WorldWideScience

Sample records for science requires pupils

  1. Attitudes to Science of Pupils in Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Akbar bin

    1984-01-01

    Attitudes toward science of 654 pupils aged 14-15 were assessed, and relationships between attitude and locality, achievement, and sex studied. Achievement was mildly correlated with attitude, but locality and sex had no influence. Other findings are also discussed. (MNS)

  2. Pupil's motivation in the 3. grades for required reading and The Reading Badge

    OpenAIRE

    Logar, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Reading is extremely important for pupils and their development. The pupil with reading habits riches his vocabulary and gaining knowledge. On the other hand the pupil through reading entry into the world of imagination and stories. Major role in motivating students to read have parents and teachers. In this graduation thesis I was interested in how third grade teachers motivate their pupils to read. In doing so, I was focused mainly to reading for required reading and The Reading Badge. ...

  3. Science investigation: the views of 14 to 16 year old pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplis, Rob; Cleaves, Anna

    2006-05-01

    This paper reports research about upper secondary school pupils' views about science investigations in school. Although researchers, teachers and examiners have expressed opinions about investigative work in science, there have been relatively few studies of pupils' experiences. The present study identified pupils' concerns about the limited time available, timing of the investigations, lack of familiarity with apparatus and the association of investigation almost exclusively with assessment, all factors which contributed to stress. One exceptional school apart, pupils perceived the teacher's role as a didactic supporter of strategies to maximise performance for assessment. We discuss these views and examine the potential for putting policy into practice.

  4. High School Class for Gifted Pupils in Physics and Sciences and Pupils' Skills Measured by Standard and Pisa Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, G. S.; Pavlovic-Babic, D.

    2010-01-01

    The "High school class for students with special abilities in physics" was founded in Nis, Serbia (www.pmf.ni.ac.yu/f_odeljenje) in 2003. The basic aim of this project has been introducing a broadened curriculum of physics, mathematics, computer science, as well as chemistry and biology. Now, six years after establishing of this specialized class, and 3 years after the previous report, we present analyses of the pupils' skills in solving rather problem oriented test, as PISA test, and compare their results with the results of pupils who study under standard curricula. More precisely results are compared to the progress results of the pupils in a standard Grammar School and the corresponding classes of the Mathematical Gymnasiums in Nis. Analysis of achievement data should clarify what are benefits of introducing in school system track for gifted students. Additionally, item analysis helps in understanding and improvement of learning strategies' efficacy. We make some conclusions and remarks that may be useful for the future work that aims to increase pupils' intrinsic and instrumental motivation for physics and sciences, as well as to increase the efficacy of teaching physics and science.

  5. Brazilian Primary and Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Science and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszeck, Amauri Betini; Bartoszeck, Flavio Kulevicz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand in an exploratory way pupils' perception of science and the image of scientists at primary and secondary school levels. Data was collected by means of a survey questionnaire and a drawing representing pupils' depiction what scientists do during their working hours. A questionnaire anchored on a Likert…

  6. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in "normal" science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p tool to trigger interest in science in youngsters, especially for less motivated pupils.

  7. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in “normal” science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p motivated pupils. PMID:25741301

  8. What Frameworks Are Helpful to Science Teachers and Their Pupils When Thinking about the Relationship between Science and Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeaud, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Secondary school science teachers report that their approaches to some topics are affected by the recognition that some pupils hold religious beliefs, while primary school teacher trainees express concern about teaching evolution to children with a religious faith. Pupils in British schools and internationally often assume a conflict between…

  9. The pinwheel pupil discovery: exoplanet science & improved processing with segmented telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James Bernard

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we show that by using a “pinwheel” architecture for the segmented primary mirror and curved supports for the secondary mirror, we can achieve a near uniform diffraction background in ground and space large telescope systems needed for high SNR exoplanet science. Also, the point spread function will be nearly rotationally symmetric, enabling improved digital image reconstruction. Large (>4-m) aperture space telescopes are needed to characterize terrestrial exoplanets by direct imaging coronagraphy. Launch vehicle volume constrains these apertures are segmented and deployed in space to form a large mirror aperture that is masked by the gaps between the hexagonal segments and the shadows of the secondary support system. These gaps and shadows over the pupil result in an image plane point spread function that has bright spikes, which may mask or obscure exoplanets.These telescope artifact mask faint exoplanets, making it necessary for the spacecraft to make a roll about the boresight and integrate again to make sure no planets are missed. This increases integration time, and requires expensive space-craft resources to do bore-sight roll.Currently the LUVOIR and HabEx studies have several significant efforts to develop special purpose A/O technology and to place complex absorbing apodizers over their Hex pupils to shape the unwanted diffracted light. These strong apodizers absorb light, decreasing system transmittance and reducing SNR. Implementing curved pupil obscurations will eliminate the need for the highly absorbing apodizers and thus result in higher SNR.Quantitative analysis of diffraction patterns that use the pinwheel architecture are compared to straight hex-segment edges with a straight-line secondary shadow mask to show a gain of over a factor of 100 by reducing the background. For the first-time astronomers are able to control and minimize image plane diffraction background “noise”. This technology will enable 10-m segmented

