signifying a form of CNS vasculopathy. Such foci showed significant correlation to clinical features of organic CNS lesion including headaches, fainting attacks and organic depression as well as to the severity of peripheral vascular disease with insignificant correlation with disease duration. In conclusion, subclinical as well as clinically manifest CNS ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and magnetic resonance imaging is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  7. Association of systemic sclerosis and psoriatic arthritis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Musio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc and Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA is unfrequent; only few cases are reported in literature. We describe a case of a patient with SSc following the onset of PsA. The disease begun with tenosynovitis, polyarthritis in association with psoriasis. After two years, Raynaud’s phenomenon and sclerodactyly appeared, and, later, pulmonary interstizial fibrosis and esophageal dysfunction. The existence of a common pathogenesis of the two diseases, SSc and PsA, is discussed.

  8. Radiology of the hand in progressive systemic sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C; Delli Gatti, I. and others

    1986-01-01

    Radiographs and xerographs of the hands of 35 patients with progressive systematic sclerosis (PSS), as defined by the ARA, were reviewed. Patients with ''overlap'' syndromes (i.e., mixed connective tissue disease, systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis) have been excluded. Soft tissue changes included atrophy (hidebound skin), and dystrophic calcifications, particularly in CREST patients (calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysmobility, sclerodactily and telangectasia). The most common bony change is resorption of distal phalanges; diffuse osteoporosis is also frequent; the distal interphalangeal and first carpometacarpal joints involvement appear as a distinctive feature of this e....

  9. Two Cases Of Multiple Sclerosis Accompanying Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Şengel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific bacground: It has been reported that; Multiple Sclerosis (MS may be presented with many psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, depression, mania and psychosis. MS cases, presented with psychiatric symptoms were also reported. Cases: Two MS cases, diagnosed as psychotic and bipolar disorder respectively, were reported in this paper. Both of the cases were responded to the steroid treatment, and neurological and psychiatric examinations were found to be normal after one month. CONCLUSION: MS cases might be presented with psychiatric complaints and symptoms except neurological ones. We conclude that; psychiatric evaluation as well as the neurological evaluation is important in the MS cases presented with psychiatric symptoms

  10. 67Gallium lung scans in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, M.; Feiglin, D.; Hyland, R.; Urowitz, M.B.; Shiff, B.

    1983-01-01

    67 Gallium lung scans were performed in 19 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Results were expressed quantitatively as the 67 Gallium Uptake Index. The mean total pulmonary 67 Gallium Uptake Index in patients was significantly higher than that in controls (41 versus 25), and 4 patients (21%) fell outside the normal range. There were no clinical or laboratory variables that correlated with the 56 Gallium uptake. Increased pulmonary 67 Gallium uptake in scleroderma may prove useful as an index of pulmonary disease activity

  11. Calcium Channel Blockers and Esophageal Sclerosis: Should We Expect Exacerbation of Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Seretis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal sclerosis is the most common visceral manifestation of systemic sclerosis, resulting in impaired esophageal clearance and retention of ingested food; in addition, co-existence of lung fibrosis with esophageal scleroderma is not uncommon. Both the progression of generalized connective tissue disorders and the damaging effect of chronic aspiration due to esophageal dysmotility appear to be involved in this procedure of interstitial fibrosis. Nifedipine is a widely prescribed calcium antagonist in a significant percentage of rheumatologic patients suffering from Raynaud syndrome, in order to inhibit peripheral vasospasm. Nevertheless, blocking calcium channels has proven to contribute to exacerbation of gastroesophageal reflux, which consequently can lead to chronic aspiration. We describe the case of severe exacerbation of interstitial lung disease in a 76-year-old female with esophageal sclerosis who was treated with oral nifedipine for Raynaud syndrome.

  12. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  13. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  14. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  15. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  16. Reproduction and the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils Iørgen; Pfleger, Claudia Christina

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark has doubled in women since 1970, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men.......The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark has doubled in women since 1970, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men....

  17. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutenkova, E; Aitmagambetova, G; Khodanovich, M; Yarnykh, V; Bowen, J; Gangadharan, B; Henson, L; Mayadev, A; Repovic, P; Qian, P

    2016-01-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus. (paper)

  18. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutenkova, E.; Aitmagambetova, G.; Khodanovich, M.; Bowen, J.; Gangadharan, B.; Henson, L.; Mayadev, A.; Repovic, P.; Qian, P.; Yarnykh, V.

    2016-02-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus.

  19. Multiple sclerosis and other white matter diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) by computerized tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance are shown, including the examination of cerebral spinal fluid. Lymphocytic, foamy histiocytic perivascular cuffing, degenerated oligodendrocytes, and microglia proliferation with relative axonal sparing are presented. In the latter stage of the chronic MS plaque there is sclerosis with microcystic formation with complete demyelination and organization. (author)

  20. Sclerotic bone lesions at abdominal magnetic resonance imaging in children with tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boronat, Susana; Barber, Ignasi; Pargaonkar, Vivek; Chang, Joshua; Thiele, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotic bone lesions are often seen on chest CT in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex. To characterize bone lesions at abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. This retrospective review included 70 children with tuberous sclerosis complex who had undergone abdominal MRI for renal imaging. An additional longitudinal study was performed in 50 children who had had two or more MRI scans. Abdominal CT (eight children) and radiographs (three children) were reviewed and compared with MRI. A total of 173 sclerotic bone lesions were detected in 51/70 children (73%; 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.82) chiefly affecting vertebral pedicles. New lesions appeared in 20 children and growth of previous sclerotic bone lesions was documented in 14 children. Sclerotic bone lesions were more frequent in girls and in children with more extensive renal involvement. Sclerotic bone lesions are commonly detected by abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. They usually affect posterior vertebral elements and their number and size increase with age. As current recommendations for tuberous sclerosis complex surveillance include renal MR performed in childhood, recognition of these lesions is useful. (orig.)

  1. Sclerotic bone lesions at abdominal magnetic resonance imaging in children with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, Susana [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Vall d' Hebron Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Barber, Ignasi [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Vall d' Hebron Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Pargaonkar, Vivek [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Chang, Joshua; Thiele, Elizabeth A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Sclerotic bone lesions are often seen on chest CT in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex. To characterize bone lesions at abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. This retrospective review included 70 children with tuberous sclerosis complex who had undergone abdominal MRI for renal imaging. An additional longitudinal study was performed in 50 children who had had two or more MRI scans. Abdominal CT (eight children) and radiographs (three children) were reviewed and compared with MRI. A total of 173 sclerotic bone lesions were detected in 51/70 children (73%; 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.82) chiefly affecting vertebral pedicles. New lesions appeared in 20 children and growth of previous sclerotic bone lesions was documented in 14 children. Sclerotic bone lesions were more frequent in girls and in children with more extensive renal involvement. Sclerotic bone lesions are commonly detected by abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. They usually affect posterior vertebral elements and their number and size increase with age. As current recommendations for tuberous sclerosis complex surveillance include renal MR performed in childhood, recognition of these lesions is useful. (orig.)

  2. MR spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI), lesion load and clinical scores in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellmann-Strobl, J.; Paul, F.; Aktas, O.; Zipp, F. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Stiepani, H.; Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Wuerfel, J. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Schleswig-Holstein, Institute of Neuroradiology, Campus Luebeck, Kiel (Germany); Warmuth, C. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Wandinger, K.P. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based lesion load assessment with clinical disability in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Seventeen untreated patients (ten women, seven men; mean age 33.0{+-}7.9 years) with the initial diagnosis of RRMS were included for cross-sectional as well as longitudinal (24 months) clinical and MRI-based assessment in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. Conventional MR sequences, MR spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI) were performed at 1.5 T. Lesion number and volume, MRS and MTI measurements for lesions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) were correlated to clinical scores [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC)] for monitoring disease course after treatment initiation (interferon {beta}-1a). MTI and MRS detected changes [magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR), N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine ratio] in NAWM over time. EDSS and lesional MTR increases correlated throughout the disease course. Average MTR of NAWM raised during the study (p<0.05) and correlated to the MSFC score (r=0.476, p<0.001). At study termination, NAA/creatine ratio of NAWM correlated to the MSFC score (p<0.05). MTI and MRS were useful for initial disease assessment in NAWM. MTI and MRS correlated with clinical scores, indicating potential for monitoring the disease course and gaining new insights into treatment-related effects. (orig.)

  3. MR spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI), lesion load and clinical scores in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellmann-Strobl, J.; Paul, F.; Aktas, O.; Zipp, F.; Stiepani, H.; Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R.; Wuerfel, J.; Warmuth, C.; Wandinger, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based lesion load assessment with clinical disability in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Seventeen untreated patients (ten women, seven men; mean age 33.0±7.9 years) with the initial diagnosis of RRMS were included for cross-sectional as well as longitudinal (24 months) clinical and MRI-based assessment in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. Conventional MR sequences, MR spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI) were performed at 1.5 T. Lesion number and volume, MRS and MTI measurements for lesions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) were correlated to clinical scores [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC)] for monitoring disease course after treatment initiation (interferon β-1a). MTI and MRS detected changes [magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR), N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine ratio] in NAWM over time. EDSS and lesional MTR increases correlated throughout the disease course. Average MTR of NAWM raised during the study (p<0.05) and correlated to the MSFC score (r=0.476, p<0.001). At study termination, NAA/creatine ratio of NAWM correlated to the MSFC score (p<0.05). MTI and MRS were useful for initial disease assessment in NAWM. MTI and MRS correlated with clinical scores, indicating potential for monitoring the disease course and gaining new insights into treatment-related effects. (orig.)

  4. Is impaired cerebral vasoreactivity an early marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, Aude; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jeremy; Molino, Francois; Marechal, Benedicte; Picot, Marie-Christine; Ayrignac, Xavier; Carra, Clarisse; Labauge, Pierre; Bauchet, Luc; Krainik, Alexandre; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The link between cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive status in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential decrease of cerebral vasoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate it with cognitive status. Thirty-three patients with multiple sclerosis (nine progressive and 24 remitting forms, median age: 39 years, 12 males) and 22 controls underwent MRI with a hypercapnic challenge to assess cerebral vasoreactivity and a neuropsychological assessment. Cerebral vasoreactivity, measured as the cerebral blood flow percent increase normalised by end-tidal carbon dioxide variation, was assessed globally and by regions of interest using the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Non-parametric statistics tests were used to assess differences between groups, and associations were estimated using linear models. Cerebral vasoreactivity was lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in cognitively normal patients (p=0.004) and was associated with education level in patients (R 2 = 0.35; p = 0.047). There was no decrease in cerebral vasoreactivity between patients and controls. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis may be mediated through decreased cerebral vasoreactivity. Cerebral vasoreactivity could therefore be considered as a marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  6. Is impaired cerebral vasoreactivity an early marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Aude [University Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Montpellier (France); University Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Memory Ressource and Research Center, Montpellier (France); Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jeremy [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Departement de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Institut d' Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine (I2FH), Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Universite de Montpellier, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221, Montpellier (France); Molino, Francois [Universite de Montpellier, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221, Montpellier (France); Universite de Montpellier, Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, CNRS UMR 5203, INSERM U661, Montpellier (France); Marechal, Benedicte [Siemens Healthcare, Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); CHUV, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); LTS5, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Picot, Marie-Christine [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Departement de Biostatistiques, Montpellier (France); Ayrignac, Xavier; Carra, Clarisse; Labauge, Pierre [University Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Montpellier (France); Bauchet, Luc [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Departement de Neurochirurgie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Hopital Saint Eloi, Institut de Neurosciences de Montpellier, INSERM U1051, Montpellier (France); Krainik, Alexandre [University Hospital of Grenoble, MR Unit CS 10217, Grenoble (France); Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Departement de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Institut d' Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine (I2FH), Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Universite de Montpellier, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221, Montpellier (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Caremeau, Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Nimes (France)

    2018-03-15

    The link between cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive status in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential decrease of cerebral vasoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate it with cognitive status. Thirty-three patients with multiple sclerosis (nine progressive and 24 remitting forms, median age: 39 years, 12 males) and 22 controls underwent MRI with a hypercapnic challenge to assess cerebral vasoreactivity and a neuropsychological assessment. Cerebral vasoreactivity, measured as the cerebral blood flow percent increase normalised by end-tidal carbon dioxide variation, was assessed globally and by regions of interest using the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Non-parametric statistics tests were used to assess differences between groups, and associations were estimated using linear models. Cerebral vasoreactivity was lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in cognitively normal patients (p=0.004) and was associated with education level in patients (R{sup 2} = 0.35; p = 0.047). There was no decrease in cerebral vasoreactivity between patients and controls. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis may be mediated through decreased cerebral vasoreactivity. Cerebral vasoreactivity could therefore be considered as a marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis. (orig.)

  7. Demyelination versus remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramow, Stephan; Frischer, Josa M; Lassmann, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The causes of incomplete remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis are unknown, as are the pathological correlates of the different clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary progressive disease. We analysed brains and spinal cords from 51 patients with progressive...... multiple sclerosis by planimetry. Thirteen patients with primary progressive disease were compared with 34 with secondary progressive disease. In patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, we found larger brain plaques, more demyelination in total and higher brain loads of active demyelination...... compared with patients with primary progressive disease. In addition, the brain density of plaques with high-grade inflammation and active demyelination was highest in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and remained ~18% higher than in primary progressive multiple sclerosis after adjustments...

