WorldWideScience

Sample records for sciences economics social

  1. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  2. Wilderness values: Perspectives from non-economic social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Alan E. Watson

    2007-01-01

    The concept of “values” is one of the most widely used to characterize the human dimensions of natural resources. Yet, clearly it means many different things in different disciplines and in everyday discourse. Background information regarding values from a non-economic social science perspective is provided, with an aim towards stretching the dominant economic paradigm...

  3. Teaching about the "Economic Crisis" Today. The Example of French "Economic and Social Sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coléno, Yves-Patrick; Blanchard, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In France at the high school the subject matter "Sciences Économiques et Sociales" (economic and social sciences) deals with the present economic crisis. We study the ways it is taught about: words, and explanatory patterns. Design/methodology/approach: We use a specific approach, that we call "semantic holism",…

  4. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-12-01

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 24227 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of... Engineering Center (NSEC) at Arizona State University by the Division Social and Economic Sciences ( 10748... Kronz, Program Director; Science, Technology and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic...

  6. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  7. 76 FR 65219 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: November 3, 2011; 1 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. November 4, 2011; 8..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  8. 77 FR 25207 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: May 17, 2012; 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; May 18, 2012; 8:30..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  9. 75 FR 25886 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: May 20, 2010; 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. May 21, 2010; 8:30..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  10. 75 FR 50783 - Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ADVISORY Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: September 7, 2010; 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. September 8... Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation...

  11. 76 FR 24062 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: May 19, 2011; 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. May 20, 2011; 9 a.m. to..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  12. 77 FR 24228 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of...; Division of Social and Economic Sciences, Room 990, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard... Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site visit review of the Nanoscale Science and...

  13. 78 FR 25309 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ADVISORY Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: May 20, 2013; 9:00 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. May 21, 2013; 9:00 a..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  14. 77 FR 62538 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: November 15, 2012; 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Place..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Room 905, Arlington...

  15. 78 FR 15745 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of... Science Foundation (NSF) announces the following Site Visit. Name: Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences, 10748. Date and Time: March 21, 2013 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., March 22, 2013 8:00 a.m. to...

  16. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  17. Developing an agenda to guide forest social science, economics, and utilization research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service has had a longstanding presence in utilization, economics, and social sciences research and development activities. The magnitude and diversity of these activities have changed as the questions and the people asking them have changed over the past century. These changes challenge the social science and utilization research community to develop...

  18. Technical change and economic policy: science and technology in the new economic and social context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Links between scientific research, technological development, and economic growth by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development are analyzed. The analysis is broken into four parts: (1) The New Economic and Social Context; (2) Trends in R and D and Innovation; (3) Technological Change and the Economy; and (4) Conclusions and Recommendations. The long-term structural nature of many of the problems facing western Europe are emphasized, and the limitations of short-term-demand management strategies in solving them.

  19. Mathematical-statistical models and qualitative theories for economic and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Maturo, Fabrizio; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad spectrum of problems related to statistics, mathematics, teaching, social science, and economics as well as a range of tools and techniques that can be used to solve these problems. It is the result of a scientific collaboration between experts in the field of economic and social systems from the University of Defence in Brno (Czech Republic), G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), Pablo de Olavid eUniversity of Sevilla (Spain), and Ovidius University in Constanţa, (Romania). The studies included were selected using a peer-review process and reflect heterogeneity and complexity of economic and social phenomena. They and present interesting empirical research from around the globe and from several research fields, such as statistics, decision making, mathematics, complexity, psychology, sociology and economics. The volume is divided into two parts. The first part, “Recent trends in mathematical and statistical models for economic and social sciences”, collects pap...

  20. Multicriteria and multiagent decision making with applications to economics and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Maturo, Antonio; Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and timely report on the topic of decision making and decision analysis in economics and the social sciences. The various contributions included in the book, selected using a peer review process, present important studies and research conducted in various countries around the globe. The majority of these studies are concerned with the analysis, modeling and formalization of the behavior of groups or committees that are in charge of making decisions of social and economic importance. Decisions in these contexts have to meet precise coherence standards and achieve a significant degree of sharing, consensus and acceptance, even in uncertain and fuzzy environments. This necessitates the confluence of several research fields, such as foundations of social choice and decision making, mathematics, complexity, psychology, sociology and economics. A large spectrum of problems that may be encountered during decision making and decision analysis in the areas of economics and the social ...

  1. Converging biology, economics and social science in fisheries research –lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Kulmala, Soile; Kuikka, Sakari

    2011-01-01

    of the Baltic salmon stocks, using the Bayesian networks. It enabled the analysis of the outcomes of different management measures from biological, social and economic perspectives. The synthesis was the final output of a learning process of eight years. We reflect how and what kind of interdisciplinarity...... between natural scientists, economists and social scientists grew from the need to better understand complexity related to the salmon fisheries in the Baltic Sea, what we learned about the fishery, and what we learned about interdisciplinary collaboration.......It has been acknowledged that natural sciences cannot provide an adequate basis for the management of complex environmental problems. The scientific knowledge base has to be expanded towards a more holistic direction by incorporating social and economic issues. Besides this, the multifaceted...

  2. Growing into interdisciplinarity: how to converge biology, economics and social science in fisheries research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Kulmala, Soile; Kuikka, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that natural sciences alone cannot provide an adequate basis for the management of complex environmental problems. The scientific knowledge base has to be expanded in a more holistic direction by incorporating social and economic issues. As well, the multifaceted knowledge...... science-based decision making. The empirical findings suggest that interdisciplinarity is an extensive learning process that takes place on three levels: between individuals, between disciplines, and between types of knowledge. Such a learning process is facilitated by agreeing to a methodological epoch...

  3. Blood, politics, and social science. Richard Titmuss and the Institute of Economic Affairs, 1957-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Philippe

    2002-09-01

    Long before his last book, The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy, was published in early 1971, Richard M. Titmuss (1907-1973), a professor of social administration at the London School of Economics, had been a major figure in the debates over the welfare state. The Gift Relationship was the culmination of an eventful relationship with the Institute of Economic Affairs, a think tank that advocated the extension of rational pricing to social services. By arguing that the British system of blood procurement and distribution, based on free giving within the National Health Service, was more efficient than the partly commercialized American system, Titmuss intended to signal the dangers of the increasing commercialization of society. What made for the impact of his book, however, was not merely its argument that transfusion-transmitted infections were much more common with paid than with voluntary donors, but also its reflections on what it is that holds a society together. And here Titmuss argued that a "socialist" social policy, by encouraging the sense of community, played a central role. The eclecticism of Titmuss's work, together with its strong ethical and political flavor, makes it a rich and original account of the "social" at a time when heated debated over social policy, both in Britain and in the United States, raised the question of the division of labor among the social sciences.

  4. Physics Laws of Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Economics, and other fields of social science are often criticized as unscientific for their apparent failures to formulate universal laws governing human societies. Whether economics is truly a science is one of the oldest questions. This paper attempts to create such universal laws, and asserts that economics is a branch of quantum physics just like chemistry. Choice is a central concept in economics and other fields of social science, yet there is no corresponding concept of choice in mode...

  5. Science You Can Use Bulletin: Wildfire triage: Targeting mitigation based on social, economic, and ecological values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl Malcolm; Matthew Thompson; Dave Calkin; Mark Finney; Alan Ager

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the risks of wildfire relative to the valuable resources found in any managed landscape requires an interdisciplinary approach. Researchers at the Rocky Mountain Research Station and Western Wildland Threat Assessment Center developed such a process, using a combination of techniques rooted in fire modeling and ecology, economics, decision sciences, and the...

  6. The status of PhD education in economic, social, and administrative sciences between 2005 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joel F; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Blalock, Susan J

    2010-09-10

    To describe the funding, education, enrollment, and graduation patterns from economic, social, and administrative sciences PhD programs in colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States. Economic, social, and administrative sciences PhD programs were identified from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Web site. A 41-item online survey instrument was sent to the director of graduate studies of each identified program. Only programs offering a PhD degree were included in the study. Of the 26 programs surveyed, 20 (77%) provided useable responses to the survey instrument. Approximately 91% of PhD programs guarantee funding to incoming students with an average commitment of 2.9 years. On average, students were paid a stipend of $18,000 per year for commitments to research and teaching assistantships, each averaging approximately 2 years in length. Programs admitted an average of 3.5 students per year and graduated approximately 85% of entering students. The majority of students are non-US citizens and accept positions in either academic or industrial positions after graduation. Most economic, social, and administrative sciences PhD programs guarantee funding to incoming PhD candidates. Programs offering funding packages significantly below the average may be at a competitive disadvantage. It is unclear whether the number of students graduating from PhD programs is adequate to fulfill academic and industrial needs.

  7. Non-equilibrium social science and policy introduction and essays on new and changing paradigms in socio-economic thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Andrzej; Ormerod, Paul; Rosewell, Bridget; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The overall aim of this book, an outcome of the European FP7 FET Open NESS project, is to contribute to the ongoing effort to put the quantitative social sciences on a proper footing for the 21st century. A key focus is economics, and its implications on policy making, where the still dominant traditional approach increasingly struggles to capture the economic realities we observe in the world today - with vested interests getting too often in the way of real advances. Insights into behavioral economics and modern computing techniques have made possible both the integration of larger information sets and the exploration of disequilibrium behavior. The domain-based chapters of this work illustrate how economic theory is the only branch of social sciences which still holds to its old paradigm of an equilibrium science - an assumption that has already been relaxed in all related fields of research in the light of recent advances in complex and dynamical systems theory and related data mining. The other chapters ...

  8. What factors are associated with increasing co-authorship in the social sciences? A case study of Danish Economics and Political Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    these changes. This article examines the relationship between changes in co-authorship and research in Danish economics and political science to gain greater insights into whether there are changes in the research or in researchers' behavior. The analysis shows that articles with empirical research......The number of co-authors has in the social sciences has been rising over the last decades, but a deeper understanding of why this rise is occurring is lacking. Previous studies of co-authorship in the social sciences often refer to the physical or life sciences or anecdotal evidence to explain......, quantitative research and/or survey are more likely to have a higher number of coauthors than articles based on theoretical, interview, and qualitative research. Furthermore, international and interinstitutional Danish articles tend to have more coauthors than interinstitutional articles. The analysis also...

  9. How economics shapes science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephan, Paula E

    2012-01-01

    .... At a time when science is seen as an engine of economic growth, Paula Stephan brings a keen understanding of the ongoing cost-benefit calculations made by individuals and institutions as they compete...

  10. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-15

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  11. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  12. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L.; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Yamoah Tenkorang, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  13. Quantum social science

    CERN Document Server

    Haven, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Written by world experts in the foundations of quantum mechanics and its applications to social science, this book shows how elementary quantum mechanical principles can be applied to decision-making paradoxes in psychology and used in modelling information in finance and economics. The book starts with a thorough overview of some of the salient differences between classical, statistical and quantum mechanics. It presents arguments on why quantum mechanics can be applied outside of physics and defines quantum social science. The issue of the existence of quantum probabilistic effects in psychology, economics and finance is addressed and basic questions and answers are provided. Aimed at researchers in economics and psychology, as well as physics, basic mathematical preliminaries and elementary concepts from quantum mechanics are defined in a self-contained way.

  14. Challenges in network science: Applications to infrastructures, climate, social systems and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Bunde, A.; Cohen, R.; Hermann, H.; Kantelhardt, J. W.; Kertész, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Kurths, J.; Portugali, J.; Solomon, S.

    2012-11-01

    Network theory has become one of the most visible theoretical frameworks that can be applied to the description, analysis, understanding, design and repair of multi-level complex systems. Complex networks occur everywhere, in man-made and human social systems, in organic and inorganic matter, from nano to macro scales, and in natural and anthropogenic structures. New applications are developed at an ever-increasing rate and the promise for future growth is high, since increasingly we interact with one another within these vital and complex environments. Despite all the great successes of this field, crucial aspects of multi-level complex systems have been largely ignored. Important challenges of network science are to take into account many of these missing realistic features such as strong coupling between networks (networks are not isolated), the dynamics of networks (networks are not static), interrelationships between structure, dynamics and function of networks, interdependencies in given networks (and other classes of links, including different signs of interactions), and spatial properties (including geographical aspects) of networks. This aim of this paper is to introduce and discuss the challenges that future network science needs to address, and how different disciplines will be accordingly affected.

  15. Choice--Chance--Control. That's Life. Learning about Insurance through Secondary School Courses. Insurance Basics for Everyone; Social Sciences; Mathematics; Consumer Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insurance Education Foundation, Indianapolis, IN.

    This guide, which is designed for use with secondary school students, contains four units of activities that teach the fundamentals of insurance within the context of a broad range of subjects, including social sciences, history, civics, government, mathematics, consumer economics, business, economics, life skills, family management, home…

  16. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Does environmental economics produce aeroplanes without engines? On the need for an environmental social science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    In this paper we first critically review conventional environmental economics. We conclude that the standard theory offers too narrow a perspective for many real world problems and that many theories are not empirically tested. Consequently, environmental economics is at risk of producing aeroplanes

  18. Twitter as a teaching tool in the Social Sciences faculties. A case study from the Economic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Arturo López Zapico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 127 701 USAL 5 1 827 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The increasing use of social networking among university students ease the way for teachers to use these kinds of tools towards achieving the objectives set in the European Higher Education Area. In this sense, Twitter appears as a highly versatile learning tool that perfectly fits with the skill-based education approach, as evidenced by the literature. This paper describes the methodology, as well as, discusses the results of three experiments that took place during the 2011-2012 Academic Year at the School of Economics and Business of the University of Oviedo. Twitter was used during those experiments to debate the today’s economic crisis. The indicators obtained are used to conclude that microblogging services are a proper tool not only for teaching Economic History but also for doing so for any Social Sciences.

  19. The central role of energy in Soddy's holistic and critical approach to nuclear science, economics, and social responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenn, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The following aspects of Soddy's life and work are discussed: early work with Rutherford leading to the conviction that atoms contained an immense store of energy; his belief that this energy could be released and controlled for the benefit of mankind; his growing concern with the fundamental problems of social economics and the social responsibility of scientists; and his interest in economics and monetary reform. (U.K.)

  20. Country Report: Economics as a Social Science in French lycées :A Programme Shaped by the Evolution of a School Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Chatel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1960s, courses in economics have become established in French lycées for pupils aged approximately 16 to 18 as part of both the general and technological (services streams. There are no other specific programmes in economics at the other levels of the school system. In lower secondary schools (collèges, which cater for children aged between 11 and 15, economic phenomena are presented in a somewhat descriptive manner during history and geography lessons. These descriptions introduce children to an economic vocabulary that includes terms such as GDP, productivity, inflation, growth and development. However, the acquisition of this vocabulary does not lead on to the teaching of any real economic arguments, nor of economic concepts or theories in the strict sense. Economics as just defined in not taught in the vocational streams either. The aim of this article is to characterise the teaching of economics that is provided in the general streams of French upper secondary schools as part of a subject called Economic and Social Sciences (ESS. It is here that economics teaching is most heavily concentrated; furthermore, it is the only one of the two economics programmes in French lycées for which curriculum studies exist. The article will show that, despite the considerable changes it has undergone, this programme has retained the critical and socially aware approach that has been present since it was first established. It was by no means evident that such an approach, inspired originally by the work of historians of the Annales school, would be adopted, even less retained, since it goes against the grain of developments in economics at university level, both in French universities and internationally, during the two decades between 1980 and the year 2000 (LeVan Lemesle 1983; Le Merrer 1990. During this period, the economics taught in universities became less descriptive and more formalised and moved away from the other social

  1. Turning Research into opportunities: Application of Nuclear Science and Technology for Social and Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyambura, M.

    2017-01-01

    Asia and Africa lose 11% of GNP every year owing to poor nutrition and there is Serious implication in the Africa's poverty and food security. Post harvest management problems cause food safety issues.Current food systems - Sustainably meet growing food demand. Soil-Plants Spectroscopy is Simplicity of light-Light based techniques for measurement of soil and plant materials that can help farmers in advisory. Soil Health Surveillance Enables surveillance science and evidence-based approaches - things not previously feasible. Using information from mapping and response trials, blenders can make formulations that will offer better returns to 80-95% of smallholders

  2. How economics shapes science

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The beauty of science may be pure and eternal, but the practice of science costs money. And scientists, being human, respond to incentives and costs, in money and glory. Choosing a research topic, deciding what papers to write and where to publish them, sticking with a familiar area or going into something new—the payoff may be tenure or a job at a highly ranked university or a prestigious award or a bump in salary. The risk may be not getting any of that. At a time when science is seen as an engine of economic growth, Paula Stephan brings a keen understanding of the ongoing cost-benefit calculations made by individuals and institutions as they compete for resources and reputation. She shows how universities offload risks by increasing the percentage of non–tenure-track faculty, requiring tenured faculty to pay salaries from outside grants, and staffing labs with foreign workers on temporary visas. With funding tight, investigators pursue safe projects rather than less fundable ones with uncertain but po...

  3. Social science that matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Social science is headed down a dead end toward mere scientism, becoming a second-rate version of the hard sciences. We neeed to recognise and support a different kind of social science research - and so should those who demand accountability from researchers. This paper asks what kind of social...... science we - scholars, policy makers, administrators - should and should not promote in democratic societies, and how we may hold social scientists accountable to deliver what we ask them for....

  4. Social Work and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  5. Building Nationally-Focussed, Globally Federated, High Performance Earth Science Platforms to Solve Next Generation Social and Economic Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Evans, Ben; Foster, Clinton; Pugh, Timothy; Uhlherr, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    Digital geoscience data and information are integral to informing decisions on the social, economic and environmental management of natural resources. Traditionally, such decisions were focused on regional or national viewpoints only, but it is increasingly being recognised that global perspectives are required to meet new challenges such as predicting impacts of climate change; sustainably exploiting scarce water, mineral and energy resources; and protecting our communities through better prediction of the behaviour of natural hazards. In recent years, technical advances in scientific instruments have resulted in a surge in data volumes, with data now being collected at unprecedented rates and at ever increasing resolutions. The size of many earth science data sets now exceed the computational capacity of many government and academic organisations to locally store and dynamically access the data sets; to internally process and analyse them to high resolutions; and then to deliver them online to clients, partners and stakeholders. Fortunately, at the same time, computational capacities have commensurately increased (both cloud and HPC): these can now provide the capability to effectively access the ever-growing data assets within realistic time frames. However, to achieve this, data and computing need to be co-located: bandwidth limits the capacity to move the large data sets; the data transfers are too slow; and latencies to access them are too high. These scenarios are driving the move towards more centralised High Performance (HP) Infrastructures. The rapidly increasing scale of data, the growing complexity of software and hardware environments, combined with the energy costs of running such infrastructures is creating a compelling economic argument for just having one or two major national (or continental) HP facilities that can be federated internationally to enable earth and environmental issues to be tackled at global scales. But at the same time, if

  6. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  7. Complementary Social Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Pedersen, Morten Axel

    2014-01-01

    of measurement device deployed. At the same time, however, we also expect new interferences and polyphonies to arise at the intersection of Big and Small Data, provided that these are, so to speak, mixed with care. These questions, we stress, are important not only for the future of social science methods......The rise of Big Data in the social realm poses significant questions at the intersection of science, technology, and society, including in terms of how new large-scale social databases are currently changing the methods, epistemologies, and politics of social science. In this commentary, we address...

  8. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  9. Social Dynamics of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several ``science of science'' theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.

  10. Digital Social Science Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Michael; Lauersen, Christian Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    At the Faculty Library of Social Sciences (part of Copenhagen University Library) we are currently working intensely towards the establishment of a Digital Social Science Lab (DSSL). The purpose of the lab is to connect research, education and learning processes with the use of digital tools...... at the Faculty of Social Sciences. DSSL will host and facilitate an 80 m2 large mobile and intelligent study- and learning environment with a focus on academic events, teaching and collaboration. Besides the physical settings DSSL has two primary functions: 1. To implement relevant social scientific software...... and hardware at the disposal for students and staff at The Faculty of Social Sciences along with instruction and teaching in the different types of software, e.g. Stata, Nvivo, Atlas.ti, R Studio, Zotero and GIS-software. 2. To facilitate academic events focusing on use of digital tools and analytic software...

  11. On economic inequality and social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explore the relations between economic inequality and social welfare staring from the assumption that causality goes from economic inequality to social welfare. Standard methodological framework of economic science was enhanced with interpersonal function of individual welfare so the effects of economic inequality of the level of social welfare can be considered. It was demonstrated that there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion and that differences in the preferences among people should be empirical considered for more insights. The analysis of the consequences of economic inequality to economic growth, i.e. dynamics of social welfare, demonstrated that there are numerous mechanisms of causality with the countervailing effects. The most important mechanism by which inequality speeds-up economic growth is based on the increased saving and invents rates, and the most important mechanism by which it slows-down growth is based on decreasing investments in human capital. Accordingly, there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion also in this case. Nonetheless, modern growth theory has demonstrated that that the most dangerous economic growth is inequality of the treatment of economic agents, i.e. discrimination and exclusion, as that kind of inequality creates substantial allocative inefficiency.

  12. Philosophy of the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Kimelyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of social science is a branch of philosophy where relations between philosophy and social sciences are traced and investigated. The main functions of philosophy of social science are: to work out social ontology, methodology and metatheory of social science.

  13. A Forgotten Social Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The post–World War II era was one of great triumph for American linguists—and yet linguistics is all but absent from the historical literature on postwar social science. This paper aims to illuminate this curious situation: to understand its provenance, evaluate its merits, and contextualize...... of linguistics has led to a parallel isolation in the historical literature. Ultimately, this paper poses a pivotal and timely question: How is the postwar social science space construed within the existing historiographic framework, and how should it be construed in order to maximize understanding? I propose...... it broadly. I argue that the historiographic lacuna results from two factors: (1) the opt-out of linguists from the wider American social science community, and (2) historical-developmental and -orientational factors that stand linguistics apart from the social science mainstream. The resultant isolation...

  14. Social Planning and Economic Coercion

    OpenAIRE

    Hintermann, Beat; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of social planning with a concern for economic coercion, which we define as the difference between consumers’ actual utility, and the "counterfactual" utility they expect to obtain if they were able to set policy themselves. Reasons to limit economic coercion include protecting minorities, preventing disenfranchised groups from engaging in socially costly behavior, or political economy considerations. As long as consumers are fully rational, limiting coercion is equivale...

  15. Assessing Prinary School; Second Cycle Social Science Textbooks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Prinary School; Second Cycle Social Science Textbooks in ... second cycle primary level social science textbooks vis-à-vis the principles of multiculturalism. ... Biases were disclosed in gender, economic and occupational roles.

  16. Is economics becoming the Mecca of Biology?: A citation analysis of the relationship between natural and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcintas, Altug

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that articles in economics, especially in the fields of evolutionary and institutional economics, are as much cited in biology as in economics. The citation analysis conducted in the essay suggests that economics is now becoming the Mecca of biology.

  17. Humor to the Rescue: How to Make Introductory Economics an Appealing Social Science for Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts made over the past few years to improve upon the way introductory economics is taught, these efforts have unfortunately done very little to change student perception of economics as a dry, difficult and boring subject. Since the introductory economics course for many nonmajors may be their only economics course in college, it is…

  18. Risk in social science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zinn, Jens; Taylor-Gooby, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ... for control. Advances in social science improve understanding of how people perceive and prioritise risks, broaden awareness of the bearing of a range of other issues (trust, experience during the life course, democratic expectations) on people's capacity to manage risks, and facilitate exploration of the ways in which people communicate abo...

  19. Social Sciences and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

  20. Directory of Research in Social Studies/Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Anna R.; Carnett, George S.

    Described are current trends in the social and behavioral sciences intended to meet the needs of the educational community. The projects listed include studies in anthropology, sociology, political science, history, geography, foreign area studies, economics, international relations, and environmental education. Part I of the directory lists…

  1. "Publish or Perish" as citation metrics used to analyze scientific output in the humanities: International case studies in economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneyx, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the most commonly used source of bibliometric data is the Thomson ISI Web of Knowledge, in particular the (Social) Science Citation Index and the Journal Citation Reports, which provide the yearly Journal Impact Factors. This database used for the evaluation of researchers is not advantageous in the humanities, mainly because books, conference papers, and non-English journals, which are an important part of scientific activity, are not (well) covered. This paper presents the use of an alternative source of data, Google Scholar, and its benefits in calculating citation metrics in the humanities. Because of its broader range of data sources, the use of Google Scholar generally results in more comprehensive citation coverage in the humanities. This presentation compares and analyzes some international case studies with ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar. The fields of economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history are focused on to illustrate the differences of results between these two databases. To search for relevant publications in the Google Scholar database, the use of "Publish or Perish" and of CleanPoP, which the author developed to clean the results, are compared.

  2. International Conference "Social Sciences: Achievements and Prospects"

    OpenAIRE

    Open European Academy of Public Sciences

    2018-01-01

    The Organizing Committee of the International Scientific and Practical Conference of the Open European Academy of Social Sciences(Spain, Barcelona), in partnership with the Barcelona University (Spain, Barcelona), the Berlin University (Germany, Berlin) Conference sections: Anthropology, Demography and Ethnography, Journalism, Art History and Culturology History and archeology, Political science, Psychology, Pedagogy Regional studies and socio-economic geography, Relig...

  3. Science outside the laboratory measurement in field science and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Boumans, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The conduct of most of social science occurs outside the laboratory. Such studies in field science explore phenomena that cannot for practical, technical, or ethical reasons be explored under controlled conditions. These phenomena cannot be fully isolated from their environment or investigated by manipulation or intervention. Yet measurement, including rigorous or clinical measurement, does provide analysts with a sound basis for discerning what occurs under field conditions, and why. In Science Outside the Laboratory, Marcel Boumans explores the state of measurement theory, its reliability, and the role expert judgment plays in field investigations from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Its discussion of the problems of passive observation, the calculus of observation, the two-model problem, and model-based consensus uses illustrations drawn primarily from economics. Rich in research and discussion, the volume clarifies the extent to which measurement provides valid information about objects an...

  4. Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-01-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

  5. Fire social science research–selected highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; Richard W. Haynes; Sarah McCaffrey; Evan Mercer; Alan Watson

    2007-01-01

    Forest Service Research and Development has a long-standing component of social fire science that since 2000 has expanded significantly. Much of this new work focuses on research that will increase understanding of the social and economic issues connected with wildland fire and fuels management. This information can enhance the ability of agencies and communities to...

  6. Social Science Disciplines. Fundamental for Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Johathan C., Ed.

    This guide is written for the social studies curriculum developer interested in developing a structured multidisciplinary program based on the concepts, methodology, and structure of social science disciplines and history. Seven 15-29 page chapters are included on each discipline: Anthropology and Psychology, by Charles R. Berryman; Economics, by…

  7. World View in Economic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of updating the economic model of society there arose the problem of eliminating contradictions in the development of economic science that do not allow us to solve problems of practice in proven ways. Although these contradictions and methods for their resolving are partially reflected in many scientific publications, methodological and practical justifications for a comprehensive study of the reserves of the economic science development by combining the provisions of philosophy and disciplines of the humanities are still relevant. The solution of the problem of unpredictability of functioning and development of the economy using such a combination of scientific disciplines can be ensured by applying the world view models that enable justifying the vector of attention of scientists in the subject area of the problem. The constructiveness of the interaction of scientists representing different ontological views of the world depends on improving of the conceptual and categorical support of their dialogue. A scientific world view in such a composition creates a basis, firstly, for a fruitful discussion of representatives of various disciplines having a common subject of research, and, secondly, for overcoming the institutional and cognitive barriers to professional mobility of scientists. It can also serve to develop the mobility of representatives of professional communities of researchers.