  10. Smart Kids--Enhancing Science Learning with Pupil-Pupil Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mick

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview between the author and two teachers, Ruth Birtles and Michelle Proctor, who are involved in "Smart Kids", an AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust (AZSTT) funded project for 2009-10 coordinated by the Centre for Science Education, Sheffield Hallam University. In this interview, Proctor and Birtles discuss…

  11. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  12. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  13. Nature and quality of teacher – pupil interactions in primary science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the constructivist framework, a science teacher is expected to be an active facilitator who orchestrates and supports interaction with learners with the aim of stimulating learning. The quality of teacher – pupil interaction would, therefore, determine the effectiveness of the learning process. This study investigated the ...

  14. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  15. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  16. Changes in Primary School Pupils' Conceptions of Water in the Context of Science, Technology, and Society (STS) Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Keinonen, Tuula

    2018-01-01

    Pupils' conceptual change processes that have led to long-term changes in learning processes can be very challenging and interwoven with several issues. Meanwhile, school learning is often determined as fragmented, without providing connections to pupils' different life and societal contexts. In this study, Science, Technology, and Society (STS)…

  17. To What Extent Do Pupils Perceive Science to Be Inconsistent with Religious Faith? An Exploratory Survey of 13-14 Year-Old English Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.; Billingsley, Berry; Riga, Fran; Newdick, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Scientists hold a wide range of beliefs on matters of religion, although popular media coverage in the UK commonly suggests that atheism is a core commitment for scientists. Considering the relationship between religion and science is a recommended topic in the English National Curriculum for lower secondary pupils (11-14 year-olds), and it is…

  18. Water. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the importance of water in students' daily lives; (2) the need to purify drinking…

  19. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  20. Pupils Produce their Own Narratives Inspired by the History of Science: Animation Movies Concerning the Geocentric-Heliocentric Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Siakas, Spyros; Seroglou, Fanny

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present the design and application of a teaching scenario appropriate for 12-years-old pupils in the primary school aiming to a better understanding of scientific concepts and scientific methods, linking the development of individual thinking with the development of scientific ideas and facilitating a better understanding of the nature of science. The design of the instructional material supporting this scenario has been based on the study of the history of astronomy and especially on: (a) The various theories concerning the movement of Earth, our solar system and the universe. (b) Key-stories highlighting the evolutionary character of scientific knowledge as well as the cultural interrelations of science and society. The design of the teaching scenario has focused on the participation of pupils in gradually evolving discourses and practices encouraging an appreciation of aspects of the nature of science (e.g. the role of observation and hypothesis, the use of evidence, the creation and modification of models). In this case, pupils are asked to produce their own narratives: animation movies concerning the geocentric-heliocentric debate inspired by the history of science, as the animation technique presents strong expressional potential and currently has many applications in the field of educational multimedia. The research design of this current case study has been based on the SHINE research model, while data coming from pupils' animation movies, questionnaires, interviews, worksheets, story-boards and drawings have been studied and analyzed using the GNOSIS research model. Elaborated data coming from our analysis approach reveal the appearance, transformation and evolution of aspects of nature of science appreciated by pupils and presented in their movies. Data analysis shows that during the application pupils gradually consider more and more the existence of multiple answers in scientific questions, appreciate the effect of culture on the way

  1. Year One of Project Pulse: Pupils Using Laptops in Science and English. A Final Report. Technical Report No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Katie; Honey, Margaret

    A year-long study was conducted with a class of 25 eighth graders, their English and science teachers, and the school computer supervisor at a school in Roselle (New Jersey). The structure and goals of the project, called PULSE, for Pupils Using Laptops in Science and English, are described. Research questions focused on the development of…

  2. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  3. TAPS for Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    By placing the Focused Assessment approach within the TAPS pyramid framework, schools are beginning to find a number of ways in which learning in science can be enhanced for pupils. The quotations in this article provide examples of the ways in which science subject leaders (SSL) describe the impact of TAPS on their pupils.

  4. Teachers' Inclusive Strategies to Accommodate 5th Grade Pupils' Crossing of Cultural Borders in Two Greek Multicultural Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Evangelou, Odysseas

    2012-04-01

    The demographic changes in Greek schools underline the need for reconsidering the way in which migrant pupils move from their everyday culture into the culture of school science (a process known as "cultural border crossing"). Migrant pupils might face difficulties when they attempt to transcend cultural borders and this may influence their progress in science as well as the construction of suitable academic identities as a means of promoting scientific literacy. In the research we present in this paper, adopting the socioculturally driven thesis that learning can be viewed and studied as a meaning-making, collaborative inquiry process, we implemented an action research program (school year 2008-2009) in cooperation with two teachers, in a primary school of Athens with 85% migrant pupils. We examined whether the two teachers, who became gradually acquainted with cross-cultural pedagogy during the project, act towards accommodating the crossing of cultural borders by implementing a variety of inclusive strategies in science teaching. Our findings reveal that both teachers utilized suitable cross-border strategies (strategies concerning the establishment of a collaborative inquiry learning environment, and strategies that were in accordance with a cross-border pedagogy) to help students cross smoothly from their "world" to the "world of science". A crucial key to the teachers' expertise was their previous participation in collaborative action research (school years 2004-2006), in which they analyzed their own discourse practices during science lessons in order to establish more collaborative inquiry environments.