  8. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  9. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkova, Maria; Milanov, Ivan; Kmetska, Ksenia; Deleva, Sofia; Popova, Ljubomira; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Groudeva, Violeta; Hadjidekova, Savina; Domínguez, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied radiosensitivity to in vitro γ-irradiated lymphocytes from MS patients. • Immunotherapy in RRMS patients reduced the yield of radiation induced MN. • The group of treated RRMS accounts for the low radiosensitivity in MS patients. • Spontaneous yield of MN was similar in treated and untreated RRMS patients. - Abstract: Multiple sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease leading to severe neurological disability. Although during the last years many disease-modifying agents as treatment options for multiple sclerosis have been made available, their mechanisms of action are still not fully determined. In the present study radiosensitivity in lymphocytes of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and healthy controls was investigated. Whole blood cultures from multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls were used to analyze the spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes. A subgroup of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis was treated with immunomodulatory agents, interferon β or glatiramer acetate. The secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients group was not receiving any treatment. Our results reveal that the basal DNA damage was not different between relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls. No differences between gamma-irradiation induced micronuclei frequencies in binucleated cells from relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls were found either. Nevertheless, when we compared the radiation induced DNA damage in binucleated cells from healthy individuals with the whole group of patients, a reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was obtained in the patients group. Induced micronuclei yield was significantly lower in the irradiated samples from treated relapsing–remitting multiple

  10. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenkova, Maria; Milanov, Ivan; Kmetska, Ksenia [III Neurological Clinic, University Hospital Saint Naum, Sofia (Bulgaria); Deleva, Sofia; Popova, Ljubomira; Hadjidekova, Valeria [Laboratory of Radiation Genetics, NCRRP, Sofia (Bulgaria); Groudeva, Violeta [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University Hospital St. Ekaterina, Sofia (Bulgaria); Hadjidekova, Savina [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University, Sofia (Bulgaria); Domínguez, Inmaculada, E-mail: idomin@us.es [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, Avda. Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied radiosensitivity to in vitro γ-irradiated lymphocytes from MS patients. • Immunotherapy in RRMS patients reduced the yield of radiation induced MN. • The group of treated RRMS accounts for the low radiosensitivity in MS patients. • Spontaneous yield of MN was similar in treated and untreated RRMS patients. - Abstract: Multiple sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease leading to severe neurological disability. Although during the last years many disease-modifying agents as treatment options for multiple sclerosis have been made available, their mechanisms of action are still not fully determined. In the present study radiosensitivity in lymphocytes of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and healthy controls was investigated. Whole blood cultures from multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls were used to analyze the spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes. A subgroup of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis was treated with immunomodulatory agents, interferon β or glatiramer acetate. The secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients group was not receiving any treatment. Our results reveal that the basal DNA damage was not different between relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls. No differences between gamma-irradiation induced micronuclei frequencies in binucleated cells from relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls were found either. Nevertheless, when we compared the radiation induced DNA damage in binucleated cells from healthy individuals with the whole group of patients, a reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was obtained in the patients group. Induced micronuclei yield was significantly lower in the irradiated samples from treated relapsing–remitting multiple

  11. Radiographic appearances following adequate transfusion in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Bagni, B.; Franceschini, F.

    1989-01-01

    The main lesions of the skull and hand, observed in a group of hypertransfused ..beta..-thalassaemic patients, are compared with a control group of low-transfused patients. Bony abnormalities reflect the relationship between proliferating bone marrow and bone cortex, and hypertransfusion therapy will prevent development of lesions only if established early in life. If this is done, the diploe in the skull may become normal, overgrowth of facial bones is moderate, pneumatisation of the paranasal sinuses is not completely prevented, and the 'hair-brush' pattern may disappear completely. A normal appearance of the hand in adequately treated patients differentiates between prepubertal patients and adults.

  12.  Hepatoportal sclerosis related to the use of herbals and nutritional supplements. Causality or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Fernanda Ferreira; Rodrigues de Freitas, Luiz Antônio; Codes, Liana; Santos Junior, Genario Oliveira; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Paraná, Raymundo

     Introduction and aim. Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH), also known as hepatoportal sclerosis (HPS) is a disease of uncertain etiology. However, various pathophysiological mechanisms has been postulated, including chronic or recurrent infections and exposure to drugs or toxins. In this context, it appears to be of multifactorial etiology or resulting from a portal vascular endothelium aggression. It is important to consider whether the use of dietary supplements and herbs can trigger or contribute to the occurance of HPS. We report a possible association of HPS with the consumption of herbals and / or dietary supplements. We describe two cases of HPS in patients without known etiology causes associated with this disease. Both patients were females who were diagnosed with HPS following the consumption of Herbalife® products and putative anorexigenic agents in the form herbals infusions. Image-based analysis and the assessment of the histopathological alterations found in the livers confirmed the diagnosis. The histopatological analysis of liver samples from both patients showed portal tracts enlarged by fibrosis with disappearance or reduction in the diameter of the portal vein branches. In many portal tracts, portal veins branches were replaced by aberrant thin-walled fendiforme vessels. The bile ducts and branches of the hepatic artery show normal aspects. After the exclusion of other etiologic factors and a comprehensive analysis of clinical history, consumption of Herbalife® products and anorexigenic agents was pointed-out as a puttative predisposing factor for the development of the disease.

  13. Multiple Sclerosis Identification Based on Fractional Fourier Entropy and a Modified Jaya Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Hua Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Currently, identifying multiple sclerosis (MS by human experts may come across the problem of “normal-appearing white matter”, which causes a low sensitivity. Methods: In this study, we presented a computer vision based approached to identify MS in an automatic way. This proposed method first extracted the fractional Fourier entropy map from a specified brain image. Afterwards, it sent the features to a multilayer perceptron trained by a proposed improved parameter-free Jaya algorithm. We used cost-sensitivity learning to handle the imbalanced data problem. Results: The 10 × 10-fold cross validation showed our method yielded a sensitivity of 97.40 ± 0.60%, a specificity of 97.39 ± 0.65%, and an accuracy of 97.39 ± 0.59%. Conclusions: We validated by experiments that the proposed improved Jaya performs better than plain Jaya algorithm and other latest bioinspired algorithms in terms of classification performance and training speed. In addition, our method is superior to four state-of-the-art MS identification approaches.

  14. Veins in plaques of multiple sclerosis patients - a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal-Bianco, Assunta; Auff, Eduard; Leutmezer, Fritz; Vass, Karl [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Wien (Austria); Hametner, Simon [Medical University of Vienna, Center for Brain Research, Wien (Austria); Grabner, Guenther; Schernthaner, Melanie; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Wien (Austria); Reitner, Andreas; Vass, Clemens; Kircher, Karl [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Ophthalmology, Wien (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    To monitor the venous volumes in plaques of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to an age-matched control group over a period of 3.5 years. Ten MS patients underwent an annual neurological examination and MRI. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) combined with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) or FLAIR-like contrast at 7 Tesla (7 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for manual segmentation of veins in plaques, in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in location-matched white matter of 9 age-matched controls. Venous volume to tissue volume ratio was assessed for each time point in order to describe the dynamics of venous volumes in MS plaques over time. MS plaques, which were newly detected during the study period, showed significantly higher venous volumes compared to the preplaque area 1 year before plaque detection and the corresponding NAWM regions. Venous volumes in established MS plaques, which were present already in the first scans, were significantly higher compared to the NAWM and controls. Our data underpin a relation of veins and plaque development in MS and reflect increased apparent venous calibers due to increased venous diameters or increased oxygen consumption in early MS plaques. (orig.)

  15. Fully automatic detection of deep white matter T1 hypointense lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Lothar; Tewes, Anja; Suppa, Per; Opfer, Roland; Buchert, Ralph; Winkler, Gerhard; Raji, Alaleh

    2013-12-01

    A novel method is presented for fully automatic detection of candidate white matter (WM) T1 hypointense lesions in three-dimensional high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. By definition, T1 hypointense lesions have similar intensity as gray matter (GM) and thus appear darker than surrounding normal WM in T1-weighted images. The novel method uses a standard classification algorithm to partition T1-weighted images into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As a consequence, T1 hypointense lesions are assigned an increased GM probability by the standard classification algorithm. The GM component image of a patient is then tested voxel-by-voxel against GM component images of a normative database of healthy individuals. Clusters (≥0.1 ml) of significantly increased GM density within a predefined mask of deep WM are defined as lesions. The performance of the algorithm was assessed on voxel level by a simulation study. A maximum dice similarity coefficient of 60% was found for a typical T1 lesion pattern with contrasts ranging from WM to cortical GM, indicating substantial agreement between ground truth and automatic detection. Retrospective application to 10 patients with multiple sclerosis demonstrated that 93 out of 96 T1 hypointense lesions were detected. On average 3.6 false positive T1 hypointense lesions per patient were found. The novel method is promising to support the detection of hypointense lesions in T1-weighted images which warrants further evaluation in larger patient samples.

  16. Morphostructural MRI Abnormalities Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated to Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bonavita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis associated neuropsychiatric disorders include major depression (MD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, bipolar affective disorder, euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, and personality change. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies focused mainly on identifying morphostructural correlates of MD; only a few anecdotal cases on OCD associated to MS (OCD-MS, euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, personality change, and one research article on MRI abnormalities in OCD-MS have been published. Therefore, in the present review we will report mainly on neuroimaging abnormalities found in MS patients with MD and OCD. All together, the studies on MD associated to MS suggest that, in this disease, depression is linked to a damage involving mainly frontotemporal regions either with discrete lesions (with those visible in T1 weighted images playing a more significant role or subtle normal appearing white matter abnormalities. Hippocampal atrophy, as well, seems to be involved in MS related depression. It is conceivable that grey matter pathology (i.e., global and regional atrophy, cortical lesions, which occurs early in the course of disease, may involve several areas including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex whose disruption is currently thought to explain late-life depression. Further MRI studies are necessary to better elucidate OCD pathogenesis in MS.

  17. Veins in plaques of multiple sclerosis patients - a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study at 7 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal-Bianco, Assunta; Auff, Eduard; Leutmezer, Fritz; Vass, Karl; Hametner, Simon; Grabner, Guenther; Schernthaner, Melanie; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Trattnig, Siegfried; Reitner, Andreas; Vass, Clemens; Kircher, Karl

    2015-01-01

    To monitor the venous volumes in plaques of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to an age-matched control group over a period of 3.5 years. Ten MS patients underwent an annual neurological examination and MRI. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) combined with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) or FLAIR-like contrast at 7 Tesla (7 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for manual segmentation of veins in plaques, in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in location-matched white matter of 9 age-matched controls. Venous volume to tissue volume ratio was assessed for each time point in order to describe the dynamics of venous volumes in MS plaques over time. MS plaques, which were newly detected during the study period, showed significantly higher venous volumes compared to the preplaque area 1 year before plaque detection and the corresponding NAWM regions. Venous volumes in established MS plaques, which were present already in the first scans, were significantly higher compared to the NAWM and controls. Our data underpin a relation of veins and plaque development in MS and reflect increased apparent venous calibers due to increased venous diameters or increased oxygen consumption in early MS plaques. (orig.)

  18. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  19. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    followed by numerical and experimental verification. The approach comprises verifying all design and fabrication steps required to produce a desired appearance. We expect that the procedure in the future will yield structurally colored surfaces with appealing prescribed visual appearances.......We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design...

  20. Systemic sclerosis, birth order and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul A J; Lester, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    A recent study identified increasing birth order to be a risk factor for the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This finding supports the theory that transplacental microchimerism may be a key pathological event in the initiation of SSc. We investigated the relationship between birth order and parity and the age of onset of SSc in South Australia. A retrospective analysis of patient data in the South Australian Scleroderma Register was performed. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire. Control data was collected prospectively using a similar questionnaire. The relationship between birth order, family size or parity and risk of subsequent development of SSc was analyzed by mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and eighty-seven index probands were identified and compared with 457 controls. Controls were well matched for gender, but not for age. No statistically significant relationship was identified between SSc and birth order, parity in females, family size, age at first pregnancy in females or gender of first child in parous females. Our data suggests that parity, age at first pregnancy and the gender of the first child are not relevant factors in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSc. Birth order and family size in both genders also appears irrelevant. These results argue against microchimerism as being relevant in the pathogenesis of SSc and add further support to the theory that stochastic events may be important in the etiopathogenesis of SSc. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767

  2. Bone Health in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vit Zikan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a gait disorder characterized by acute episodes of neurological defects leading to progressive disability. Patients with MS have multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures, such as progressive immobilization, long-term glucocorticoids (GCs treatment or vitamin D deficiency. The duration of motor disability appears to be a major contributor to the reduction of bone strength. The long term immobilization causes a marked imbalance between bone formation and resorption with depressed bone formation and a marked disruption of mechanosensory network of tightly connected osteocytes due to increase of osteocyte apoptosis. Patients with higher level of disability have also higher risk of falls that combined with a bone loss increases the frequency of bone fractures. There are currently no recommendations how to best prevent and treat osteoporosis in patients with MS. However, devastating effect of immobilization on the skeleton in patients with MS underscores the importance of adequate mechanical stimuli for maintaining the bone structure and its mechanical competence. The physical as well as pharmacological interventions which can counteract the bone remodeling imbalance, particularly osteocyte apoptosis, will be promising for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with MS.

  3. Effects of Sport Climbing on Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Steimer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS with different types of disease courses (relapsing-remitting, secondary-progressive, primary progressive that leads to physical as well as mental disability. The symptoms comprise paresis or/and paralysis, ataxia, bladder dysfunction, visual problems as well as effects on cognition. There is limited data regarding the possible effects of sport climbing respectively therapeutic climbing on patients with MS. Sport climbing offers many potentially beneficial effects for patients with MS since there are effects on coordination, muscular strength, and cognition to name the most relevant ones. Also, disease models in rodents point toward such positive outcomes of climbing. Therefore, we assessed the currently available research literature on general effects of physical exercise, impact of climbing on body and mind and therapeutic climbing for prevention or therapy for the treatment of MS. The sparse published controlled trials that investigated this sport activity on different groups of patients with neurological or geriatric diseases grossly differ in study design and outcome parameters. Nevertheless, it appears that climbing offers the opportunity to improve some of the symptoms of patients with MS and can contribute to an enhanced quality of life.