  8. Towards Understanding and Managing Sustainable Complex, Dynamic Environmental/Economic/Social Systems - The Evolving Role of the Natural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically the natural sciences have played a major role in informing environmental management decisions. However, review of landmark cases like Love Canal, NY and Times Beach, MO have shown that the value of natural science information in decision making can be overwhelmed by ...

  9. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-07-01

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  10. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  11. The Social Science Curriculum of the Two-Year College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Describes a nationwide study to identify: (1) the representation of different areas within the social sciences (i.e. anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, social/ethnic studies, sociology, and interdisciplinary social sciences) in the two-year college curriculum, and (2) which courses were offered for transfer,…

  12. Social surplus approach and heterodox economics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Frederic; Jo, Tae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Given the emphasis on social provisioning in heterodox economics, two of its central theoretical organizing principles are the concepts of the total social product and the social surplus. This appears to link heterodox economics to the social surplus approach associated with the classical economists and currently with Sraffian economists. However, heterodox economics connects agency with the social surplus and the social product, which the Sraffians reject as they take the level and composit...

  13. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  14. Information Science: Science or Social Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.

    2017-01-01

    Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...

  15. How Do School Peers Influence Student Educational Outcomes? Theory and Evidence from Economics and Other Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interest among social scientists in peer influences has grown with recent resegregation of the nation's schools and court decisions that limit the ability of school districts to consider race in school assignment decisions. If having more advantaged peers is beneficial, then these trends may reduce educational equity. Previous studies…

  16. La hermanita perdida Secuestro y recuperación de la economía política para las ciencias sociales The lost little sister Kidnapping and rescue of politic economy for the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aronskind

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo propone una reflexión sobre el conocimiento económico en la Argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Se detiene en sus relaciones
    con la política y con el resto de las ciencias sociales, mostrando las diversas articulaciones que la ciencia económica tuvo con estas esferas en las corrientes desarrollistas, dependentistas y neoliberales. Señala un deterioro de las miradas heterodoxas a la par de las transformaciones en la sociedad argentina reciente, mostrando la emergencia de lo que llama un ‘individualismo
    descomprometido’’. Finalmente se concentra en la incidencia del saber técnico-administrativo en al ámbito académico, para luego señalar la centralidad de la ciencia económica en sus inscripciones políticas e históricas, como un polo necesario de investigación crítica, creativa y comprometida con lo público.The article proposes a reflection on the economic knowledge in Argentina during the second half of the twentieth century. Addressing its relations
    with politics and with the rest of the social sciences, shows the various interrelationships that economic science had with these areas in the development, dependency and neo-liberal discourses. It points a deterioration of the heterodox views on a par with the transformations in the recent Argentine society, showing the emergence of what he calls a ‘‘commitmentless individualism’’. Finally, it focuses on the impact of technicaladministrative
    knowledge in the academic field, and then point out the centrality of economic
    science in its political and historical inscriptions, as a hub of research necessary critical, creative and committed to the public sphere.

  17. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society

  18. Editorial: Challenges of Social Science Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Weber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since international tests compare the performance of students in different subjects, the issue of literacy in the social science subject is becoming more pressing. The successes and failures in international tests influence the national education policies considerably. First, the inclusion of subjects in international comparisons has consequences for their importance. Second, the race in the Olympics of education leads to an increasing focus on the output of educational processes, also measured in the central exams. Social Sciences can refuse to take part in the national comparison studies with the price of losing much more importance; they can participate with the danger of undermining their goals. This raises a lot of questions: What competences students need in this social world to reason about it und to act responsibly? What is the foundation of concepts from social science students need for guidance and understanding their place and role as an individual in society? The social science disciplines, as sociology, political science and economics in a narrow sense, history, law and geography in a broader sense, supported by philosophy, pedagogy and psychology are able to select them for educational purposes or determine such educational aims. This Journal wants to resume und discuss competences and core con¬cepts for political and economic teaching and learning as Social Science Literacy”. Contributions in this issue do not only discuss and recommend competences and core concepts from a domain specific political or economic point of view, but also from an interdisciplinary or psychological point of view. They analyse preconditions and interdependencies as well as obstacles und problems of development and diagnosis core concepts and competences of Social Science Literacy.

  19. What Contribution Can the Humanities and Social Sciences Make to Career Guidance in General and Technological Lycées? The Case of Economics in Year One of Lycée in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Richit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the 2008 Resolution of the Council of the European Union on “Better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies”, the reform of French lycées has included career guidance among its priorities. This reform, which was implemented in 2010, includes lessons on exploring economics for all students in year one (seconde of the French three-year lycée. Will this new feature help to promote career guidance?This research aims to show that academic and vocational guidance is socially controversial, and that the two programmes on economics, “Sciences économiques et sociales - SES” (social and economic sciences and “Principes fondamentaux de l’économie et de la gestion - PFEG” (basic principles of economics and management, provide knowledge and skills from the humanities and social sciences that are useful for the guidance of year one students, even if the teachers involved do not feel directly involved in assisting with careerguidance.As career guidance is not a discipline, will efficient teachers be those who are able to distinguish between “knowledge that” and “knowledge for”?

  20. The Employment Outlook for Social Science Majors in the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Eva C.

    This assessment of the future job market for social science graduates is made both generically and separately for certain disciplines. The definition of the social sciences follows the USOE definition and includes: anthropology, archeology, economics, history, geography, political science, sociology, criminology, international relations, urban…

  1. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social

  2. Communicating science in social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2013-08-20

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

  3. Communicating science in social settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  4. Social Anthropology and Social Science History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914

  5. IMPROVING CLASSIFICATIONS OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES IN A THESAURUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vladimirovich Lesnikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to study thesaurus as an instrument to define the classification of economic sciences, to adapt their classification to the increased information flow, to increase accuracy of allocation of information resources with consideration of the users’ needs, to suggest making alterations in the classification of economic sciences made by the Institute of Scientific Information for Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INION RAN in 2001.The authors see the classification of economic sciences as a product of social communications theory – a differentiated aspect of social research. Modern science is subdivided into various aspects with varied subjects and methods. The latter overlap and form a hierarchy of concepts in science within the same research subject. The authors stress the importance of information retrieval systems for developing scientific knowledge. Information retrieval systems can immediately deliver data from different areas of science to the user who can then integrate the information and obtain a vivid picture of the research subject. Search engines and rubricators are becoming increasingly important as there is a tendency to isolated thinking with many Internet users.The authors have devised a certain approach to using the thesaurus as the means of sciences classification and as a hyper language of science. The suggested methodological approach to structuring terms and notions via thesaurus have been tested at Syktyvkar State University and Syktyvkar branch of Saint-Petersburg Economic University.Methods: deduction, induction, analysis, synthesis, abstraction technique, classification.Results: there have been defined stages and main sections of the information-retrieval thesaurus of the hyperlanguage of economic science on the basis of existing classification systems of scientific knowledge.Scope of application of results: library services, information technology, education.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-22

  6. Performative Social Science and Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gergen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of "Performative Social Science," which is defined as the deployment of different forms of artistic performance in the execution of a scientific project. Such forms may include art, theater, poetry, music, dance, photography, fiction writing, and multi-media applications. Performative research practices are in their developmental stage, with most of the major work appearing in the last two decades. Frequently based on a social constructionist metatheory, supporters reject a realist, or mapping view of representation, and explore varieties of expressive forms for constructing worlds relevant to the social sciences. The performative orientation often relies on a dramaturgical approach that encompasses value-laden, emotionally charged topics and presentations. Social scientists invested in social justice issues and political perspectives have been especially drawn to this approach. Performative social science invites productive collaborations among various disciplinary fields and between the sciences and arts. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101119

  7. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  8. Is Teaching Neoclassical Economics as "the" Science of Economics Moral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Manoucher

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the morality of teaching neoclassical theory as the only science of economics. Argues that the teaching of neoclassical theory violates moral principles unless each and every attribute of neoclassical theory is proven superior to corresponding attributes of competing theories. Criticizes neoclassical economics for teaching what rather…

  9. Data Science for Institutional and Organizational Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, Jens; Prüfer, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    To which extent can data science methods – such as machine learning, text analysis, or sentiment analysis – push the research frontier in the social sciences? This essay briefly describes the most prominent data science techniques that lend themselves to analyses of institutional and organizational

  10. Social and economic impacts of climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Tamma A; Hsiang, Solomon M

    2016-09-09

    For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact. For example, we compute that temperature depresses current U.S. maize yields by ~48%, warming since 1980 elevated conflict risk in Africa by ~11%, and future warming may slow global economic growth rates by ~0.28 percentage points per year. In general, we estimate that the economic and social burden of current climates tends to be comparable in magnitude to the additional projected impact caused by future anthropogenic climate changes. Overall, findings from this literature point to climate as an important influence on the historical evolution of the global economy, they should inform how we respond to modern climatic conditions, and they can guide how we predict the consequences of future climate changes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Business, Economics, Financial Sciences, and Management

    CERN Document Server

    2011 International Conference on Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management (BEFM 2011)

    2012-01-01

    A series of papers on business, economics, and financial sciences, management selected from International Conference on Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management are included in this volume.   Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources.   The proceedings of BEFM2011 focuses on the various aspects of advances in Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management and provides a chance for academic and industry professionals to discuss recent progress in the area of Business, Economics, and Financial Scienc...

  12. Cooperation, social capital and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.

  13. Online social activity reflects economic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  14. Science's social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    like Science in the City in which the science institutions communicate and discuss science with interested citizens. It can be done in relation to strategic plans: solving medical, environmental, socio-political problems for which the state or commercial actors provide funding. But it can also be what...... this is kind of funny, it has some kind of serious core to it in that part of science responsibility to society is to figure out the meaning of the questions that we want to pose – and furthermore: which questions can be asked. Doing this may not be limited to short-term processes, to strategic considerations...

  15. Social Science in the Making: An Economist's View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in economics and psychology suggest that productivity in the social sciences will benefit from crossing existing academic barriers, and that such crossing is more and more likely. Social science is in the making, but its success seems particularly conditioned on the willingness

  16. Optimal Assignment Problem Applications of Finite Mathematics to Business and Economics. [and] Difference Equations with Applications. Applications of Difference Equations to Economics and Social Sciences. [and] Selected Applications of Mathematics to Finance and Investment. Applications of Elementary Algebra to Finance. [and] Force of Interest. Applications of Calculus to Finance. UMAP Units 317, 322, 381, 382.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, David; And Others

    Four units make up the contents of this document. The first examines applications of finite mathematics to business and economies. The user is expected to learn the method of optimization in optimal assignment problems. The second module presents applications of difference equations to economics and social sciences, and shows how to: 1) interpret…

  17. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  18. Mapping "Social Responsibility" in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Maja; Glerup, Cecilie

    The paper investigates the discourse on social responsibility in science as it appears in academic journals. Through database searches a collection of more than 300 papers have been analysed in order to map their answers to the following three questions: - What is the central problem that threatens...... responsibility in science? - What are the central aspects of science or its relation to society that need to be regulated or changed? - What kinds of solutions are imagined and how are these solutions supposed to be put into place? On this basis the paper explores how different interpretations of the notion...... of social responsibility of science imply different forms of governance of and within science. The paper employs a Foucaldian discourse analysis to understand how a particular conceptualisation of responsibility implies a political rationality, i.e. a particular form of governance of science. The analysis...

  19. Science and Technology and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberte, Mario B.

    1988-01-01

    Dealing with science and technology and economic development, this paper describes the relationship between technological capability and the degree of economic development. It analyzes the structure of the Philippine economy and the structural changes that have taken place since the 1970. It also investigates the impact of economic developments and technological advances in other countries on the Philippine economy. A discussion on possible research collaboration among PIDS, DOST and regional...

  20. The Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews some recent technical progress in the social sciences and three frontier areas including evolutionary theory as related to sociobiology, the theory of human rational choice, and cognitive science. These areas offer explanations for broad areas of human behavior. (Author/SA)

  1. Book Notes “Economics and Social Sciences” 1/2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.

    2018-01-01

    Short notes on 10 different book and anthology publications from 2016 and 2017 in the fields of economics and social science.......Short notes on 10 different book and anthology publications from 2016 and 2017 in the fields of economics and social science....

  2. Contextualizing Social Science in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Raj Dahal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the

  3. Mode-2 social science knowledge production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer; Blok, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The notion of mode-2 knowledge production points to far-reaching transformations in science-society relations, but few attempts have been made to investigate what growing economic and political demands on research may entail for the social sciences. This case study of new patterns of social science...... knowledge production outlines some major institutional and cognitive changes in Danish academic sociology during 'mode-2' times, from the 1980s onwards. Empirically, we rely on documentary sources and qualitative interviews with Danish sociologists, aiming to reconstruct institutional trajectories...... show how a particular cognitive modality of sociology — 'welfare reflexivity' — has become a dominant form of Danish sociological knowledge production. Welfare reflexivity has proven a viable response to volatile mode-2 policy conditions....

  4. Social and economic growth of developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregersen, H.M.; Laarman, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations

  5. Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2001-04-01

    In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised.

  6. Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised

  7. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available

  8. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  9. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Ștefan-Dragoș CÎRSTEA; Andreea CÎRSTEA

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution ...

  10. Pluralizing social science

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus

    2010-01-01

    The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations (C of I) was not a book that I had any long-standing plans to write. The manuscript did, however, grow out of two related and long-standing frustrations that I had with discussions in Political Science in general and International Relations in particular about research design, causation, and the basic contours of knowledge-production. First of all, people seemed to invariably conflate questions of method or technique with questions of methodol...

  11. Time representations in social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

  12. Trust, Social Capital and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, P.; Zabojnik, J.

    2003-01-01

    Many argue that elements of a society s norms, culture or social capital are central to understanding its development.However, these notions have been difficult to capture in economic models.Here we argue that trustworthiness is the economically relevant component of a society s culture and hence

  13. Social learning research in ecological economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenhüner, Bernd; Rodela, Romina; Ecker, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding

  14. Into the Curriculum. Art: Landscape Painting; Home Economics/Social Studies: Greek Clothing; Reading/Language Arts: In Search of Greek and Roman Gods and Goddesses!; Science: Magnets; Social Studies/Language Arts: Great Primary Sources on the Great Depression: Using the Library of Congress Collections Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Jeffrey Paul; Ward, Lisa M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, home economics, social studies, reading, language arts, and science. Library Media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each…

  15. Poster "Maladies rares & sciences sociales"

    OpenAIRE

    Duysens, Fanny

    2018-01-01

    Le poster "Maladies rares & sciences sociales" visait à présenter la recherche doctorale de l'auteure au grand public dans le cadre de la Journée des Maladies Rares du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège dont le thème était "la recherche sur les maladies rares". Réalisé spécialement pour l'occasion, le poster explicitait de manière synthétique le sujet de recherche, la méthodologie, certains résultats, ainsi que les apports possibles des échanges entre chercheurs en sciences et sociales...

  16. Evolution of the global economic science as a factor of forming the expectations of economic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Vladimirovich Shlychkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to reveal the correlation between the level of economic system development and the adequacy of economic ideas and conceptions at particular historic periods to define the role of economic theory in generating economic knowledge and the degree of its influence on economic subjects39 behavior under permanent changes in technology setups and evolutionary development of economic systems. Methods the research methodology was based on ensuring the uniformity of logical and historical approaches the research methods were widely used descriptive analysis and synthesis deduction and induction generalization observation prediction scientific abstraction statistical analysis system analysis and techniques of grouping and classification methods of comparative historical and interdisciplinary analysis expert judgment the combination of these methods allowed to ensure the accuracy of the research and the validity of conclusions. Results the correlation was revealed between the level of economic system development and the adequacy of economic ideas and concepts at certain historical periods the significant role of economic theory in shaping the optimal behavior of economic entitieswas identified the purpose of the economic theory was statedass providing the evolutionary development of our civilization through the process of scientifictheoretical support of business activities of the society. Scientific novelty the main theoretical and methodological approaches were identified to the formation of economic agents expectations to obtain economic knowledge the trends are revealed of expansion and qualitative change of the range of issues facing economistsresearchers in the development of postindustrial society the authorsrsquo interpretation is proposed of the notion ldquoeconomic agentsrsquoexpectationrdquo in which public expectations of economic science are viewed as quotthe formed society need for scientifically grounded economic knowledgequot it

  17. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Brajević, Slađana; Babić, Antonija; Jukić, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    The time in which we currently live and will continue to live is a time of changes, which are comprehensive, deep and quick. They occur in almost all spheres and areas of human activity and life. Regardless of their causes, they are all structural changes whose consequences are primarily economic in their nature. The last three decades have been characterized by a rather significant increase in entrepreneurial activities, which is why they are often referred to as "the age of entrepreneurship...

  18. The Economic Value of Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    While demonstrating the economic value of science is challenging, it can be more direct for some Earth observations. For example, suppose a climate science mission can yield decisive information on climate change within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) provides a standard for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, stipulating uncertainty in climate sensitivity, using discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate response (DICE Optimal), and a strong response (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we would switch from BAU to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain also depends on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The resolving power of a climate observing system cannot exceed climate system natural variability. All climate observations add noise to natural variability caused by observing limitations, including calibration errors and space/time sampling uncertainty. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can advance the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems

  19. University Rankings and Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  20. Management Science, Economics and Finance: A Connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides a brief review of the connecting literature in management science, economics and finance, and discusses some research that is related to the three disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent econometric models to estimate the parameters in

  1. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  2. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  3. Mapping 'Social Responsibility' in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This article employs the Foucauldian notion of ‘political rationality’ to map discussions and ideals about the responsibility of science toward society. By constructing and analyzing an archive of 263 journal papers, four political rationalities were identified: the Demarcation rationality, which......, which insists that responsible science should live up to public demands for innovation and democracy; and the Integration rationality, which advocates that science should be co-constructed with societal actors in order to be socially responsible. While each rationality is distinct, the article argues...... that all of them address the issue of a boundary (or integration) between science and society. Hence, it is not possible for scientists to avoid ‘a relationship’ with society. The political question is how this relationship is to be defined and regulated....

  4. Economics, political science, and law. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lasswel (harald); O. Schachter (Oscar); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractLASSWELLT:h e first of our discussants is of the discipline that the rest of the social scientists examine with mixed feelings of respect and envy, namely, economics. Prof. Jan Tinbergen. TINBERGEIN p: ropose not only to give a very brief summary of my paper but to add a few remarks that

  5. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences generally aims to foster progressive partnerships between different stake holders towards sustainable Agriculture. Papers in Animal husbandry, Fisheries, wild life, crop and Soil Science, agricultural economics, Extension, Forestry, environment and papers with a ...

  6. Economical modelling of social and moral norms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, Karine

    2001-01-01

    Social norms and moral motivations are often ignored in economic models. It is possible, however, to model social and moral norms within the framework of economical theory. This may be useful even if the exposition is necessarily simplified. The article gives some examples. An analysis shows how the ''No Smoking Act'' may have led to a change in social norms in Norway and indirectly changed the behaviour of smokers in places where this act does not apply. Behaviour with moral motivation may also be affected by changes in regulations, economic incentives or other external conditions. For example, a more efficient collection system for source-separated waste may induce people to sharpen the moral claim on their own efforts. Indeed, interviews show that imposing a fee upon people not volunteering in communal work may cause the attendance to drop further

  7. SOCIALISM FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klistorin V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to discuss the role the socialist ideas played in the development of economic thoughts. The paper considers a brief history of socialist thought, fundamental ideas of the scientists and publicists who made the greatest contribution to development of socialist concepts; common principles at a huge variety of such concepts; and criticism of socialist ideas made by representatives of alternative schools. A special focus of the paper is the discussion held in the period between the world wars on whether socialism could take place. In the critics’ opinion, socialization of the economy resulted in corrupted economic information which made economic calculations impossible in socialism and abolition of private ownership - in both eliminated freedom of choice and lower economic growth. In response, economists-socialists insisted on positive impacts through lower transactional costs and they proposed different types of market socialism. The author also makes an attempt to formulate what the socialist theories contributed to modern economics from the viewpoint of its research subject and definitions.

  8. Cultural Challenges of Social-Economic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Ottlewski, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We introduce the concept of social-economic innovation (SEI) and point to cultural challenges involved in instituting SEI. In the second part of the paper, we delve into the alternative exchange system of “Housing for help” (HFH) to explore the challenging negotiation of roles and relations...... of the cultural processes and challenges involved in instituting unconventional social-economic systems. The paucity of existent research and the preliminary nature of our study call for further investigation. Practical implications The study informs individual and institutional efforts to negotiate...

  9. Information-seeking behavior of social sciences scholars: A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...

  10. Shaping Social Work Science: What Should Quantitative Researchers Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shenyang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a review of economists' debates on mathematical economics, this article discusses a key issue for shaping the science of social work--research methodology. The article describes three important tasks quantitative researchers need to fulfill in order to enhance the scientific rigor of social work research. First, to test theories using…

  11. Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJOSSAH is a peer-reviewed journal of the social sciences and humanities specializing on social, political, economic and cultural development in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. It is a biannual journal open to all interested contributors. Vol 13, No 1 (2017). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  12. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. The Social Effects of the Economic Transformation in India (An Attempt at Measurement and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bywalec Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of significant and, at the same time, challenging research problems in Economics is measuring the social effect of economic growth (development. Economic growth should never be treated a goal per se. It is rational provided that it brings effects such as, generally speaking, an improvement in the standard of living. However, this is not always the case. Social sciences, including Economics, have not developed any uniform methods of measuring and evaluating such effects yet.

  14. The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Gloria M; San Buenaventura, Mariano

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and social impact of tourism in Pagsanjan in which tourism development project is located. Results show that the project’s various significant impacts include increases in employment and income and stimulation of political and women’s participation. While its impact on environment and on the people’s social life has been a mixture of positive and negative results, its impact on income distribution has been trifling. To maximize the tourism multiplier, the pape...

  15. Economics, Corporate Sustainability and Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    It is often argued that corporate sustainability requires a corporation to make a profit, to act in a socially responsible manner and to engage in policies that are environmentally sustainable. This is sometimes called the corporation’s triple bottom line. In this paper it is argued that in practice profitability or more general maintaining economic variability constitutes a corporation’s bottom line and that it is limited by this consideration in showing social responsibility and in acting w...

  16. Preference of Social Choice in Mathematical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Jamal; Mohajan, Haradhan; Moolio, Pahlaj

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical Economics is closely related with Social Choice Theory. In this paper, an attempt has been made to show this relation by introducing utility functions, preference relations and Arrow’s impossibility theorem with easier mathematical calculations. The paper begins with some definitions which are easy but will be helpful to those who are new in this field. The preference relations will give idea in individual’s and social choices according to their budget. Economists want to create ...

  17. Economic Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    KITZMUELLER, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Defense date: 16/04/2010 Examining Board: Professor Pascal Courty, University of Victoria, Canada, Supervisor Professor Luigi Guiso, EUI Professor Franklin Allen, University of Pennsylvania Professor Benjamin Lockwood, University of Warwick What is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and how can we explain the phenomenon from an economic perspective? Is there a business case for CSR and was Milton Friedman right when writing in the New York Times in 1970 that "the social r...

  18. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  19. University Rankings and Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Marginson, S.

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real outputs are of no common value. It is necessary that rankings be soundly based in scientific terms if a virtuous relationship between performance and...

  20. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  1. Economic principles motivating social attention in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Parikh, Purak C; Deaner, Robert O; Platt, Michael L

    2007-07-22

    We know little about the processes by which we evaluate the opportunity to look at another person. We propose that behavioural economics provides a powerful approach to understanding this basic aspect of social attention. We hypothesized that the decision process culminating in attention to another person follows the same economic principles that govern choices about rewards such as food, drinks and money. Specifically, such rewards are discounted as a function of time, are tradable for other rewards, and reinforce work. Behavioural and neurobiological evidence suggests that looking at other people can also be described as rewarding, but to what extent these economic principles apply to social orienting remains unknown. Here, we show that the opportunity to view pictures of the opposite sex is discounted by delay to viewing, substitutes for money and reinforces work. The reward value of photos of the opposite sex varied with physical attractiveness and was greater in men, suggesting differential utility of acquiring visual information about the opposite sex in men and women. Together, these results demonstrate that choosing whom to look at follows a general set of economic principles, implicating shared neural mechanisms in both social and non-social decision making.

  2. Adaptive behavior in economic and social environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, E.J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Various economic and social environments feature repeated interaction of decision-makers. Firms compete for market shares continually, politicians enter into debates almost every day, and friends communicate regularly. When decision-makers accumulate experience and collect new information each time

  3. The Social Epistemology of Experimental Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Cordeiro dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAna Cristina Cordeiro dos Santos was born in Lisbon, Portugal, in 1971. She received her B.Sc. degree in Economics from Technical University of Lisbon, in Portugal, in 1994, and a MA degree in Social Policy from Roskilde University, in Denmark, in 1995. Since 1996 she has been a

  4. A hermeneutic science: health economics and Habermas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Neil; Mannion, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Mainstream health economics labours under a misleading understanding of the nature of the topic area and suffers from a concomitant poverty of thinking about theory and method. The purpose here is to explore this critical position and argue that health economics should aspire to being more than a technical discipline. It can, and should, engage with transformative discourse. It is argued that the hermeneutic sciences, emphasising interpretation not instrumentality or domination, offer a route into the change to which one seeks to contribute. The article specifically focuses on the way Habermas provides insights in his approach to knowledge, reason and political economy. How he emphasises complexity and interaction within cultural milieu is explored and primacy is given to preserving the life-world against the encroachments of a narrow rationalization. The argument for a critical re-imagining of health economics is presented in three stages. First, the antecedents, current assumptions and critical voices from contemporary economics and health economics are reviewed. Second, the way in which health is best understood via engaging with the complexity of both the subject itself and the society and culture within which it is embedded is explored. Third, the contribution that hermeneutics, and Habermas' critical theory, could make to a new health economics is examined. The paper offers a radical alternative to health economics. It explores the shortcomings of current thinking and argues an optimistic position. Progress via reason is possible if one reframes both in the direction of communication and in the appreciation of reflexivity and communality. This is a position that resonates with many who challenge prevailing paradigms, in economics and elsewhere.

  5. Climate change adaptation and social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change subjects societies to a large range of uncertainties concerning the future and their development orientation. It came up as a scientific global problem, extended to political concerns first at a global and then national scales. Though it has long been the object of economic approaches which have notably contributed to its recognition, particularly the Stern Report, social sciences have hardly been mobilized as part of policies to counteract it. Social sciences strongly question the notion of climate change being built as a global scale transcendent phenomenon, analyzed by several authors. With the rise of adaptation policies, the question becomes even more important. Adaptation first comes up as a spontaneous behaviour, independent of policy, in close relationship to social dimensions as a basic way through which climate change is grasped collectively. Thus adaptation policies' social aspects need to be carefully worked in relation with more general goals for adaptation policies to be implemented efficiently, on the basis of wide interactions between local and global scales. (author)

  6. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan-Dragoș CÎRSTEA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution and the direct contribution of tourism to GDP are elements studied within this research. It is also studied the direct contribution of tourism to employment, and the main positive and negative effects of tourism on social life.