  5. Concept-Cartoons as a Tool to Evoke and Analyze Pupils Judgments in Social Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fenske

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The following contribution makes an effort to place the concept-cartoon-method into the context of social science education. Concept-cartoons (CCs enable teachers to use the everyday life experiences and individual thoughts of the pupils as a positive enrichment tool within the learning processes. In this context, CCs are very suitable to function as a method to gain information about both the existing mental conceptions and the individual political judgment strategies. Through this, it is possible to put everyday life concepts and scientific knowledge in a constructive relationship, which finally enhances new learning objectives. First the article highlights the relevance of pupils’ and teachers` concepts for judgment processes. On this basis the method of CCs is introduced and evaluated.Der folgende Artikel beschäftigt sich mit den Möglichkeiten des methodischen Einsatzes von Concept-Cartoons im Rahmen sozialwissenschaftlichen Unterrichts. Als Instrumentarium zur Diagnose von Schülervorstellungen und individuellen Urteilsstrategien, bieten Comic-Cartoons den Lehrkräften die Möglichkeit, den Unterricht entlang dieser lernrelevanten Perspektiven zu gestalten. Durch die konstruktive Verknüpfung von Alltagskonzepten und Fachkonzepten können auf diese Weise neue Chancen für nachhaltige Lehr- und Lernprozesse erschlossen werden. Innerhalb dieses Beitrags wird zunächst die Bedeutung von Schülervorstellungen und vorfachlichen Urteilsstrategien für wirksamen sozialwissenschaftlichen Unterricht geklärt. Im Anschluss erfolgt eine Einführung in die Methode „Concept-Cartoons“. Abschließend werden exemplarisch drei von den Autoren gestaltete Cartoons vorgestellt.

  6. Cryogenic Pupil Alignment Test Architecture for Aberrated Pupil Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent; Kubalak, David A.; Antonille, Scott; Ohl, Raymond; Hagopian, John G.

    2009-01-01

    A document describes cryogenic test architecture for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) integrated science instrument module (ISIM). The ISIM element primarily consists of a mechanical metering structure, three science instruments, and a fine guidance sensor. One of the critical optomechanical alignments is the co-registration of the optical telescope element (OTE) exit pupil with the entrance pupils of the ISIM instruments. The test architecture has been developed to verify that the ISIM element will be properly aligned with the nominal OTE exit pupil when the two elements come together. The architecture measures three of the most critical pupil degrees-of-freedom during optical testing of the ISIM element. The pupil measurement scheme makes use of specularly reflective pupil alignment references located inside the JWST instruments, ground support equipment that contains a pupil imaging module, an OTE simulator, and pupil viewing channels in two of the JWST flight instruments. Pupil alignment references (PARs) are introduced into the instrument, and their reflections are checked using the instrument's mirrors. After the pupil imaging module (PIM) captures a reflected PAR image, the image will be analyzed to determine the relative alignment offset. The instrument pupil alignment preferences are specularly reflective mirrors with non-reflective fiducials, which makes the test architecture feasible. The instrument channels have fairly large fields of view, allowing PAR tip/tilt tolerances on the order of 0.5deg.

  7. Appropriate Pupilness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    for football are selected. The article opens up for a microanalysis of everyday practices at the margins and at the core of what this article terms `pupilness'. The concept of intersectionality is suggested as a useful analytical tool to understand the multiple activities of pupils in everyday school life...

  8. Zanimanje in želje osnovnošolcev za učenje naravoslovja = Interests and Preferences of Primary School Pupils Regarding the Natural Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Skurjeni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to analyze and investigate the interest of primary school pupils in natural science topics within primary school subject fields. Examining the existing curricula, it becomes evident that natural science topics are intertwined in different subject fields. Based on the methodology, developed within the rose project, a quantitative research was performed in order to investigate pupils’ wishes and interests regarding learning about natural science topics within different subject fields. The data was acquired by means of a questionnaire. The findings suggest that the level of Slovene pupils’ interest in natural science is low; nevertheless the girls are more interested in it than boys. The pupils would like to learn more about animals, non-scientific phenomena and information technology. However, they are not interested in physics.