  4. Altered cortical communication in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E; Lee, Uncheol

    2013-05-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4-35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Dept. of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  6. Redox Regulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Halloran, Mark A.; Soo, Kai Y.; Atkin, Julie D.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Due to a lack of effective treatment, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms and processes involved in disease progression. Regulations in cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) processes are being increasingly implicated in disease. Here we discuss the possible involvement of redox dysregulation in the pathophysiology of ALS, either as a cause of cellular abnormalities or a consequence. We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also speculate that an ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) could play a key role in this dysregulation. PDI is essential for normal protein folding by oxidation and reduction of disulphide bonds, and hence any disruption to this process may have consequences for motor neurons. Addressing the mechanism underlying redox regulation and dysregulation may therefore help to unravel the molecular mechanism involved in ALS. PMID:23533690

  7. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; Llado, Xavier; Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Rovira, Alex; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  8. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  9. Associations between Systemic Sclerosis and Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poupak Fallahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed scientific literature about the association of systemic sclerosis (SSc and thyroid disorders. A high incidence, and prevalence, of new cases of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and/or hypothyroidism have been shown in sclerodermic patients (overall in the female gender. An association among a Th1 immune-predominance, low vitamin D levels, and AT have been also shown in SSc patients. Cases of Graves’ disease (GD have been described in SSc patients, too, according with the higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. It has been also shown a higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, in association with AT, in SSc patients. However, in order to confirm results about GD and thyroid cancer, studies in larger number of patients with SSc are needed. During the follow-up of SSc patients it would be appropriate to monitor carefully their thyroid status. The abovementioned data strongly suggest a periodic thyroid function follow-up in female SSc patients [showing a borderline high (although in the normal range thyroid-stimulating hormone level, antithyroid peroxidase antibody positivity, and a small thyroid with a hypoechoic pattern], and, when necessary, appropriate treatments. In conclusion, most of the studies show an association among SSc, AT, and hypothyroidism, such as an increased prevalence of TC overall in SSc patients with AT. Only few cases of GD have been also described in SSc.

  10. Computed tomography appearances in the linear sebaceous naevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, S.; Robinson, R.O.; Aicardi, J.; Hoare, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of C.T. of the head in 11 cases of the linear sebaceous naevus syndrome are presented. From these it is argued that the pathology represents a disorder of neuronal migration and organisation rather than differentiation. Since three of the cases had evidence of CNS tumour in addition to two in the literature, it would appear that a further aspect of this disorder is a failure of growth constraint. This is paralleled by a similar tendency in the skin lesion which should be considered premalignant. Normal intelligence is rare in this condition and co-exists only with a normal C.T. scan. The early onset of fits is not necessarily associated with subsequent mental handicap. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of patients with multiple sclerosis according to tests of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Ineu Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC is a scale that evaluates the functional and cognitive aspects of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Objective: To compare the performance of individuals with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS with a group of healthy subjects using the MSFC. Methods: Twenty subjects were investigated in this study, consisting of 10 patients with clinical diagnosis of RRMS and 10 controls with similar gender and age to the group with the disease. The three tests that comprise the MSFC were used for the evaluation of gait, upper limb motor function and cognition (memory and processing speed. Student's t-test was used to assess data with normal distribution and data with skewed distribution were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The results showed that the patients with RRMS took longer to perform the locomotion test (6.91 ± 2.35 compared to the control group (5.16 ± 1.28. The MS group (22.06 ± 5.44 also showed greater difficulty in performing a task with the dominant upper limb compared to the healthy subjects (17.79 ± 2.96. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups in the performance of cognitive tasks (p = .65. Conclusion: The use of the MSFC tests proved valuable for measuring possible motor and cognitive impairments in patients with RRMS. Thus, it is suggested that this scale is adopted in clinical practice, improving therapies for the treatment of MS patients and thereby providing them a better quality of life.

  12. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  13. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide...

  14. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment.

  16. Clinical neurogenetics: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways as targets for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS and provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  18. Optimal linguistic expression in negotiations depends on visual appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Kwon, Jinhwan; Tamada, Hikaru; Hirahara, Yumi

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the visual appearance of a negotiator on persuasiveness within the context of negotiations. Psychological experiments were conducted to quantitatively analyze the relationship between visual appearance and the use of language. Male and female participants were shown three female and male photographs, respectively. They were asked to report how they felt about each photograph using a seven-point semantic differential (SD) scale for six affective factors (positive impression, extraversion, intelligence, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and agreeableness). Participants then answered how they felt about each negotiation scenario (they were presented with pictures and a situation combined with negotiation sentences) using a seven-point SD scale for seven affective factors (positive impression, extraversion, intelligence, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and degree of persuasion). Two experiments were conducted using different participant groups depending on the negotiation situations. Photographs with good or bad appearances were found to show high or low degrees of persuasion, respectively. A multiple regression equation was obtained, indicating the importance of the three language factors (euphemistic, honorific, and sympathy expressions) to impressions made during negotiation. The result shows that there are optimal negotiation sentences based on various negotiation factors, such as visual appearance and use of language. For example, persons with good appearance might worsen their impression during negotiations by using certain language, although their initial impression was positive, and persons with bad appearance could effectively improve their impressions in negotiations through their use of language, although the final impressions of their negotiation counterpart might still be more negative than those for persons with good appearance. In contrast, the impressions made by persons of normal appearance

  19. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G.

    2004-01-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  20. 29 CFR 1921.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE IN ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS UNDER SECTION 41 OF THE LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Hearing and Related Matters § 1921.10 Appearances. (a) Representation. The parties may appear...

  1. 39 CFR 953.7 - Default; Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default; Appearances. 953.7 Section 953.7 Postal... § 953.7 Default; Appearances. If a timely reply to the appeal is not filed, the presiding officer shall... Inspector or his or her designee is in default. Whenever the General Counsel or the Chief Postal Inspector...

  2. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...

  3. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...

  4. Interactive Appearance Prediction for Cloudy Beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2016-01-01

    Juice appearance is important to consumers, so digital juice with a slider that varies a production parameter or changes juice content is useful. It is however challenging to render juice with scattering particles quickly and accurately. As a case study, we create an appearance model that provide...

  5. Unmet patient needs in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenzik, Tamara T; Derk, Chris T

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of systemic sclerosis patients has not directly addressed functioning from the patient's perspective. With this study, we aim to gain our patient's point of view by using a questionnaire to describe their unmet needs and understanding what demographic parameters influence these. A computer randomization program selected 50 patients, from 242 systemic sclerosis patients actively followed at our rheumatology clinic, to receive a survey about unmet needs. Twenty-five patients responded to the survey. Of 81 questions, 9 provided demographic data, whereas 72 questions addressed physical, daily living, psychologic, spiritual, existential, health services, health information, social support, and employment issues. A 4-point scale from no need to high need was used to rate all questions. Significant need was considered any issue for which more than 50% of patients reported a high need. The Fisher exact test was used to compare different demographic variables to unmet patient needs. The psychologic/spiritual/existential category had 9 questions reaching significance, the health services category had 5 significant questions, the physical category had 4 significant questions. Patients who had not attended college were more likely to have higher needs than patients who completed a college degree. Unmarried patients reported higher needs in 8 measures as compared with married patients, and patients in rural areas had higher needs in social support needs. The greatest prevalence of unmet needs in scleroderma patients were in the psychologic/spiritual/existential domain, such as being unable to do things they used to do, fear that the disease will worsen, anxiety and stress, feeling down or depressed, fears of physical disability, uncertainty about the future, change in appearance, keeping a positive outlook, and feeling in control. Significant differences were observed in unmet needs based on education, marital status, location, knowledge of disease, and age

  6. High-field MR imaging of spinal cord multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Paz, R.L.; Floris, R.; Norman, D.; Enzmann, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-one high-field MR imaging studies (1.5 T, General Electric Signa) of the spinal cord were performed in 42 patients (27 female, 15 male; mean age, 40 years) with clinically definitive (n = 34) or probable (n = 8) multiple sclerosis and suspected spinal cord lesions. MR imaging showed focal spinal cord abnormalities in 38 (75%) of 51 studies. T2-weighted images were abnormal (showing foci of high signal intensity) in 38 studies, T1-weighted images were abnormal (showing areas of low signal intensity or mass effect) in 16 (42%) of 38, and GRASS images were abnormal (showing foci of high signal intensity) in 9 (82%) of 11 cases. Brain MR imaging showed periventricular lesions typical of multiple sclerosis in 34 (81%) of 42 studies. Spinal cord studies were positive in eight cases with normal brain MR images, and brain studies were positive in 13 instances of normal spinal cord MR images. Four lesions were at the cervicomedullary junction, 44 in the cervical spinal cord, and three in the thoracic cord. Mass effect in cord lesions, simulating neoplasm, was seen in seven patients during the acute symptomatic phase. Serial studies in three patients with decreasing symptoms showed a reduction after 3-4 weeks and resolution of the mass effect after 2-6 months

  7. Brain white matter demyelinating lesions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a patient with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Santos, Miguel; Caldeira, Inês; Gromicho, Marta; Pronto-Laborinho, Ana; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2017-10-01

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. It has been described before four patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and C9orf72-ALS. However, C9orf72 positivity is not associated with increased risk of MS. Inflammatory pathways related to NF-κB have been linked to ALS and MS, and appear to be important in C9orf72-ALS patients. A 42-year-old woman presented with progressive bulbar symptoms for 9 months. Neurological examination disclosed spastic dysarthria, atrophic tongue with fasciculations, brisk jaw and limb tendon reflexes, and bilateral Hoffman sign. Electrophysiological assessment confirmed ALS. Brain MRI revealed multiple and bilateral juxtacortical and periventricular inflammatory changes, some with gadolinium-enhancement, configuring a probable MS-like pattern. CSF evaluation was unremarkable, with no oligoclonal bands. Visual and somatosensory evoked potentials were normal. Follow-up brain MRI 6 months later showed two new lesions in two relatively characteristic locations of MS, with no gadolinium-enhancement. Genetic screening revealed a C9orf72 expansion. As patient had no clinical manifestation of MS, a diagnosis of radiologically isolated syndrome was considered. We speculate that these demyelinating lesions might facilitate expressivity of C9orf72 expansion, through NF-κB activation. This plausible association may lead to the identification of a therapeutic target in this subgroup of C9orf72-ALS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Erasmus Syndrome: Silicosis and Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shubhra; Joshi, Vinod; Rathore, Yogendra S; Khippal, Narendra

    2017-01-01

    Several occupational hazards, especially exposure to silica, have been implicated as causal factors for the development of scleroderma-like disorders. Compared to other connective tissue disorders, silica-associated systemic sclerosis (SA-SS) is relatively rare. Silica-induced scleroderma is indistinguishable from idiopathic systemic sclerosis. However, the former expresses a high predisposition of pulmonary involvement and anti-Scl-70 antibody. We report the case of a 42-year-old male, stone cutter by occupation, who was diagnosed as simple chronic silicosis and developed systemic sclerosis.

  9. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Etesam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment can emerge in the earliest phases of multiple sclerosis. It strongly impacts different aspects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients' lives, like employment, social relationships and the overall quality of life; thus, its on-time recognition and treatment is mandatory. This paper discusses issues, diagnostic methods and treatment options for cognitive dysfunctions in MS. This paper is a descriptive review of the related studies in the recent 10 years, performing a keyword search in the main databases4T. Cognitive impairment mostly involves aspects of information processing, memory and executive functioning in MS. Neuropsychological tests like MACFIMS and BRB-N are recommended for its assessment. Still, there is no fully efficient treatment for cognitive impairment. Researchers have shown some positive effects, using disease-modifying therapies and cognitive rehabilitation. Depression, pain, fatigue and other factors influencing cognitive functions must be paid attention to4T. Recognizing cognitive impairment as a major symptom for MS, makes studying this subject one of the priorities in dealing with the disease. Therefore, a consecutive research for identification and management of this part of quality of life in MS patients is obligatory4T.4T

  10. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, B.B.; Elsas, L.J.; Wyly, J.B.; Pasquali, M.

    1994-01-01

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a specific bone dysplasia manifested by hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, frontal bossing, large head, hypoplastic maxilla, palate anomalies, chronic otitis media, hearing deficits, nasal obstruction, and neurological changes of deafness, facial palsy, ophthalmoplegia, and mental retardation. We will review the clinical and radiologic findings in a new patient from birth to 20 years; this is believed to be the thirty-fifth patient reported. OS-CS is 2.5 times more common in females and occurs as an autosomal dominant condition or a sporadic dominant mutation with patients presenting for evaluation from the newborn period to the fifth decade. Skeletal abnormalities are distinctive including sclerosis of the skull base and calvarium, linear striated densities in the long bones and pelvis, and poor development of the mastoid and sinus air cells. Radionuclide bone scans with SPECT indicated in our patient increased bone turnover which was supported by biochemical findings of increased pyridinoline excretion. The major complications are due to constriction of essential foramina at the skull base. The condition is not life-threatening but can produce disability. (orig.)

  11. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, E.A.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes recently developed research methods for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. In Chapter X the use of the CT-scan in the detection of hemispheral or cerebellar lesions is discussed. In chapter XIII the results of the application of all methods to a group of 89 patients with definite, probable or possible multiple sclerosis and to a group of 25 purely optic neuritis patients are presented. With the aid of the CT-scan, hypo- or hyperdense areas in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres were found in 52% of the 114 patients. Most reports ascribe these lesions to demyelinating cerebral plaques. The CT-scan showed no cerebellar or brainstem lesions. The CT-scan is independent of the duration of, and degree of incapacitation due to, the disease and can be helpful in giving a definite diagnosis in an early stage of the disease. The CT-scan will always play an important role for the differential diagnosis. (Auth.)