  7. Petroleum: Social and economic effect in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aguas Pután

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the results of the research work related to the social and economic impact of the exploitation of oil in Ecuador, presents the reader with the methodologies that allowed obtaining the results and the most viable solution to the economic problems facing the country . The purpose of the investigative work is to propose a practical solution to the economic and social situation in the country, especially in the last years when the business started with the international oil companies which did not respect the agreement made by both parties that produced Negative consequences for the land, such as damages, contamination of the rivers, damage of the flora and fauna of the surroundings, it is considered that there were and there are economic fluctuations that have varied the economy and development of the fulfillment of the state budget and the breach of the same Towards social promises to the people of Ecuador, for not having the necessary provisions in the fall of the price of oil and this has its effect on the national budget.

  8. GLOBALIZATION AS A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores Trujillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is defined as a process that integrates knowledge worldwide, has its historical reference on changes in the ways processes, methods and information are addressed; documented its inception in the late twentieth century, Castells, M. (2001 beyond the discrepancy about whether it is a product of technological development or an inevitable evolution of capitalism, research arises from the formulation of the following questions: How important is the study of globalization ?, What has produced important contributions in the scientific community about globalization? And What are the perspectives or approaches addressed? . This work aims to show how the scientific community has produced knowledge about this phenomenon addressing the political, economic and social approaches: From the economic point of view reconfigures how to address the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in the world, permeating this way all international economic events. From the political point of view, besides the redistribution of emerging geopolitical blocs, it establishes a new category of state, transnational state. From the social point of view, it shows evidence of the negative effects of globalization on resizing the category personal, local or regional or even in global risk-Global group. The research is documentary literature, their contribution to social science evidence to characterize globalization as political, economic and social phenomenon of the century that permeates all areas of study applied.

  9. Enacting the social relations of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the writings of Danish science journalist Børge Michelsen from 1939 to 1956. As part of the international social relations of science movement in the period, Michelsen transformed science journalism from mere reporting on issues pertaining to science into performing...... the social function of science journalism: advancing and enacting the social relations of science. Based on analyses of Michelsen's articles and other initiatives, this study suggests that the social function of science journalism practiced by Michelsen showed many new and conflicting aspects. From...... new links to reinforce mutual relations between scientists and policy-makers, between scientists and journalists, and between science and the public. Finally, in the concluding remarks, the contemporary significance of Michelsen's social function of science journalism is discussed....

  10. 36 CFR 219.19 - Ecological, social, and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic sustainability. 219.19 Section 219.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE..., Social, and Economic Sustainability § 219.19 Ecological, social, and economic sustainability. Sustainability, composed of interdependent ecological, social, and economic elements, embodies the Multiple-Use...

  11. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF PROPERTY INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond promptly. In this respect, we conducted a market analysis of real estate investments in Romania, highlighting economic and social efficiency of property investments.

  12. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more......-trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....

  13. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R; Brown, Phil

    2015-11-01

    Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science-environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social science collaboration with environmental health. Environ Health

  14. Solar energy's economic and social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  15. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk as a dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  16. Research in Institutional Economics in Management Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This report maps research in institutional economics in management science in the European Union for the 1995 to 2002 period. The reports applies Internet search based on a university listing, search on journal databases, key informants and an internet-based survey. 195 researchers are identified....... In (sub-)disciplinary terms, organization, strategy, corporate governance, and international business are the major areas of application of institutional economics ideas. In terms of countries, the EU strongholds are Holland, Denmark, UK, and Germany. There is apparently no or very little relevant...... research in Ireland, Portugal, Luxembourg and Greece. Based on the findings of the report, it seems warranted to characterize the EU research effort in the field as being rather dispersed and uncoordinated. Thus, there are no specialized journals, associations or PhD courses. This state of affairs...

  17. Social Capital And Economic Behavior Of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliawaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.

  18. BERCENI VILLAGE - A SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina IORGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural modernization aims at maintaining rural societies through occupational diversification that will improvequality of life and avoid rural exodus. It aims to acquire some features of the modern world such as those related totechnical, increased productivity, infrastructure, whereby rural community enriches its identity, acquiring newmeanings.This study is a close social-economical analysis of the countryside households of Berceni village. Berceniis in the southern county of Ilfov near Bucharest. It is based on the statistical data provided by National Institute ofStatistics. The data have been processed into the following indicators:age structure and gender, births and deaths,feminization, migration .Considering that human resources is the main factor in developing and moderinization ofrural space, this study is aimed to investigate as well, the posibility of diversifying inhabitants’ occupationsaccording to pshicologycal, social and economical resources.

  19. Ethics, Economic Organisation and the Social Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Sacconi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter introduces a notion of social/ethical norm that integrates its description as a self- sustaining regularity of behavior with the normative meanings of the statements by which a norm is formulated in the moral language. This definition is applied to organizational ethics where the main problem Ð abuse of authority - is identified with the help of a critical reading of the new-institutional economic theory of the firm. Given a game theoretical definition of an institution, it is th...

  20. Theoretical background of healthcare management in the conditions of social and economic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuldyakov V.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop fundamental basis of science based healthcare management in social and economic instability. Public health state (1998-2008, selected region was characterized by cardiovascular health parameters (Code IX, ICD-10. Systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Dynamic characteristics of major cardiovascular diseases in social and economic instability considered as a cause of a population system destabilization were reconstructed. Conclusion. Fundamentals of science based healthcare management in social and economic instability include long- and short-term prognosis of public health characteristics as the result of multifactor external influences on cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

  1. Economic analysis of gradual "social exhaustion" of waste management capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Hideo; Nakayama, Hirofumi

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes to analyze the quantitative effects of a gradual physical and "social" exhaustion of a landfill site on an equilibrium waste management service. A gradual social exhaustion of a landfill is defined here as an upward shift of a "subjective factor" associated with the amount of waste, based on the plausible hypothesis that an individual will not accept excessive presence of landfilled waste. Physical exhaustion occurs when the absolute capacity of a landfill site decreases. The paper shows some numerical examples using specific functions and parameters, and proposes appropriate directions for three policy objectives: to decrease the equilibrium waste disposal, to increase the economic surplus of the individual and/or the waste management firm, and to lower the equilibrium collection fee. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Information flow between medical and social sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó

    2014-12-28

    In order to reveal impacts of natural and social sciences on each other, the authors examined connections between fields of medical and social sciences using a search for references and citations of scientific publication. 1. The largest affinity between the medical and social sciences was found between neurosciences and psychology, but there was a significant affinity between clinical sciences and general social sciences, as well. 2. The example of General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes" suggests that in the period 2001-2010 the share of references to social sciences was significantly increased. In the meantime, social science papers in the same topics contained references to Clinical Medicine papers in a constantly high percentage. 3. In the sample under study, the age distribution of social science papers in the references did not differ significantly from that of the other sources. 4. Share of references to social science papers was found to be extremely high among Hungarian General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes". This finding still requires clarification, nevertheless, since e.g. it was not supported by an institutional comparison including the largest Hungarian medical research university. 5. The intensity of the reference/citation mediated information flows between the Hungarian Medical Journal, Orvosi Hetilap and social sciences appears to be in accordance with the current international trends.

  3. EPA's Role in the United Nations Economic and Social Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) considers the world’s economic, social, and environmental challenges. ECOSOC is composed of subsidiary bodies, including the recently concluded Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).

  4. Anticipation in Law and Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores a particular aspect of the role of anticipation in social and legal processes. The program begins by recognizing that social interaction happens within a time-space manifold of events. This means that society functions in terms of events located on the plane of time and the situation of space. This means that social process is a dynamic. As an ancient philosopher put it, change is so ubiquitous that you cannot jump into the same river twice. Since we tend to look at social dynamics in a more static way, one major theorist reminds us that the stable in social process is a special case of the unstable. The article underscores a point that the anticipatory perspective is a ubiquitous part of social dynamics and change. Indeed, it is a critical component of social coexistence. To briefly illustrate, if the members of a governing group come into power, they will immediately have to anticipate the security needs, the economic needs, the educational needs, the health and well-being needs, the skill and labor needs, the food needs of the body politic, the requirements of effective family relationships, the requirements of morality and ethics and the needs of aesthetics. The paper provides a framework in which anticipation is used to predict the problems that emerge from the social process. The value of a social science that facilitates anticipation before problems occur provides opportunities on the time-space manifold of society to develop problem-solving strategies with a better chance of those strategies being successful. To utilize this approach, the authors provide the sophisticated model of social process developed by WAAS Fellows Lasswell and McDougal: Human beings pursue values through institutions based on resources. Using this model the authors provide a provisional map of the social process with key markers at points likely to generate important problems. The markers in the maps are as follows: participators

  5. Imaginative methodologies in the social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imaginative Methodologies develops, expands and challenges conventional social scientific methodology and language by way of literary, poetic and other alternative sources of inspiration. Sociologists, social workers, anthropologists, criminologists and psychologists all try to rethink, provoke...... and reignite social scientific methodology. Imaginative Methodologies challenges the mainstream social science methodological orthodoxy closely guarding the boundaries between the social sciences and the arts and humanities, pointing out that authors and artists are often engaged in projects parallel to those...... of the social sciences and vice versa, and that artistic and cultural productions today do not constitute a specialist field, but are integral to our social reality. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in the social sciences and across the arts and humanities working with questions...

  6. The Elgar companion to social economics : Second edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, John B.; Dolfsma, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    Social economics is a dynamic and growing field that emphasizes the key roles social values play in the economy and economic life. This second edition of the Elgar Companion to Social Economics revises all chapters from the first edition, and adds important new chapters to reflect the expansion and

  7. Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guides for Social Studies, English, Science, Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice

    These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…

  8. Economic and social distance: Perceived income inequality negatively predicts an interdependent self-construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ángel; Willis, Guillermo B; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa

    2017-07-03

    Previous research has shown that economic inequality influences how people are related with others. In this article, we suggest that perceived economic inequality influences self-construal. Specifically, we propose that higher economic inequality leads to an independent self-construal, whereas lower economic inequality leads to an interdependent self-construal. Correlational data from Studies 1a and 1b revealed that people who perceive lower levels of economic inequality tend to show higher levels of interdependent self-construal, even after controlling for social class. In Study 2, using an experimental design, we found that perceived high economic inequality leads to a more independent and less interdependent self-construal compared to the low economic inequality condition. These results expand the literature bridging the gap between a macro-social factor, such as economic inequality, and a micro-social factor, such as self-construal. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Obesity, social inequality and economic rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Thea; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kærgård, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic literature related to obesity and consumer decisions, pursuing the overall question, whether the current obesity epidemic and its social bias can be viewed as a result of rational consumption behaviour. We address a number of potential explanations based on consumers......' utility maximisation behaviour, which all may contribute to explain the ongoing rise in obesity prevalence in many western countries. In addition to standard neoclassical explanations of obesity, we discuss moral hazard aspects, the role of network externalities, self-control problems and habitual...... behaviour. We include all of these aspects of the individual weight decision in a unified theoretical framework and present existing empirical evidence for each effect. Based on our analysis, we discuss the different economic explanations and give suggestions for future research....

  10. MONEY ATTITUDES VS ECONOMIC SOCIALIZATION IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta KOWALCZYK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the attitudes people have towards money, analysed from an economic and psychological point of view. The article presents an overview of current knowledge on the issues of money attitudes, as well as derived own research derived. This research was designed in order to identify different types of money attitudes as well as their determinants. The study identified five dominant profiles and showed that the most popular is a rational approach, and second – it’s opposite - improvidence. The results have been faced with the most important economic socialization determinants identified during the literature review. The comparison proved to be important, e.g. in the form of receiving pocket money.

  11. GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMICAL-SOCIAL INFLUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization represents a myriad of processes of undeniable complexity and variable dynamics, which cover various society areas. It can depict various aspects of phenomenon, ideology, strategy, or all in one place. Globalization is with no doubt a complex concept that bears diverse significations which refer to many sides: the economical, the political, the cultural one etc. Most authors view as particularly important the economic side of globalization, while they seem to be looking over the political, social or cultural aspects of this phenomenon. Thus the optimists view contemporary globalization as a new phase in which all the world’s states are subjected to sanctions from the global market, while skeptics argue that the globalization phenomenon determines chain reactions, incontrollable here and there, in conditions of a present crisis, precisely through the interdependency between states.

  12. Specificity of economic and social nature tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabanjuk Oleg Vasil'evich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a number of factors specific to the tourism industry: a multiplier effect, a kind of method of generating working capital, specific "invisible exports", the factor most risky activities, the principle of direct and inverse transformation, and others. The data of experts of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO on tourism as an indicator of welfare. It is emphasized along with the economic function of tourism on the social dimension of tourism in its mass phenomenon. The paper highlights the main problems and shortcomings of tourism as a complex socio-economic system; analysis of theoretical approaches to periodization of tourism that reflects the genesis of approaches regarding the nature of tourism; The factors of external and internal tourism development, made their ranking to measure the relationship between the measurement periods allocated for tourism development using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

  13. International Conference on Data Science & Social Research

    CERN Document Server

    Amaturo, Enrica; Grassia, Maria; Aragona, Biagio; Marino, Marina

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume lays the groundwork for Social Data Science, addressing epistemological issues, methods, technologies, software and applications of data science in the social sciences. It presents data science techniques for the collection, analysis and use of both online and offline new (big) data in social research and related applications. Among others, the individual contributions cover topics like social media, learning analytics, clustering, statistical literacy, recurrence analysis and network analysis. Data science is a multidisciplinary approach based mainly on the methods of statistics and computer science, and its aim is to develop appropriate methodologies for forecasting and decision-making in response to an increasingly complex reality often characterized by large amounts of data (big data) of various types (numeric, ordinal and nominal variables, symbolic data, texts, images, data streams, multi-way data, social networks etc.) and from diverse sources. This book presents selected papers from...

  14. Social Media, Open Science, and Data Science Are Inextricably Linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, Bradley

    2017-12-20

    Should scientists use social media? Why practice open science? What is data science? Ten years ago, these phrases hardly existed. Now they are ubiquitous. Here I argue that these phenomena are inextricably linked and reflect similar underlying social and technological transformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...... of literature by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data set is available. The results indicate that trust affects...

  16. Social and macro economic impact of closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    1999-01-01

    The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

  17. 128 THE SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THE SOCIALLY OPPRESSED IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    subject to a series of rigorous testing, self-scrutiny and the verification of facts as ... the social sciences cannot be subject to such tests and verification. The social sciences ... until such a time when that hypothesis or theory is scrutinized and.

  18. About some problems of the modern economic scienc

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotov, A.

    2014-01-01

    It is given a critical analysis of definitions of such economic categories as economics, economy, relations of production and criticism of the views of some modern economists on the interrelation between science and theory, theory and political economy.

  19. Introduction to the Social Sciences: Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.; Spangehl, Stephen D.

    A competency-based, introductory social science course for college students is described. Objectives of the manual are twofold--first, to present the complete set of materials which have served as the basis of a one semester social sciences course at the University of Louisville over three years, and, second, to offer suggestions regarding…

  20. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  1. The Courts, Social Science, and School Desegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Betsy, Ed.; Hawley, Willis D., Ed.

    A conference on the courts, social science, and school desegregation attempted to clarify how social science research has been used and possibly misused in school desegregation litigation. The symposium issue addressed in this book is a product of that conference. First, the judicial evolution of the law of school desegregation from Brown V. the…

  2. Economic effect of applied nuclear-agricultural science in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaobing; Zhou Zhihong; Zhao Shoufeng

    1998-01-01

    The economic effect of applied nuclear-agricultural science for 40 years in China have been summarized, analyzed and appraised. The economic regularity and features which are followed by research-development-production in the field of applied nuclear agricultural science in China are explored according to the essential characteristics of economics for input-output ratio and the itself-features of nuclear agricultural science. Some propositions for promoting the development and the economic effect of the applied nuclear-agricultural science in China are also given

  3. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences

  4. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF CYBERCRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Ilievski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to highlight the main issues of developing countries regarding cybercrime and examine the possible link between weak economic development and escalating levels of cybercrime. The findings were established on the basis of literature review, comparative studies and the synthesis of findings. The existing sociological theories of crime are not limited to traditional crime and may be used for the interpretation of its cyber version. By analysing individual sociological theories and the results of empirical research, we found that social-economic factors, such as GDP per capita, unemployment and education, are closely related to the incidence of cybercrime in different countries. This enables us to conclude that the relatively poor economic development is one of the reasons contributing to a higher incidence of cybercrime in Eastern European countries. By taking into account factors of different nature, one could increase the understanding of cybercrime and the possibility of adopting and implementing reliable preventive measures. However, this paper strives not only to understand the factors related to cybercrime, but also to raise awareness, stimulate a proactive approach and develop preventive actions in the fight against cybercrime.

  5. When does "economic man" dominate social behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F; Fehr, Ernst

    2006-01-06

    The canonical model in economics considers people to be rational and self-regarding. However, much evidence challenges this view, raising the question of when "Economic Man" dominates the outcome of social interactions, and when bounded rationality or other-regarding preferences dominate. Here we show that strategic incentives are the key to answering this question. A minority of self-regarding individuals can trigger a "noncooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for the majority of other-regarding individuals to mimic the minority's behavior. Likewise, a minority of other-regarding individuals can generate a "cooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for a majority of self-regarding people to behave cooperatively. Similarly, in strategic games, aggregate outcomes can be either far from or close to Nash equilibrium if players with high degrees of strategic thinking mimic or erase the effects of others who do very little strategic thinking. Recently developed theories of other-regarding preferences and bounded rationality explain these findings and provide better predictions of actual aggregate behavior than does traditional economic theory.

  6. Corruption as a social-economic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejanović Radovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses corruption as a primarily socio-economic construction. This paper tests the hypothesis of corruption as a systemic problem. The system is (economic, political, legal the main source of corruption. There are, regarding to this, the system generators of corruption: state, property and market. They are the key institutions of society that are placed in a destructive political system, create corruption, which undermines the economic, political, legal and moral foundations of society. Corruption is the inevitable partner of administrative, bureaucratic, party, non-market societies, societies in which dominate monopoly on coercion and obligation (and the prohibition of coercion. Disorganized, monopolized markets and asymmetric information is also an important source of corruption. All this, in terms of the collective (public, government property, which is 'used as its own, and kept as others', on a system of vicious cycle, develop and rise corruption. Therefore, the system changes (reforms are necessary at all levels of government, and introduction of ethical standards in order to eradicate the causes of this social scourge.

  7. A data discovery index for the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Thomas; Klas, Claus-Peter; Hausstein, Brigitte

    2018-04-10

    This paper describes a novel search index for social and economic research data, one that enables users to search up-to-date references for data holdings in these disciplines. The index can be used for comparative analysis of publication of datasets in different areas of social science. The core of the index is the da|ra registration agency's database for social and economic data, which contains high-quality searchable metadata from registered data publishers. Research data's metadata records are harvested from data providers around the world and included in the index. In this paper, we describe the currently available indices on social science datasets and their shortcomings. Next, we describe the motivation behind and the purpose for the data discovery index as a dedicated and curated platform for finding social science research data and gesisDataSearch, its user interface. Further, we explain the harvesting, filtering and indexing procedure and give usage instructions for the dataset index. Lastly, we show that the index is currently the most comprehensive and most accessible collection of social science data descriptions available.

  8. When Child Development Meets Economic Game Theory: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Investigating Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Keller, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not…

  9. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  10. Applied modelling and computing in social science

    CERN Document Server

    Povh, Janez

    2015-01-01

    In social science outstanding results are yielded by advanced simulation methods, based on state of the art software technologies and an appropriate combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This book presents examples of successful applications of modelling and computing in social science: business and logistic process simulation and optimization, deeper knowledge extractions from big data, better understanding and predicting of social behaviour and modelling health and environment changes.

  11. Applied Computational Mathematics in Social Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Damaceanu, Romulus-Catalin

    2010-01-01

    Applied Computational Mathematics in Social Sciences adopts a modern scientific approach that combines knowledge from mathematical modeling with various aspects of social science. Special algorithms can be created to simulate an artificial society and a detailed analysis can subsequently be used to project social realities. This Ebook specifically deals with computations using the NetLogo platform, and is intended for researchers interested in advanced human geography and mathematical modeling studies.

  12. Economic development evaluation based on science and patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Bojana; Lalic, Bojan; Milovančević, Miloš; Simeunović, Nenad; Marković, Dusan

    2017-09-01

    Economic development could be achieved through many factors. Science and technology factors could influence economic development drastically. Therefore the main aim in this study was to apply computational intelligence methodology, artificial neural network approach, for economic development estimation based on different science and technology factors. Since economic analyzing could be very challenging task because of high nonlinearity, in this study was applied computational intelligence methodology, artificial neural network approach, to estimate the economic development based on different science and technology factors. As economic development measure, gross domestic product (GDP) was used. As the science and technology factors, patents in different field were used. It was found that the patents in electrical engineering field have the highest influence on the economic development or the GDP.

  13. Trimodernism and Social Sciences: A Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel C.

    2012-01-01

    The issues of premodern, modern, and postmodern can often confuse the social scientists because so much is drawn from modernism as the foundation of the social methodologies. Briefly, the author would like to differentiate the three modernism philosophies and indicate how a coalition of the three may apply to social sciences.

  14. Social Work Science and Knowledge Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…

  15. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  16. SOCIAL PROGRESS AND ECONOMIC PROJECTS FOR DISADVANTAGED GROUPS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Virgil BALUTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the social progress, social politics, social law and successful projects applicable to the some disadvantaged groups: Roma people and woman. Inclusion of Roma people is analysed from economic point of view. The economic problems of equality by gender is presented in terms of labour rate and other relevant ratio. For Roma people the focus of analyse is also on labour involvement. The chapters of the communication are: introduction, literature review ( state of art in the field of social progress, theoretical background, tools for social progress in EU, economic inclusion of Roma population, economic equality by gender, conclusions.

  17. "The only disinterested source of funds": Embedded science, lobbying, and the NSF’s patronage of social science in the 1980s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiding, T.; Mata, T.

    2010-01-01

    Research in the social sciences received generous patronage in the late 1960s and early 1970s when social problems were particularly severe and when social sciences were seen as creating social and economic benefits. That generosity ended in the late 1970s. This essay explores the various ways by

  18. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  19. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  20. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-07-01

    In every society there is violation which implies its citizen not get proper social right, economical right and cultural right. Proper implementation and adoption of judicial enforcement can reduce this violation rate and established social peace. Step mentioned in the above might not perfect but it might be small starting and ensure social, culture & economical right for the people living in the society.

  1. SOCIAL BALANCE - SUMMARY DOCUMENT AND REPORTING ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the annual social reports that have as main objective the good information of users of both the internal and external users of accounting information reported. In economic, financial reports along with reports of social attract itself an end, equally profitable and moral, individual and social welfare bringing. Social Balance is an instrument of human resource management information, retrospective summary that aims to satisfy the social information of employees and highlight the social resources of the economic entity and use, in order to know the case where the entity is economic profit or loss realized.

  2. An emerging action science of social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  3. Malnutrition in elderly: social and economic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, L M; Scardella, P; Piombo, L; Neri, B; Asprino, R; Proietti, A R; Carcaterra, S; Cava, E; Cataldi, S; Cucinotta, D; Di Bella, G; Barbagallo, M; Morrone, A

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition occurs frequently in the frailest groups of the population, especially in people who are on a low income and elderly subjects, overall if they are institutionalized. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in a sample of elderly people living in different settings and to identify the determinants of malnutrition. A total of 718 subjects, 472 females (F) and 246 males (M), were recruited from nursing homes or were free living in three different regions in Italy. Nutritional status, depression, social, functional and cognitive status, were evaluated. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), a high prevalence of malnutrition was found out in both genders: 26% of F and 16.3% of M were classified as being malnourished (MNAshop, prepare and cook meals because of a low income, distance from markets or supermarkets as well as impossibility to drive the car or to use public transportation. This study confirms the necessity to routinely perform nutritional status evaluation in elderly subjects, to carry out training courses for health workers (doctors, nurses, psychologists, dietitians), to implement nutritional education of the geriatric population, to develop tools and guidelines for health workers and caregivers, to identify and reduce clinical, functional, social or economic risk factors for malnutrition.

  4. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues.

  5. Employment & the Unity of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Employment and the unity of social sciences are discussed. The paper argues that employment is the simplest and the best indicator of human-centered sustainable and secure development.

  6. The Social Science of Carl von Clausewitz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klinger, Janeen

    2006-01-01

    .... At the risk of adding to the veritable cottage industry of distortion, this article attempts to add conceptual clarity by demonstrating that Clausewitz was formulating a social science approach...

  7. Herbert A. Simon: Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Thomas H

    2003-09-01

    In 1978, Herbert A. Simon won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, the same Nobel won by Daniel Kahneman in 2002. Simon's work in fact paved the way for Kahneman's Nobel. Although trained in political science and economics rather than psychology, Simon applied psychological ideas to economic theorizing. Classical and neoclassical economic theories assume that people are perfectly rational and strive to optimize economic outcomes. Simon argued that human rationality is constrained, not perfect, and that people seek satisfactory rather than ideal outcomes. Despite his Nobel, Simon felt isolated in economics and ultimately moved into psychology. Nevertheless, his ideas percolated through the economic community, so that Kahneman, whose research advanced Simon's broad perspective, could be the psychologist who won the Nobel in economics.

  8. Identity economics and the brain: uncovering the mechanisms of social conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettel, Scott A.; Kranton, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Social contexts can have dramatic effects on decisions. When individuals recognize each other as coming from the same social group, they can coordinate their actions towards a common goal. Conversely, information about group differences can lead to conflicts both economic and physical. Understanding how social information shapes decision processes is now a core goal both of behavioural economics and neuroeconomics. Here, we describe the foundations for research that combines the theoretical framework from identity economics with the experimental methods of neuroscience. Research at this intersection would fill important gaps in the literature not addressed by current approaches in either of these disciplines, nor within social neuroscience, psychology or other fields. We set forth a simple taxonomy of social contexts based on the information content they provide. And, we highlight the key questions that would be addressed by a new ‘identity neuroeconomics’. Such research could serve as an important and novel link between the social and natural sciences. PMID:22271784

  9. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Subhash; Reidpath, Daniel; Allotey, Pascale

    2011-01-06

    The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39%) were social science related while 41 projects (61%) were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million) went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  10. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. Method A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39% were social science related while 41 projects (61% were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. Conclusion The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  11. Scientific Competencies in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…

  12. The Institutional System of Economic Agents’ Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Elena, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it was made an attempt to analyse the main characteristics of the institutional system of economic agents social responsibility. The institutional system can be described as a complex of norms, rules, regulations and enforcement mechanisms in the context of interactions and communications of economic agents. The institutional nature of social responsibility allow to solve social dilemmas through the internalization of social responsibility norms and creating social value orientations, which are determine the prosocial behaviour of economic agents. The institutional system of social responsibility was described from the methodological institutionalism point of view. Analysing this phenomenon we are required to develop research on the objects of this system (norms, regulations, behaviour, on the subjects of this system (persons, business, government and on the institutional mechanisms (internalization of social responsibility norms, promoting prosocial behaviour, adaptation and transformation of the social responsibility norms aimed to ensure the understanding of origin and significance of social responsibility for modern society.

  13. A new foundation for the social sciences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of John Searle’s philosophy of society is to provide a foundation for the social sciences. Arguing that the study of social reality needs to be based on a philosophy of language, Searle claims that sociology has little to offer, since no sociologist ever took language seriously. Attacking...