  9. How to become a mentalist: reading decisions from a competitor's pupil can be achieved without training but requires instruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix Naber

    Full Text Available Pupil dilation is implicated as a marker of decision-making as well as of cognitive and emotional processes. Here we tested whether individuals can exploit another's pupil to their advantage. We first recorded the eyes of 3 "opponents", while they were playing a modified version of the "rock-paper-scissors" childhood game. The recorded videos served as stimuli to a second set of participants. These "players" played rock-paper-scissors against the pre-recorded opponents in a variety of conditions. When players just observed the opponents' eyes without specific instruction their probability of winning was at chance. When informed that the time of maximum pupil dilation was indicative of the opponents' choice, however, players raised their winning probability significantly above chance. When just watching the reconstructed area of the pupil against a gray background, players achieved similar performance, showing that players indeed exploited the pupil, rather than other facial cues. Since maximum pupil dilation was correct about the opponents' decision only in 60% of trials (chance 33%, we finally tested whether increasing this validity to 100% would allow spontaneous learning. Indeed, when players were given no information, but the pupil was informative about the opponent's response in all trials, players performed significantly above chance on average and half (5/10 reached significance at an individual level. Together these results suggest that people can in principle use the pupil to detect cognitive decisions in another individual, but that most people have neither explicit knowledge of the pupil's utility nor have they learnt to use it despite a lifetime of exposure.

  10. The Voice of the Pupils: An Experimental Comparison of Decisions Made by Elected Pupil Councils, Pupils in Referenda, and Teaching Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilljam, Mikael; Esaiasson, Peter; Lindholm, Torun

    2010-01-01

    This article tests whether the form of decision-making used in school environments affects pupils' views on the legitimacy of the decisions made, and of the decision-making procedure. Building on political science theory on democratic decision-making, it compares pupils' reactions towards decisions made by pupil councils, by pupils via referendum,…

  11. Conserving Our Environment. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P9 SIS unit focuses on: (1) basic ecological and conservation concepts; (2) problems and complexities of…

  12. Different Living Things. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets.] Unit 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit is designed to: (1) help students develop an elementary understanding of how living things can be…

  13. Air and Weather Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the importance of air and air pressure in students' everyday lives; (2) oxidation…

  14. Conserving Our Energy. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P9 SIS unit deals with: (1) the importance of energy in students' everyday lives; (2) energy forms and…

  15. Techniques and Measurements. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit is designed to: (1) introduce students to and familiarize them with working in the school laboratory;…

  16. Food and Growth. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P8 SIS unit examines: (1) the role played by bones, muscles, and teeth and the importance of developing and…

  17. Heat and Molecules. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P8 SIS unit deals with: (1) changes in temperature which make matter expand and contract (and how this affects…

  18. Magnets and Electricity. Seychelles Integrated Science [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P8 SIS unit focuses on: (1) elementary concepts in magnetic theory and the role magnets and magnetism play in…

  19. Conserving Our Health. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P9 SIS unit deals with conserving health, focusing on such body processes as breathing, digestion, excretion,…

  20. Living Things Reproduce. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P8 SIS unit focuses on reproduction in animals and in flowering plants. Particular topics examined include the…

  1. Acids and Alkalis. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P8 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the uses of acids and bases (alkalis) in students' everyday lives, stressing their…

  2. Soil and Living Things. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the structure of the two main soil types in Seychelles; (2) the role of roots in…

  3. Improving pupils conceptual understanding by an in- and out-of-school science program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, Henderien; Doornenbal, Jeannette; van Geert, Paul; Geveke, Carla

    Research in the field of out-of-school science is gradually increasing. These programs are considered to be important, yet more evidence about the learning effect is needed. This study aims to contribute to that matter by means of microgenetic measurements. We wanted to answer the question: How is

  4. Pupils' Views about Spiders. Learning in Science Project (Primary). Working Paper No. 123.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawe, Eleanor

    The Learning in Science Project (Primary)--LISP(P)--investigated the ideas and interests about spiders held by 8- to 10-year-old children. Data included 303 questions--and answers to some of the questions--about spiders obtained from children in four classes and from responses obtained during individual interviews with 10 children from each age…

  5. WFIRST: Update on the Coronagraph Science Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Cahoy, Kerri; Carlton, Ashley; Macintosh, Bruce; Turnbull, Margaret; Kasdin, Jeremy; WFIRST Coronagraph Science Investigation Teams

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST Coronagraph instrument (CGI) will enable direct imaging and low resolution spectroscopy of exoplanets in reflected light and imaging polarimetry of circumstellar disks. The CGI science investigation teams were tasked with developing a set of science requirements which advance our knowledge of exoplanet occurrence and atmospheric composition, as well as the composition and morphology of exozodiacal debris disks, cold Kuiper Belt analogs, and protoplanetary systems. We present the initial content, rationales, validation, and verification plans for the WFIRST CGI, informed by detailed and still-evolving instrument and observatory performance models. We also discuss our approach to the requirements development and management process, including the collection and organization of science inputs, open source approach to managing the requirements database, and the range of models used for requirements validation. These tools can be applied to requirements development processes for other astrophysical space missions, and may ease their management and maintenance. These WFIRST CGI science requirements allow the community to learn about and provide insights and feedback on the expected instrument performance and science return.