  12. Cognitive impairment and its relation to imaging measures in multiple sclerosis: a study using a computerized battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Clelia; Kane, Robert L; Gallo, Antonio; Xiaobai, Li; Stern, Susan K; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N; Evangelou, Iordanis E; Ohayon, Joan M; Ehrmantraut, Mary; Cantor, Fredric K; Bagnato, Francesca

    2013-07-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) is an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) disability. A complex biological interplay between white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) disease likely sustains CI. This study aims to address this issue by exploring the association between the extent of normal WM and GM disease and CI. Cognitive function of 24 MS patients and 24 healthy volunteers (HVs) was studied using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) battery. WM focal lesions and normal appearing WM (NAWM) volume in patients, cortical thickness (CTh) and deep GM structure volumes in both patients and HVs were measured by high field strength (3.0-Tesla; 3T) imaging. An analysis of covariance showed that patients performed worse than HVs on Code Substitution Delayed Memory (P = .04) and Procedural Reaction Time (P = .05) indicative of reduced performance in memory, cognitive flexibility, and processing speed. A summary score (Index of Cognitive Efficiency) indicating global test battery performance was also lower for the patient group (P = .04). Significant associations, as determined by the Spearman rank correlation tests, were noted between each of these 3 cognitive scores and measures of NAWM volume [CDD-TP1(r = .609; P = .0035), PRO-TP1 (r = .456; P = .029) and ICE (r = .489; P = .0129)], CTh (r = .5; P ≤ .05) and volume of subcortical normal appearing GM (NAGM) structures (r = .4; P≤ .04), but not WM lesions. Both NAWM and NAGM volumes are related to CI in MS. The results highlight once again the urgent need to develop pharmacological strategies protecting patients from widespread neurodegeneration as possible preventive strategies of CI development. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. Struma ovarii. MR and CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joja, Ikuo; Mitsumori, Akihito; Hiraki, Yoshio; Kudo, Takafumi; Nakagawa, Tomio; Asakawa, Toru; Ando, Masaaki; Akamatsu, Nobuo.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the appearance of struma ovarii on MR and CT images. All 13 patients showed both cystic and solid components with a multilobulated surface and thickened septa. Various signal intensities were seen on both T1WI and T2WI. The cystic component, which showed low signal intensity on T2WI, showed high density on CT images. The characteristic MR and CT appearance of struma ovarii appears to be that of multicystic tumor indicating the presence of viscid materials containing iodine. (author)

  14. Comorbidity of Bipolar Disorder and Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of a central nervous system. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis and bipolar disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders that coexist with multiple sclerosis. Manic episodes may be the first presenting symptom of multiple sclerosis as comorbid pathology or as an adverse effect of pharmacotherapies used in multiple sclerosis. The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis is well-proven but its etiology is not known and investigated accurately. Recent studies support a common genetic susceptibility. Management of bipolar disorder in multiple sclerosis is based on evidence provided by case reports and treatment should be individualized. In this report, the association between bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis, epidemiology, ethiology and treatment is discussed through a case had diagnosed as multiple sclerosis and had a manic episode with psychotic features. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 832-836

  15. A level set method for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Guo, Shuxu; Luo, Min; Shi, Xue; Bilello, Michel; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Li, Chunming

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we present a level set method for multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation from FLAIR images in the presence of intensity inhomogeneities. We use a three-phase level set formulation of segmentation and bias field estimation to segment MS lesions and normal tissue region (including GM and WM) and CSF and the background from FLAIR images. To save computational load, we derive a two-phase formulation from the original multi-phase level set formulation to segment the MS lesions and normal tissue regions. The derived method inherits the desirable ability to precisely locate object boundaries of the original level set method, which simultaneously performs segmentation and estimation of the bias field to deal with intensity inhomogeneity. Experimental results demonstrate the advantages of our method over other state-of-the-art methods in terms of segmentation accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CHANGES IN TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALFA DURING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BY TRANSIMMUNIZATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kil'dyushevskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the availability of a  large number of treatments for multiple sclerosis with various targets, these treatments are not always effective. According to the literature, experimental studies have shown a  significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α with the use of extracorporeal photochemotherapy. Aim: To assess changes in TNF-α in patients with multiple sclerosis during treatment with transimmunization. Materials and methods: The study recruited 13 adult patients with multiple sclerosis. Serum TNF-α was measured by immunochemiluminescence analysis (IMMULITE 1000, Siemens. The patients were treated by transimmunization, i.e. a  modified photopheresis. Two hours before the procedure, Ammifurin (8-methoxypsoralene was administered to all the patients, then their mononuclear cells were isolated under PBSC protocol with Haemonetics MCS+ cell separator. Thereafter, mononuclear cells were irradiated with ultraviolet for 90  minutes and incubated for 20 hours at 37 °С. The next day the cells were re-infused to the patients. The procedure was performed 2  times per week for 6  months, then once per 4  months. Results: Before transimmunization, mean TNF-α level in adult patients with multiple sclerosis was 9.958±0.812  pg/mL (normal, below 8.1 pg/mL. After transimmunization, its level was 6.992±0.367  pg/mL (р<0.05. Conclusion: Ultraviolet irradiation of peripheral blood monocytes with their subsequent incubation (transimmunization led to a 30% decrease of serum TNF-α in patients with multiple sclerosis. This indicates a suppressive effect of transimmunization on TNF-α. Hence, in patients with multiple sclerosis transimmunization exerts an anti-inflammatory effect.

  17. Angiographic appearances of rare renal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Taenzer, V.

    1980-01-01

    Oncocytomas, called oxyphil proximal tubular adenomas in the Anglo Saxon literature, and benign hypernephromas are non-malignant, usually symptomless, rare tumours belonging to the renal adenomas. Oncocytomas have angiographic appearances sufficiently uniform to permit a tentative diagnosis. Histologically benign hypernephromas do not possess characteristic angiographic appearances and, in the presence of tumour in the renal vein or necrotic avascular areas, must be regarded as potentially malignant. (orig.) [de

  18. MR appearance of normal and abnormal bile: Correlation with imaging and endoscopic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Kyung [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk, E-mail: kimsuk@medimail.co.kr [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Suk Hong [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Gwang Ha [Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyung Il [Department of Surgery, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Identification of abnormal bile related to various pathological processes in the pancreaticobiliary tract can be important in the diagnosis of disease and the determination of appropriate treatment. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can allow comprehensive evaluation of abnormal bile because MR usually provides better tissue characterization than other imaging modalities. A high-intensity signal from bile is frequently encountered on T1-weighted images and can be seen in concentrated bile, sludge, stones, or hemobilia. Contrast-enhanced MR features, such as inhomogeneous hepatic enhancement in the arterial phase and papillitis or mild-to-moderate bile duct wall thickening with enhancement, along with clinical characteristics, may suggest clinically significant bile, such as sludge or purulent bile, rather than merely concentrated bile. A history of trauma and appropriate imaging findings in the hepatobiliary tract can support a diagnosis of hemobilia. MR imaging may assist in diagnosing intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct via detection of an intraductal mass or several indirect signs, suggesting a large amount of mucin. Additionally, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR may delineate mucin as a filling defect surrounding hyperintense bile. A floating filling defect on all MR sequences is helpful in discriminating pneumobilia from other intraluminal filling defects. Familiarity with the various different MR features of abnormal bile signals can therefore facilitate accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Lumbar facet joint fat pads: Their normal anatomy and their appearance when enlarged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.; McCormick, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The polar recesses, superior and inferior to lumbar facet joints, are filled by fat pads from which fat-filled synovial folds project between the articular surfaces for a distance of two to four millimetres. The intracapsular superior recess lies between the ligamentum flavum and the lamina above. The extracapsular inferior recess lies on the back of the lamina below and communicates with the joint through a hole in the inferior capsule. The intracapsular folds move freely in and out of the joint during movements. These features are demonstrated in anatomic studies using transverse sections and radiologic studies using computed tomography. In about 4% of lumbar spines examined, the intraarticular fat pads are enlarged and extend from the joint recess(es) into the middle third of one or more facet joints. The fat pads can be identified in CT scans by their radiolucency and distinguished from vacuum phenomenon by measuring their attenuation values. The cause of the intra-articular enlargement of the fat pads is unknown, but it is suggested that their extension into the middle third of the joint may be secondary to degenerative change in the motion segment with capsular laxity in the affected joint. (orig.)

  20. MR appearance of normal and abnormal bile: Correlation with imaging and endoscopic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Suk Hong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Gwang Ha; Seo, Hyung Il

    2010-01-01

    Identification of abnormal bile related to various pathological processes in the pancreaticobiliary tract can be important in the diagnosis of disease and the determination of appropriate treatment. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can allow comprehensive evaluation of abnormal bile because MR usually provides better tissue characterization than other imaging modalities. A high-intensity signal from bile is frequently encountered on T1-weighted images and can be seen in concentrated bile, sludge, stones, or hemobilia. Contrast-enhanced MR features, such as inhomogeneous hepatic enhancement in the arterial phase and papillitis or mild-to-moderate bile duct wall thickening with enhancement, along with clinical characteristics, may suggest clinically significant bile, such as sludge or purulent bile, rather than merely concentrated bile. A history of trauma and appropriate imaging findings in the hepatobiliary tract can support a diagnosis of hemobilia. MR imaging may assist in diagnosing intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct via detection of an intraductal mass or several indirect signs, suggesting a large amount of mucin. Additionally, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR may delineate mucin as a filling defect surrounding hyperintense bile. A floating filling defect on all MR sequences is helpful in discriminating pneumobilia from other intraluminal filling defects. Familiarity with the various different MR features of abnormal bile signals can therefore facilitate accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Non-Traumatic Ureteral Rupture Despite Initial Normal Appearance Assessed by Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kan Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the urinary collecting system with urinary extravasations is a condition that leads to presentation of abdominal pain. The most common cause is usually associated with urolithiasis related obstructive nephropathy. A man aged 69 years suddenly suffered from intense pain over the left hemi-abdomen and flank area. The initial imaging studies of plain film, abdominal sonography, and enhanced and non-enhanced computed tomography scan were unremarkable. Post-contrast plain film showed left-sided urinary extravasations. Surgical intervention ensued and the patient recovered without later urinary complaints. We found that a delayed plain film after intravenous contrast media for computed tomography is helpful to evaluate the urinary tract in its entirety. It is also practical and useful for the detection of leakage from the urinary tract.

  2. MRI patterns of Nissen fundoplication: normal appearance and mechanisms of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulinna-Cosentini, Christiane; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Schima, Wolfgang [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern Wien und Sankt Josef Krankenhaus, Department of Radiology, Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Vienna (Austria); Cosentini, Enrico P. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the role of MR fluoroscopy in the evaluation of post-surgical conditions of Nissen fundoplication due to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 29 patients (21 patients with recurrent/persistent symptoms and eight asymptomatic patients as the control group) underwent MRI of the oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction (GEJ) at 1.5 T. Bolus transit of a buttermilk-spiked gadolinium mixture was evaluated with T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) and dynamic gradient echo sequences (B-FFE) in three planes. The results of MRI were compared with intraoperative findings, or, if the patients were treated conservatively, with endoscopy, manometry, pH-metry and barium swallow. MRI was able to determine the position of fundoplication wrap in 27/29 cases (93 % overall accuracy) and to correctly identify 4/6 malpositions (67 %), as well as all four wrap disruptions. All five stenoses in the GEJ were identified and could be confirmed intraoperatively or during dilatation. MRI correctly visualized three cases with motility disorders, which were manometrically confirmed as secondary achalasia. Three patients showed signs of recurrent reflux without anatomical failure. MRI is a promising diagnostic method to evaluate morphologic integrity of Nissen fundoplication and functional disorders after surgery. (orig.)

  3. Deceptive appearance of normal variant of scaphoid bone in a teenage patient: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad N. Bhatti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures are a common injury in late teens and mid twenties with a peak period in skeletally immature children at about 15 years of age, although considered to be rare in first decade of life, its exact incidence in early teen age remains to be a subject of debate. We report an unusual case of anatomical variation of scaphoid bone at the level of waist which could potentially cause diagnostic confusion. A 14-years-old boy presented in the fracture clinic 2 weeks after injury to his Right wrist which was managed in a scaphoid cast. X-ray examinations, both at the time of injury and later on in the fracture clinic revealed features suspicious of a fracture at the level of waist of the scaphoid bone, however the clinical examination did not correlate with imaging, in view of that radiological imaging of the unaffected side was performed for comparison, which revealed it to be an anatomical variant of scaphoid at this age. To our knowledge there are very few cases of such variation reported in literature in this age group of patients. This case highlights the importance of anatomical variants in scaphoid bone in this age group, which might pose a diagnostic challenge and the need for appropriate management plan and reassurance to avoid unnecessary anxiety.

  4. Mammographic appearances of male breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, A H; Evans, G F; Levy, K R; Amirkhan, R H; Schumpert, T D

    1999-01-01

    Various male breast diseases have characteristic mammographic appearances that can be correlated with their pathologic diagnoses. Male breast cancer is usually subareolar and eccentric to the nipple. Margins of the lesions are more frequently well defined, and calcifications are rarer and coarser than those occurring in female breast cancer. Gynecomastia usually appears as a fan-shaped density emanating from the nipple, gradually blending into surrounding fat. It may have prominent extensions into surrounding fat and, in some cases, an appearance similar to that of a heterogeneously dense female breast. Although there are characteristic mammographic features that allow breast cancer in men to be recognized, there is substantial overlap between these features and the mammographic appearance of benign nodular lesions. The mammographic appearance of gynecomastia is not similar to that of male breast cancer, but in rare cases, it can mask malignancy. Gynecomastia can be mimicked by chronic inflammation. All mammographically lucent lesions of the male breast appear to be benign, similar to such lesions in the female breast.