  14. Social Capital and Economic Development: A Neighborhood Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hanka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sean Safford’s 2009 book Why the Garden Club Couldn’t Save Youngstown introduces a revolutionary idea that much of a community’s economic resilience is tied to the social capital that exists within it. Recent research suggests that social capital not only benefits those who develop it, but it can serve as a source of economic development in the communities in which it arises. Past quantitative research on the economic benefit of social capital has only examined the city or higher levels of aggregation. This study measures social capital in three diverse socioeconomic neighborhoods to better understand how social capital can serve as a tool for economic development. An ordered probit regression model was developed to examine how individual and neighborhood levels of social capital benefit households within these communities. Moreover, this study addresses how differences in social capital across neighborhoods are explained by both individual and neighborhood characteristics.

  15. Science and the economic crisis impact on science, lessons from science

    CERN Document Server

    Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book not only explores the ways in which the economic crisis and associated austerity policies have adversely impacted the physical and human infrastructure and conduct of scientific research, but also considers how science can help us to understand the crisis and provide original solutions. Starting with a detailed but accessible analysis of the scientific method and the nature of scientific prediction, the book proceeds to address the failure to forecast the economic crisis and the origins of the continuing inertia in economic policy and theory. Attention is drawn in particular to the shortcomings of neoclassical economics in terms of its description of the economic system as being mechanical in nature and characterized by equilibrium. This perspective mirrors the limitations and outdated ideas of nineteenth century physics, which the book contrasts with the insights offered by modern physics. The impact of neoliberal ideologies on scientific research is also discussed in detail, highlighting their sti...

  16. Articulating social science in the wild of global natures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Building on multisited ethnographic case studies, this paper seeks to contrastively compare the demonstration and articulation formats of two social science expert cultures—economics and anthropology—enrolled ‘in the wild’ of transnational environmental politics. How, the paper asks, do different......) similarities, related to credible expert demonstrations in transnational environmental contexts. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of this claim for STS self-reflection on its politics of methods....

  17. Manufacturing Consistency: Social Science, Rhetoric and Chomsky’s Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Edgley, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Chomsky’s critique of US foreign policy – and the media coverage it generates – has significant theoretical merit, and deserves to be of considerable interest within the social sciences. His analysis rests upon two distinctive positions. First, he claims that capitalism only survives because of the role played by the state, legislatively and administratively, controversially adding that it operates as an economic agent providing welfare for the rich. While the political and corporate elite ca...

  18. On the almost inconceivable misunderstandings concerning the subject of value-free social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald

    2013-12-01

    A value judgment says what is good or bad, and value-free social science simply means social science free of value judgments. Yet many sociologists regard value-free social science as undesirable or impossible and readily make value judgments in the name of sociology. Often they display confusion about such matters as the meaning of value-free social science, value judgments internal and external to social science, value judgments as a subject of social science, the relevance of objectivity for value-free social science, and the difference between the human significance of social science and value-free social science. But why so many sociologists are so value-involved - and generally so unscientific - is sociologically understandable: The closest and most distant subjects attract the least scientific ideas. And during the past century sociologists have become increasingly close to their human subject. The debate about value-free social science is also part of an epistemological counterrevolution of humanists (including many sociologists) against the more scientific social scientists who invaded and threatened to expropriate the human subject during the past century. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  19. Big Data and historical social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bearman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Big Data” can revolutionize historical social science if it arises from substantively important contexts and is oriented towards answering substantively important questions. Such data may be especially important for answering previously largely intractable questions about the timing and sequencing of events, and of event boundaries. That said, “Big Data” makes no difference for social scientists and historians whose accounts rest on narrative sentences. Since such accounts are the norm, the effects of Big Data on the practice of historical social science may be more limited than one might wish.

  20. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    Partial Contents: Science and Technology Policy, Corporate Alliances, Corporate Strategies, East West Relations, Europe Asia Relations, Infrastruction, Budget, Semiconductors, Strategy, Government, Industrial Policy...

  1. Have Economic Educators Embraced Social Media as a Teaching Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahrani, Abdullah; Patel, Darshak; Sheridan, Brandon J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the results of a study of the perceptions of a national sample of economics faculty members from various institutions regarding the use of social media as a teaching tool in and out of the economics classroom. In the past few years, social media has become globally popular, and its use is ubiquitous among…

  2. Social interactions for economic value? A marketing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vock, M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores emerging social interactions in relation to economic value, more specifically how social interactions at the organizational and individual levels may affect individual consumers and companies economically as well. To help shed light on this broad theme, it focuses on two

  3. Inferring personal economic status from social network location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-05-01

    It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.

  4. Management Information, Decision Sciences, and Financial Economics : a connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper provides a brief review of the connecting literature in management information, decision sciences, and financial economics, and discusses some research that is related to the three cognate disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent

  5. Strengthening mathematics, science and economic policy capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Afghanistan and Central Asia face serious climate and economic challenges. ... focus on advancing women scientists; and build the capacity of officials and civil ... management through that university's Mountain Societies Research Institute.

  6. Citing Journal Articles in Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Jamali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations of scholarly journal articles are good indicators for the societal impact of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. An existing categorization scheme was used and modified inductively. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty-one (22.68% of all journals cited were from the category of social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy-five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited was 5.8 years. The most frequent (38, 12.67% motivation was to ‘neutrally presenting details of a study’. Overall, social science blogs were rather subject-oriented than article oriented. This means a considerable number of blog posts were not driven simply by writing about an article, instead bloggers tend to write about their subject of interest and use references to support their argument. The study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact.

  7. Equity in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enbar, M.

    1984-01-01

    This review suggests that many social scientists and philosophers are increasingly sensitive to the ethical and moral dimensions of analytic endeavors and of normative policymaking, in particular to the fact that no purely technical fix exists for problems whose solutions impinge upon the political process. The presence of equity issues widens the scope of the decision making process, requiring the consideration of a broader field of options and consequences and an awareness of the institutional and social fabrics from which solutions to previous analogous problems were fashioned. Current policy must reflect greater sensitivity to the distributional outcomes of major collective decisions and to the moral and ethical foundations which underlie them. 85 references

  8. [Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulz, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology. Thought experiments are an important element in Ernst Mach's epistemology: They facilitate amplifying our knowledge by experimenting with thoughts; they thus exceed the empirical experience and suspend the quest for immediate utility. In an economical perspective, Mach suggested that thought experiments depended on the production of an economic surplus based on the division of labor relieving the struggle for survival of the individual. Thus, as frequently emphasized, in Mach's epistemology, not only the 'economy of thought' is an important feature; instead, also the socioeconomic conditions of science play a decisive role. The paper discusses the mental and social economic aspects of experimental thinking in Mach's epistemology and examines those within the contemporary evolutionary, physiological, and economic contexts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Social Determinants of Economic Behavior of Older Adults in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Youssim, Iaroslav

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the growing economic literature which studies effects of social and cultural variables on economic behavior of older adults in Europe. Landes, cited in Guiso et al. (2006), states that "if we learn anything from the history of economic development, it is that culture makes all the difference” (p. 29). Indeed, in the recent years economists put an effort to apply their analytical frameworks and empirical tools to study the role of culture on economic outcomes (Gu...

  10. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future......This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...

  11. Bonding and Bridging Social Capital and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Smulders, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we develop a formal model of economic growth and two types of social capital. Following extant literature, we model social capital as participation in two types of social networks: first, closed networks of family and friends, and, second, open networks that bridge different

  12. Economics through Inquiry: Creating Social Businesses in Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2015-01-01

    The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework from the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS) features an inquiry approach to teaching K-12 social studies in which social studies standards are organized into an "inquiry arc." Inquiry in elementary economics is often underused in practice (Laney 2001). This study describes how a…

  13. EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OR ECONOMIC HANDICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovitu Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Corporative social responsibility” (CSR represents equally a very actual debate, but also an appraisal criteria of the dynamic of eco-social integration quality process at European level. Especially that the protection need is demanded by the current economic crisis. This concept is meant to combine the position, attitude and behaviour of the trade-unions with the interests of employer’s organisations in search of possible influential mechanisms of the competitive advantage at European level. Due to the current economic crisis, the implications on the labour force market are causing an explainable anxiety. The attention of the decision takers is oriented towards joining the objectives “social well being with economic well being” in view of an expected economic come back. This approach proves a significant change at the level of economic and social policies within the European Union.

  14. Science and society test VI: Energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1982-01-01

    Simple numerical estimates are developed in order to quantify a variety of energy economics issues. The Verhulst equation, which considers the effect of finite resources on petroleum production, is modified to take into account supply and demand economics. Numerical and analytical solutions to these differential equations are presented in terms of supply and demand elasticity functions, various finite resources, and the rate of increase in fuel costs. The indirect cost per barrel of imported oil from OPEC is shown to be about the same as the direct cost. These effects, as well as those of discounted benefits and deregulation, are used in a calculation of payback periods for various energy conserving devices. A phenomenological model for market penetration is developed along with the factors for future energy growth rates. A brief analysis of the economic returns of the ''house doctor'' program to reprofit houses for energy conservation is presented.

  15. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour ...

  16. Noblesse oblige? Social status and economic inequality maintenance among politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats - measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender - was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered.

  17. Social capital, economics, and health: new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T

    2008-10-01

    In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.

  18. Economic and social demands for coastal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polome, Philippe; Marzetti, S.; van der Veen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present methods and examples of economic valuation in the framework of cost–benefit analysis of coastal defense schemes. We summarize the concepts of value in economics and their application to coastal erosion defense. We describe the results of an original benefit

  19. Debate on science and technology promotion for overcoming economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This book records debate point and topic presentation of debate on science and technology promotion for overcoming economic difficulties which lists opening greeting, topic presentation such as innovation of national science technology system, sufficient supply and demand of science and engineering personnel, invigoration of technology research of corporation and general debate. This debate was held by the Policy Board of democratic and liberal party on 22 May 1990 in Press center.

  20. Social and Economic Influences in Curriculum Change in Japan: Case History of Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yasuo

    1981-01-01

    Surveys social, economic and environmental characteristics of Japan in the 1960s and 1970s and describes their influence on curriculum changes in secondary science education. Discusses Japanese attitudes towards nature as a foundation for environmental education, the impact of western culture on this attitude, and the future of environmental…

  1. Social and economic aspects of radioactive waste disposal: considerations for institutional management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Board on Radioactive Waste Management; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1984-01-01

    ... for Institutional Management Panel on Social and Economic Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management Board on Radioactive Waste Management Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1984 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative ...

  2. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

  3. Regression analysis for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A

    2010-01-01

    The book provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of both SAS and Stata "side-by-side" and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set and course exercises in which students can choose their own research questions and data set.

  4. Integration of Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised

  5. Social sciences via network analysis and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanduc, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    In recent years information and communication technologies have gained significant importance in the social sciences. Because there is such rapid growth of knowledge, methods and computer infrastructure, research can now seamlessly connect interdisciplinary fields such as business process management, data processing and mathematics. This study presents some of the latest results, practices and state-of-the-art approaches in network analysis, machine learning, data mining, data clustering and classifications in the contents of social sciences. It also covers various real-life examples such as t

  6. Waiting for the new Nobel laureate(s in economic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the start in 1901, with the exception of the war years, the Nobel Prizes have always been awarded on the 10th of December, to mark the day of Alfred Nobel's demise. The exception is the prize for achievements in economic sciences which only started to be awarded in 1969. Since 1995 the Prize in Economic Sciences has been defined as the Prize in Social Sciences, so that the other recognized scientists in these fields, such as political sciences, psychology and sociology, could be awarded. Moreover, it was established that the Prize can be divided among no more than three winners. The Prize in Economic Sciences has been awarded to the total of 76 scientists, most of which, i.e. 52 of them, were the citizens of the USA. The largest number of laureates, i.e. twelve, came from the University of Chicago, six of them from Princeton, and five from Berkley. It was only once, in 2009, that the Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to a woman - Elinor Ostrom (1933-2012 from the USA, together with Oliver Williamson. The average age of the Nobel Prize winners is about 60 years. The oldest laureate to have ever won the prize was Leonid Hurwicz, who received the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 2007 at the age of 90.

  7. On the Problematic State of Economic 'Science'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-08

    Jun 8, 2014 ... As science advanced, the observed behaviour of humans also became a fit subject ...... behaviour of the gas as a whole that determines the gas laws. .... strongly endorses the free flow of capital but not the free flow of labour,.

  8. Social and economic aspects of radioactive waste disposal: considerations for institutional management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of nuclear waste disposal has always been recognized as one that is as much political as it is technical. This could explain why the National Academy of Science is just now showing interest in the social and economic aspects of nuclear waste disposal. It has just now issued a report called Social Aspects of Radioactive Waste Disposal: Considerations for Industrial Management. This article is a critical review of the content of this report

  9. Social science in a stem cell laboratory: what happened when social and life sciences met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.

  10. Social Capital, Creative Destruction and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Dulleck, Uwe; Frijters, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for the role of social capital in the political economy of innovation, growth and reform, with illustrations from developing and transition countries. It identifies separate but related roles for the individual and communal interpretations of social

  11. The Economic Causes and Consequences of Social Instability in China

    OpenAIRE

    John Knight

    2012-01-01

    Social instability is a concept that economists rarely analyse, and yet it can lurk behind much economic policy-making. China’s leadership has often publicly expressed its concerns to avoid ‘social instability’. It is viewed as a threat both to the political order and to the continued rapid growth of the economy. This threat to growth in turn endangers the maintenance of social stability. This paper examines the likely economic determinants of social instability, using both surveys and ...

  12. The unity of science and economics a new foundation of economic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new economic theory developed from physical and biological principles. It explains how technology, social systems and economic values are intimately related to resources. Many people have recognized that mainstream (neoclassical) economic theories are not consistent with physical laws and often not consistent with empirical patterns, but most feel that economic activities are too complex to be described by a simple and coherent mathematical theory. While social systems are indeed complex, all life systems, including social systems, satisfy two principles. First, all systems need to extract resources from the external environment to compensate for their consumption. Second, for a system to be viable, the amount of resource extraction has to be no less than the level of consumption. From these two principles, we derive a quantitative theory of major factors in economic activities, such as fixed cost, variable cost, discount rate, uncertainty and duration. The mathematical theory enables us ...

  13. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  14. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  15. Globalisation and Social Sciences in Africa | Nieftagodien ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation and Social Sciences in Africa. Noor Nieftagodien. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · FAQ's · News · AJOL jobs · More about AJOL ...

  16. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  17. Virtual Games in Social Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose M. Cuenca; Caceres, Myriam J. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The new technologies make the appearance of highly motivating and dynamic games with different levels of interaction possible, in which large amounts of data, information, procedures and values are included which are intimately bound with the social sciences. We set out from the hypothesis that videogames may become interesting resources for their…

  18. Pedagogical Relationship in Secondary Social Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Brian James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates two high school social science classrooms in order to better understand the pedagogical relationships among teachers, students, and disciplinary content, and how teachers can influence students' opportunities to learn disciplinary literacy. Drawing on conceptual resources from sociocultural theories of learning and…

  19. Michael Polanyi and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Maben Walter

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author attempts three things: (a) to describe the main beliefs of the "continental empiricist" epistemology that dominated the study of the social sciences in North America since the mid 1930s; (b) to speak of the influence of this epistemology on the dominant or mainstream school in the study of politics; and (c) to…

  20. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic and Social Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The foundation aims to build capacity in economic and social policy analysis and development management. Its work ... -increase research staff retention rates ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  1. Social influences on risk attitudes : Applications in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; Vieider, F.M.; Roeser, S.; Hillerbrand, R.; Sandin, P.; Peterson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Economic research on risk attitudes has traditionally focused on individual decision-making issues, without any consideration for potential social influences on preferences. This has been changing rapidly over the last years, with economists often taking inspiration from earlier psychological

  2. DETERMINATION OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUCCESS OF PRODUCTS:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESEN GÜRBÜZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An Empirical Investigation on the Turkish Food Industry Altough there are studies which evaulate and explain the importance of environmental, social and economic success of a product, it is important to evaluate the considerable success of these three variables together. This paper aims to evaluate economic, social and environmental success of a product all together (but not seperatly by conducting a research.  In this paper for some sample firms operating in the Turkish Food Industry, the variables, which effect the products’ economic, social and enviromental successes, are defined theoretically and the research results are explained investigating if there is a relationship between enviromental, social, economic success criteria and firm size, export, import use of intermediary.

  3. Geography оf Economic Science: Problem Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Demyanenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to geography of economic science, which is, according to the authors, a kind of a «gray zone», where concepts and methods of science of science, economic geography and economy cross. The authors proceeded from the following methodological prerequisites: 1 the production of economic knowledge is the activity, the scope and the results of which can be measured fairly accurately; 2 the structure of economic science can be presented not only as a sectoral, thematic, institutional, but also as a spatial. As an information base of research the authors used E-library resources which are relevant to the authors that have published the results of studies in Economics and related disciplines in the scientific journals. At the initial stage of the research, the authors focused on the economists who are employees of scientific research organizations (academic institutions, universities and research institutes that are located within the Russian Far East, as well as researchers from other regions of Russia, who have published articles in the Far Eastern scientific journals. Preliminary results of the study show following: 1 the high level of A.N. Demyanenko, N.A. Demyanenko PE No. 1 2014 territorial concentration (85% of all publications belongs to research organizations of Khabarovsk and Vladivostok; 2 the high level of information concentration (up to 90% of all publications belongs to Far Eastern journals. Mostly this is due to the fragmentation of economic scientific community

  4. PUBLIC SECTOR - CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS, IMPLICATIONS IN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The public economy, branch of economic science analyses the state, as economic actor; its field of research interacts with investigations of other areas of economic science (monetary, international trade, market organization etc.. The state has experienced various stages of manifestation of its role in the economy, against the changes in society, which led to either an increase in its intervention, to regulate market phenomena, the recovery of economic activity in times of crisis, or to its decline against the modernization of the economies of industrialized countries, the increase of the role of entrepreneurs, technological progress. Thus, the development of economic science, changes in economic area, the emergence of capitalism, of industrialization in the nineteenth century, especially the second half, outlined a new role towards state intervention in economic life; in the context of new economic developments of the last decades of the twentieth century, the interventionist role of the state has diminished, the state giving up certain activities, in return for initiating other actions (privatization, reducing state monopoly, deregulation.nThe paper presents conceptual elements referring to public sector, peculiarities that distinguish it from the private sector, as well as issues about the state implication in the economic life, in different periods of evolution of society.

  5. Using Social Media to Communicate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, W.

    2017-12-01

    Social media (SM) is a popular and ubiquitous communication method and as such offers scientists an opportunity to directly interface with the public, improve public perception of science and scientists, and combat the growing tide of scientific misunderstanding and misinformation. It's become increasingly critical for scientists to use their voice and influence to communicate science and address misinformation. More than 60% of US adults get news from SM (1) but studies find that scientists infrequently post about science (2), missing a rich opportunity to combat scientific disinformation. While it may seem like a futile exercise to educate over SM, even passive exposure to new information can change public perceptions and behavior (3). Additionally, scientists, especially early career scientists, have social networks populated largely by non-scientists (2), allowing them an opportunity to speak to an audience that already trusts and values their scientific judgment. Importantly, these networks are often ideologically and politically diverse (4). However, science communication isn't as simple as a presentation of facts, and effective science communication via SM requires both SM competence and science communication proficiency. Thus, a discussion of best practices for both topics would benefit the scientific community. The range of potential topics for discussion is broad and could include scientific storytelling, empathetic communication, crafting a message, using SM to "humanize science", tips and tricks for broad SM information dissemination and how to run an effective SM campaign. (1) Gottfried J, Shearer E. New use across social media platforms: Pew Research Center; 2016. Available from: http://www.journalism.org/2016/05/26/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2016/. (2) McClain, Craig R., Practices and promises of Facebook for science outreach:Becoming a "Nerd of Trust". PLOS Biology 15(6). 2017; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2002020(3) Messing S

  6. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana CHINDRIS-VASIOIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The confrontation between third millennium will not be between civilizations but between forces of globalization and global agents. Already live in a global economy, context in which it is necessary to understand by globalization the modernization process of life world by spreading economic means of production and communication at world level. Globalization produces a capitalism healthy whereas stimulates competition beneficial between an ever-increasing number of companies. Economic and political unification under the global financial corporate banner is accompanied by mixing spiritual values and return unique realm. After internationalism political correctness (multiculturalism, feminism, ecological radically administered Western individualism typical bruising, it seems that the ground is ready for the big toe-in. Globalization can be seen as a crucial stage of expansion and economic interdependence. This stage is completing a process of aggregation of relatively autonomous local economies whose element mainly in the past has been constant widening of the space for the exchange of each economic savings. Economic renewal based on knowledge of known but a contrary geospatial evolution. Advances in knowledge are favored and intimately linked to the possibility of communication. So, they are favored by communication infrastructure and communication technologies.

  7. Numerical methods in physical and economic sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lions, J.L.; Marchouk, G.I.

    1974-01-01

    This book is the first of a series to be published simultaneously in French and Russian. Some results obtained in the framework of an agreement of French-Soviet scientific collaboration in the field of the information processing are exposed. In the first part, the iterative methods for solving linear systems are studied with new methods which are compared to already known methods. Iterative methods of minimization of quadratic functionals are then studied. In the second part, the optimization problems with one or many criteria, issued from Physics and Economics problems are considered and splitting and decentralizing methods systematically studied [fr

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-24

    will be coordinated with other programmes such as " Agriculture and Agro-Industry" and "Industrial and Materials Technology (BRITE/EURAM [Bright...programme. Ethics Area 4: Research on Biomedical Ethics This will include legislation on bioethics and current ethics; the social impact of the...programme (i.e., any technological risks); assessing bioethical aspects of other EC R&D programmes; and establishing a European "ethical observatory

  9. The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Anno, Roberto; Rayna, Thierry; Solomon, O. Helen

    2015-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This article attempts to investigate the impact of social media (SM) on economic growth. Using information obtained from memberships to social networks, we find that SM has a negative and significant impact on economic growth. This provides evidence in favour of our hypothesis that SM increases the search costs for information and also increase...

  10. Areva 2006 figures - Economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the 2006 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation, stakeholder relations, local economic development, Financial performance; 2 - Commitment to employees: Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, employees and training; 3 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 4 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  11. On the Governance of Social Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nørreklit, Hanne; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of social science research is conducted within public or semi-public institutions, such as universities. Over the past decades, these institutions have experienced substantial changes in governance structures and an increased focus on performance contracts. Obviously, the new...... structures do not enter into a governance vacuum but replace existing profession-based governance structures. The present paper has a two-fold purpose. First, we map the key features and problems of a profession-based governance system focussing on principal-agent issues and motivational drivers. Second, we...... study the implications of the current changes in the social science research landscape along with central aspects of mechanism design, validity, employee motivation as well as the ability to establish socially optimal resource allocations. We identify a number of potential problems that may come along...

  12. Rural science education as social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2017-03-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  13. Social representations of science and gender in Science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Heerdt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Social Representations (SR of teachers regarding the Nature of Science (NoS, gender issues in society, Science and in the teaching context. The theoretical approach is Moscovici’s SR associated to NoS discussions, Science feminist theories and Teaching of Science. A number of twenty-two teachers were part of this research. Data were collected through the filmic record. The lexical analysis was performed using the Alceste software. Four classes were formed: NoS, Gender and women in Science, Gender and teaching context, and Gender and society. In the areas of the teachers’ education, it was not possible to find significant differences in SR. Through empirical data, the distinct argumentation of men and women is noticed. The SR of men, naturalized, discriminatory and of gender issue denial in society and Science, is more forceful than of women. It is necessary, in the initial and continued education, the problematization of gender issues in Science.

  14. The Impact of Depression on Social Economic Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlé, K.M.; Allen, J.J.B.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in social economic decision making has been increasingly recognized, the impact of mood disorders, such as depression, on such decisions has been surprisingly neglected. To address this gap, 15 depressed and 23 nondepressed individuals completed a well-known economic

  15. Indigenous social and economic structure in precolonial Idanreland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-colonial Idanre was built on household farming, and reciprocal economic system among family members, age group and joint communal mode of production. Economic system in precolonial Idanre was therefore, conducted with an eye on widening social af nity, inclusive development and tightening cultural bond ...

  16. Science identity possibilities: a look into Blackness, masculinities, and economic power relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari

    2018-02-01

    This forum paper dialogues with Sheron Mark's A bit of both science and economics: a non-traditional STEM identity narrative. In her paper, she discusses the development of a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) identity by a young African American male during an informal STEM for Social Justice Program. Here, the discussion focuses on Black masculinities, identity formation, and the role of science educators in making STEM fields a welcoming place for young Black men. Drawing from Mark's data and discussion, this paper is a dialogue between science identity possibilities in the United States and in Brazil when we look at the intersections of race, gender, and socioeconomic status. Using the shared colonial past of both countries a connection is established to address race relations within science education. The main argument in this paper is that racism can no longer be denied and dismissed by the science education community worldwide and that intersectional approaches are needed to face this issue.

  17. On the Problems of Using Mathematics in the Development of the Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Patrick

    In the first part of this paper, several important trends of mathematics in the social sciences since the end of World War II are reviewed. Among these are (1) decision theory, (2) the development of macroeconomics as it relates to economic theory and the economics of growth, (3) the general theory of measurement, (4) structural linguistics, and…

  18. Senator Fred Harris's National Social Science Foundation proposal: Reconsidering federal science policy, natural science-social science relations, and American liberalism during the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovey, Mark

    2012-03-01

    During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."

  19. SOCIAL LIMITS OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMICAL GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena and processes from the economical life have evolved with intensity and different results, determining the necessity of knowing the way in which the national economy evolves, as well as its dynamic approach. The existence and the dynamics of

  20. Problems of social and economic growth in the Kyrgyz Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article author explores the indirect influence of non-economic factors on the growth dynamics of the volume of GDP, including shows the effect of social problems on economic growth. It is proved that the existence of social problems have a negative impact on the pace of the economic dynamics of the country, due to the mutual dependence of key economic and non-economic factors of growth. On the one hand, the level of income of the population affects the purchasing power, which leads to the increase of the acceleration in economic growth. On the other hand, high levels of poverty and a deepening income inequality dictate political and social instability in society, which negatively affects the dynamics of economic growth. It was revealed that the feature of economic growth in the transitional economy is the negative impact of inflation and unemployment rates of economic dynamics, despite the fact that in most Western models, they are not considered as limiting growth factors.

  1. Roadmap to a Caring Economics: Beyond Capitalism and Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riane Eisler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our unprecedented technological, economic, and environmental challenges call for thinking that goes beyond capitalism and socialism, both of which were developed in early industrial times. This article outlines a caring economics or partnerism that supports not only human survival but also human development. It proposes a full-spectrum economic map and economic policies needed at this time when many jobs are being replaced by automation. It looks at issues generally ignored in the conversation about a new economics, such as intra-household resource allocation, the devaluation of women and the ‘feminine,’ and the view that caring for people, starting in early childhood, is merely reproductive rather than productive work. It examines economic systems in the larger context of societies orienting to either end of the domination-partnership social scale, showing the interaction between social values and economic priorities. It describes new metrics that, unlike GDP and GNP, demonstrate the economic value of caring for people and nature, and proposes other steps toward a caring economics as the basis for a more humane and sustainable future.