  6. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  7. Make pupils young researchers!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouhier, Armelle

    2015-04-01

    With the 2011 educational reform in France, a new course has been created in secondary schools : Methods & Practices in Science (MPS). The main goal was to improve the pupils working methods in science, including laboratory and field works. In addition, the pedagogy develops pupils autonomy and creativity, a key factor in a research process. Three teachers are working together (Mathematics, Physics and Geology-Biology), showing how different disciplines complement one another. Eventually, this is aimed at attracting more students in scientific sections. This course is optional, in the "seconde" class in French secondary schools (i.e., for 15 years old students). For the next class, they will have to choose between scientific, economic and literature sections : it is a useful option for them to decide which section has their preference. In my high-school in Clermont-Ferrand, we have chosen a research subject on hydrogeology & water quality improvement in region "Auvergne". The pupils will have to develop and set up appropriate tools to check and improve the water quality, related to different disciplines : - Geology & Biology: hydrogeology, effects of different pollutants on aquatic life, solutions to improve water quality (example of the natural water treatment zone in the lake of "Aydat, Auvergne, France"). - Physics & Chemistry: water potability criteria, pollution tests in water, water treatment plants working. - Mathematics: algorithm development, modeling on excel of the dispersion of pollutants The pedagogy of this course is new in French high-schools : pupils work in groups of three, so as to develop cooperation and autonomy. The teachers give the guidelines at the beginning of each working session, and answer the students questions when necessary. The evaluation is competence-based : instead of a mark, which is the main evaluation method in France, the pupils have to evaluate their own skills. Then, the teachers make an evaluation, and the global process is

  8. Pupils Produce Their Own Narratives Inspired by the History of Science: Animation Movies Concerning the Geocentric-Heliocentric Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Siakas, Spyros; Seroglou, Fanny

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and application of a teaching scenario appropriate for 12-years-old pupils in the primary school aiming to a better understanding of scientific concepts and scientific methods, linking the development of individual thinking with the development of scientific ideas and facilitating a better understanding of the…

  9. Deriving Earth Science Data Analytics Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Data Analytics applications have made successful strides in the business world where co-analyzing extremely large sets of independent variables have proven profitable. Today, most data analytics tools and techniques, sometimes applicable to Earth science, have targeted the business industry. In fact, the literature is nearly absent of discussion about Earth science data analytics. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data from a variety of sources to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. ESDA is most often applied to data preparation, data reduction, and data analysis. Co-analysis of increasing number and volume of Earth science data has become more prevalent ushered by the plethora of Earth science data sources generated by US programs, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists.Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, ESDA types have been defined in terms of data analytics end goals. Goals of which are very different than those in business, requiring different tools and techniques. A sampling of use cases have been collected and analyzed in terms of data analytics end goal types, volume, specialized processing, and other attributes. The goal of collecting these use cases is to be able to better understand and specify requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented. This presentation will describe the attributes and preliminary findings of ESDA use cases, as well as provide early analysis of data analytics toolstechniques requirements that would support specific ESDA type goals. Representative existing data analytics toolstechniques relevant to ESDA will also be addressed.

  10. HEP Science Network Requirements--Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Jon; Barczyk, Artur; Blatecky, Alan; Boehnlein, Amber; Carlson, Rich; Chekanov, Sergei; Cotter, Steve; Cottrell, Les; Crawford, Glen; Crawford, Matt; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Ernst, Michael; Fisk, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Johnston, Bill; Kent, Steve; Lammel, Stephan; Loken, Stewart; Metzger, Joe; Mount, Richard; Ndousse-Fetter, Thomas; Newman, Harvey; Schopf, Jennifer; Sekine, Yukiko; Stone, Alan; Tierney, Brian; Tull, Craig; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-04-27

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans

  11. HEP Science Network Requirements. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans-Atlantic connectivity

  12. In the Mind and in the Technology: The Vicarious Presence of the Teacher in Pupil's Learning of Science in Collaborative Group Activity at the Interactive Whiteboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Paul; Mercer, Neil; Kershner, Ruth; Staarman, Judith Kleine

    2010-01-01

    The focus of research into the use of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) in the classroom has been largely in relation to teacher-pupil interaction, with very little consideration of its possible use as a tool for pupils' collaborative endeavour. This paper is based upon an ESRC-funded project, which considers how pupils use the interactive…

  13. Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.K.; Nickelson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    To ensure technology developed for long-term stewardship will meet existing requirements, a review of requirements was performed. In addition to identifying existing science and technology related requirements, gaps and conflicts of requirements were identified

  14. Requirements Engineering in Building Climate Science Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcheller, Archer L.