  5. Suicide among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Stenager, E; Nylev Stenager, E

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the suicide risk among Danish citizens with multiple sclerosis with that of the general population, and to evaluate changes over 45 years. METHODS: The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry. It comprised all 10...... taken their own lives, whereas the expected number of suicides was 54.2 (29.1 men, 25.1 women). Thus the suicide risk among persons with multiple sclerosis was more than twice that of the general population (SMR = 2.12). The increased risk was particularly high during the first year after diagnosis (SMR...... = 3.15). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of suicide in multiple sclerosis was almost twice as high as expected more than 20 years after diagnosis. The excess suicide risk has not declined since 1953....

  6. Respiratory muscle training for multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, Marc B.; Veerbeek, Janne M.; Gosselink, Rik; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, affecting approximately 2.5 million people worldwide. People with MS may experience limitations in muscular strength and endurance - including the respiratory muscles, affecting functional performance and

  7. Localized Scleroderma, Systemic Sclerosis and Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Kofoed, Kristian; Wu, Jashin J

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18...... and ≤ 100 years was conducted, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular disease endpoint. A total of 697 patients with localized scleroderma and 1......,962 patients with systemic sclerosis were identified and compared with 5,428,380 people in the reference population. In systemic sclerosis, the adjusted HR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.99-2.48). No association was seen between patients with localized scleroderma and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion...

  8. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lublin, Fred D; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Accurate clinical course descriptions (phenotypes) of multiple sclerosis (MS) are important for communication, prognostication, design and recruitment of clinical trials, and treatment decision-making. Standardized descriptions published in 1996 based on a survey of international MS experts...

  9. Recent advances in multiple sclerosis therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsette, R.E.; Delmotte, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven papers in this volume are in INIS scope, one dealing with autoradiographic detection of multiple sclerosis plaques with radiologands, and the others with magnetic resonance imaging of MS lesions. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  10. Plasma homocysteine levels in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, G S M; Fokkema, M R; Teelken, A; Arutjunyan, A V; Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Background: There is evidence that homocysteine contributes to various neurodegenerative disorders, and elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To investigate if and why plasma homocysteine levels are increased in MS, and whether

  11. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, I.; Saiz, A.; Bustos, A.; Hernando, F.

    2000-01-01

    We present two cases of pulmonary lumphangioleiomyomatosis and one case of tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement describing the most characteristic features according to plain chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). (Author) 14 refs

  12. Serial changes of magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kimiya; Sekimoto, Yoichi; Koike, Yasuo; Takahashi, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Serial changes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) were demonstrated. Two inpatients of MS were followed-up for 8 and 5 months respectively. The first case was a 38-year-old housewife with lesions in upper cervical cord, medulla oblongata and visual nerve. The second case was a 45-year-old man with middle thracic spinal cord and brain stem lesions. Both cases were successfully induced into the remission by peroral prednisolone therapy. In the first case, in early stage of the disease, low signal (in IR method) and high signal (in T 2 -weighted SE method) intensities with enlarged lower dorsal medulla were demonstrated. The second MRI in this case specially in horizontal sections revealed round high intensity lesions (in T 2 -weighted SE) with clear margins, which appeared to push away the normal spinal cord tissue. In the third MRI, T 2 weighted SE revealed localized narrowing in C 2 and C 3 cervical cord, and even no signal lesions in IR method were shown in the central of the spinal cord. The forth and fifth MRI, however, showed almost normally recovered spinal cord and medulla oblongata. In the second case, the first MRI revealed high intensity lesions in the middle thracic spinal cord in T 2 weight SE, and moreover, the spinal cord looked very enlarged. In IR method, localized patchy low intensity lesions were seen in the enlarged spinal cord, but in this case, the MRI demonstrated that localized patchy high intensity lesions without cord swelling in SE remained long after the clinically complete recovery of the disease. (author)

  13. Characterization of microcirculation in multiple sclerosis lesions by dynamic texture parameter analysis (DTPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Verma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Texture analysis is an alternative method to quantitatively assess MR-images. In this study, we introduce dynamic texture parameter analysis (DTPA, a novel technique to investigate the temporal evolution of texture parameters using dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced (DSCE imaging. Here, we aim to introduce the method and its application on enhancing lesions (EL, non-enhancing lesions (NEL and normal appearing white matter (NAWM in multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: We investigated 18 patients with MS and clinical isolated syndrome (CIS, according to the 2010 McDonald's criteria using DSCE imaging at different field strengths (1.5 and 3 Tesla. Tissues of interest (TOIs were defined within 27 EL, 29 NEL and 37 NAWM areas after normalization and eight histogram-based texture parameter maps (TPMs were computed. TPMs quantify the heterogeneity of the TOI. For every TOI, the average, variance, skewness, kurtosis and variance-of-the-variance statistical parameters were calculated. These TOI parameters were further analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by multiple Wilcoxon sum rank testing corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Tissue- and time-dependent differences were observed in the dynamics of computed texture parameters. Sixteen parameters discriminated between EL, NEL and NAWM (pAVG = 0.0005. Significant differences in the DTPA texture maps were found during inflow (52 parameters, outflow (40 parameters and reperfusion (62 parameters. The strongest discriminators among the TPMs were observed in the variance-related parameters, while skewness and kurtosis TPMs were in general less sensitive to detect differences between the tissues. CONCLUSION: DTPA of DSCE image time series revealed characteristic time responses for ELs, NELs and NAWM. This may be further used for a refined quantitative grading of MS lesions during their evolution from acute to chronic state. DTPA discriminates lesions beyond features of enhancement or T2

  14. Deep gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis: a tensor based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guozhi; Datta, Sushmita; He, Renjie; Nelson, Flavia; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2009-07-15

    Tensor based morphometry (TBM) was applied to determine the atrophy of deep gray matter (DGM) structures in 88 relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. For group analysis of atrophy, an unbiased atlas was constructed from 20 normal brains. The MS brain images were co-registered with the unbiased atlas using a symmetric inverse consistent nonlinear registration. These studies demonstrate significant atrophy of thalamus, caudate nucleus, and putamen even at a modest clinical disability, as assessed by the expanded disability status score (EDSS). A significant correlation between atrophy and EDSS was observed for different DGM structures: (thalamus: r=-0.51, p=3.85 x 10(-7); caudate nucleus: r=-0.43, p=2.35 x 10(-5); putamen: r=-0.36, p=6.12 x 10(-6)). Atrophy of these structures also correlated with 1) T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (thalamus: r=-0.56, p=9.96 x 10(-9); caudate nucleus: r=-0.31, p=3.10 x 10(-3); putamen: r=-0.50, p=6.06 x 10(-7)), 2) T1 hypointense lesion volumes (thalamus: r=-0.61, p=2.29 x 10(-10); caudate nucleus: r=-0.35, p=9.51 x 10(-4); putamen: r=-0.43, p=3.51 x 10(-5)), and 3) normalized CSF volume (thalamus: r=-0.66, p=3.55 x 10(-12); caudate nucleus: r=-0.52, p=2.31 x 10(-7), and putamen: r=-0.66, r=2.13 x 10(-12)). More severe atrophy was observed mainly in thalamus at higher EDSS. These studies appear to suggest a link between the white matter damage and DGM atrophy in MS.

  15. Pittsburgh compound-B PET white matter imaging and cognitive function in late multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeydan, Burcu; Lowe, Val J; Schwarz, Christopher G; Przybelski, Scott A; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Zuk, Samantha M; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Roberts, Rosebud O; Mielke, Michelle M; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Rodriguez, Moses; Machulda, Mary M; Lesnick, Timothy G; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Kantarci, Kejal; Kantarci, Orhun H

    2018-05-01

    There is growing interest in white matter (WM) imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). We studied the association of cognitive function in late multiple sclerosis (MS) with cortical and WM Pittsburgh compound-B PET (PiB-PET) binding. In the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, 24 of 4869 participants had MS (12 underwent PiB-PET). Controls were age and sex matched (5:1). We used automated or semi-automated processing for quantitative image analyses and conditional logistic regression for group differences. MS patients had lower memory ( p = 0.03) and language ( p = 0.02) performance; smaller thalamic volumes ( p = 0.003); and thinner temporal ( p = 0.001) and frontal ( p = 0.045) cortices on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than controls. There was no difference in global cortical PiB standardized uptake value ratios between MS and controls ( p = 0.35). PiB uptake was lower in areas of WM hyperintensities compared to normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in MS ( p = 0.0002). Reduced PiB uptake in both the areas of WM hyperintensities ( r = 0.65; p = 0.02) and NAWM ( r = 0.69; p = 0.01) was associated with decreased visuospatial performance in MS. PiB uptake in the cortex in late MS is not different from normal age-matched controls. PiB uptake in the WM in late MS may be a marker of the large network structures' integrity such as those involved in visuospatial performance.

  16. The contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in multiple sclerosis during acute attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, Ismail; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Taskapilioglu, Ozlem; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Turan, Omer Faruk; Parlak, Mufit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of the study are firstly, to determine the difference in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) between patients with acute multiple sclerosis (MS) and controls; secondly, to determine whether there is a correlation between EDSS scores and DWI in acute plaques and also NAWM. Materials and method: Out of 50 patients with acute MS attack, 35 patients had active plaques with diffuse or ring enhancement on postcontrast images. Eighteen healthy volunteers constituted the control group. While 26 of 35 had relapsing-remitting, 9 had secondary progressive MS. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of the active plaques, NAWM at the level of centrum semiovale and occipital horn of lateral ventricle in the patients and NAWM in control group were measured. ADC values of active plaques were compared with WM of the patients and the control group. The relationship of ADC value of active plaques and WM in MS with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) was investigated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Of 63 plaques totally, 26 and 37 of the active plaques had diffuse and ring enhancement, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between ADC value of active plaques and EDSS (p > 0.05). However, there was a statistically significant difference between ADC value of WM occipital horn and EDSS (p 0.05). Conclusion: Apparently normal tissue in MS patients may show early abnormalities when investigated carefully enough, and there is an even though moderate correlation between EDSS and ADC values and early alterations of ADC value are starting in the occipital white matter along the ventricles. This has to be verified in larger series

  17. Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Nuzzo, Erin; Rice, Kristen R; Sargent, James D

    2012-03-01

    The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily. Although brand recognition is an independent, potent risk factor for alcohol outcomes among adolescents, alcohol brand appearances in popular music have not been assessed systematically. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and contextual elements associated with alcohol brand appearances in US popular music. Qualitative content analysis. We used Billboard Magazine to identify songs to which US adolescents were most exposed in 2005-07. For each of the 793 songs, two trained coders analyzed independently the lyrics of each song for references to alcohol and alcohol brand appearances. Subsequent in-depth assessments utilized Atlas.ti to determine contextual factors associated with each of the alcohol brand appearances. Our final code book contained 27 relevant codes representing six categories: alcohol types, consequences, emotional states, activities, status and objects. Average inter-rater reliability was high (κ = 0.80), and all differences were easily adjudicated. Of the 793 songs in our sample, 169 (21.3%) referred explicitly to alcohol, and of those, 41 (24.3%) contained an alcohol brand appearance. Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% versus 17.1%, P brand appearances were associated commonly with wealth (63.4%), sex (58.5%), luxury objects (51.2%), partying (48.8%), other drugs (43.9%) and vehicles (39.0%). One in five songs sampled from US popular music had explicit references to alcohol, and one-quarter of these mentioned a specific alcohol brand. These alcohol brand appearances are associated commonly with a luxury life-style characterized by wealth, sex, partying and other drugs. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Cavernous angioma associated with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okujava, M.; Ebner, A.; Schmitt, J.; Woermann, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    We report two cases with extratemporal cavernous angioma (CA) and coexisting ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Classically dual pathology is defined as the association of hippocampal sclerosis with an extrahippocampal lesion. Subtle changes in hippocampus might be overlooked in the presence of an unequivocal extrahippocampal abnormality. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in cases with dual pathology is less favourable if only one of the lesions is removed. Dual pathology must always be considered in diagnostic imaging of patients with intractable epilepsy and CA. (orig.)

  19. Cavernous angioma associated with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okujava, M [Institute of Radiology and Interventional Diagnostics, Tbilisi (Georgia); Ebner, A; Schmitt, J; Woermann, F G [Bethel Epilepsy Centre, Mara Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    We report two cases with extratemporal cavernous angioma (CA) and coexisting ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Classically dual pathology is defined as the association of hippocampal sclerosis with an extrahippocampal lesion. Subtle changes in hippocampus might be overlooked in the presence of an unequivocal extrahippocampal abnormality. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in cases with dual pathology is less favourable if only one of the lesions is removed. Dual pathology must always be considered in diagnostic imaging of patients with intractable epilepsy and CA. (orig.)

  20. Gait Characteristics in Adolescents With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Frid, Lior; Menascu, Shay

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. A presentation of multiple sclerosis before age18 years has traditionally been thought to be rare. However, during the past decade, more cases have been reported. We examined gait characteristics in 24 adolescents with multiple sclerosis (12 girls, 12 boys). Mean disease duration was 20.4 (S.D. = 24.9) months and mean age was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.1) years. The mean expanded disability status scale score was 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) indicating minimal disability. Outcomes were compared with gait and the gait variability index value of healthy age-matched adolescents. Adolescents with multiple sclerosis walked slower with a wider base of support compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. Moreover, the gait variability index was lower in the multiple sclerosis group compared with the values in the healthy adolescents: 85.4 (S.D. = 8.1) versus 96.5 (S.D. = 7.4). We present gait parameters of adolescents with multiple sclerosis. From a clinical standpoint, our data could improve management of walking dysfunction in this relatively young population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Computerized tomography in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delouvrier, J.J.; Tritschler, J.L.; Desbleds, M.T.; Cambier, J.; Nahum, H.