  2. Fisheries policy, research and the social sciences in Europe: Challenges for the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symes, D.; Hoefnagel, E.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite evidence of a broadening of the science base for European fisheries policy with the incorporation of an ecosystem approach and increasing use of economic modelling, the contribution of the social sciences to policy related research remains less conspicuous. Progress has occurred in the

  3. Economic Constitution, social democracy, innovation and economic culture of Basque Cooperativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Larrazabal Basañez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study of Constitutional Law, the author calls for more attention to be paid to the part in which almost all Constitutions set down economic models, the guiding principles of social and economic policy and economic and social rights. He makes this suggestion with a view to going beyond a formal democracy and moving towards a material democracy. For this purpose, he focuses on the values and economic culture of the cooperative movement and advocates inspiration in these values to innovate and search for a fairer economic and social model which will enable us to overcome the present crisis. Lastly, he poses some issues related to innovation in the specific contextof Basque cooperativism.Received: 06.07.2009Accepted: 08.07.2009

  4. Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubue, Anthony I.

    2001-01-01

    Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

  5. Broader context for social, economic, and cultural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Jonathan W. Long; Frank K. Lake; Susan. Charnley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter sets the context for the following sociocultural sections of the synthesis by providing information on the broader social, cultural, and economic patterns in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range. Demographic influences surrounding population change, including those accounted for through amenity migration, are examined. Social and cultural concerns...

  6. Trends and Issues: Social and Economic Context. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Chris, Comp.

    This document presents an outline of a number of social, economic, and demographic trends that influence the effectiveness of instruction and the social development of youth across the country. It contains numbers and statistics, recommendations, and implications, along with 30 references. The document covers trends in the following areas: (1)…

  7. Social and economic impact of nuclear electricity in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns a study of the social and economic impact of nuclear energy in the U.K., undertaken by an independent writer. Fears and risks; nuclear power is proven; cost comparisons; the nuclear industry; social impact and public relations; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of grain for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to noticeably and systematically assess ecological, economic and social effects of the grain for green project on county level, this study investigated the benefits of carbon sequestration to the soil of farmland-converted forestland (in 0 to 20 cm soil depth), the change in household income structure and social ...

  9. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

  10. Aging and Wisdom: Age-related changes in economic and social decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth eLim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a ‘phenomenon of decline’ and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: 1 prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations, 2 resolving social conflicts, 3 emotional homeostasis, 4 self-reflection, 5 dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly.

  11. Health, social and economic consequences of hypersomnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    with hypersomnia had significantly higher rates of health-related contact, medication use and socioeconomic cost. Furthermore, they had slightly lower employment rates, and those in employment had a lower income level than control subjects. The annual mean excess health-related cost including social transfers...... was 3,498 for patients with hypersomnia and 3,851 for their partners. The social and health-related consequences could be identified up to 11 years before the first diagnosis among both the patients and their partners and became more pronounced as the disease advanced. The health effects were......, including frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, medication, labour supply and social transfer payments were extracted from the national databases. A total of 2,855 national patients was compared to 11,382 controls. About 70 % of patients and controls were married or cohabiting. Patients...

  12. From scientific progress to economic growth the economics and the economy of science

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Frank

    2017-01-01

    he past few centuries have seen an enormous increase in living standards in many parts of the world and these economies have become more complex than ever before. At the same time, progress in science and technology has reached unprecedented heights, taking us far beyond the wildest dreams of a few generations ago. Questions as to how science, technology and the economy interact are pertinent and important ones, whose partial answers require a view "from across the fence" between disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the vast and varied field of the economics of science. It is a unique blend of an economic perspective on the way science works, what makes scientists tick, and a study of the impact of scientific and technological progress on economies and their growth. Whether it is about the speculative market of ideas or science and technology as engines of the economy, there is something here for economists, engineers and scientists alike.

  13. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  14. Social Responsibility and Economic Efficiency: aspects of estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of social responsibility of state and business in terms of effectiveness of social production system. In this perspective the traditional approaches to determining the effectiveness of the economic system were critically reviewed. Not only new approach to assessing the effectiveness being proposed in this paper, but also the link between effectiveness of public production system and social responsibility of core subjects is substantiated. Conventional approac...

  15. Education and Social Cohesion for Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Mark A.; Camilleri, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Relevant theoretical underpinnings suggest that higher education, continuous professional development and training provide numerous opportunities for societal advancement. This contribution posits that interventions in the realms of education can play a significant role in shaping key performance indicators for laudable social outcomes. It…

  16. Economic independence, labour law and social security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtmaat, H.M.T.; Kravaritou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This work is based on papers presented at a conference entitled "The Sex of Labour Law in Europe/Le Sexe du droit du travail en Europe", which was held at the European University Institute in Florence. The contributors argue that law in general, and especially social and labour law, is not asexual,

  17. Big Social Network Data and Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Can

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies have led to the rapid and effective growth of social networks. The amount of data produced by social networks has increased the value of the big data concept, which is one of the popular current phenomena. The immediate or unpredictable effects of a wide array of economic activities on large masses and the reactions to them can be measured by using social media platforms and big data methods. Thus, it would be extremely beneficial to analyze the harmful environmental and social impacts that are caused by unsustainable business applications. As social networks and big data are popular realms currently, their efficient use would be an important factor in sustainable economic development. Accurate analysis of people’s consumption habits and economic tendencies would provide significant advantages to companies. Moreover, unknown consumption factors that affect the economic preferences of individuals can be discovered and economic efficiency can be increased. This study shows that the numerous solution opportunities that are provided by social networks and big data have become significant tools in dynamic policy creation by companies and states, in solving problems related to women’s rights, the environment, and health.

  18. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  1. Fairness requires deliberation: The primacy of economic over social considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eHochman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  2. Fairness requires deliberation: the primacy of economic over social considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion) require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses. PMID:26106342

  3. Fairness requires deliberation: the primacy of economic over social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion) require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  4. New market actors: economic social movements and politicized consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Portilho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections on new market actors, and economic social movements in particular - that is, those in which actors build a new culture of political action that seeks to reappropriate the economy through their own values. Some examples of this are the movements organized around “solidarity economics”, fair trade, geographic indications, “slow food” and consumer organization. This interface of social movements and the market may be the most marked, differentiated and polemic trait of contemporary political mobilizations. Nonetheless, beyond economic social movements, this article simultaneously emphasizes and problematizes political action within the sphere of individual consumption, that is, that which has been referred to as “political consumption”. Keywords: economic social movements, consumer movements, political consumption.

  5. Course of change in economic and social environment associated with energy. Population, life, industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimatsu, Michio

    1988-03-01

    As regards long-term forecast of economic and social environment in Japan, STANDARD economic and social vision based on the course of economical growth was adopted in the report of LONG-TERM VISION OF ENERGY INDUSTRY. The average annual economic growth rate is expected to be still a little higher than the average of that of the developed countries, being supported by the industiral activities by industries engaged in frontier science, manufacturing industries engaged in electrical processing and assembling, etc. In the primary and secondary industries, the number of employees may drop down to about one third. Tokyo may become the center of finance and information surpassing New York and London. The people may enjoy a rich, confortable and cultural life. Problems may arise from enhancement of individualism, increase in advanced aged population, acturization of regional differentials, etc. (3 figs, 3 tabs)

  6. Economic Science and Postmodernism: Ethics Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin MARINESCU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ideas have a fundamental importance for world’s destiny. Within the human civilization world of thinking, the scientific ideas represent the essence of logical structure of human mind and the truths about the human action and society that can be discovered by man. In this approach, I will argue why the scholar honest-mindedness must be his principle in life. In world’s vision about post-modernity, the only faith today is that everything is relative or otherwise stated that there is no ultimate criterion for making absolute hierarchies in order to distinguish truth from false. Thus has gradually appeared the less desired idea that ethical standards represent simple social conventions, fact that would impede the possibility of ethically validating a multitude of “alternative institutional arrangements”, including the ones contradictory with human nature and individual freedom. This study represents a plea for the virtues of logic and faith in truth and justice. Moreover, the original signification of the word “science” – scientia – is correct knowledge. Bearing this clarification in mind, the researchers would maybe become more responsible in calling any approach as being a “scientific” one and implicitly they would become more exigent with their own creations.

  7. The current Russian model of social development, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Paramonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Article 7 of the Constitution of Russia adopted in 1993 defines the country as a social state, the contemporary social and economic situation is significantly different from this declaration. The author considers the current situation focusing on the foundations of the welfare state. The indicators of social inequality and stratification that allow to identify the country as a social state prove the widening gap between the rich and poor. In recent years, nothing has been done to achieve the more equitable distribution of income and national wealth, which led to the further growth of social inequality exceeding the global indices. The author believes that the high level of social inequality negatively affects the economic growth. Based on the studies of Russian scientists he concludes that equal distribution of income provides higher rates of economic growth and prosperity of the country. The modified theory of the factors of production explains this interconnection, and adds a few more factors, including such a specific resource as sales market, to three factors introduced by J.B. Say at the beginning of the XIX century. The huge social inequality and, consequently, a significant number of the poor deprive the country of such an important resource. To change the situation, the author proposes to return to the progressive tax scale and introduce the zero rate of income tax for the poorest groups in order to create prerequisites for the growth of consumer demand under the economic crisis.

  8. ESTIMATING FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF REGIONAL PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kokhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The given article presents the analysis of the experience of the financial support of the regional programs of social economic development and the areas of usage of internal and external resources of the area. Dynamic and balanced development of regions is one of the most important issues for further establishment of marketing relations and social transformations in Ukraine. The Aim lies in the evaluation of financial support of the approved regional programs and launching the amount of their financing. The assessment of social economic situation in Ivano-Frankivsk region in terms of nationwide tendencies allows asserting that economic growth depends on the amounts and sources provided by the state. To determine close connection between  the amount of financing  for the programs  and  gross domestic product, the coefficient of correlation was calculated according to Pierson. It was proved that the amount of financing regional programs of social economic development influences the growth rate of gross domestic product. During research period the activation of regional authority institutions is being surveyed regarding the adoption and financing target regional programs. It was determined that the dynamic activity of the regional community and its territorial units on realization in terms of defined strategic priorities for programs of social economic development will facilitate disproportion reduction and differences in the development of territory units in the region, as well as positively influences the growth of gross domestic product providing steady increase of social welfare. Keywords: social economic regional development, ecology programs, social programs, gross regional domestic product, Pierson’s correlation coefficient. JEL: R 58

  9. Health, social and economic consequences of dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm-Falkenberg, S.; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dementia causes morbidity, disability and mortality, and as the population ages the societal burden will grow. The direct health costs and indirect costs of lost productivity and social welfare of dementia were estimated compared with matched controls in a national register......, gender, geographical area and civil status. Direct health costs included primary and secondary sector contacts, medical procedures and medication. Indirect costs included the effect on labor supply. All cost data were extracted from national databases. The entire cohort was followed for the entire period...... – before and after diagnosis. Results: In all, 78 715 patients were identified and compared with 312 813 matched controls. Patients' partners were also identified and matched with a control group. Patients had lower income and higher mortality and morbidity rates and greater use of medication. Social...

  10. Regression analysis for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    Provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of Stata and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set. A separate set of exercises allows students to select a data set to apply the concepts learned in each chapter to a research question of interest to them, all updated for this edition.

  11. Integration of Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G

    2002-04-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised.

  12. The Historical Origins and Economic Logic of 'Open Science'

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Modern "big science" projects, such as the LHC experiments in physics that are being prepared to run at CERN, embody the distinctive ethos of cooperation and mechanisms of coordination among distributed groups of researchers that are characteristic of 'open science'. Much has been written about the institutions of open science, their supporting social norms, and their effectiveness in generating additions to the stock of reliable knowledge. But from where have these institutions and their supporting ethos come? How robust can we assume them to be in the face of the recent trends for universities and research institutes in some domains of science to seek to appropriate the benefits of new discoveries and inventions by asserting intellectual property claims? A search for the historical origins of the institutions of open science throws some new light on these issues, and the answers may offer some lessons for contemporary science and technology policy-making.

  13. MARGINALIZATION OF DEPARTMENTS OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Winaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning should be focused on the social and cultural development of intellectual ability, and encourage the learner’s comprehension and knowledge in order to produce intelligent and educated society. From the data collected from Public Senior High School 1 Denpasar and Dwijendra Senior High School Denpasar, it was found that the departments of social sciences and languages were seriously marginalized, indicated by the time allocated for social sciences and languages. The time allocated for Natural Sciences such as chemistry, physics, and biology averaged three hours a week. The additional ‘extra’ time allocated for Natural Sciences made the overall time allocated for them double the overall time allocated for Social Sciences such as economics, history sociology, and geography. Furthermore, the time allocated for one of them was one hour a week. The knowledge presented by the books of Natural Sciences was highly “instrumentalist-positivistic”; unlike the books of social sciences which only provided academic normative information. The modernity contained in “instrumentative positivism” was the philosophy which gave more priority to practical things and hard work with financial success as the main criterion. It was concluded that the marginalization of the departments of social sciences and languages in Public Senior High School 1 Denpasar and Dwijendra Senior High School Denpasar resulted from modernism, the culture of image, and the image that natural sciences were more advantageous than social sciences and languages.

  14. Border cases between autonomy and relevance: Economic sciences in Berlin--A natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düppe, Till

    2015-06-01

    The faculty of economics at today's Humboldt University in Berlin, as no other institution of economics, has witnessed three radical ruptures in its history: in 1933, National Socialism replaced the pluralism prevailing in the Weimar Republic by imposing a "German economics"; after WWII, GDR authorities replaced this NS regime by imposing a Marxist imperative, which after the fall of the wall was replaced by the Western standards of neoclassical economics. In reconstructing these three reforms, institutional history can serve as a context in which questions about the political nature of economic knowledge can be answered that remain speculative in a conceptual context. I thus present a natural experiment in the political epistemology of economics: How do economists respond to, resist, and stabilize, changing political regimes? How do economists renegotiate the autonomy of economic knowledge given changing demands as of its social task? Among others, I show that contrary to Robert Merton's old, but still widely held thesis in political epistemology-that the values of science are compatible only with democratic regimes-the totalitarian and authoritarian regimes created better conditions for methodological pluralism in economics than democratic society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  16. In defense of forensic social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goldberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Like the navigation tools that freed ancient sailors from the need to stay close to the shoreline—eventually affording the discovery of new worlds—Big Data might open us up to new sociological possibilities by freeing us from the shackles of hypothesis testing. But for that to happen we need forensic social science: the careful compilation of evidence from unstructured digital traces as a means to generate new theories.

  17. SOCIAL TOURISM- A FACTOR IN CULTURAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta-Rossela Dumitru

    2009-01-01

    Tourism has to maintain an individual and social balance, so that as well as providing personal fulfilment, it can be development in harmony with the human, natural and cultural environment and fit into a context of sustainable development. At the threshold of the third millennium, those of us involved in social tourism are faced with the emergence of threefold revolution: a revolution of the imagination and of creation in the development of new products and new; services in response to the n...

  18. Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    America, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…

  19. Decision Sciences, Economics, Finance, Business, Computing, and Big Data: Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides a review of some connecting literature in Decision Sciences, Economics, Finance, Business, Computing, and Big Data. We then discuss some research that is related to the six cognate disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent

  20. Economic aspects of the social rehabilitation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitel'man, L.D.; Ratnikov, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This article highlights the state of affairs regarding nuclear power in Russia at this time in the post-Chernobyl era. environmentalists and others are leveling criticisms at nuclear power stating that nuclear plants should be shutdown and preservation can offset the demands for electricity. The authors are advised to examine a new consensus for developing nuclear power, which could form the basis of a new program of social rehabilitation, and not a singular rejection of constructing new nuclear power plants. Public acceptance of nuclear power can be obtained only by resolving contradictions and by harmonizing the interests of all social groups and of all subjects of economic relationships, which in one way or another are connected to the financing and functioning of nuclear power plants (the local population, personnel, energy users, regional energy organizations, and local government). A strategy oriented to overall acceptance of nuclear power should consider intra area factors and also external economic environments: the choice of nuclear power plant location on the basis of careful and independent expertise with the use of rigid social-economic criteria and a sharp increase in the attention to human factors. Important features in changes in the economic environments are the transition to a marketplace economy, the reorientation of budget expenditures to social goals, and the expansion of regional economic independence. This requires a significant strengthening of the regional control of electrification and the creation of corresponding economic mechanisms

  1. Social capital calculations in economic systems: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurov, E. G.; Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Nazarova, Yu. Yu.; Chekmarev, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes the social capital study for a system where actors are engaged in an economic activity. The focus is on the analysis of communications structural parameters (transactions) between the actors. Comparison between transaction network graph structure and the structure of a random Bernoulli graph of the same dimension and density allows revealing specific structural features of the economic system under study. Structural analysis is based on SNA-methodology (SNA - Social Network Analysis). It is shown that structural parameter values of the graph formed by agent relationship links may well characterize different aspects of the social capital structure. The research advocates that it is useful to distinguish the difference between each agent social capital and the whole system social capital.

  2. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P

    2009-06-01

    Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.

  3. Corporate sustainability: environmental, social, economic and corporate performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate sustainability and environmental and social issues of the integration of corporate performance measurement that may lead to sustainable economic success. Sustainability is a strategy of the process of sustainable development. Sustainability of businesses and sustainable performance can be defined as an integration of environmental, social and economic performance. First and foremost, businesses will want to know what indicators can be used to measure environmental, social and economic performance. What is the mutual relationship between environmental, social and economic performance? How can firms arrive at a comprehensive assessment of their performance in relation to sustainability? The aim of this paper is to analyze corporate environmental, social and economic performance and to analyze their mutual relationships. The final part of the article is an assessment of the contemporary situation and draft Key Performance Indicators (KPI for assessment of corporate sustainability that will be the subject of further research in a selected NACE-CZ sector and in accordance with Corporate Sustainability Reporting. KPI provide businesses with a means of measuring progress toward achieving objectives.

  4. Social and economic implications of the installation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivetti, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the Italian experience with the evaluation, control, and containment of the social and economic impacts of nuclear power plant installations. Social and economic impact is defined as a set of causal relationships, direct and indirect, which are established between a nuclear plant and a surrounding territory. A nuclear plant imposes certain permanent restrictions in the use of the surrounding territory. The utilization of particularly dangerous substances requires that the plants be sited at a due distance from large urban centers and industrial areas. Therefore they are located in rural areas where the social and economic equilibria are less stable and more easily subjected to disturbances from outside factors. Essential services which must be provided for nonresident workers during the construction phase result in massive impacts which are compensated by the inflow of economic resources into the community. Social tension is also a likely consequence of importing workers into a community. There are disruptive effects induced by the high salaries paid to the construction workers such as local inflation. During the operating phase, the impacts will be smaller in proportion to the construction phase. Examples of social and economic impacts of nuclear plants in Italy are cited

  5. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper connects two strands of the literature on social trust by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data...... set is available. The results indicate that trust affects schooling and the rule of law directly. These variables in turn affect the investment rate (schooling) and provide a direct effect (rule of law) on the growth rate. The paper closes with a short discussion of the relevance of the findings....

  6. Antipodean Social Policy Responses to Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    the government enacted fiscal stimulus measures, the social policy component was small and the government soon returned to welfare retrenchment and workfare policy. Based on a detailed account of recent crisis policies as well as a condensed overview of previous crisis responses (to the 1970s oil shocks......, interest group structures, political institutions and policy legacies. The analysis shows that the recent differences cannot fully be explained through idiosyncratic factors, as partisan ideology was already crucial in strategic policy decisions during the first months of the crisis. The historical pattern...

  7. Tax evasion, social norms and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bethencourt, Carlos; Kunze, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical model to account for the most relevant micro- and macroeconomic empirical facts in the tax evasion literature. To do so, we integrate tax morale into a dynamic overlapping generations model of capital income tax evasion. Tax morale is modeled as a social norm for tax compliance. It is shown that accounting for such nonpecuniary costs of evasion may not only explain (i) why some taxpayers never evade even if the gamble is profitable, and (ii) how a higher tax ...

  8. Social and ethical dimensions of nanoscale science and engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Aldrin E

    2006-07-01

    Continuing advances in human ability to manipulate matter at the atomic and molecular levels (i.e. nanoscale science and engineering) offer many previously unimagined possibilities for scientific discovery and technological development. Paralleling these advances in the various science and engineering sub-disciplines is the increasing realization that a number of associated social, ethical, environmental, economic and legal dimensions also need to be explored. An important component of such exploration entails the identification and analysis of the ways in which current and prospective researchers in these fields conceptualize these dimensions of their work. Within the context of a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in nanomaterials processing and characterization at the University of Central Florida (2002-2004), here I present for discussion (i) details of a "nanotechnology ethics" seminar series developed specifically for students participating in the program, and (ii) an analysis of students' and participating research faculty's perspectives concerning social and ethical issues associated with nanotechnology research. I conclude with a brief discussion of implications presented by these issues for general scientific literacy and public science education policy.

  9. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.

    2017-07-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  10. Las redes sociales de la economía social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Escribano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir del trabajo de campo en curso llevado a cabo en Cataluña (proyecto de investigación ENCLAVE - CSO2012-32635, se sugiere la existencia de al menos tres tipos de los llamados "empresarios sociales": los profesionales desplazados por los recortes en el gasto público en los sectores de la salud, los servicios sociales y la cooperación; las cooperativas y las asociaciones tradicionales, re-etiquetados como "empresarios sociales" o "empresas sociales" (conversos y, por último, los que gozan de apoyo institucional público y privado para el desarrollo de sus iniciativas sociales o ambientales (elegidos. Con el fin de contrastar algunas de las hipótesis que plantea la literatura sobre los emprendedores sociales (a saber, su capacidad para movilizar recursos locales y lograr la participación de una amplia gama de actores para el logro de sus fines, se recogieron redes personales de casos de emprendedores sociales con la ayuda de EgoNet (http:// sourceforge.net/projects/egonet utilizando un generador múltiple de nombres para obtener datos sobre personas relacionadas con la iniciativa. Las redes personales de estos tres tipos se resumieron mediante "grafos agrupados"(http://visone.info/wiki/index.php/Personal_networks_%28tutorial%29, los cuales presentan diferentes características para cada tipo, en términos de equilibrio entre lazos fuertes y débiles de apoyo a la iniciativa empresarial. Sostenemos que este nuevo escenario en el que nuevos y viejos actores se esfuerzan por presentarse a sí mismos con las etiquetas disponibles difícilmente puede entenderse sólo en términos de las motivaciones sociales, como sugiere la literatura. Por último, se presenta una conceptualización del campo del "empresariado social" como consecuencia del avance del neoliberalismo y la reducción del gasto público destinado a las clases medias y populares en Europa a partir de la crisis financiera.

  11. Social embeddedness and economic opportunism: a game situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalaki, Maria; Fousiani, Kyriaki

    2012-06-01

    According to Evolutionary Game Theory, multiple exchanges with partners are necessary to foster cooperation. Multiple exchanges with partners tend to enhance the good experience of the partners and the predictability of their behaviour and should therefore increase cooperativeness. This study explored whether social embeddedness, or the preference for close and stable social relationships, a variable which tends to increase multiple exchanges, is associated with more cooperative attitudes; and whether social embeddedness increases cooperative behavior towards unknown partners in a game situation. The first study, with 169 undergraduates, indicated that social embeddedness (preference for close and durable social relations) was negatively associated with opportunistic attitudes. The second study had a sample of 60 undergraduates playing a Trust Game with unknown partners and showed that self-reported social embeddedness was positively correlated with scores for cooperative economic behavior towards the partners. These results highlight the relationships of social embeddedness with cooperative attitudes and behaviour.

  12. The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jeane W.

    2014-01-01

    As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work. This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…

  13. Social Science Boot Camp: Development and Assessment of a Foundational Course on Academic Literacy in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Judy; Long, Jennifer; Morris, David

    2018-01-01

    We developed a course, as part of our institution's core program, which provides students with a foundation in academic literacy in the social sciences: how to find, read, critically assess, and communicate about social science research. It is not a research methods course; rather, it is intended to introduce students to the social sciences and be…

  14. Social-Economic Foundation for Smooth Changes in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2012-01-01

    Chairman Kim Jong-il's death has sparked worldwide interest in the 'future direction of the D.P.R.K. political, economic, social and diplomatic policies. After all, as the youngest national leader in the world, Kim Jong-un has little experience, especially as he has been involved in national governance for such a very short time. Whether he earl unite all the high-level leaders of the ruling party, government and military and achieve a smooth transition in national political, economic and social life will affect the well-being of all Korean people, and the security and stability in the whole of Northeast Asia. However, a dispassionate analysis of North Korea's recent economic and social development may show that North Korea's future prospects may not be as gloomy as some people predict.

  15. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  16. Greece’s Economic and Social Transformation 2008–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symeon Mavridis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Greece has confronted serious financial problems since 2008 when the global financial crisis reached its peak. The disturbance in the markets led to an unprecedented local debt crisis, which has lasted till now. The scope of this research is to examine how the crisis affected the local transformation of the society from 2008 to 2017. For this purpose, the paper made secondary analysis of previous data, reports, articles, as well as other relevant information on basic economic and social factors such as GDP, income per capita, unemployment, social exclusion, poverty and homelessness. Despite the fact that three International Economic Programmes have been adopted by the Greek governments, the country still fights for its financial stability. Furthermore, the consequences of crisis were devastating in society. The state countermeasures have triggered a surge in unemployment, emigration, poverty and exclusion, especially among youngsters. In addition, major national economic and social indicators have significantly worsened.

  17. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the turbulent year of 2016, with deep geopolitical changes, the new year of 2017 promises to be full of challenges in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. The key events of the last year (the Brexit, the elections in the USA, the events in Turkey, the force demonstrations of Russia, the situation of the migration wave etc. shall have an impact on the global economic development and on the repositioning of its main actors. This paperwork intends to analyze the main consequences of the recent events on the short term progress in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. We hereby intend to review the facts and the main potential progress on the economic status of this year which was so complicated, both for the European Union and for every member of it.