    Software has an important role in supporting scientific work. This dissertation studies teams that build scientific software, focusing on the way that they determine what the software should do. These requirements engineering processes are investigated through three case studies of climate science software projects. The Earth System Modeling Framework assists modeling applications, the Earth System Grid distributes data via a web portal, and the NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) Command Language is used to convert, analyze and visualize data. Document analysis, observation, and interviews were used to investigate the requirements-related work. The first research question is about how and why stakeholders engage in a project, and what they do for the project. Two key findings arise. First, user counts are a vital measure of project success, which makes adoption important and makes counting tricky and political. Second, despite the importance of quantities of users, a few particular "power users" develop a relationship with the software developers and play a special role in providing feedback to the software team and integrating the system into user practice. The second research question focuses on how project objectives are articulated and how they are put into practice. The team seeks to both build a software system according to product requirements but also to conduct their work according to process requirements such as user support. Support provides essential communication between users and developers that assists with refining and identifying requirements for the software. It also helps users to learn and apply the software to their real needs. User support is a vital activity for scientific software teams aspiring to create infrastructure. The third research question is about how change in scientific practice and knowledge leads to changes in the software, and vice versa. The "thickness" of a layer of software infrastructure impacts whether the

  15. Engaging Parents and Pupils in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Rod

    2016-04-01

    "The British National Space Centre partnership has recognised for some time that Space and Astronomy are particularly attractive subjects for school students and that including these in the science curriculum can have a positive effect on student interest in science. Drivers are that the number of young people studying science and engineering subjects at A-level and beyond is declining; young people should have an understanding of the importance of science and technology to the world around them; and that UK space industry (including technology, engineering, space science, Earth observation science) must renew itself." BRINGING SPACE INTO SCHOOL Professor Martin Barstow, University of Leicester Published by PPARC on behalf of the British National Space Centre Partnership October 2005 "It has become more and more difficult to persuade young people to follow a career in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics) subjects. Across the EU, the number of graduates in STEM subjects has dropped from 24.3% in 2002 to 22.6% in 2011" (Source EUSTAT) It was Martin Barstow's report in 2005 that started my attempt to interest people in Science and Technology, At Ormiston Victory Academy (OVA) for the past two years, we have embarked on a program to enthuse pupils to study science related subject through the medium of Astronomy. We teach Edexcel GCSE Astronomy to a joint parent and pupil group. They study together and at the end of the course, both take the GCSE examination. The idea is that the pupils see that science is important to their parents and that a very practical facet of science is also fun. Astronomy is a multidisciplinary course bringing together elements of Science, Maths, Technology, Geography and History. It is hoped that the enthusiasm shown by the pupils will spill over into the mainstream subjects including maths. The parents get an idea of the work and level of knowledge required by their children to complete a GCSE level subject. They also report

  16. "Crystals within Crystals: The Story of Sea Ice". A Classroom-Based Outreach Project Communicating Cutting-Edge Ocean Science to School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.

    2016-02-01

    'Crystals within Crystals: The story of sea ice' is a UK based outreach project based that uses a range practical tools to engage school students with cutting edge scientific research that relates to the use of some of the world's most powerful X-rays in sea ice research. The project is delivered in the form of a classroom workshop that first introduces school pupils (aged 11-14) to seawater and the salts that give it a salinity. The pupils are then shown how the presence of salts within seawater results in very important physical changes when the liquid freezes, which includes different structural and optical properties of the ice. The properties of the ice are then linked to the presence of countless microscopic salt crystals that are trapped within the microstructure of the frozen seawater, which is explained with use of a novel crystal growth demonstration. Given that there is currently no way of successfully removing these salt crystals from the ice, the workshop culminates in explaining how some of the worlds most powerful X-rays can be used to investigate processes that otherwise remain elusive. The workshop introduces students to the fundamental principles of scientific enquiry, the sea ice environment, and the power of X-rays in investigating the properties of crystals. Here we present information that outlines a host of practical and project management tools that are applicacble to outreach projects in the the field of ocean sciences, with the aim of seeding ideas and interest for other graduate student to enage with the public during their studies.

  17. A matter of interpretation: developing primary pupils' enquiry skills using position-linked datalogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan

    2012-11-01

    Background: This article reports on an evaluation study of a project seeking to develop the use of position-linked datalogging with primary pupils in environmental science contexts. Purpose: The study sought to find out the extent to which the project had developed: (1) participant teachers' confidence in using datalogging as an everyday part of their science teaching; (2) pupils' abilities to collect and interpret relevant environmental monitoring data; and (3) the use of scientific data within environmental education in the project schools. Programme description: The project used software which integrates data from Global Positioning System (GPS) with sensor data collected outdoors to produce Google Earth visualisations of environmental quality in each school's locality. Sample: Phase 1 involved 10 primary schools in the South West of England (2008-9), and phase 2 was implemented in six primary schools in Greater London during 2010. All pupils in the 9-10-year-old age range participated to some extent (N ≈ 450) and each school identified a focus group of between two and four pupils (n = 38) together with two members of staff (n = 32) to be more closely involved in the project. Design and methods: The evaluation adopted a multi-method approach, drawing upon documentary sources (n = 40); observations of continuing professional development (CPD) cluster days (n = 8) and dissemination events (June 2009 and January 2011): baseline pupil assessment tasks (n = 291) and teachers' baseline questionnaire (n = 25) in September 2008 and March 2010; classroom observations; samples of pupil work (n = 31); end-of-project pupil assessment (n = 38) and teachers' and pupils' responses to the project (n ≈ 180) in June 2009 and December 2010; and a longitudinal evaluation in February 2012. Results: Datalogging had become a regular feature of practical science in nearly all project schools up to 30 months after the end of the project, but the use of position-linked logging had