    1980-01-01

    The double scan CT method was applied to a homogeneous population of 50 multiple sclerosis patients and the following features were studied: well defined low-density areas, localized contrast enhancements, cerebral atrophy and white matter homogeneity. The analyses of the variance of the white matter (centrum ovale) can disclose those lesions which individually do not surpass the visibility threshold. The lesions that are localized in the white matter are mainly periventricular, most often multiple, and they do not displace the neighbouring structures. By revealing a large number of clinically silent cerebral lesions, the cerebral CT becomes a highly important diagnostic tool. The value of the CT examinations seems to be of major importance each time that the clinical diagnosis is hesitant, particularly when faced with medullary signs or an initial neurological episode. (C.F.)

  2. Statin treatment in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Jensen, Gorm; Tsakiri, Anna; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to progressive disability. Statins [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors] are widely prescribed drugs in hypercholesterolemia. They exert immunomodulatory and neurotrophic effects and are attractive...... candidates for MS treatment due to reliable safety profiles and favorable costs. Studies of statins in a murine MS model and in open-label trials in MS have shown decreased disease severity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess current evidence to support statin treatment in MS and clinically isolated......)-β treatment in RRMS, one of statin monotherapy in CIS, one of statin monotherapy in optic neuritis (ON)/CIS, and one of statin monotherapy in secondary progressive MS (SPMS)]. Three trials with eligible characteristics had not been published in peer-reviewed journals and were therefore not included. Due...

  3. Implicit Memory in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latchford

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of neuropsychological studies have revealed that memory problems are relatively common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It may be useful to compare MS with conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD, which have been referred to as subcortical dementia. A characteristic of these conditions may be an impairment in implicit (unconscious memory, but not in explicit (conscious memory. The present study examined the functioning of explicit and implicit memory in MS. Results showed that implicit memory was not significantly impaired in the MS subjects, and that they were impaired on recall but not recognition. A correlation was found between implicit memory performance and disability status in MS patients. Findings also suggest the possibility of long-term priming of implicit memory in the control subjects. The implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Cognitive dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eGuimarães

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Multiple Sclerosis (MS prevalence studies of community and clinical samples, indicate that 45–60% of patients are cognitively impaired. These cognitive dysfunctions have been traditionally described as heterogeneous, but more recent studies suggest that there is a specific pattern of MS-related cognitive dysfunctions. With the advent of disease-modifying medications for MS and emphasis on early intervention and treatment, detection of cognitive impairment at its earliest stage becomes particularly important. In this review the authors address: the cognitive domains most commonly impaired in MS (memory, attention, executive functions, speed of information processing and visual spatial abilities; the physiopathological mechanism implied in MS cognitive dysfunction and correlated brain MRI features; the importance of neuropsychological assessment of MS patients in different stages of the disease and the influence of its course on cognitive performance; the most used tests and batteries for neuropsychological assessment; therapeutic strategies to improve cognitive abilities.

  5. Connected health and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M

    2018-04-18

    There is as yet no consensual definition of "connected health". In general, the term refers to the growing use of technology and, in particular, mobile technology in medicine. Over the past 10 years, there have been an increasing number of published reports on the wide-ranging and heterogeneous fields involving the application of technology in medicine, ranging from telemedicine to tools to improve patients' evaluation and monitoring by physicians, as well as a multitude of patient-centered applications. They also represent promising tools in the field of clinical research. This report is a review of the importance of using this technology in the management of multiple sclerosis patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal lobe sclerosis associated with hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Maria; Eriksson, Sofia; Martinian, Lillian; Caboclo, Luis O; McEvoy, Andrew W; Duncan, John S; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2009-08-01

    Widespread changes involving neocortical and mesial temporal lobe structures can be present in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. The incidence, pathology, and clinical significance of neocortical temporal lobe sclerosis (TLS) are not well characterized. We identified TLS in 30 of 272 surgically treated cases of hippocampal sclerosis. Temporal lobe sclerosis was defined by variable reduction of neurons from cortical layers II/III and laminar gliosis; it was typically accompanied by additional architectural abnormalities of layer II, that is, abnormal neuronal orientation and aggregation. Quantitative analysis including tessellation methods for the distribution of layer II neurons supported these observations. In 40% of cases, there was a gradient of TLS with more severe involvement toward the temporal pole, possibly signifying involvement of hippocampal projection pathways. There was a history of a febrile seizure as an initial precipitating injury in 73% of patients with TLS compared with 36% without TLS; no other clinical differences between TLS and non-TLS cases were identified. Temporal lobe sclerosis was not evident preoperatively by neuroimaging. No obvious effect of TLS on seizure outcome was noted after temporal lobe resection; 73% became seizure-free at 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, approximately 11% of surgically treated hippocampal sclerosis is accompanied by TLS. Temporal lobe sclerosis is likely an acquired process with accompanying reorganizational dysplasia and an extension of mesial temporal sclerosis rather than a separate pathological entity.

  7. Recurrent myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis: a case report of a child with Schilder's variant of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, M.J.; Coleman, L.T.

    2000-01-01

    Myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis (MDS, Schilder's disease) is a rare CNS demyelinating disorder affecting mainly children and usually presenting as an intracranial mass lesion. We report the first case of recurrent intracranial MDS where the third episode of demyelination involved the cervical spinal cord. This may represent a subset of the disease, which should be considered as Schilder's variant (childhood form) of multiple sclerosis. (orig.)

  8. Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) arising from longstanding primary lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, R. P.; Koelman, J. H.; Troost, D.; de Jong, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Three men were initially diagnosed as having primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), but eventually developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after 7.5, 9, and at least 27 years. Non-familial ALS and PLS might be different manifestations of a single disease or constitute completely distinct entities.

  9. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  10. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McCann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor’s reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  11. Radiological appearances of degenerative uterine leiomyomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetankov, K.; Hadjidekov, G.; Plachkov, I.; Yankova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyomas, are the most common uterine neoplasms. Although benign, they can be associated with significant morbidity and are the commonest indication for hysterectomy. They are often discovered incidentally when performing imaging for other reasons. Usually first identified with US, they can be further characterized with MRI. They are usually easily recognizable, but degenerate fibroids can have unusual appearances. Knowledge of the different appearances of fibroids on imaging is important as it enables prompt diagnosis and thereby guides treatment. (authors)

  12. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Hanken; Katrin Hanken; Mona Bosse; Kim Möhrke; Paul Eling; Andreas Kastrup; Andrea Antal; Helmut Hildebrandt; Helmut Hildebrandt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. Methods: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anoda...

  13. Counteracting Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis with Right Parietal Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanken, Katrin; Bosse, Mona; M?hrke, Kim; Eling, Paul; Kastrup, Andreas; Antal, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. METHODS: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controll...

  14. What Genes Tell about Iris Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrat...

  15. 'Unusual' MRI appearance of sphenoid sinus mucocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelle, A.; Pisani, R.; Andrioli, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a case of sphenoid sinus mucocele which exhibited unusual MRI features. However a review of the literature shows that these lesions may present with different MRI appearances probably related to the variability of the cyst content. Further series are needed for a better definition of the MRI behaviour of the lesions. (orig.)

  16. 39 CFR 3001.6 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission online as a Principal Account Holder, or signs a paper filed with the Commission, his/her personal appearance, online submission, or signature, shall constitute a representation to the Commission that he/she..., 1971, as amended at 38 FR 4327, Feb. 13, 1973; 51 FR 8827, Mar. 14, 1986; 58 FR 38976, July 21, 1993...

  17. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT... appear as counsel or other representative must conform to the standards of conduct and ethics required of...

  18. Object tracking using active appearance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that (near) real-time object tracking can be accomplished by the deformable template model; the Active Appearance Model (AAM) using only low-cost consumer electronics such as a PC and a web-camera. Successful object tracking of perspective, rotational and translational...

  19. 40 CFR 22.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 22.10 Section 22.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING... and ethics required of practitioners before the courts of the United States. ...

  20. Protean appearance of craniopharyngioma on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danziger, A.; Price, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas present a diverse appearance on computed tomography. Histological diagnosis is not always possible, but computed tomography is of great assistance in the delineation of the tumour as well as of the degree of associated hydrocephalus. Computed tomography also enables rapid non-invasive follow-up after surgery or radiotherapy, or both

  1. Physical Appearance and Student/Teacher Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Scientific and cultural research suggests that attractiveness does affect the ways that people perceive and respond to each other. In this paper, the author talks about the impact of one's appearance in academe as well as in the relationship between students and professors. From the research literature, popular writings, and many comments from his…

  2. Ultrasound appearances of Implanon implanted contraceptive devices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNeill, G

    2009-09-01

    Subdermal contraceptive devices represent a popular choice of contraception. Whilst often removed without the use of imaging, circumstances exist where imaging is required. Ultrasound is the modality of choice. The optimal technique and typical sonographic appearances are detailed in this article.

  3. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, M.J.; Bourke, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change

  4. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, M.J. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)], E-mail: mattbrookes@doctors.org.uk; Bourke, A.G. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

    2008-11-15

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change.

  5. Nodular fasciitis: MRI appearance and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, L.Y.J.; Shu, S.J.; Chan, M.K.; Chan, C.H.S.; Chan, A.C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MRI features of nodular fasciitis and to review the clinical, MRI and histologic aspects of the tumor. Design and patients: Three patients with biopsy-proven nodular fasciitis were selected for a retrospective study. A literature review was also carried out. Results and conclusions: All the lesions appeared slightly hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with fat saturation [either frequency saturation or Short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequences]. Two enhanced homogeneously after intravenous gadolinium, whereas the third showed heterogeneous enhancement with a nonenhancing area. Despite the difference in enhancing patterns, the histologic appearances of these lesions were similar. Our study shows that the MRI appearance of nodular fasciitis may not be related to the location of lesion. It is thought that the age of nodular fasciitis may reflect its gross morphology, and it is possible that the MRI and histologic appearances could correlate with the age of the lesion, but it would require a larger series to evaluate this concept. (orig.)

  6. Psychological well-being in people with multiple sclerosis in an Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Dehnavi, Sedigheh Rezaei; Heidarian, Fatemeh; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, few results on well-being in individuals with neurological disease have been published, while several studies in other groups have indicated that well-being may not be the only absence of psychological distress, but also positive psychological function. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychological well-being (PWB) between the people with Multiple sclerosis (MS) and normal individuals and identify correlated demographic factors to PWB in people with MS dis...

  7. Axonal excitability properties in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2006-07-01

    To investigate axolemmal ion channel function in patients diagnosed with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A recently described threshold tracking protocol was implemented to measure multiple indices of axonal excitability in 26 ALS patients by stimulating the median motor nerve at the wrist. The excitability indices studied included: stimulus-response curve (SR); strength-duration time constant (tauSD); current/threshold relationship; threshold electrotonus to a 100 ms polarizing current; and recovery curves to a supramaximal stimulus. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were significantly reduced in ALS patients (ALS, 2.84+/-1.17 mV; controls, 8.27+/-1.09 mV, P<0.0005) and the SR curves for both 0.2 and 1 ms pulse widths were shifted in a hyperpolarized direction. Threshold electrotonus revealed a greater threshold change to both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing conditioning stimuli, similar to the 'fanned out' appearance that occurs with membrane hyperpolarization. The tauSD was significantly increased in ALS patients (ALS, 0.50+/-0.03 ms; controls, 0.42+/-0.02 ms, P<0.05). The recovery cycle of excitability following a conditioning supramaximal stimulus revealed increased superexcitability in ALS patients (ALS, 29.63+/-1.25%; controls, 25.11+/-1.01%, P<0.01). Threshold tracking studies revealed changes indicative of widespread dysfunction in axonal ion channel conduction, including increased persistent Na+ channel conduction, and abnormalities of fast paranodal K+ and internodal slow K+ channel function, in ALS patients. An increase in persistent Na+ conductances coupled with reduction in K+ currents would predispose axons of ALS patients to generation of fasciculations and cramps. Axonal excitability studies may provide insight into mechanisms responsible for motor neuron loss in ALS.

  8. Color blindness among multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygannejad, Vahid; Golabchi, Khodayar; Dehghani, Alireza; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Haghighi, Sepehr; Mirzendehdel, Mahsa; Ghasemi, Majid

    2012-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of young and middle aged individuals with a demyelinative axonal damage nature in central nervous system that causes various signs and symptoms. As color vision needs normal function of optic nerve and macula, it is proposed that MS can alter it via influencing optic nerve. In this survey, we evaluated color vision abnormalities and its relationship with history of optic neuritis and abnormal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) among MS patients. The case group was included of clinically definitive MS patients and the same number of normal population was enrolled as the control group. Color vision of all the participants was evaluated by Ishihara test and then visual evoked potential (VEPs) and history of optic neuritis (ON) was assessed among them. Then, frequency of color blindness was compared between the case and the control group. Finally, color blinded patients were compared to those with the history of ON and abnormal VEPs. 63 MS patients and the same number of normal populations were enrolled in this study. 12 patients had color blindness based on the Ishihara test; only 3 of them were among the control group, which showed a significant different between the two groups (P = 0.013). There was a significant relationship between the color blindness and abnormal VEP (R = 0.53, P = 0.023) but not for the color blindness and ON (P = 0.67). This study demonstrates a significant correlation between color blindness and multiple sclerosis including ones with abnormal prolonged VEP latencies. Therefore, in individuals with acquired color vision impairment, an evaluation for potentially serious underlying diseases like MS is essential.