  18. Teaching Climate Social Science and Its Practices: A Two-Pronged Approach to Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwom, R.; Isenhour, C.; McCright, A.; Robinson, J.; Jordan, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy states that a climate-literate individual can: "understand the essential principles of Earth's climate system, assess scientifically credible information about climate change, communicate about climate and climate change in a meaningful way, and make informed and responsible decisions with regard to actions that may affect climate." We argue that further integration of the social science dimensions of climate change will advance the climate literacy goals of communication and responsible actions. The underlying rationale for this argues: 1) teaching the habits of mind and scientific practices that have synergies across the social and natural sciences can strengthen students ability to understand and assess science in general and that 2) understanding the empirical research on the social, political, and economic processes (including climate science itself) that are part of the climate system is an important step for enabling effective action and communication. For example, while climate literacy has often identified the public's faulty mental models of climate processes as a partial explanation of complacency, emerging research suggests that the public's mental models of the social world are equally or more important in leading to informed and responsible climate decisions. Building student's ability to think across the social and natural sciences by understanding "how we know what we know" through the sciences and a scientific understanding of the social world allows us to achieve climate literacy goals more systematically and completely. To enable this integration we first identify the robust social science insights for the climate science literacy principles that involve social systems. We then briefly identify significant social science contributions to climate science literacy that do not clearly fit within the seven climate literacy principles but arguably could advance climate literacy goals. We conclude

  19. EU governance of economic and social policies : Chances and challenges for social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, S.; Klosse, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at establishing to what extent the renewed EU economic and social policy coordination cycles offer opportunities to uphold and further develop the Union’s social objectives. First, it seeks to examine to what extent the legal frameworks in which macroeconomic and social policies

  20. Economic growth and mortality: do social protection policies matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Cooper, Richard; Abreu, Francis; Nau, Claudia; Franco, Manuel; Glass, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    In the 20th century, periods of macroeconomic growth have been associated with increases in population mortality. Factors that cause or mitigate this association are not well understood. Evidence suggests that social policy may buffer the deleterious impact of economic growth. We sought to explore associations between changing unemployment (as a proxy for economic change) and trends in mortality over 30 years in the context of varying social protection expenditures. We model change in all-cause mortality in 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data from the Comparative Welfare States Data Set and the WHO Mortality Database were used. A decrease in the unemployment rate was used as a proxy for economic growth and age-adjusted mortality rates as the outcome. Social protection expenditure was measured as percentage of gross domestic product expended. A 1% decrease in unemployment (i.e. the proxy for economic growth) was associated with a 0.24% increase in the overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.07;0.42) in countries with no changes in social protection. Reductions in social protection expenditure strengthened this association between unemployment and mortality. The magnitude of the association was diminished over time. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that social protection policies that accompany economic growth can mitigate its potential deleterious effects on health. Further research should identify specific policies that are most effective. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  1. Economic and social survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    A general economic slowdown in the Asia-Pacific countries since 1981 has slowed development and increased unemployment and fiscal deficits. In preparation for the United Nations review of international development strategy, Part one of this volume examines economic, energy, and social developments under the current recession. Part two examines the role of fiscal policies as they relate to growth, employment, equity, stability, and development planning. 235 references, 23 figures, 64 tables. (DCK)

  2. Social Science in Forestry Curricula: A Case Study of Colombia Forestry Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Farleidy Villarraga-Flórez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest management depends greatly on complex social interactions. To understand the underlying human causes of deforestation and to plan forest management, it is of great importance to incorporate social science in the study of forestry. There is insufficient information about the incorporation of social sciences in undergraduate forestry programs. Foresters are well prepared in ecology, silviculture, forest measurements, and operational topics such as logging, but their knowledge of basic elements of social sciences is limited. This study explored the extent to which tertiary forestry education programs in Colombia include social science. It also examined students’ perceptions of social sciences courses in the curriculum. About 10% of course credits are in economics, administration, and foreign language, courses on social science are listed as optional. A high percentage of current sophomore (fifth semester, junior, and senior students do not have clear knowledge of basic social research methods, although a majority have used social science techniques at some point in their academic careers.

  3. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism) and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS) is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  4. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim A C Everett

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Social Science Perspectives into Climate and Global Change Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Li, J.; Zycherman, A.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of social science into climate and global change assessments is fundamental for improving understanding of the drivers, impacts and vulnerability of climate change, and the social, cultural and behavioral challenges related to climate change responses. This requires disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge as well as integrational and translational tools for linking this knowledge with the natural and physical sciences. The USGCRP's Social Science Coordinating Committee (SSCC) is tasked with this challenge and is working to integrate relevant social, economic and behavioral knowledge into processes like sustained assessments. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a recent SSCC workshop, "Social Science Perspectives on Climate Change" and their applications to sustained assessments. The workshop brought academic social scientists from four disciplines - anthropology, sociology, geography and archaeology - together with federal scientists and program managers to discuss three major research areas relevant to the USGCRP and climate assessments: (1) innovative tools, methods, and analyses to clarify the interactions of human and natural systems under climate change, (2) understanding of factors contributing to differences in social vulnerability between and within communities under climate change, and (3) social science perspectives on drivers of global climate change. These disciplines, collectively, emphasize the need to consider socio-cultural, political, economic, geographic, and historic factors, and their dynamic interactions, to understand climate change drivers, social vulnerability, and mitigation and adaptation responses. They also highlight the importance of mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to explain impacts, vulnerability, and responses at different time and spatial scales. This presentation will focus on major contributions of the social sciences to climate and global change research. We will discuss future directions for

  6. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.

    2010-07-01

    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  7. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr

    2010-01-01

    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  8. Areva. 2007 figures economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the 2007 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation; 2 - Financial performance: 2007 results; 3 - Commitment to employees: Stakeholder relations, Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, Workforce, Workforce and training; 4 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 5 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  9. Social science. Publication bias in the social sciences: unlocking the file drawer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Annie; Malhotra, Neil; Simonovits, Gabor

    2014-09-19

    We studied publication bias in the social sciences by analyzing a known population of conducted studies--221 in total--in which there is a full accounting of what is published and unpublished. We leveraged Time-sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored program in which researchers propose survey-based experiments to be run on representative samples of American adults. Because TESS proposals undergo rigorous peer review, the studies in the sample all exceed a substantial quality threshold. Strong results are 40 percentage points more likely to be published than are null results and 60 percentage points more likely to be written up. We provide direct evidence of publication bias and identify the stage of research production at which publication bias occurs: Authors do not write up and submit null findings. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Economic and social rights in the Constitution of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapajić Milan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is an attempt of the author to, in a relatively systematic way, presents the norms of Economic and Social Rights in the Constitution of Serbia from 2006. Before that, in the introduction the author refers to the commonplace with regard to human rights and their institutionalization, constitutionalization and internationalization. The process of institutionalization of human rights was started in England by adoption of the Great Charter of Freedoms (Magna Carta Libertatum in 1215. Constitutionalization of human rights begins with the adoption of the first ten amendments to the US Constitution in 1791. French writers of the Constitution unlike the American in Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed certain new rights such as freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, the right to free expression of thought, right to petition or freedom of culture. At first human rights were an asset to limit state power, but with new theories by which the state can not be seen only as a political organization, but as a community that has a socio-economic content, the state must guarantee to the citizens a certain corpus of economic and social rights by Constitution. Economic, social and cultural rights are classified as second generation of rights. Economic and social rights are directed to the fact that individuals are brought to the position that they can enjoy their civil and political rights. These rights, known as social welfare, are rights based on the principles of equality and solidarity, and their purpose is, inter alia, to help to the socially vulnerable members of the community. Constitutional act, which is important for the world the constitutional recognition of these rights is the Weimar Constitution from 1919. which predicted legislative measures to implement these rights. For the internationalization of these rights very important is Universal Declaration of Human Rights from 1948 and the International Covenant on

  11. Comparative Economics as a Science and Educational Discipline: To the Outlook of "Comparative Economics"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina O. Voskresenskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative economics, a young interdisciplinary science, which proper formation belongs to the twentieth century only, has been recently attracting more attention of the scientific community. This quite predictable interest is based on the very subject of the comparative economics which is socioeconomic systems in the mankind history. Researchers want to know what factors make systems come into being, transform, achieve prosperity, stop to develop; they need to understand how systems are functioning and which of their institutions should be attributed to as being fundamental – difficult or not transformed at all, and which of them are not so stable and therefore can be easily changed. This knowledge is crucially needed to elaborate an appropriate economic policy in order to meet national interests and cope with possible crises. Attention to the science is also based on its methodological possibilities: comparative analysis can provide complete and compact socio-economic panorama of mankind evolution versus traditional historical studies. This possible-to-embrace picture of global human history viewed as a set of different economic systems might be a good ground to conclude which of them possesses such attractive features as capacity for development, flexibility, readiness for self-improvement, ability to achieve and maintain reasonable socio-economic balance under negative internal and external influence, openness to interaction with other peoples and states, i.e. what system can provide the best sufficient infrastructure for growth and development focusing on ensuring a high standard of living for the people. Comparative analysis allows to predict, to some extent, the further evolution of economic systems, and chose the most attractive one as a desirable benchmark for national development. Thus, comparative economics is both of academic and practical value for society. Professor R. M. Nureev in his fundamental work "Comparative Economics

  12. Commonly Shared Foundation of Mathematics, Information Science, Natural Science, Social Science, and Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Through a simple thought experiment, this paper shows that there must be a shared foundation of mathematics, information science, natural science, social science, and theology. The thought experiment is to ask a volunteer to write down an arbitrary real number between 0 and 1 with many digits. For example, 0.19823765010367129462…. would be one of such numbers. Then we analyze this experiment result by asking five simple questions: Is the real number a random real? Can the observed real numbe...

  13. Supporting new science teachers in pursuing socially just science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel; Flohr, Linda

    2017-10-01

    This forum explores contradictions that arose within the partnership between Teach for America (TFA) and a university teacher education program. TFA is an alternate route teacher preparation program that places individuals into K-12 classrooms in low-income school districts after participating in an intense summer training program and provides them with ongoing support. This forum is a conversation about the challenges we faced as new science teachers in the TFA program and in the Peace Corps program. We both entered the teaching field with science degrees and very little formal education in science education. In these programs we worked in a community very different from the one we had experienced as students. These experiences allow us to address many of the issues that were discussed in the original paper, namely teaching in an unfamiliar community amid challenges that many teachers face in the first few years of teaching. We consider how these challenges may be amplified for teachers who come to teaching through an alternate route and may not have as much pedagogical training as a more traditional teacher education program provides. The forum expands on the ideas presented in the original paper to consider the importance of perspectives on socially just science education. There is often a disconnect between what is taught in teacher education programs and what teachers actually experience in urban classrooms and this can be amplified when the training received through alternate route provides a different framework as well. This forum urges universities and alternate route programs to continue to find ways to authentically partner using practical strategies that bring together the philosophies and goals of all stakeholders in order to better prepare teachers to partner with their students to achieve their science learning goals.

  14. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A

    2014-11-13

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2014-10-06

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective.

  16. Online information services in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Information professionals are increasingly responsible not only for running traditional information and library services but also for providing an online presence for their organisation. This book shows how best practice in delivering online information services should be based on actual user needs and behaviour. A series of case studies provide real life examples of how social science information is being used in the community. The book then draws on these case studies to outline the main issues facing service providers: such as usability, metadata and management. The book concludes with a lo

  17. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  18. Semiparametric regression for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Keele, Luke John

    2008-01-01

    An introductory guide to smoothing techniques, semiparametric estimators, and their related methods, this book describes the methodology via a selection of carefully explained examples and data sets. It also demonstrates the potential of these techniques using detailed empirical examples drawn from the social and political sciences. Each chapter includes exercises and examples and there is a supplementary website containing all the datasets used, as well as computer code, allowing readers to replicate every analysis reported in the book. Includes software for implementing the methods in S-Plus and R.

  19. Creativity, Pragmatism and the Social Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2006-01-01

    In this discussion, Richard Sennett and Hans Joas elaborate on the role of both creativity and pragmatism in the social sciences. They pursue these topics from different perspectives: the role creativity played in the history of ideas and in classical pragmatism, what creativity means...... in the practice of the arts and how a creative pragmatist sociology might be possible. Pragmatism, they conclude, may not be a new idea, but the practice of pragmatism offers a new political vision beyond the traditional frontiers of left and right....

  20. Nonparametric statistics for social and behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Kraska-MIller, M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Research in Social and Behavioral SciencesBasic Principles of ResearchPlanning for ResearchTypes of Research Designs Sampling ProceduresValidity and Reliability of Measurement InstrumentsSteps of the Research Process Introduction to Nonparametric StatisticsData AnalysisOverview of Nonparametric Statistics and Parametric Statistics Overview of Parametric Statistics Overview of Nonparametric StatisticsImportance of Nonparametric MethodsMeasurement InstrumentsAnalysis of Data to Determine Association and Agreement Pearson Chi-Square Test of Association and IndependenceContingency

  1. Social, Behavioral and Economic Research in the Federal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    programs do not meaningfully address the problem of wage discrepancy along gender lines. II. Federal Context In the D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance...students’ transition to higher education and/or the workplace . More recently, the Early Childhood Lon- gitudinal Studies have provided invaluable...sciences. Some of the topics cov- ered by recent annual ISSP modules include work ori- entation, religion, social inequality , the environment, social

  2. Science under pressure: problematic behaviours and social harms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Faria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will suggest the use of the Social Harm Approach (Hillyard, Pantazis, Tobs & Gordon, 2004 to problematic behaviours occurring in scientific research and higher education teaching. By analyzing data collected through interviews to scholars, it is possible to state that fabrication, falsification and plagiarism are the most criticized deviant behaviours in science. It is less common for actors to consider other problematic behaviours arising from the pressure (to publish, to get grants felt by them and originated at the heart of the organizations devoted to science. Or problematic behaviours created on the intersection of universities, corporations and/or the state (ex. commissioned research. Also, those interviewed did not have a coherent view on the rules governing science and higher education. Thus, considering the scattering of (individual and organizational problematic behaviours and rules governing them, a new approach will be put forward, one by which processes of scientific production and dissemination must be considered according to the social harms (financial, economic, physical they may cause.

  3. Institutional Support : Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) established in 1969 is a semi-autonomous university-based research centre located at the University of Ghana, Legon, Accra. ISSER has a strong track record of undertaking high-quality policy-relevant research. This grant - the largest being awarded under ...

  4. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a policy journal analyzing social and economic issues in South Africa. We publish infomed articles by experts and decision makers. These articles are accessible to the ordinary reader. Other website associated with this journal: www.newagenda.org.za ...

  5. The Social-Economic Impediments to Kidnapping Eradication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the security agencies investment in intelligence gathering to get advance information to nip their activities in the bud and also the formation of the various special Task Force on kidnapping, the business still strives. This paper examined the Social-economic factors hindering the abolition of this illicit business in the ...

  6. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  7. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  8. Economic Literacy Levels of Social Studies Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of economic literacy--an important component of being a good citizen--among seniors studying at social studies teacher program which aims at cultivating good citizens and to find out its relationships in terms of various variables. The quantitative sample of the study was comprised of 726 senior…

  9. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  10. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW AGENDA is peer-reviewed and listed in the department of education's Index of Approved South African Journals. The journal's focus encompasses South African, African and international developments in social and economic research and policy. We aim to provide high-quality pertinent information and analysis for ...

  11. Energy UK 1986. An economic, social and policy audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A; Gretton, J [eds.

    1986-01-01

    In a yearbook on energy in the UK with emphasis on economic, social and policy issues, eleven articles are presented of which nine were selected and indexed separately. The topics covered include energy forecasting, energy conservation, its balance with respect to supply investment, government relationships with fuel industries, fuel poverty, acid rain and efficiency studies of the electricity supply industry.

  12. Neighborhood Economic Deprivation and Social Fragmentation: Associations With Children's Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Saini, Ekjyot K; Philbrook, Lauren E; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-12-09

    A growing body of work indicates that experiences of neighborhood disadvantage place children at risk for poor sleep. This study aimed to examine how both neighborhood economic deprivation (a measure of poverty) and social fragmentation (an index of instability) are associated with objective measures of the length and quality of children's sleep. Participants were 210 children (54.3% boys) living predominantly in small towns and semirural communities in Alabama. On average children were 11.3 years old (SD = .63); 66.7% of the children were European American and 33.3% were African American. The sample was socioeconomically diverse with 67.9% of the participants living at or below the poverty line and 32.1% from lower-middle-class or middle-class families. Indicators of neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2012 American Community Survey and composited to create two variables representing neighborhood economic deprivation and social fragmentation. Child sleep period, actual sleep minutes, and efficiency were examined using actigraphy. Higher levels of neighborhood economic deprivation were associated with fewer sleep minutes and poorer sleep efficiency. More neighborhood social fragmentation was also linked with poorer sleep efficiency. Analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, child health, and family socioeconomic status. Findings indicate that living in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods predicts risk for shorter and lower-quality sleep in children. Examination of community context in addition to family and individual characteristics may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors shaping child sleep.

  13. The Impact of Depression on Social Economic Decision Making [correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlé, K.M.; Allen, J.J.B.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Reports an error in "The impact of depression on social economic decision making" by Katia M. Harlé, John J. B. Allen and Alan G. Sanfey (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2010[May], Vol 119[2], 440-446). In the article, the last revision received date printed on the final page of the article was

  14. Institutional Support : Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER) is an established, semi-autonomous national policy research entity created in 1960. Affiliated with the National ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  15. Institutional Support: Centre for Economic and Social Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institutional Support: Centre for Economic and Social Research, Education and Documentation (Burkina Faso). The Centre d'études de documentation et de ... innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  16. Extension Implications Of The Social And Economic Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The social and economic characteristics of the human resources in the baking industry in south-eastern Nigeria were studied. The human resources used for the study were the managers, supervisors and factory floor workers. The study was done using an enterprise level interview schedule in Onitsha, Owerri, Aba and ...

  17. Social Activities And Socio-Economic Status Of Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...

  18. The imperatives of economic, social and cultural rights in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic, social and cultural rights remain the bedrock of good governance, which is a prerequisite for sustainable democracy. The obligations of any democratic government are founded on this principle. The desideratum for the recognition of any government as civilized and responsive is its respect for the ...

  19. Relationships Affecting Enrollment Using Social, Economic, and Academic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, R. Jason

    2012-01-01

    The process of strategically planning enrollment in higher education, particularly at private institutions has seen tremendous changes in a short period of time. Changes in perspectives toward the value of a college degree, along with economic and social factors, have contributed to the difficulty of discovering relationships affecting enrollment.…

  20. A social identity analysis of responses to economic inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Wang, Zhechen; Steffens, Niklas K.; Mols, Frank; Peters, Kim; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2017-01-01

    Even though there is growing awareness that economic inequality is harmful for people's health, the way that such inequality affects social behavior and political attitudes remains poorly understood. Moving beyond a focus on the health and well-being costs of income inequality, we review research

  1. [The economic-industrial health care complex and the social and economic dimension of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    The strategic role of health care in the national development agenda has been increasingly recognized and institutionalized. In addition to its importance as a structuring element of the Social Welfare State, health care plays a leading role in the generation of innovation - an essential element for competitiveness in knowledge society. However, health care's productive basis is still fragile, and this negatively affects both the universal provision of health care services and Brazil's competitive inclusion in the globalized environment. This situation suggests the need of a more systematic analysis of the complex relationships among productive, technological and social interests in the scope of health care. Consequently, it is necessary to produce further knowledge about the Economic-Industrial Health Care Complex due to its potential for contributing to a socially inclusive development model. This means reversing the hierarchy between economic and social interests in the sanitary field, thus minimizing the vulnerability of the Brazilian health care policy.

  2. Prospects and challenges for social media data in conservation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eDi Minin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media data have been extensively used in numerous fields of science, but examples of their use in conservation science are still very limited. In this paper, we propose a framework on how social media data could be useful for conservation science and practice. We present the commonly used social media platforms and discuss how their content could be providing new data and information for conservation science. Based on this, we discuss how future work in conservation science and practice would benefit from social media data.

  3. Operationalizing Social Work Science through Research-Practice Partnerships: Lessons from Implementation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Amy S.; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Hertel, Amy Locklear

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify and promote a distinct science for the discipline of social work have led to an ongoing debate regarding the nature and function of such a science. Central to this debate is a lack of consensus as to how to operationalize a social work science. Drawing from the field of implementation science and its application in…

  4. How social science should complement scientific discovery: lessons from nanoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, David M.

    2018-05-01

    This article examines the state of social science of science, particularly nanoscience. It reviews what has been done and offers a series of constructive criticisms. It examines some of the problems associated with experts and expertise and itemizes challenges we confront dealing with them. It presages some of the social science research work that we may consider to embrace in the future.

  5. Collaboration in the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Xia, Jianhong; Willson, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the first large-scale quantitative investigation into collaboration, demonstrated in co-authorship, by Australian humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) researchers. Web of Science data were extracted for Australian HASS publications, with a focus on the softer social sciences, over the period 2004-2013. The findings…

  6. Herding, social influence and economic decision-making: socio-psychological and neuroscientific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2010-01-27

    Typically, modern economics has steered away from the analysis of sociological and psychological factors and has focused on narrow behavioural assumptions in which expectations are formed on the basis of mathematical algorithms. Blending together ideas from the social and behavioural sciences, this paper argues that the behavioural approach adopted in most economic analysis, in its neglect of sociological and psychological forces and its simplistically dichotomous categorization of behaviour as either rational or not rational, is too narrow and stark. Behaviour may reflect an interaction of cognitive and emotional factors and this can be captured more effectively using an approach that focuses on the interplay of different decision-making systems. In understanding the mechanisms affecting economic and financial decision-making, an interdisciplinary approach is needed which incorporates ideas from a range of disciplines including sociology, economic psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroeconomics.

  7. SOCIAL EXCLUSION AS AN OBJECT OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Halushka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article essence and forms of display of social exception of separate citizens and certain layers of population are certain as the socioeconomic phenomenon. Theoretical principles and methodology of estimation of the phenomenon of social exception are analyzed. Certain characteristic lines of social exception: subzero even consumptions and profit of individuals or groups; a limit access is to the public mechanisms of increase of welfare; a mainly passive type of cooperating is with society. Attention is accented on a defect for the individuals of row of rights, limit nature of access to the institutes that distribute resources, to the labor-market. Poverty is certain the main category of social exception. A concept "circles of poverty" and mechanisms of its existence are reasonable. Other displays of social exception-direct violation of base human rights are examined on quality education, on medical services and kind health, on the acceptable standard of living, on access to cultural acquisition, on defense of the interests and on the whole on participating in economic, social, in a civilized manner, political life of country. Cited data about part of torn away housekeeping of Ukraine on separate signs. The analysis of distribution of housekeeping after the amount of the accumulated signs of the social tearing away gave an opportunity to set a limit after that the social tearing away begins brightly to show up, at the level of 5 signs. It is certain the limit of the sharp tearing away. The second degree of tearing away – critical – answers a presence 7thsigns. At this level in Ukraine there are 37,7. That's far more than those, who are considered poor on a relative national criterion (24,0. It is set that conception of social exception shows the "horizontal cut" of the system of social relations and place of individual, layer, group and others like that in this system, certain on certain signs. The necessity of the use of

  8. Response: Social Work, Science, Social Impact--Crafting an Integrative Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in the ways that science is being undertaken and marshaled toward social change argue for a new kind of professional competence. Taking the view that the science of social work is centrally about the relationship of research to social impact, the authors extend Fong's focus on transdisciplinary and translational approaches to science,…

  9. The Social Science Teacher. 1972. Collected Conference Papers: Social Science Concepts Classroom Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three…

  10. Science, Innovation, and Social Work: Purpose: Clash or Convergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Marilyn L.

    2017-01-01

    Social work as a human services profession has been distinctive for its inclusion of research as a required element of practice and instrument in instigating reform. At the present time, the relationship of social work to science and a redefinition of social work as a science have reentered our national dialogue with new force. This expansion of…

  11. THE ENTREPRENEURIAL START-UP PROCESS: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND THE SOCIAL ECONOMIC CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhbold Chuluunbaatar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a complex phenomenon that involves not only economic activity but also social mechanisms. The intention to become an entrepreneur is a matter not only of one’s individual personality but also of one's interaction with the social environment. This study has three main objectives: predicting the existence of entrepreneurial behavioural intentions in different socio-economic conditions; examining how entrepreneurial behavioural intentions formulate entrepreneurial behaviour; and identifying how social capital influences this relationship. It also aims to reveal the differences between entrepreneurs in a relatively mature free market economy (Taiwan and a newly emerging free market economy (Mongolia. The analysis shows that socio-economic conditions affect the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. There are different approaches to building social capital in a relatively mature market and its newly emerging counterpart. The tendency of having high trust and social ties was found in Taiwanese entrepreneurs, while monitoring is commonly found among Mongolian entrepreneurs.

  12. Economic and environmental efficiency using a social accounting matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilla, Carmen Rodriguez; Diaz-Salazar, Gaspar Llanes; Cardenete, M. Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to show the utility of the so-called Social Accounting Matrix and Environmental Accounts (SAMEA) for economic and environmental efficiency analysis. The article uses the SAMEA for Spain in 2000, applied to water resources and greenhouse gas emissions. This matrix is used as a central core of a multisectorial model of economic and environmental performance, and it calculates the denominated 'domestics SAMEA multipliers' and their decomposition into characteristic, direct, indirect and induced effects. These multipliers show some evaluation of economic and environmental efficiency. Also, we present an application of these multipliers that demonstrates that there is no causal interrelation between those sectors with higher economic backward linkages and those with higher environmental deterioration backward linkages. (author)

  13. Socializing the European Semester? Economic governance and social policy coordination in Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Vanhercke, B.

    2014-01-01

    The European Semester of policy coordination, which is the core of EU’s new institutional architecture for economic and social governance, introduced since the beginning of the Euro crisis, has prompted questions about the nature and dynamics of the EU’s emerging socio-economic governance

  14. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  15. Study on the social economic estimation of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Aya; Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate the external economic effect for the risk of the nuclear power plants, the document research has been carried out, which mainly deals with the economic influence of the Chernobyl accident that occurred on the 26th of April 1986. As a result, the direct and indirect total economic loss between 1986 and 1995 is about $ 80 billion in Belarus, $ 115 billion in Ukraine and 1.15 trillion in Russia. This value, however, is considered as an overestimation, since the environmental contamination with radioactive material and thyroid cancer in Russia is very much the same as in Belarus and Ukraine. Also, the total economic loss is about a billion dollars in west European countries. The total economic loss for the Chernobyl accident is estimated more than about $ 300 billion. On the other hand, the chance occurrence of this kind of major accident of the nuclear power plant is very small in terms of probabilities, and the product of economic loss and frequency is smaller than the cost benefit for the measure of global warming and the energy security in Japan. This kind of problem should be treated as a social problem and study on various external economic effect is necessary. (author)

  16. Social Wealth Economic Indicators for a Caring Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradeep Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay introduces the reader to an entirely new set of measures that are urgently needed by policymakers and business leaders to foster personal, business, and national economic success. Social Wealth Economic Indicators are measures suggested by a partnership model of society, and they inform us that care work matters tremendously but is grossly undervalued. In our contemporary knowledge-service economy, the essential ingredient for social and economic progress is high-quality human capital, and the way to build such human capital is to support the work of caring and caregiving, traditionally considered “women’s work.” The data presented in this essay clearly show that early childhood care and education, family-friendly workplace practices, and the status of women are key determinants of economic success. But they are also necessary for healthy, creative, and cohesive societies in which members work in partnership with each other and with the natural environment to improve living conditions for all. This is the true meaning of social wealth.

  17. Behavioral Economic Laboratory Research in Tobacco Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Cassidy, Rachel N; Miller, Mollie E; Smith, Tracy T

    2016-10-01

    Research that can provide a scientific foundation for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco policy decisions is needed to inform tobacco regulatory policy. One factor that affects the impact of a tobacco product on public health is its intensity of use, which is determined, in part, by its abuse liability or reinforcing efficacy. Behavioral economic tasks have considerable utility for assessing the reinforcing efficacy of current and emerging tobacco products. This paper provides a narrative review of several behavioral economic laboratory tasks and identifies important applications to tobacco regulatory science. Behavioral economic laboratory assessments, including operant self-administration, choice tasks and purchase tasks, can be used generate behavioral economic data on the effect of price and other constraints on tobacco product consumption. These tasks could provide an expedited simulation of the effects of various tobacco control policies across populations of interest to the FDA. Tobacco regulatory research questions that can be addressed with behavioral economic tasks include assessments of the impact of product characteristics on product demand, assessments of the abuse liability of novel and potential modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), and assessments of the impact of conventional and novel products in vulnerable populations.