  18. Adaptation and Disadaptation of Pupils in the Context of the Requirements of the New Federal Education Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova E.V.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of adaptation and disadaptation enrolled in the new educational environment in the context of the requirements of the new federal educational standards. We present a new approach to the problem, based on the differentiation of the causes and indicators of students disadaptation. We test hypotheses of the importance of the students’ components of personal competence for the success of adaptation in the new educational environment: individual-psychological, motivational-value, activity and communicative. On the basis of the approach of B.F. Lomov, we defined the criteria and indicators for adaptation / disadaptation of students: information and communication (school performance, regulatory and communicative (behavior, affective communication (emotional well-being. On a sample of first-graders (n = 81, using multiple regression analysis, we reveal the psychological factors of students’ disadaptation. It is shown that the dominant factor of students’ disadaptation is immature communicative skills. We grounded and empirically approbated the content of psychological support of first-graders, based on the idea of the development of creative abilities of students in the game and cognitive activity.

  19. The Materials Used and the Pupils Involved in Environmental Studies and Environmental Science at GCE 'O' and 'A' Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayford, Christopher

    1984-01-01

    Discusses types of students and materials and resources used in O- and A-level environmental studies and environmental science courses. Indicates that these subjects are very susceptable to the attitudes of teachers (as shown by their willingness to produce satisfactory materials) and by the motivation of students. (JN)

  20. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  1. Pupil Evaluation of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John; Chopra, Pran

    1979-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with (a) constructing a pupil evaluation of teachers (PET) scale, for use in grades 7-11, incorporating certain areas of teaching behavior, and affective pupil responses to teachers; and (b) using the scale as a source of feedback to both regular and student teachers. (Author)

  2. Pupils teach to pupils about genetics or global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Delphine

    2013-04-01

    The idea of this project is to put pupils in a teaching situation. Classes of teenagers go to primary schools and animate a science workshop. Junior pupils are separated in small groups and they attend two different sessions in the same half-day. The whole workshop consists of 4 sessions. Each session is organized with an activity (microscope observation, counting of chromosomes, drawing of a curve, etc.) in which senior pupils coach the younger, and ends with a debate or an assessment. The first experiment of this type of project was realized with a class of 14 to 15 year old pupils on the theme: How do your parents transmit your characteristics? The four sessions are attended in disorder but when knowledge of other sessions are necessary, senior pupils explain them at the beginning of the session. Junior pupils have a notebook to write their activities and to note their conclusions. Session 1: What did my father give to make me? Drawing and measuring microscopic observations of human spermatozoons. Conclusion: my father gave a spermatozoon which measures less than one mm long, this spermatozoon met my mother's egg and it made my first cell. Session 2: What does the program that made me look like? Microscope observation of blood cells, identification of chromosomes in the core. On microscope pictures, counting of chromosomes. Conclusion: My program is in each cell of my body, inside the core. Sometimes, in this core, we can observe short sticks that are called chromosomes. All human beings have the same number of chromosomes in their cells: 46. Session 3: Where do my chromosomes come from? Counting of chromosomes in spermatozoons or ovums and playing with sets of chromosomes to deduct sex of a baby. Conclusion: Daddy gave me 23 chromosomes and mummy gave me 23 chromosomes too. My program is then constituted from half of daddy's program and half of mummy's program. My brothers and sisters also have half and half, but not the same halves! Session 4: Where is the

  3. Succesful Experience of the Project "ASTROTOP" in Israel: Space-astonomy Science education in form of independent reserch projects of pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, Lev

    We present more then 10 year experience of educational project in Space/Astrophysics/Environment field, realized on the base of National Science- Educational Center "Blossoms of Science" of the Jordan Valley College. Our approach is based on the natural curiosity of children as driver of their self-development from the first minutes of their life and even in adult state. This approach shift center of the weight in educational process from direct lectures, sermons, explanation from teacher to children on own attempts of children to investigate problem, what is interesting for them, by themselves (individually or in group). Our approach includes four levels of the projects: "nano-projects" for children garden and basic school (up to 10-12 years), "micro-projects" for intermediate school (12-16 years), "mini-projects" for high school (16-18 years), and "macro-projects" for the best graduates high schools and students of colleges (17-22 years). These levels and projects are interconnected one with another and sometimes participants, started on the micro-projects level in intermediate school, continue their activity up to macro-projects of the graduate's diploma level. For each level we organize courses for preparation of the teachers and instructors, interested in the using of our receipts, and published books and brochures for them. The content of our activity for different levels: a) Level of kinder gardens/basic schools- special software with interactive movie -nano-projects; b) Level of intermediate school: "Days of Science" in tens schools of Israel- first contact with astronomy; c) Summer astronomy camps (4-5 of one week camps on 200-300 pupils from all country) with introduce to astronomy and with preparation of micro-projects on themes - first successful experience of research in real science fields (hundreds projects); d) ASTROTOP - one year program of preparation of short projects, with solution on the quality level of chosen astrophysical problem - mini