  9. Color blindness among multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a disease of young and middle aged individuals with a demyelinative axonal damage nature in central nervous system that causes various signs and symptoms. As color vision needs normal function of optic nerve and macula, it is proposed that MS can alter it via influencing optic nerve. In this survey, we evaluated color vision abnormalities and its relationship with history of optic neuritis and abnormal visual evoked potentials (VEPs among MS patients. Materials and Methods: The case group was included of clinically definitive MS patients and the same number of normal population was enrolled as the control group. Color vision of all the participants was evaluated by Ishihara test and then visual evoked potential (VEPs and history of optic neuritis (ON was assessed among them. Then, frequency of color blindness was compared between the case and the control group. Finally, color blinded patients were compared to those with the history of ON and abnormal VEPs. Results: 63 MS patients and the same number of normal populations were enrolled in this study. 12 patients had color blindness based on the Ishihara test; only 3 of them were among the control group, which showed a significant different between the two groups (P = 0.013. There was a significant relationship between the color blindness and abnormal VEP (R = 0.53, P = 0.023 but not for the color blindness and ON (P = 0.67. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant correlation between color blindness and multiple sclerosis including ones with abnormal prolonged VEP latencies. Therefore, in individuals with acquired color vision impairment, an evaluation for potentially serious underlying diseases like MS is essential.

  10. The risk of fracture in incident multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazelier, Marloes T; Bentzen, Joan; Vestergaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be at increased risk of fractures owing to osteoporosis and falling.......Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be at increased risk of fractures owing to osteoporosis and falling....

  11. Multiple Sclerosis, Personal Stories | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Multiple Sclerosis Personal Stories: Nicole Lemelle, Iris Young, Michael Anthony, ... something quite different for a person living with multiple sclerosis, such as his girlfriend's brother, Chuy. The more ...

  12. What's new in multiple sclerosis spasticity research? Poster session highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    Each year at the Multiple Sclerosis Experts Summit, relevant research in the field of multiple sclerosis spasticity is featured in poster sessions. The main studies presented at this year's meeting are summarized herein.

  13. Neuroimage in neuroecthodermic diseases Part II: Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menor, F.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Poyatos, C.; Cortina, H.; Esteban, J.M.; Vilar, J.

    1993-01-01

    A prospective clinicoradiological study has been carried out in 36 patients with tuberous sclerosis. The neuroimaging studies detected some type of disorder in 94% of patients, contributing significantly to the positive diagnosis of the disease. CT was better for viewing periventricular nodules, while MR was more reliable in disclosing the number and location of cortical and white matter lesions. The use of gadolinium-DTPA in MR demonstrated frequent uptake by the periventricular nodules which was exceptional in the cortical and subcortical lesions. The use of contrast, both in CT and in MR, enhanced the images of the 7 presumed giant-cell astrocytomas detected in 6 patients. Uptake by the tumors was always much greater than that observed in the nodules, being and important criterion for the differentiation between nodules and small tumors. The appearance and topography of these CNS lesions can be reasonably well explained by considering the disease to be a disorder of the migration of dysgenic cells. We have found no consistent correlation between the neuroradiological findings and the clinical evolution of the patients. MR and CT are similarly useful in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Given that MR is more effective in the detection of the set of intracranial lesions, it could be used as the initial technique, resorting to CT in those cases in which the clinical evidence is highly suggestive and the MR study is negative. Periodic MR control is not justified unless there is suspicion of tumor implantation or growth

  14. Update on riboflavin and multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Naghashpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Riboflavin plays an important role in myelin formation, and its deficiency is implicated as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. Here, we systematically reviewed the literature concerning the health benefits of riboflavin on MS. The literature recorded within four main databases, including relevant clinical trials, experimental, and case-control studies from 1976 to 2017 were considered. Both human and animal studies were included for review, with no restrictions on age, gender, or ethnicity.  Experimental studies demonstrated that riboflavin deficiency triggers neurologic abnormalities related to peripheral neuropathies such as demyelinating neuropathy. Moreover, randomized controlled trials (RCT and case-control studies in which MS patients received riboflavin supplementation or had higher dietary riboflavin intake showed improvements in neurological motor disability. Riboflavin is a cofactor of xanthine oxidase and its deficiency exacerbates low uric acid caused by high copper levels, leading to myelin degeneration. The vitamin additionally plays a significant role in the normal functioning of glutathione reductase (GR as an antioxidant enzyme, and conditions of riboflavin deficiency lead to oxidative damage. Riboflavin promotes the gene and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the CNS of an animal model of MS, suggesting that BDNF mediates the beneficial effect of riboflavin on neurological motor disability. Research to date generally supports the role of riboflavin in MS outcomes. However, further observational and interventional studies on human populations are warranted to validate the effects of riboflavin.

  15. Update on riboflavin and multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Jafarirad, Sima; Amani, Reza; Sarkaki, Alireza; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Riboflavin plays an important role in myelin formation, and its deficiency is implicated as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. Here, we systematically reviewed the literature concerning the health benefits of riboflavin on MS. The literature recorded within four main databases, including relevant clinical trials, experimental, and case-control studies from 1976 to 2017 were considered. Both human and animal studies were included for review, with no restrictions on age, gender, or ethnicity. Experimental studies demonstrated that riboflavin deficiency triggers neurologic abnormalities related to peripheral neuropathies such as demyelinating neuropathy. Moreover, randomized controlled trials (RCT) and case-control studies in which MS patients received riboflavin supplementation or had higher dietary riboflavin intake showed improvements in neurological motor disability. Riboflavin is a cofactor of xanthine oxidase and its deficiency exacerbates low uric acid caused by high copper levels, leading to myelin degeneration. The vitamin additionally plays a significant role in the normal functioning of glutathione reductase (GR) as an antioxidant enzyme, and conditions of riboflavin deficiency lead to oxidative damage. Riboflavin promotes the gene and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the CNS of an animal model of MS, suggesting that BDNF mediates the beneficial effect of riboflavin on neurological motor disability. Research to date generally supports the role of riboflavin in MS outcomes. However, further observational and interventional studies on human populations are warranted to validate the effects of riboflavin. PMID:29085589

  16. Tuberous sclerosis: Analysis of 24 cases with emphasis on atypical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Suh, Jung Ho; Joo, Suk Hyun; Chung, Tae Sub

    1990-01-01

    We retrospectively analysed the clinical and CT findings of 24 cases with tuberous sclerosis with special emphasis upon the atypical presentation. The cases with classic clinical triad were accounted for in 21%, while 33% presented with atypical clinical features. The most common and characteristic CT finding is that of the subependymal calcified nodules of the lateral ventricle, which was seen in 85% of our cases. Cortical tuber and white matter lesions were demonstrated in 65% and 55%, respectively. Three cases showed cortical tuber and white matter lesion without subependymal tuber. The cortical tuber usually exhibited low density or calcified lesion, but showed high density in 2 cases. Other findings of tuberous sclerosis included intraventricular tumor, ventriculomegaly, and cortical atrophy. One case clearly demonstrated parenchymal tuber on MR imaging. In conclusion, diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis is usually made on the clinical bases initially. However, CT and MR are also diagnostic even in unusual clinical presentation such as unexplained retardation or epilepsy or when the classic clinical triad is incomplete. If only cortical tuber or white matter lesion is present, it is difficult to diagnose tuberous sclerosis and to differentiate from other cortical mass lesion. Therefore, careful evaluation is required with familiarity with the atypical appearance of the disease

  17. Neurogenic function in rats with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis that experienced early-life status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Mark; Schindler, Clara K; Shinoda, Sachiko; Crilly, Shane; Henshall, David C

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus in the adult brain invariably causes an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and the appearance of ectopic cells and this has been implicated as a causal factor in epileptogenesis. The effect of status epilepticus on neurogenesis in the developing brain is less well characterized and models of early-life seizures typically do not reproduce the hippocampal damage common to human mesial temporal sclerosis. We recently reported that evoking status epilepticus by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid in post-natal (P) day 10 rats caused substantial acute neuronal death within the ipsilateral hippocampus and rats later developed unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Here, we examined the expression of a selection of genes associated with neurogenesis and assessed neurogenic function in this model. Protein levels of several markers of neurogenesis including polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, neuroD and doublecortin were reduced in the hippocampus three days after status epilepticus in P10 rats. In contrast, protein levels of neurogenesis markers were similar to control in rats at P55. Pulse-chase experiments using thymidine analogues suggested there was a reduction in new neurons at 72 h after status epilepticus in P10 rats, whereas numbers of new neurons labelled in epileptic rats at P55 with hippocampal sclerosis were similar to controls. The present study suggests that status epilepticus in the immature brain suppresses neurogenesis but the neurogenic potential is retained in animals that later develop hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:25755841

  18. Distribution of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in the Human Brain in Chronic Renal Insufficiency, Parkinsons Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, N. A.; Pakkenberg, H.; Damsgaard, Else

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of arsenic, manganese and selenium/g wet tissue weight were determined in samples from 24 areas of the human brain from 3 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, 2 with Parkinson's disease and 1 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The concentrations of the 3 elements were...... determined for each sample by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation. Overall arsenic concentrations were about 2.5 times higher in patients with chronic renal failure than in controls, and lower than normal in the patients with Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...

  19. Primary Lateral Sclerosis and Early Upper Motor Neuron Disease: Characteristics of a Cross-Sectional Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Christina N; Murphy, Alyssa; Loci, Lorena; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kisanuki, Yasushi; Simmons, Zachary; Maragakis, Nicholas J; McVey, April L; Al-Lahham, Tawfiq; Heiman-Patterson, Terry D; Andrews, Jinsy; McDonnell, Erin; Cudkowicz, Merit; Atassi, Nazem

    2016-03-01

    The goals of this study were to characterize clinical and electrophysiologic findings of subjects with upper motor neuron disease and to explore feasibility of clinical trials in this population. Twenty northeast amyotrophic lateral sclerosis consortium (northeast amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) sites performed chart reviews to identify active clinical pure upper motor neuron disease patients. Patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia or meeting revised El Escorial electrodiagnostic criteria for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were excluded. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of minor electromyography (EMG) abnormalities. Two hundred thirty-three subjects with upper motor neuron disease were identified; 217 had available EMG data. Normal EMGs were seen in 140 subjects, and 77 had minor denervation. Mean disease duration was 84 (±80) months for the entire cohort with no difference seen between the 2 groups. No difference was seen in clinical symptoms, disability, or outcome measures between the 2 groups after correcting for multiple comparisons. Minor EMG abnormalities were not associated with phenotypic differences in a clinical upper motor neuron disease population. These findings suggest that subtle EMG abnormalities can not necessarily be used as a prognostic tool in patients with clinical upper motor neuron disease. This study also demonstrates the availability of a large number of patients with upper motor neuron diseases within the northeast amyotrophic lateral sclerosis network and suggests feasibility for conducting clinical trials in this population.

  20. The Relationship between Personality Traits and Life Expectancy in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Zaghari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis is an incurable and chronic disease of the central nervous system. The main purpose of this survey is to compare the character types and life expectancy of patients suffering from M. S as compared with normal people. This survey was conducted using the Persian translation of NEO-FFI (NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Herth Life Expectancy. Methods:Thirty nine people suffering from multiple sclerosis, who were hospitalized in anursing home, were chosen. As a control group there were 39 healthy people who had no background of physical or mental diseases. These people were selected from educational centre scientific and the personnel of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus. Healthy people were matched to control group according, to sex, gender, marital status and education. Results: To analyze the data, T tests were used. The results of the survey show that people suffering from multiple sclerosis were significantly different from healthy people in three factors, neuroticism, extraversion and openness. For life expectancy there was no significant difference between the two groups. Discussion: Peopleaffected by Multiple Sclerosis achieve higher marks levels of the function of neuroticism compared with the healthy people. They are also agreeableness in a lower state, due to the function of openness to experience compared with the safe ones and in a lower state compared with the healthy persons.

  1. Blindness in Tuberous Sclerosis: A Case Report | Olaosebikan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had facial angio fibromas, shagreen patches over the left hypochondria, ... The retinal and optic nerve head appeared normal in the right eye whereas in the ... on the lesions found on clinical examination, imaging, and pathologic studies.

  2. The Functionality of Facial Appearance and Its Importance to a Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also plays an important role in human interactions, including during social activities. However, studies on the importance of the functional role of facial appearance. As a function of the face are scare. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the importance of the functions of the face in Korea.MethodsWe conducted an online panel survey of 300 participants (age range, 20-70 years. Each respondent was administered the demographic data form, Facial Function Assessment Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and standard gamble questionnaires.ResultsIn the evaluation on the importance of facial functions, a normal appearance was considered as important as communication, breathing, speech, and vision. Of the 300 participants, 85% stated that a normal appearance is important in social activities.ConclusionsThe results of this survey involving a cross-section of the Korean population indicated that a normal appearance was considered one of the principal facial functions. A normal appearance was considered more important than the functions of olfaction and expression. Moreover, a normal appearance was determined to be an important facial function for leading a normal life in Korea.