  18. Bridging the social and the biomedical: engaging the social and political sciences in HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan C; Holt, Martin; Friedman, Samuel R

    2011-09-27

    This supplement to the Journal of the International AIDS Society focuses on the engagement of the social and political sciences within HIV research and, in particular, maintaining a productive relationship between social and biomedical perspectives on HIV. It responds to a number of concerns raised primarily by social scientists, but also recognized as important by biomedical and public health researchers. These concerns include how best to understand the impact of medical technologies (such as HIV treatments, HIV testing, viral load testing, male circumcision, microbicides, and pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis) on sexual cultures, drug practices, relationships and social networks in different cultural, economic and political contexts. The supplement is also concerned with how we might examine the relationship between HIV prevention and treatment, understand the social and political mobilization required to tackle HIV, and sustain the range of disciplinary approaches needed to inform and guide responses to the global pandemic. The six articles included in the supplement demonstrate the value of fostering high quality social and political research to inform, guide and challenge our collaborative responses to HIV/AIDS.

  19. Quantum Mechanics and the Social Sciences: After Hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Patrick A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the hermeneutical aspect of quantum mechanical measurement reveals close analogs with the hermeneutical social/historical sciences. Suggests that the hermeneutical analysis of science requires the move from the epistemological attitude to an ontological view. (LZ)

  20. 77 FR 45604 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board; Environmental Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Science Advisory Board; Environmental Economics Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...) Staff Office announces two public teleconferences of the SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee...., notice is hereby given that the SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee (EEAC) will hold public...

  1. Citizen Data Science for Social Good in Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya Banerjee

    2018-01-01

    The confluence of massive amounts of openly available data, sophisticated machine learning algorithms and an enlightened citizenry willing to engage in data science presents novel opportunities for crowd sourced data science for social good. In this submission, I present vignettes of data science projects that I have been involved in and which have impact in various spheres of life and on social good. Complex systems are all around us: from social networks to transportation systems, cities, e...

  2. WeChat impact on social and economic in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Mengmeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to analyse WeChat in China. On the hand, this thesis analyses the impact of WeChat on social and economic based on its features. WeChat changes Chinese way of life. Customers are directly taken part in economic activities in WeChat. On the other hand, this thesis is intended to help entrepreneurs and organizations to know more about WeChat B2B and B2C model in China. The thesis will be helpful for those entrepreneurs who are going to enter Chinese market. Th...

  3. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF FINANCIAL AUDIT - IN NEW DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szigeti Cecília

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We think that financial institutions have a greater social responsibility to develop theircustomers’ financial culture than to support a football team. We assert that nowadaysfinancial institutions have a responsibility to be able to continue to operate banks withoutauxiliary state support. We believe that auditors, who for decades certified the financialreports of banks whose balance sheets were fictitious and whose depositors’ andshareholders' money was not safe, played no small role in the development of the recentfinancial crisis. Consequently we hold that the auditors’ greater social responsibility isunavoidable. On the other hand, after the crisis, due to the fact that social responsibility hascome to the fore, auditors also have to prepare for the challenge that corporate reports areincreasingly integrated reports which, in addition to mandatory economic information, alsovoluntarily impart data on social and environmental impact and activities.

  4. A Social Science Guide for Communication on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.

  5. Winch, Wittgenstein and the Idea of a Critical Social Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jens Christian

    such phenomena. In the light of new uses ofWittgenstein within social theory and recent philosophical research on Wittgenstein (that challenge the orthodoxWinchian reception of Wittgenstein), the paper discusses the prospects of a critical social science after Wittgenstein.......In "The Idea of a Social Science" and in the article "Understanding a Primitive Society" Peter Winch develops what he believes to be the implications ofWittgenstein's late philosophy for the social sciences. Inspired byWittgenstein,Winch argues for a linguistic turn. Winch's basic ontological claim...... is that social life is conceptually organised: it is organised by the ways in which language is used by members of social life. This claim has methodological implications: the social sciences are, according to Winch, conceptual studies, that is, they are studies of the concepts possessed by members of social...

  6. Sharing experiences about developing a regional social science virtual library

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Why and how a Latin American and the Caribbean social sciences network (Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, CLACSO) started a cooperative open access digital library to disseminate research results (journal articles, books, working documents)

  7. The science of ecological economics: a content analysis of Ecological Economics, 1989-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzadis, Valerie A; Castello, Leandro; Choi, Jaewon; Greenfield, Eric; Kim, Sung-kyun; Munsell, John; Nordman, Erik; Franco, Carol; Olowabi, Flavien

    2010-01-01

    The Ecological Economics journal is a primary source for inquiry on ecological economics and sustainability. To explore the scholarly pursuit of ecological economics, we conducted a content analysis of 200 randomly sampled research, survey, and methodological articles published in Ecological Economics during the 15-year period of 1989-2004. Results of the analysis were used to investigate facets of transdisciplinarity within the journal. A robust qualitative approach was used to gather and examine data to identify themes representing substantive content found within the span of sampled journal papers. The extent to which each theme was represented was counted as well as additional data, such as author discipline, year published, etc. Four main categories were revealed: (1) foundations (self-reflexive themes stemming from direct discussions about ecological economics); (2) human systems, represented by the themes of values, social indicators of well-being, intergenerational distribution, and equity; (3) biophysical systems, including themes, such as carrying capacity and scarcity, energy, and resource use, relating directly to the biophysical aspects of systems; and (4) policy and management encompassing themes of development, growth, trade, accounting, and valuation, as well as institutional structures and management. The results provide empirical evidence for discussing the future direction of ecological economic efforts.

  8. Thinking social sciences from Latin America at the epochal change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Antonio Preciado Coronado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From the legacy of an original disciplinary approach, as the Dependence theory and its Marxian critics, or the neo-structural economic theory founded by The Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA, the Latin-American social sciences deny the Anglo-European centered approaches, in the way of reaffirming its own critical thinking, including the neo-colonial practices. The challenge for this critical thinking is to be, simultaneously, cosmopolitan and Latin American’s one. In this process, the Latin-American social thinking is regaining its own originality and its vigorous proposals, thanks to a rich south-south dialogue, that implies a global character of its reflections and the questioning of its universal references. Although neither classical nor western Marxism are hegemonic within critical theory, the (neo Marxism enriched with criticism of the coloniality of power, the theory of World-System, critical geopolitics and political ecology recover the field of critical theory in key founder of an epochal thinking time. Epistemological debates with post-structuralism and postmodern approaches configure various recent developments in critical theory

  9. Solar energy`s economic and social benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Bundeshaus, Bonn (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  10. Sexual harassment on the job: psychological, social and economic repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, H L

    1984-09-01

    This article is an effort to shed new light on what has been commonly termed sexual harassment, to identify its forms and, most importantly, to explore its effect upon those who have been subjected to it. The author's hypothesis is that sexual harassment in the workplace is more a social phenomenon than a personal problem, and that it is the cause of lasting psychological, social and economic after-effects among its victims. Combatting sexual harassment is only part of the solution; we must look beyond its legal aspects to find ways of changing male-female occupational relationships, and we must provide support to victims of sexual harassment.

  11. Applied statistics for social and management sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Miah, Abdul Quader

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the application of statistical techniques and methods across a wide range of disciplines. While its main focus is on the application of statistical methods, theoretical aspects are also provided as fundamental background information. It offers a systematic interpretation of results often discovered in general descriptions of methods and techniques such as linear and non-linear regression. SPSS is also used in all the application aspects. The presentation of data in the form of tables and graphs throughout the book not only guides users, but also explains the statistical application and assists readers in interpreting important features. The analysis of statistical data is presented consistently throughout the text. Academic researchers, practitioners and other users who work with statistical data will benefit from reading Applied Statistics for Social and Management Sciences. .

  12. Social science research in malaria prevention, management and control in the last two decades: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenesi, Halima Abdullah

    2005-09-01

    In the recent past, considerable progress has been made in understanding how human behavior and social organization, macro- and micro-level economic processes, and health and political systems affect responses to malaria at global, national, community, household, and individual levels. Advances in malaria-related social, behavioral, economic, evaluation, health systems, and policy (social science) research have resulted in improvements in the design and implementation of malaria prevention, management and control (PMC) strategies. Indeed, the past two decades chronicle dramatic advances in the implementation of evidence-based interventions, drawn not only from biomedical but also from social science research. Malaria awareness-raising, advocacy, case management, and prevention efforts have reaped the benefits of social science research and as a result, many programs are implemented and evaluated in a more effective manner than in the past. However, the pace at which findings from social science research are integrated into program and policy implementation is unsatisfactory. Additionally, examples remain of programs that fail to utilize findings from social science research and as a result, achieve minimal results. Furthermore, there is a sizeable body of knowledge that is underutilized and which, if assimilated into programs and policies, could accelerate progress in malaria PMC. Examples include information on meaningful community participation, gender, socio-economic status, and health systems. Regrettably, although social science input is necessary for almost all interventions for malaria management and control, the numbers of scientists working in this area are dismal in most of the key disciplines-medical anthropology; demography; geography and sociology; health economics and health policy; social psychology; social epidemiology; and behavior-change communication. Further, skills of program workers charged with implementation of interventions and strategies

  13. The Economics of "Private Politics": Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Brøns-Petersen

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, private corporations engage in “private politics”, or “corporate social responsibility” (CSR). In some cases, such as the infamous Enron affair, huge discrepancies between stated and actual policies have been revealed, while in others corporations seem to have been taken hostage by interest groups, even if stated and actual polices matched. The paper attempts to model the “private politics” of CSR in economic terms. On the one hand, it is assumed that corporations can generate e...

  14. Ethics and Economics, Family & Firm Social philosophy and practical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalia Azzaro Pulvirenti

    2013-01-01

    “Corporate Family Responsibility” means that Households and Stakeholders can help each other, supported by institutions, to increase their growth. Our aim is to explain the main result of it: a higher level of social benefits can be effective for achieving economic goals. The first part of the paper illustrates the status of the art and some theories on business ethics; the final part some practical perspectives about it in Italy.

  15. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE Camelia; SEBEA Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Air transport is an innovative industry that drives economic and social progress. It connects people, countries and cultures; provides access to global markets and generates trade and tourism. It also forges links between developed and developing nations. Like most human activities, air transport has an impact on the environment, mainly through noise and emissions that affect local air quality and the climate. The industry fully recognises its responsibility in this regard and is determined t...

  16. About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshyn, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

  17. GENDER FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kochkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of gender asymmetry on the socio-economic development of the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social development of the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural and gender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Application of regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country gender and sociocultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.

  18. Economic and social impact of modernization on cultural values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the relevant theoretical economic approaches that allow us to understand the key elements of cultural values. The paper presents a model envisaged to estimate economic and social impact of modernization on cultural values in modern societies. We employ three indices of social and economic development for each level in Russian Federal districts of Moscow and St. Petersburg in order to reveal their impacts on modernization processes. Our data has been collected via the means of a questionnaire and an opinion poll with the purpose of revealing the value guidelines of society in terms of its modernization. Our results reveal the presence of four relevant levels of value orientations: family orientations, global, work, and personal orientations. Our results demonstrate how modernization is perceived in modern societies, in which spheres it is mostly expressed, and how it influences the society. Moreover, we show the determinants of values within four levels of value orientations. Our findings provide estimations of modern attitudes towards social consciousness in the processes of modernization and reveal basic moral principles that could become a background of new system of values used in modernizing modern societies.

  19. Measuring the economic performance of socially responsible companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Fernández-Guadaño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use different economic variables to establish whether there are differences in economic performance between companies as a result of their inclusion in the sustainability index. This paper presents a one-dimensional exploratory study which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the rest of the indices in the IBEX family. Parametric testing was used to study whether there are differences between the two types of companies. The results demonstrate that there are no statistically significant differences in economic performance between the two groups. Morover, it is confirmed that companies with good practices are as profitable as the rest, but it also demonstrates that the economic-financial behaviour is not better as a result of being in the sustainability index. The basic conclusion is that adhering to social and environmental standards does not harm a firm’s competitive position and, therefore, provide support for the development policy of responsible practices so that they become a tool to help improve the resilience of the economy and investor trust.

  20. Ukrainean crisis: History, demography, economics, science, personal impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    An overview of the Economic and Demographic situation in Ukraine has been given. Some historical-scientific aspects of the actual crisis has been revealed. Between them: The soveitization of the Science, when scientists of Ukrainean origin work outside its borders, while the most influent and proliferous scientists inside the Country are of Russian origin. The percentage of astronomers of Russian origin is as great as ~40% while the percentage of the Russian population in Ukraine is about 20%. Another problem consist in low knowledge of the Ukrainean language by scientists working inside the Country.

  1. New international economic order and flow of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojko, B

    1979-12-01

    The role of science and technology in creating a new international economic order based on manpower and raw materials is examined. The traditional linkage of science and politics should end and emphasis be given to increasing productivity in order to expand employment opportunities and raise the world living standard. An indigenous research and development capability is seen as essential to counteract the effects of the time factor when technology is introduced into developing countries. Other considerations are risk of an illusory self-reliance, allocation of development sites in terms of labor substitution, ruthlessness of labor competition during modernization, variations of labor quality, and relationship of demography and unemployment. Competition between the capitalist and socialist countries is being redirected into cooperation in the area of technology transfer. 7 references. (DCK)

  2. Economics and ethics: Antagonists or synergists in the radiologic sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschal, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation explores the relationship of some principles of economics and ethics as applied to the radiologic sciences community. The adversarial nature of these two topics is discussed, as well as how they work together in the improvement of health care delivery. With the health care system ''under the microscope,'' we must stringently watch our productivity and quality. These topics are also discussed in relation to the professional education of students and the continuing education of staff, educators, managers, and physicians in the radiologic sciences. With the rapid growth of more complex health technologies, the changing characteristics of health problems, and a commitment to serve the total population, a true team effort is required in health care delivery

  3. [Contextual indicators to assess social determinants of health and the Spanish economic recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Mateo, Inmaculada; Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Bartoll, Xavier; Bravo, María José; Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Renart, Gemma; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Saez, Marc; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Palència, Laia; López, María José; Saurina, Carme; Puig, Vanessa; Martín, Unai; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Serra Saurina, Laura; Sordo, Luis; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Ruiz, Miguel; Bernal, Mariola

    To provide indicators to assess the impact on health, its social determinants and health inequalities from a social context and the recent economic recession in Spain and its autonomous regions. Based on the Spanish conceptual framework for determinants of social inequalities in health, we identified indicators sequentially from key documents, Web of Science, and organisations with official statistics. The information collected resulted in a large directory of indicators which was reviewed by an expert panel. We then selected a set of these indicators according to geographical (availability of data according to autonomous regions) and temporal (from at least 2006 to 2012) criteria. We identified 203 contextual indicators related to social determinants of health and selected 96 (47%) based on the above criteria; 16% of the identified indicators did not satisfy the geographical criteria and 35% did not satisfy the temporal criteria. At least 80% of the indicators related to dependence and healthcare services were excluded. The final selection of indicators covered all areas for social determinants of health, and 62% of these were not available on the Internet. Around 40% of the indicators were extracted from sources related to the Spanish Statistics Institute. We have provided an extensive directory of contextual indicators on social determinants of health and a database to facilitate assessment of the impact of the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Interdisciplinarity and systems science to improve population health: a view from the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Patricia L; Olster, Deborah H; Morgan, Glen D; Abrams, David B

    2008-08-01

    Fueled by the rapid pace of discovery, humankind's ability to understand the ultimate causes of preventable common disease burdens and to identify solutions is now reaching a revolutionary tipping point. Achieving optimal health and well-being for all members of society lies as much in the understanding of the factors identified by the behavioral, social, and public health sciences as by the biological ones. Accumulating advances in mathematical modeling, informatics, imaging, sensor technology, and communication tools have stimulated several converging trends in science: an emerging understanding of epigenomic regulation; dramatic successes in achieving population health-behavior changes; and improved scientific rigor in behavioral, social, and economic sciences. Fostering stronger interdisciplinary partnerships to bring together the behavioral-social-ecologic models of multilevel "causes of the causes" and the molecular, cellular, and, ultimately, physiological bases of health and disease will facilitate breakthroughs to improve the public's health. The strategic vision of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is rooted in a collaborative approach to addressing the complex and multidimensional issues that challenge the public's health. This paper describes OBSSR's four key programmatic directions (next-generation basic science, interdisciplinary research, systems science, and a problem-based focus for population impact) to illustrate how interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary perspectives can foster the vertical integration of research among biological, behavioral, social, and population levels of analysis over the lifespan and across generations. Interdisciplinary and multilevel approaches are critical both to the OBSSR's mission of integrating behavioral and social sciences more fully into the NIH scientific enterprise and to the overall NIH mission of utilizing science in the pursuit of

  5. Student Empowerment in an Environmental Science Classroom: Toward a Framework for Social Justice Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel

    2012-01-01

    Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…

  6. Social and economic behavior shift in the suburban society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harianto, S.; Imron, A.; Setiawan, K. G.; Sadewo, F. X. S.

    2018-01-01

    One of the changes in the suburban area is marked by changes in land conversion, from agriculture pattern to non-farming pattern, which also affects changes in people’s livelihoods and occupation such as a craftsman and shoe trader. Using a qualitative approach, this study focuses to examine how changes in social and economic behavior of suburban communities as a result of urban development. This study founded that there was a change of livelihood in village people occupation from farmers to craftsmen and slippers traders. These changes have an impact on changing patterns of social relationships such as social interaction, social awareness, and social solidarity. In addition, the increase in income of village residents also impact on lifestyle changes such as diet and entertainment. Thus it can be concluded that urban development has an impact on suburban societies in social relations and income generation. The results of this study can be used as a reference for the city government and district governments in arranging the layout and build prosperity of the community suburban.

  7. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  8. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  9. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  10. GIS and the Social Sciences : Theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballas, Dimitris; Clarke, Graham; Franklin, Rachel S.; Newing, Andy

    2017-01-01

    GIS and the Social Sciences offers a uniquely social science approach on the theory and application of GIS with a range of modern examples. It explores how human geography can engage with a variety of important policy issues through linking together GIS and spatial analysis, and demonstrates the

  11. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three ... Outputs. Journal articles. Problems of the national and the ethnic/sectarian in Iraq [Arabic language]. Download PDF. Reports. State of social sciences in Iraq ...

  12. The present state of social science research in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieten, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    The first pan-Asia conference ‘Status and Role of Social Science Research in Asia, Emerging Challenges and Policy Issues’ (New Delhi, 13-15 March 2014), with representatives from 24 countries in Asia and some non-Asian countries, was intended to assess the present state of social science research in

  13. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  14. Kant or Marx? Philosophy and the Origins of Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaff, Lawrence A.

    The origins of social science as a discipline are analyzed in terms of the German scientific community before 1920, which tended to define itself according to the theories of Karl Marx or Immanuel Kant. Following a brief introduction about the nature of social science debates in intellectual Germany, section 2 of the paper considers whether the…

  15. Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

  16. The research trends of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bibliometric method was used to analyse the trends and challenges of Humanities and Social Sciences research by using research data reflecting on ongoing and completed Arts, Humanities and Social Science research publications submitted by staff and students from 1994 – 2008 to the university's Research Office.

  17. Critical Debates in Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores some of the critical debates in social science research methods education and is set out in three parts. The first section introduces the importance and relevance of research methods to the social sciences. It then outlines the problems and challenges experienced in the teaching and learning of research methods, which are…

  18. Extending Deacon’s Notion of Teleodynamics to Culture, Language, Organization, Science, Economics and Technology (CLOSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Logan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrence Deacon’s (2012 notion developed in his book Incomplete Nature (IN that living organisms are teleodynamic systems that are self-maintaining, self-correcting and self-reproducing is extended to human social systems. The hypothesis is developed that culture, language, organization, science, economics and technology (CLOSET can be construed as living organisms that evolve, maintain and reproduce themselves and are self-correcting, and hence are teleodynamic systems. The elements of CLOSET are to a certain degree autonomous, even though they are obligate symbionts dependent on their human hosts for the energy that sustains them.

  19. Effects of Economic and Social Implications of Tourism on Economic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șerban Comănescu Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism at national level can also be influenced by the policies of other economic sectors or activities with which tourism interacts to a greater or lesser extent, such as: transport infrastructure, environmental protection, educational programs, land use planning, regional plan. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of economic and social implications of Romanian tourism on economic flows and tourism in balance of payments and investment position of Romania. Romania's receiving tourism is little represented in the tourist traffic, and the receipts in the field relative to GDP represent a smaller share even than the traditional EU tourist-issuing countries such as the UK, Germany or the Scandinavian countries.

  20. Economic Design of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Can, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Economics is a social science, so is economic design as a field. This short article discusses, in particular, the future of economic design, and of economic theory in general. By suggesting some examples, I hope to convince the readers that the recent technological advances in science and technology

  1. Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A A

    2012-01-01

    Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences provides graduate students in the social and health sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish statistical models using contemporary standards. The book targets the social and health science branches such as human development, public health, sociology, psychology, education, and social work in which students bring a wide range of mathematical skills and have a wide range of methodological affinities. For these students, a successful course in statistics will not only offer statistical content

  2. About the Geographic Distribution of Economic Science in Asian Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Demyanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical studies of modern geographic distribution of economic science in Asian Russia (i. e. three macro-regions of Russia: Far East, Siberia and the Urals Region. The study is based on an original database of articles on Economics and related disciplines which arearranged within the Elibrary platformfor 2005-2013. These articles arewritten by fellows of research organizations that are located in the Asian part of Russia.Statistical analysis of the main indicators of publication activity shows that there are significant differences in the scope, dynamics, and quality of the results of this activity among the research organizations of various types.The authors focused on the territorial structure of the study of the economy defined as a set of scientific centers of varying scale and type, as well as networks of scientific communication.It is revealed that publication activity of economic research institutions in Asian Russia has a high level of spatial concentration and the system of scientific communication, formed by the scientific journals of the region, has a high level of fragmentation

  3. Integrating economic analysis and the science of climate instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Darwin C.; Behl, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific understanding of climate change and climate instability has undergone a revolution in the past decade with the discovery of numerous past climate transitions so rapid, and so unlike the expectation of smooth climate changes, that they would have previously been unbelievable to the scientific community. Models commonly used by economists to assess the wisdom of adapting to human-induced climate change, rather than averting it, lack the ability to incorporate this new scientific knowledge. Here, we identify and explain the nature of recent scientific advances, and describe the key ways in which failure to reflect new knowledge in economic analysis skews the results of that analysis. This includes the understanding that economic optimization models reliant on convexity are inherently unable to determine an 'optimal' policy solution. It is incumbent on economists to understand and to incorporate the new science in their models, and on climatologists and other scientists to understand the basis of economic models so that they can assist in this essential effort. (author)

  4. Information security: where computer science, economics and psychology meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Moore, Tyler

    2009-07-13

    Until ca. 2000, information security was seen as a technological discipline, based on computer science but with mathematics helping in the design of ciphers and protocols. That perspective started to change as researchers and practitioners realized the importance of economics. As distributed systems are increasingly composed of machines that belong to principals with divergent interests, incentives are becoming as important to dependability as technical design. A thriving new field of information security economics provides valuable insights not just into 'security' topics such as privacy, bugs, spam and phishing, but into more general areas of system dependability and policy. This research programme has recently started to interact with psychology. One thread is in response to phishing, the most rapidly growing form of online crime, in which fraudsters trick people into giving their credentials to bogus websites; a second is through the increasing importance of security usability; and a third comes through the psychology-and-economics tradition. The promise of this multidisciplinary research programme is a novel framework for analysing information security problems-one that is both principled and effective.

  5. Micronutrient deficiencies and gender: social and economic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Webb, Patrick; Harvey, Philip W J; Hunt, Joseph M; Dalmiya, Nita; Chopra, Mickey; Ball, Madeleine J; Bloem, Martin W; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-05-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies adversely affect a third of the world's people. Consequently, a series of global goals and a serious amount of donor and national resources have been directed at such micronutrient deficiencies. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors in a variety of institutional settings, the article used a computer search of the published scientific literature of the topic, supplemented by reports and published and unpublished work from the various agencies. In examining the effect of sex on the economic and social costs of micronutrient deficiencies, the paper found that: (1) micronutrient deficiencies affect global health outcomes; (2) micronutrient deficiencies incur substantial economic costs; (3) health and nutrition outcomes are affected by sex; (4) micronutrient deficiencies are affected by sex, but this is often culturally specific; and finally, (5) the social and economic costs of micronutrient deficiencies, with particular reference to women and female adolescents and children, are likely to be considerable but are not well quantified. Given the potential impact on reducing infant and child mortality, reducing maternal mortality, and enhancing neuro-intellectual development and growth, the right of women and children to adequate food and nutrition should more explicitly reflect their special requirements in terms of micronutrients. The positive impact of alleviating micronutrient malnutrition on physical activity, education and productivity, and hence on national economies suggests that there is also an urgent need for increased effort to demonstrate the cost of these deficiencies, as well as the benefits of addressing them, especially compared with other health and nutrition interventions.

  6. Criterion IV: Social and economic indicators of rangeland sustainability (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; Louis E. Swanson; John A. Tanaka; Mark W. Brunson; Aaron J. Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz

    2010-01-01

    Social and economic systems provide the context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability. A brief conceptual basis for each indicator is offered,...

  7. Critical bioethics: beyond the social science critique of applied ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecoe, Adam M

    2004-04-01

    This article attempts to show a way in which social science research can contribute in a meaningful and equitable way to philosophical bioethics. It builds on the social science critique of bioethics present in the work of authors such as Renee Fox, Barry Hoffmaster and Charles Bosk, proposing the characteristics of a critical bioethics that would take social science seriously. The social science critique claims that traditional philosophical bioethics gives a dominant role to idealised, rational thought, and tends to exclude social and cultural factors, relegating them to the status of irrelevancies. Another problem is they way in which bioethics assumes social reality divides down the same lines/categories as philosophical theories. Critical bioethics requires bioethicists to root their enquiries in empirical research, to challenge theories using evidence, to be reflexive and to be sceptical about the claims of other bioethicists, scientists and clinicians. The aim is to produce a rigorous normative analysis of lived moral experience.

  8. Evolution and the Human Population. Science In a Social CONtext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Joan

    Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

  9. On the Question of Studying the Role of Social Capital under the Conditions of the Socio-Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Vladimirovich Afanas’ev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has gained considerable popularity in the social sciences, as well as in practical politics on a national and international scale. Its heuristic potential is confirmed by numerous studies demonstrating the positive impact of the level and types of social capital on a wide range of economic, social and political phenomena, and especially the use of the concept of social capital to study economic growth and development issues. However, there is no universally accepted definition of social capital, and there is no unanimous opinion concerning the ways of measuring it. The paper contains a review of the current status of the theoretical field of the concept; it shows that researchers from different countries are interested in the impact of social capital on economic growth and development at the regional level. Specific comparative studies in different countries and regions strongly support the presence of a correlation that proves social capital is one of the powerful driving forces of development. However, since the majority of studies on the effects of social capital on economic development are concentrated in the developed countries of Western Europe and the USA, it is important to evaluate the potential of this approach in the countries of post-Communist development that have different experience, in particular, in Russia. In this regard, the article points out that there is a clear lack of such studies with regard to Russia’s regions, where there are only occasional fragmentary attempts to study social capital. The aim of the paper is to substantiate on the theoretical basis and to indicate the prerequisites for empirical studies on the effects of social capital of regions on their economic growth and development, especially under the conditions of the general economic and structural crisis

  10. Who's Who in the Social and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin

    1983-01-01

    Faculty members in social/behavioral science programs at the Universities of Chicago and California at Berkeley have been given the highest overall "grades" for quality by their academic peers in a survey published by the National Academy of Sciences. Includes scores for anthropology, geography, history, political science, psychology and sociology…

  11. Analyzing the Scientific Evolution of Social Work Using Science Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ma Angeles; Cobo, Manuel Jesús; Herrera, Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports the first science mapping analysis of the social work field, which shows its conceptual structure and scientific evolution. Methods: Science Mapping Analysis Software Tool, a bibliometric science mapping tool based on co-word analysis and h-index, is applied using a sample of 18,794 research articles published from…

  12. Social inequality in adolescents' healthy food intake: the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bart; Abel, Thomas; Moor, Irene; Elgar, Frank J; Lievens, John; Sioen, Isabelle; Braeckman, Lutgart; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-04-01

    Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P economic, cultural and social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Comment 3 - the research agenda: Social science research on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeny, D.

    1992-01-01

    The institutional analysis group discussed a number of topics and methodological approaches that would constitute important components of the social science contribution. The author has elaborated upon those discussions to record a somewhat personally idiosyncratic' set of items for the social science research agenda. A number of social science and historical disciplines contribute relevant case studies and comparative case studies. Economic and technological history studies that address the factors that affect the speed and direction of bias in technological change are of obvious relevance and will be useful in informing presumptions about the degree of substitutability within and among natural and man-made inputs to production. Case studies of existing and historical nested hierarchies are also very important. Norman Rosenberg reviewed the Resources for the Future MINK study (Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas) for the group. The study included a careful descriptive analysis of the economic activities of sectors in the region that are sensitive to changes in climate (agriculture, forestry, water resource management, energy). Carefully calibrated models describing inputs and outputs were developed. Simulations were then conducted to assess the independent effects of autonomous economic change, autonomous climate change, and their interaction. The results represent one meaningful and attractive approach for assessing economic-change/climate-change interactions. Additional studies such as the MINK study and alternative approaches for the assessment of economic-change/climate-change interactions appear to be warranted

  14. Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

  15. Economic and social activities on ancient Cypriot terraced landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Elizabeth; Galletti, Christopher S; Fall, Patricia L; Falconer, Steven E

    2017-11-01

    We investigate ancient agricultural terraces and their associated social and economic activities across the site complex consisting of the village at Politiko-Troullia and its more extensive associated taskscape. Surface artifact distributions mapped over 12 ha are integrated with evidence excavated from this Bronze Age settlement in central Cyprus. Contrary to expectations, artifact densities do not diminish with distance from the village architecture. In particular, concentrations of Prehistoric Bronze Age ceramics and ground stone artifacts are most pronounced on nearby terraced hillsides. These terraces were not utilized for domestic structures, but for extensive processing of agricultural crops and copper ore. Bronze Age excavated plant remains indicate cultivation of olives, grapes and figs, with wood resources dominated by olive and pine. Larger, non-portable ground stones and gaming stones are associated with communal social and economic activities in open courtyard settings in Politiko-Troullia. This category of ground stone also is particularly common on the terraced hillsides around Troullia, suggesting that similar behaviors occurred beyond village structures. The terraced landscape of Politiko-Troullia exemplifies a multi-faceted taskscape with a range of agricultural, metallurgical and social activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Swaminathan, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  17. ECONOMIC DESIGN IN SOCIALISM: MODERN UNDERSTANDING OF DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of improvement of the system pertaining to distribution of limited resources obligatory leads to reduction of state interference in these processes. While discussing the economic design in socialism in the period of 1920–1930 the Austrian school presented significant arguments against any interference in resource distribution. Socialists’ objections (initial idea of socialism as money-free economy; possibility to determine price structure that excludes deficit and glut in the market fail to pass theoretical and time testing. The existing opinion that the Austrians are losers in this discussion is related to their permanent additional arguments without acknowledging their own mistakes that had been made in their previous discussions and declaring that their opponents occupy positions at the second line of the defense. Last works of Austrian representatives re-consider final results of the discussion about the possibility of economic design in socialism taking into account changes in general approach to evaluation of the results of scientific discussion. 

  18. Evaluation of Life Sciences and Social Sciences Course Books in Term of Societal Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykac, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books in terms of gender discrimination. This study is a descriptive study aiming to evaluate the primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books…

  19. Social Science Research Findings and Educational Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to raise several distinctions regarding the presumed relationship of social science research findings to social policy making. The distinctions are made using Glymour's critique of the Bell Curve. An argument is made that (1 social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policy makers and (2 what is relevant, but overlooked by Glymour, is how ideological factors mediate the process. The forms that ideological mediation may take are indicated.

  20. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. Commentary. Contributions of social science to the health sciences are not always recognized as such. It may help if the professional profile of social science in the health sciences would be higher and if its focus would be more on making useful predictions. Clinical epidemiologists may assume that their discipline includes all relevant methods and that social science is largely based on qualitative research. These perceptions need to be challenged in order to widen the scope of clinical epidemiology and include relevant methods from other sciences. New methods help to ask new research questions and to provide better to old questions. This paper has sketched challenges for both social science researchers and clinical epidemiologists.

  1. Productivity in physical and chemical science predicts the future economic growth of developing countries better than other popular indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus; Caicedo, Mario; Manzanares, Marcos; Gil, Mario; Rios, Alfredo; Florez, Astrid; Montoreano, Claudia; Davila, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results show that rich and poor countries differ in the relative proportion of their scientific output in the different disciplines: countries with higher relative productivity in basic sciences such as physics and chemistry had the highest economic growth in the following five years compared to countries with a higher relative productivity in applied sciences such as medicine and pharmacy. Results suggest that the economies of middle income countries that focus their academic efforts in selected areas of applied knowledge grow slower than countries which invest in general basic sciences.

  2. Productivity in physical and chemical science predicts the future economic growth of developing countries better than other popular indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Jaffe

    Full Text Available Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results show that rich and poor countries differ in the relative proportion of their scientific output in the different disciplines: countries with higher relative productivity in basic sciences such as physics and chemistry had the highest economic growth in the following five years compared to countries with a higher relative productivity in applied sciences such as medicine and pharmacy. Results suggest that the economies of middle income countries that focus their academic efforts in selected areas of applied knowledge grow slower than countries which invest in general basic sciences.

  3. Analyzing Inflation and Its Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michael K.; Leak, Sarah

    Background information for teachers on inflation and self-contained learning activities to help students view inflation from both economic and political perspectives are provided. The introduction contains economics and political science frameworks for analyzing policy issues. How to integrate economics and political science is also discussed.…

  4. Precautionary principle, economic and energy systems and social equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco de; Mercedes, Sonia Seger P.; Sauer, Ildo L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the precautionary principle is reviewed alongside the process of international implementation. Adoption of the precautionary principle is advocated to deal with energy choices as a mechanism to account for potential climate change impacts, notwithstanding the debate on scientific uncertainty on the links between solar activity, greenhouse gas concentration and climate. However, it is also recognized that the widespread application of the precautionary principle to energy choices does not seem to be taking place in the real world. Relevant concrete barriers are identified stemming from the intrinsic logic governing the hegemonic economic system, driving the energy choices by economic surplus and rent generation potential, the existence of social asymmetries inside and among societies as well as by the absence of democratic global governance mechanisms, capable of dealing with climate change issues. Such perception seems to have been reinforced by the outcome of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  5. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Mosso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

  6. Social-psychological parameters of the Semipalatinsk region economical rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basybekova, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper is noted that global entropy processes that being generated by nuclear explosions on the Semipalatinsk region are leading not only to an environment change and disease incidence increase but also resulting the disturbances of human behavior regulatory mechanisms, and it consciousness degradation. In population of Semipalatinsk region we have observed a high psychical depressions, changes of perception coordinates, thought, motivational sphere, reduction of will energy potential, increase of suicides and other deviations in the mental health. Interpersonal and social relationships have become non-adequate. Mentioned factors and problems together with a set of technical and environmental aspects are exerting on an economic systems efficiency and State Programmes realization. Economical rehabilitation of the region and the country in total without system approach is not realistic, in which human factor should take proper place

  7. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  8. Social Networking among Library and Information Science Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakpodia, Onome Norah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine social networking use among Library and Information Science students of the Delta State University, Abraka. In this study, students completed a questionnaire which assessed their familiarity with social networking sites, the purpose for which they use social networking site and their most preferred sites to…

  9. Social and Economic Consequences of the 1987 Earthquakes in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Albornoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El 5 de marzo de 1987, dos terremotos de 6,1 y 6,9 grados en la escala Richter sacudieron en noreste del Ecuador. Si bien el país había vivido terremotos más fuertes, el de 1987 representa uno de los que más golpearon su economía. Para entender la gravedad de las consecuencias económicas y sociales que este fenómeno natural tuvo, es necesario revisar la realidad ecuatoriana previa al desastre. En particular tres factores habrían hecho más vulnerable al país frente a los terremotos de ese año: condiciones climáticas desfavorables, infraestructura vulnerable y malas políticas económicas. El resultado de esta vulnerabilidad fue que un terremoto causó una crisis económica que duró alrededor de cinco años. Abstract On March 5, 1987, northeastern Ecuador was shaken by two earthquakes, which registered 6.1 and 6.9 degrees, respectively, on the Richter scale. Even though the country had experienced stronger earthquakes, the ones that occurred in 1987 hit the economy harder than most. In order to understand how serious the economic and social consequences of this natural disaster were, it is necessary to examine Ecuador’s reality prior to these events. Three factors in particular made the country more susceptible to repercussions from the 1987 earthquakes: unfavorable climatic conditions, vulnerable infrastructure and ill-conceived economic policies. This meant that the earthquakes gave rise to an economic crisis that lasted approximately five years.

  10. Impact of Globalisation On Economic Growth in Romania: An Empirical Analysis of Its Economic, Social and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the link between globalisation and economic growth in Romania for a time span of 24 years. Data from World Bank were used in an econometrical model in order to highlight the impact of globalisation, expressed by the KOF globalisation index and its components (economic, social and political globalisation indices on economic growth rate. A statistical strong and positive link is found between GDP per capita dynamics and overall globalisation index as well as between GDP growth rate and economic and political globalisation, except the social dimension of globalisation which has a negative impact on economic growth in Romania for the time span 1990-2013.

  11. Agriculture vs. social sciences: subject classification and sociological conceptualization of rural tourism in Scopus and Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan HOČEVAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and consumptive function of countryside (rural areas are connected which should be reflected in scientific research. In order to test relationships, we selected the topic of rural tourism (also agritourism, agrotourism, agricultural tourism considering sociological conceptualization (social sciences, sociology and methodological approaches of information sciences (bibliometrics, scientometrics in describing fields of science or scientific disciplines. We ascertained scatter of information in citation databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar. Functionalities were evaluated, affecting search precision and recall in information retrieval. We mapped documents to Scopus subject areas as well as Web of Science (WOS research areas and subject categories, and related publications (journals. Databases do not differ substantially in mapping this topic. Social sciences (including economics or business occupy by far the most important place. The strongest concentration was found in tourism-related journals (consistent with power laws. Agriculture-related publications are rare, accounting for some 10 % of documents. Interdisciplinarity seems to be weak. Results point to poor inclusion of emerging social topics in agricultural research whereby agriculture may lose out in possible venues of future research.

  12. Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiryan, M.

    Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

  13. The economic and social significance of RCA regional co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    The regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) is an established and valuable instrument between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Member States in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific or Far East for assisting in the transfer of modern technology to areas having economic and social importance to the region. The purpose of this review is to identify on-going or planned work which is designed to help achieve this goal. Currently approved RCA Regional Co-operative Research Projects are listed

  14. Few aspects regarding bribery as a social and economic threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florin MĂGUREANU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the so called “white collar crimes” now implies a wide variety of offenses (including bribery that can affect the lives of more individuals than the “classic” crimes. An analysis of corruption necessarily implies an interdisciplinary approach, as it has multiple facets: social, political, economic and juridical. The New Criminal Code of Romania (NCC has brought a series of important changes, compared to the previous regulation. All forms of corruption involve an abusive use of power (public or private, for a personal gain, occurring regardless of the form of government or historical period.

  15. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The text of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - a high-class international document on the assurance and legal protection of the human rights - outlined a sum of principles regarding these rights, which fall within the broad range of legal doctrine on fundamental human rights. These principles are not contrary to the principles set out in the Charter of the United Nations and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, on the contrary, it were given an evident expression in its text content. That the authors of this Covenant wanted the assertion of these principle provisions, it is actually confirmed by the text of Article 24.

  16. Social-economic Dimension of Globalisation and Income Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Špirková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a broad concept casually used to describe a variety of phenomena of countries. However, there is no universally accepted definition and neither standard measurement for globalization nor social dimension of globalization. Many attempts have been made to measure globalization. Authors introduce single indices – economic and social globalization index and index for progress in reducing income inequality as fuzzy membership functions. Authors analyse the dependence of the new indices. Authors create clusters of similar EU countries in the view of these two indices with the help of fuzzy c‑cluster analysis. The result is two clusters of states – original EU countries, newly associated and four states – Greece, Portugal, Slovenia a Malta turned out as not decided.

  17. ENTREPRENEURSHIP, THE MAIN FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUȘAN GABRIELA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic and social development depends on general business activity in any region. The public policies targeting the development of entrepreneurship in Romania must be addressed, as well as the European Union in the context of an ecosystem whose pillars are: entrepreneurship education at all levels, streamlined and predictable regulatory framework and access to finance oriented to the competitiveness. The entrepreneurial education is useful both for those who set up a start-up or already have a business and develop it and for individual unrelated businesses: the social entrepreneurs who leading nongovernmental organizations, the entrepreneurs who leading research laboratories or research projects, the political entrepreneurs, the cultural entrepreneurs, and others.

  18. SOCIAL SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO DISCUSSIONS AFFECT THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santiago Quintal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In its origins, the social sciences have focused on technological issues. Social scientists have devoted much attention to the subject affects the action of technological progress on the conformation of human life in General, as well as keeping an eye on more concreteness about the aspects related to the way the technique is acquired, the ways employed to protect her and the tools used to Exchange and protection. In this context, the article aims to identify the contributions of social sciences-notably of the applied social sciences-to discussions involving science, technology and innovation. The survey used the inductive method, applied to the literature review. The findings point to multidisciplinarity of significant thematic affects to science, technology and innovation. Keywords: Scientific knowledge; Social Sciences; Technology and society.

  19. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  20. Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL; Brecke, Peter K [ORNL; Carmichael, Theodore D [ORNL; Eichelberger, Christopher N [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Hadzikadic, Mirsad [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL; Khouja, Moutaz J [ORNL; McLean, Angus L [ORNL; Middleton, Erin J [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Saric, Amar [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Sun, Min [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Whitmeyer, Joseph M [ORNL; Gilman, Paul [ORNL; O' Maonaigh, Heather C [ORNL

    2008-05-01

    The foundation of the Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES) project is a useful regional-scale social-simulation system. This report is organized into five chapters that describe insights that were gained concerning the five key feasibility questions pertaining to such a system: (1) Should such a simulation system exist, would the current state of data sets or collectible data sets be adequate to support such a system? (2) By comparing different agent-based simulation systems, is it feasible to compare simulation systems and select one appropriate for a given application with agents behaving according to modern social theory rather than ad hoc rule sets? (3) Provided that a selected simulation system for a region of interest could be constructed, can the simulation system be updated with new and changing conditions so that the universe of potential outcomes are constrained by events on the ground as they evolve? (4) As these results are constrained by evolving events on the ground, is it feasible to still generate surprise and emerging behavior to suggest outcomes from novel courses of action? (5) As these systems may for the first time require large numbers (hundreds of millions) of agents operating with complexities demanded of modern social theories, can results still be generated within actionable decision cycles?

  1. Modern Social Science Concepts, Proportionate Reciprocity, Modesty, and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos T. SOLDATOS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proportionate Reciprocity, Modesty, and Democracy, are the key concepts in Aristotle’s economics of exchange. The following correspondence of these concepts with modern social science may be contemplated: (a Ideally, reciprocal justice in bilateral bargaining to minimize expenditure given utility levels results in Pareto-efficient, envy-free, equitable outcomes. (b Practically, bargaining under the threat or actual recontracting may act as a surrogate of reciprocal justice, leading to an N-person contract topology. (c But, recontracting is subject to practical limitations too, in which case near-reciprocal justice/general equilibrium outcomes may be fostered if, as a surrogate of recontracting, modesty in interaction is exhibited in an evolutionarily-stable-strategy fashion. (d That is, incomplete recontracting amounts to asymmetric agent-type information, which in turn lays the ground for injustices; the same lack of information prevents rectificatory justice from being efficient and hence, modesty can be efficient only if it operates as a social norm and hence, only in a modest polity, which can be no other than democracy.

  2. Pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies in the UK: six domains for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Peter; Dodds, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The development of pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies (PPTs) over the last five years has generated intense interest from a range of stakeholders. There are concerns that these clinical and pharmaceutical interventions are proceeding with insufficient input of the social sciences. Hence key questions around implementation and evaluation remain unexplored whilst biomedical HIV prevention remains insufficiently critiqued or theorised from sociological as well as other social science perspectives. This paper presents the results of an expert symposium held in the UK to explore and build consensus on the role of the social sciences in researching and evaluating PPTs in this context. The symposium brought together UK social scientists from a variety of backgrounds. A position paper was produced and distributed in advance of the symposium and revised in the light this consultation phase. These exchanges and the emerging structure of this paper formed the basis for symposium panel presentations and break-out sessions. Recordings of all sessions were used to further refine the document which was also redrafted in light of ongoing comments from symposium participants. Six domains of enquiry for the social sciences were identified and discussed: self, identity and personal narrative; intimacy, risk and sex; communities, resistance and activism; systems, structures and institutions; economic considerations and analyses; and evaluation and outcomes. These are discussed in depth alongside overarching consensus points for social science research in this area as it moves forward.

  3. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  4. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  6. Economic and Social Council ends meeting after considering poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    An overview is provided of the recent meetings of the UN Economic and Social Council (UNESC) in Geneva during July 1993. The issues of the meetings focused on poverty alleviation and population issues and plans for the International Conference on Population and Development. More than 100 resolutions and decisions were approved by the UNESC Commissions. In the meeting held on June 29-30, 1993, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary General of the UN, addressed 15 ministers and 38 senior government officials and representatives of multilateral financial and trade institutions. He said that an unstable society undermines a stable economy and a stable political order. Social development must be the basis of all development. Social development has the goal of the alleviating poverty in the marginalization of populations, in discrimination in social relationship, in rootlessness of culture, and in vulnerability in ecology. The priority is in attacking poverty first. The World Summit to be held in March 1995 should enlist international cooperation in ending poverty. The UN marks its 50th anniversary also at that time, and the Summit would provide an opportunity to begin dealing with real and tangible issues such as poverty, social integration and employment. All countries are in need of formulating new directions in social policy and policies that accounting for the interrelationships globally in such a way as to put the best interests of all nations at the forefront. Development and international cooperation must "put people first." The meetings also addressed the issue of women's integration into society and the need to invest in women, as part of changing gender discrimination and contributing to their full participation in socioeconomic development. The Council requested an extension to meetings scheduled for April 1994 and the preparation of documentation by Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund that would include this Council meeting

  7. Community College Economics Instruction: Results from a National Science Foundation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Mark; Chi, W. Edward

    2016-01-01

    The principal investigator of a National Science Foundation project, "Economics at Community Colleges," surveyed community college economics faculty and organized workshops, webinars, and regional meetings to address community college faculty isolation from new ideas in economics and economics instruction. Survey results, combined with…

  8. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pérez, Inocente; Gutiérrez Benítez, Omar; Martínez Bermúdez, Guillermo; Padrón Padrón, Wilfredo; Águila Cabrera, Cira

    2015-01-01

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  9. The Social and Economic Impacts of Space Weather (US Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Webb, D. F.; Oughton, E. J.; Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.; Basoli, D.; Griot, O.

    2017-12-01

    The National Space Weather Action Plan calls for new research into the social and economic impacts of space weather and for the development of quantitative estimates of potential costs. In response to this call, NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and Abt Associates are working together to identify, describe, and quantify the impact of space weather to U.S. interests. This study covers impacts resulting from both moderate and severe space weather events across four technological sectors: Electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users. It captures the full range of potential impacts, identified from an extensive literature review and from additional conversations with more than 50 sector stakeholders of diverse expertise from engineering to operations to end users. We organize and discuss our findings in terms of five broad but interrelated impact categories including Defensive Investments, Mitigating Actions, Asset Damages, Service Interruptions, and Health Effects. We also present simple, tractable estimates of the potential costs where we focused on quantifying a subset of all identified impacts that are apt to be largest and are also most plausible during moderate and more severe space weather scenarios. We hope that our systematic exploration of the social and economic impacts provides a foundation for the future work that is critical for designing technologies, developing procedures, and implementing policies that can effectively reduce our known and evolving vulnerabilities to this natural hazard.

  10. Effects of Age-related Differences in Empathy on Social Economic Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-mak...

  11. Modeling economic growth fuelled by science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a simulation model to investigate how science and technology fuel economic growth. This model is built upon a synthesis of technological capabilities represented by national innovation systems. This paper gathers data of papers and patents for 183 countries between 1999 and 2003, as well as GDP and population for 2003. These data show a strong correlation between science, technology and income. Three simulation exercises are performed. Feeding our algorithm with data for population, patents and scientific papers, we obtain the world income distribution. These results support our conjecture on the role of science and technology as sources of the wealth of nations.Este artigo propõe um modelo de simulação para investigar a contribuição da ciência e da tecnologia para o crescimento econômico. O ponto de partida são os sistemas nacionais de inovação, um conceito que sintetiza a capacitação tecnológica das nações. Desta forma, o modelo pode preservar simplicidade e parcimônia. Os dados coletados (patentes, artigos e PIB e população, para 183 países indicam uma forte correlação entre ciência, tecnologia e renda. Três exercícios com simulações são realizados para diversos momentos do tempo, mostrando a progressiva aderência do modelo a essas variáveis tecnológicas.

  12. Applied data-centric social sciences concepts, data, computation, and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2014-01-01

    Applied data-centric social sciences aim to develop both methodology and practical applications of various fields of social sciences and businesses with rich data. Specifically, in the social sciences, a vast amount of data on human activities may be useful for understanding collective human nature. In this book, the author introduces several mathematical techniques for handling a huge volume of data and analysing collective human behaviour. The book is constructed from data-oriented investigation, with mathematical methods and expressions used for dealing with data for several specific problems. The fundamental philosophy underlying the book is that both mathematical and physical concepts are determined by the purposes of data analysis. This philosophy is shown throughout exemplar studies of several fields in socio-economic systems. From a data-centric point of view, the author proposes a concept that may change people’s minds and cause them to start thinking from the basis of data. Several goals underlie ...

  13. Economic and social ethics in the work of John Calvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Freudenberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available John Calvin and Reformed Protestantism interlinked questions of life and death with questions of faith. Not only faith and the church, but life in general call for constant renewal through the word of God. These processes of renewal incorporate society and the economy. In contrast to the popular assertion that Calvin and Calvinism are responsible for capitalism and its aberrations, Calvin in particular shows a deep sensibility for human beings trapped in economic deprivation. In his sermons Calvin exhorts the rich to consider the poor as ‘their’ poor and to thank God by practicing generosity. This appreciation of social questions within an ecumenical context is demonstrated in the Reformed church in a whole array of charitable services. It will be crucial for the current debate on economic ethics to assess economic processes in relation to how they serve life. For it is liberty, justice and fellowship – as gifts of God – that serve as an orientation and an obligation to be aware of human beings suffering from the negative consequences of globalisation.

  14. Trade as an indicator of social and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebryakova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of trade in the Russian Federation became the most important type of entrepreneurship. It is, in a number of objective and subjective reasons, is the most rapidly developing sector of the national economy, affecting the interests of all subjects of market relations: population, manufacturers of commercial products, government and trade. Currently in the internal trade of the Russian Federation there have been significant changes occurring under the influence of growing tensions on the international market, in the economy of our country and within the trading industry. But despite the deteriorating economic situation in the world and strained relations between the Russian Federation and its European and American partners, the latest statistics indicate the translational dynamics of retail trade turnover in the whole country, and in the Voronezh region. Retail trade turnover is among the most important indicators of economic and social development of the Voronezh region and the country as a whole. Its structure and volume characterize the level of consumption of goods population, the increase or decrease of welfare of the people. Through retail sales is a constant influence on the development of the volume and structure of production of consumer goods. This article assessed the relationship between the economic development of the Voronezh region as one of average of region of our country, its trade and standard of living of Voronezh.

  15. Small business in Russia as an economic and social phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzikova Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today small business is undoubtedly an important part of national economies all over the world. Problematics of small business development turned to one of the most popular areas of study for the Russian researchers in the 1990s. After the market reforms started, a large part of population believed that small business would become a source of wealth and prosperity as for them personally so for the society as a whole. This opinion united academic researchers and practitioners-entrepreneurs, so the activities of the latter gave the empirical material for the first. The main economic functions usually attributed to small businesses are the following: innovation, combating monopolies and maintain a competitive environment, combating unemployment and creating jobs, increasing income of the general population and, consequently, the expansion of consumer demand, increase the professional activity, the development of entrepreneurial skills, spirit, and traditions. Social role of small business is considered as an important institution of civil society and the kernel of the middle class formation as a basis for socio-political stability of the state. In the earlier research of the author it was concluded that in today Russia small business does not perform properly the functions attributed to it by economic theory. Its contribution to innovation is modest. Its antimonopoly role does not fit the theoretical position. The role in job creation is noticeable but it is not accompanied by the role in income creation and by the appropriate indicators of business productivity. The aim of current research is to identify and to explain the specifics of small business in Russia in context of economic theory and social processes based on statistical and factual information.

  16. Social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice across the political spectrum, but social issues are most divisive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Chambers, John R; Motyl, Matt

    2017-03-01

    Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively. The social primacy hypothesis predicts that such ideological worldview conflict is experienced more strongly along the social than economic dimension. The social-specific asymmetry hypothesis predicts that social conservatives will be more prejudiced than social liberals, with no specific hypotheses for the economic dimension. Using multiple target groups, multiple prejudice measures (e.g., global evaluations, behavior), and multiple social and economic ideology measures (self-placement, issue positions), we found relatively consistent support for the dimension-specific symmetry and social primacy hypotheses, and no support for the social-specific asymmetry hypothesis. These results suggest that worldview conflict and negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors are dimension-specific, but that the social dimension appears to inspire more political conflict than the economic dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Shaping a Science of Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Social workers provide more social services to populations across the life span than any other human service profession, including psychiatry, nursing, and psychology. The scientific methodologies and the scientific knowledge relevant to social services have expanded dramatically in the last 30 years. Using the two indicators of the total number…

  18. Incentivising social science perspectives in the SADC water sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the governance challenges facing the water sector necessitates expertise from a diverse set of interdisciplinary backgrounds. Creating a balance between technical, natural and social science is critical to developing relevant and impact...

  19. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. O. O. Umoh, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom. State, Nigeria .... research may be lost through misunderstanding ..... advertisement, the media also should be used to ...

  20. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO. ... media. From the over fifty tertiary institutions in the country graduates are churned .... few were collected at the contact addresses, ... acquisition is paramount for successful job hunting.