  3. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  4. Appearance of the temporomandibular joint after meniscoplasty on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, W.F.; Hayes, C.W.; Campbell, R.L.; Laskin, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-five postmeniscoplasty temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were studied in 20 patients. In all patients, preoperative MR images showed anteriorly dislocated disks. The patients underwent a similar postoperative MR examination 4-12 months after surgery. Surgical results were classified clinically as either poor, fair, good, or excellent at the time of the follow-up MR imaging. Forty percent of patients had good or excellent clinical results, and 60% had poor or fair results. The good/excellent group all had disks that appeared to be in normal or near normal position. Almost all disks were fixed in position. The degree of condylar translation was variable. The poor/fair group all had postoperative joints with anteriorly dislocated disks that were fixed in place. Recapture of the disk was variable, as was the degree of condylar translation

  5. Experimental and histological studies on appearance mechanism of ring enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Shinsuke; Kageyama, Takefumi; Yamashita, Shigeru; Kusaka, Kazumasa; Ueda, Shin

    1980-01-01

    Intracerebral hematoma was experimentally induced in 26 adult dogs of mixed breed by injecting autologous venous blood into the internal capsule of dogs. CT images and histological findings of these dogs with intracerebral hematoma were compared with time, and causes of changes in contrast enhancement (CE) CT images and CE positive images were discussed pathologically. It was thought that CE-CT positive images of intracerebral hematoma did not show special phenomena which occurred variously according to causes of hematoma, but general phenomena observed in the process of recovery of general intracerebral hematoma. Ring enhancement appeared mostly about 9 days after hematoma formation. There was a close relationship between appearance of ring enhancement and new vascularization which appeared in the process of recovery of hematoma. It was also thought that blood-brain barrier (B.B.B.) such as normal cerebral capillary vessels did not exist because new vascularization had the fine structure similar to muscle type capillary vessels. Ring enhancement might be seen probably because of the accumulation of contrast medium in regions where new vascularization without B.B.B. appeared. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. CT appearance of menetrier's disease (a report of 4 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Weijun; Zhang Pei; Zhou Kangrong; Chen Huiming

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To define the CT imaging characteristic of menetrier's disease. Methods: Four patients with proved Menetrier's disease were retrospectively studied by means of CT performed with the water as oral contrast, hypotonic agent and dynamic or spiral CT technique. Results: All cases showed that the enlarged rugae were seen projecting into the gastric lumen, but the gastric wall was otherwise normal. CT detected all lesions and made a confirmed diagnosis before pathology biopsy. Conclusion: The primary result revealed that the CT appearance of Menetrier's disease was quite characteristic, CT is a very valuable tool for the diagnosis of Menetrier's disease

  7. Stereotypical beliefs about appearance: implications for retailing and consumer issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, C R; Klassen, M L

    1990-10-01

    This research was designed to identify current stereotypical beliefs about obese men and women, assess subjects' desire to work with individuals described as "normal" weight as opposed to obese, examine subjects' perceptions of their own body size, inquire about subjects' personal desire to gain and lose weight, and identify subjects' diet and consumption behavior. The data indicate sex differences in subjects' perceptions of bodily appearance, desire to work with obese people, perceptions of their own weight, desire to lose rather than gain weight, and consumption and diet behavior.

  8. An Active Illumination and Appearance (AIA) Model for Face Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, Muhittin; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Face recognition systems are typically required to work under highly varying illumination conditions. This leads to complex effects imposed on the acquired face image that pertains little to the actual identity. Consequently, illumination normalization is required to reach acceptable recognition...... rates in face recognition systems. In this paper, we propose an approach that integrates the face identity and illumination models under the widely used Active Appearance Model framework as an extension to the texture model in order to obtain illumination-invariant face localization...

  9. Possible Tau Appearance Experiment with Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    1999-12-27

    We suggest an experimental measurement that could detect the appearance of tau neutrinos due to {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos by measuring the energy spectra of neutrino induced showers. {tau} neutrinos deposit a large fraction of their energy in showers generated by {nu}{sub {tau}} charge current interactions and the subsequent {tau} -lepton decay. The appearance of {nu}{sub {tau}} will enhance the spectrum of neutrino induced showers in energy ranges corresponding to the neutrino oscillation parameters. A shower rate lower than the ''no oscillation'' prediction is an indication for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub s} oscillations. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  10. Tau appearance in atmospheric neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    If the correct interpretation of the Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data is ν μ → ν τ oscillation, the contained data sample should already have more than 10 τ appearance events. We study the challenging task of detecting the τ, focusing on the decay chain τ ± → ρ ± → π ± π 0 in events with quasi-elastic τ production. The background level, which is currently quite uncertain because of a lack of relevant neutral current data, can be measured by the near detector in the K2K experiment. Our estimates of the background suggest that it may be possible to detect τ appearance in Super-Kamiokande with 5-10 years of running

  11. MR image appearance of cerebrospinal fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, K.; Quencer, R.M.; Post, M.J.D.; Diaz, R.; Shapiro, R.

    1986-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid flow void phenomenon (FVP) was retrospectively reviewed in 402 brain MR imaging examinations to determine the incidence of, physical parameters responsible for, and clinical significance of the finding. A grading system was devised comparing T2-weighted signal intensities between lateral ventricles and other CSF spaces. FVP was classified as marked, moderate, or absent. Although FVP may be present (240 of 292, 82%) or absent (50 of 292, 18%) in healthy subjects, in all 13 cases of obstructive hydrocephalus (including three cases of normal pressure hydrocephalus) FVP was found. Hydrocephalus ex vacuo revealed no consistent pattern. The authors conclude that FVP may be a normal finding and may help distinguish various types of hydrocephalus

  12. CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaohong, Wang; Hong, Shan; Zaibo, Jiang; Xinghe, Deng; Xiaochun, Meng; Bingbing, Ye; Mingyue, Luo; Yunya, Lin [Sun Yat-sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). The Third Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology

    2004-06-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy. Methods: Precontrast and postcontrast CT scans were employed in 38 patients who were clinically and ultrasonographically suspected of tubal pregnancy. 34 of them were verified as tubal pregnancy through operative pathology. Results: 1. The direct CT imaging feature was the whole pregnancies sac (4/34, 11.8%) or half-baked pregnancies sac (14/34, 41.2%); 2. The indirect CT imaging features were: (1) abnormal density image, which could be enhanced, in a cystic mass around adnexal area (8/34, 23.5%); (2) mix density mass around adnexal area, which was mainly solid and had mild to moderate inhomogeneous enhancement (19/34, 55.9%); (3) large area irregular shadow with high density were found beside the uterus, with no enhancement (3/34, 8.8%). (4) bloody density in uterus-rectum-fossa (23/34, 67.6%). 3. The CT imaging features of tubal pregnancy was classified as: (1) Pregnant sac type (4/34, 11.8%); (2) Cystic (8/34, 23.5%); (3) Massive type (17/34, 50%); (4) Chronic mass type (2/34, 5.9%); (5) Bleeding type (3/34, 8.8%). 4. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the pregnancy location; 5. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the clinical significant. Conclusion: The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy has some features, which can help in the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of the pelvis masses. CT scan is an effective supplementary attempt to the clinically and ultrasonographically suspected tubal pregnancy patients.

  13. Scintigraphic appearance of the piriformis muscle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, R.D. Jr.; Yedinak, M.A.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.; Howard, W.H.; Bunker, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first report in the nuclear medicine literature of the scintigraphic appearance of the piriformis muscle syndrome. This syndrome previously has been thought to be a purely clinical diagnosis and imaging modalities have been ignored. However, its confusing clinical presentation can lead to unnecessary surgical exploration. This case is presented to illustrate the characteristic scintigraphic pattern and suggest the role of nuclear medicine scanning in establishing the diagnosis

  14. CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohong; Shan Hong; Jiang Zaibo; Deng Xinghe; Meng Xiaochun; Ye Bingbing; Luo Mingyue; Lin Yunya

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy. Methods: Precontrast and postcontrast CT scans were employed in 38 patients who were clinically and ultrasonographically suspected of tubal pregnancy. 34 of them were verified as tubal pregnancy through operative pathology. Results: 1. The direct CT imaging feature was the whole pregnancies sac (4/34, 11.8%) or half-baked pregnancies sac (14/34, 41.2%); 2. The indirect CT imaging features were: (1) abnormal density image, which could be enhanced, in a cystic mass around adnexal area (8/34, 23.5%); (2) mix density mass around adnexal area, which was mainly solid and had mild to moderate inhomogeneous enhancement (19/34, 55.9%); (3) large area irregular shadow with high density were found beside the uterus, with no enhancement (3/34, 8.8%). (4) bloody density in uterus-rectum-fossa (23/34, 67.6%). 3. The CT imaging features of tubal pregnancy was classified as: (1) Pregnant sac type (4/34, 11.8%); (2) Cystic (8/34, 23.5%); (3) Massive type (17/34, 50%); (4) Chronic mass type (2/34, 5.9%); (5) Bleeding type (3/34, 8.8%). 4. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the pregnancy location; 5. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the clinical significant. Conclusion: The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy has some features, which can help in the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of the pelvis masses. CT scan is an effective supplementary attempt to the clinically and ultrasonographically suspected tubal pregnancy patients

  15. Predictive value of different conventional and non-conventional MRI-parameters for specific domains of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Daniela; Khalil, Michael; Pichler, Alexander; Langkammer, Christian; Ropele, Stefan; Marschik, Peter B; Fuchs, Siegrid; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While many studies correlated cognitive function with changes in brain morphology in multiple sclerosis (MS), few of them used a multi-parametric approach in a single dataset so far. We thus here assessed the predictive value of different conventional and quantitative MRI-parameters both for overall and domain-specific cognitive performance in MS patients from a single center. 69 patients (17 clinically isolated syndrome, 47 relapsing-remitting MS, 5 secondary-progressive MS) underwent the "Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests" assessing overall cognition, cognitive efficiency and memory function as well as MRI at 3 Tesla to obtain T2-lesion load (T2-LL), normalized brain volume (global brain volume loss), normalized cortical volume (NCV), normalized thalamic volume (NTV), normalized hippocampal volume (NHV), normalized caudate nuclei volume (NCNV), basal ganglia R2* values (iron deposition) and magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) for cortex and normal appearing brain tissue (NABT). Regression models including clinical, demographic variables and MRI-parameters explained 22-27% of variance of overall cognition, 17-26% of cognitive efficiency and 22-23% of memory. NCV, T2-LL and MTR of NABT were the strongest predictors of overall cognitive function. Cognitive efficiency was best predicted by NCV, T2-LL and iron deposition in the basal ganglia. NTV was the strongest predictor for memory function and NHV was particularly related to memory function. The predictive value of distinct MRI-parameters differs for specific domains of cognitive function, with a greater impact of cortical volume, focal and diffuse white matter abnormalities on overall cognitive function, an additional role of basal ganglia iron deposition on cognitive efficiency, and thalamic and hippocampal volume on memory function. This suggests the usefulness of using multiparametric MRI to assess (micro)structural correlates of different cognitive constructs.

  16. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  17. Multiple sclerosis - etiology and diagnostic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Joanna; Koper, Olga M; Piechal, Kinga; Kemona, Halina

    2017-06-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of autoimmune originate. The main agents responsible for the MS development include exogenous, environmental, and genetic factors. MS is characterized by multifocal and temporally scattered central nervous system (CNS) damage which lead to the axonal damage. Among clinical courses of MS it can be distinguish relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPSM), primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RPMS). Depending on the severity of signs and symptoms MS can be described as benign MS or malignant MS. MS diagnosis is based on McDonald's diagnostic criteria, which link clinical manifestation with characteristic lesions demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and visual evoked potentials. Among CSF laboratory tests used to the MS diagnosis are applied: Tibbling & Link IgG index, reinbegrams, and CSF isoelectrofocusing for oligoclonal bands detection. It should be emphasized, that despite huge progress regarding MS as well as the availability of different diagnostics methods this disease is still a diagnostic challenge. It may result from fact that MS has diverse clinical course and there is a lack of single test, which would be of appropriate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for quick and accurate diagnosis.

  18. Multiple sclerosis - etiology and diagnostic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kamińska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of autoimmune originate. The main agents responsible for the MS development include exogenous, environmental, and genetic factors. MS is characterized by multifocal and temporally scattered central nervous system (CNS damage which lead to the axonal damage. Among clinical courses of MS it can be distinguish relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPSM, primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS, and progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RPMS. Depending on the severity of signs and symptoms MS can be described as benign MS or malignant MS. MS diagnosis is based on McDonald’s diagnostic criteria, which link clinical manifestation with characteristic lesions demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis, and visual evoked potentials. Among CSF laboratory tests used to the MS diagnosis are applied: Tibbling & Link IgG index, reinbegrams, and CSF isoelectrofocusing for oligoclonal bands detection. It should be emphasized, that despite huge progress regarding MS as well as the availability of differentdiagnostics methods this disease is still a diagnostic challenge. It may result from fact that MS has diverse clinical course and there is a lack of single test, which would be of appropriate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for quick and accurate diagnosis.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in monitoring of treatment of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, M.; Walecki, J.; Stelmasiak, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the value of MR in monitoring of treatment of multiple sclerosis with new drug 2-CDA and placebo. 83 patients (51 women, 32 men) were examined - 81 of them twice, 66 - three times: before and after 6 and 12 courses of treatment. Toshiba MRT50A machine was used. After the first 6 courses of treatment the number of new plaques was twice as big in placebo group than in 2-CDA group. After 12 courses it turned out that a certain inhibitory influence of 2-CDA on new plaques' appearance was more evident after 15 than 3 months after the end of its administration. This may indicate the delayed action of 2-CDA but requires further investigation. (author)

  20. [Monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Seco, Victoria Galán; Casanova Peño, Ignacio; Arroyo González, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Until the mid 1990s, with the appearance of interferon beta and glatiramer acetate, there was no treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, due to their moderate therapeutic potential in some patients, a broad search was continued to find new and more effective treatment strategies, largely concentrated on monoclonal antibodies (MOAB). Natalizumab, the first MOAB for the treatment of MS, was approved at the end of 2004, representing a major advance in the field of neuroimmunology. Today, there is broad experience with natalizumab and other MOAB (alemtuzumab, daclizumab, rituximab, ocrelizumab, ofatumumab and anti-lingo-1) that are pending commercialization or are under phase II or III of development with promising results. The present review analyzes the efficacy and safety results of all these drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.