  4. The Importance of Engaging Pupils Actively in Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomela, Liisa; Juuti, Kalle; Ahtee, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating is a traditional method in teaching science that can raise interest and encourage pupils to think about a topic. While demonstrating, the teacher can focus the pupils' attention on the relevant facts and introduce scientific principles and concepts. Through discussion and actively making observations and inferences, rather than…

  5. Environmental Variables and Pupils' Academic Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This causal-comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of environmental variables on pupils' academic performance in primary science in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study namely: environmental ...

  6. Pupils' Difficulties: What Can the Teacher Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how the teacher can deal with difficulties pupils of varying ages have in understanding certain chemical ideas. The article does not support using a Piagetian model for science courses in secondary schools. It suggests that Ausubel's learning theory is of much more use to the practicing teacher. (HM)

  7. Attracting Pupils and Students to Natural Sciences: Challenges in Higher Education on the Example of Science Learning Centre Bioskop Masaryk University (Brno, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Konečný

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many universities in the Czech Republic lack students´ interest in the studies of natural science. That is why all the universities have to come up with an idea how to popularize these scientific fields to attract potential university applicants. One of the ways of achieving that is to create educational centres, which are able, thanks to these programmes, to approach students of primary and secondary schools and show them the natural sciences. The presented example of one particular educational centre (Bioskop Masaryk University, Brno, the Czech Republic evaluates the success rate of their activities while using written questionnaire survey among the visitors of the programmes (students of primary and secondary schools as well as their pedagogues. The results have shown that thanks to these activities the centre created quality conditions for popularization of natural sciences. The results have also proven the centre´s ability to present natural sciences in an attractive and entertaining way to students of elementary and secondary schools. These students expressed their interest in the study of natural sciences and they would like to visit the centre again

  8. Content and Methodological Formation Model of a Younger Pupil Value-Oriented Attitude to Reality Based on Historical and Social Science Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Ranija R.; Shamigulova, Oksana ?.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important functions of historical and pedagogical education in modern educational the system is connected with a pupil's character features development, a value apprehension of social events and a formation of a value-oriented attitude to reality. The main aim of the present article is to describe and analyze the results of a…

  9. teachers pattern of instruction and location on pupils critical thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    pupils' critical thinking in science achievement in Imo State. To achieve ... such scientific attitudes such as persistence, objectivity, ... abilities out of the learners right from the primary school. ... effectively conceptualizing generalized methods.

  10. Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Ed., Brian L; Dart, Ed., Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

    2008-11-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools

  11. Critical Science Instrument Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Scott O.; Kubalak, David A.; Gracey, Renee M.; Sabatke, Derek S.; Howard, Joseph M.; Telfer, Randal C.; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the critical instrument alignment terms associated with the six-degree of freedom alignment of each the Science Instrument (SI) in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), including focus, pupil shear, pupil clocking, and boresight. We present the test methods used during cryogenic-vacuum tests to directly measure the performance of each parameter, the requirements levied on each, and the impact of any violations of these requirements at the instrument and Observatory level.

  12. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  13. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  14. BER Science Network Requirements Workshop -- July 26-27,2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian L.; Dart, Eli

    2008-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In July 2007, ESnet and the Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the BER Program Office. These included several large programs and facilities, including Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), Bioinformatics and Life Sciences Programs, Climate Sciences Programs, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at PNNL, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI). National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) also participated in the workshop and contributed a section to this report due to the fact that a large distributed data repository for climate data will be established at NERSC, ORNL and NCAR, and this will have an effect on ESnet. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in a 'case study' format, which summarizes the instruments and facilities necessary for the science and the process by which the science is done, with emphasis on the network services needed and the way in which the network is used. Participants were asked to consider three time scales in their case studies--the near term (immediately and up to 12 months in the future), the medium term (3-5 years in the future), and the long term (greater than 5 years in the future). In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and

  15. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  16. Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying Advanced Level Sciences: A Survey of One Province in Zimbabwe. C Pinias, VS Matswetu. Abstract. In spite of advances in the field of science and technology, females are still under-represented in the sciences. The study sought to explore the perceptions of ...

  17. Planet Formation Imager (PFI): science vision and key requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Stefan; Monnier, John D.; Ireland, Michael J.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Espaillat, Catherine; Hönig, Sebastian; Juhasz, Attila; Mordasini, Chris; Olofsson, Johan; Paladini, Claudia; Stassun, Keivan; Turner, Neal; Vasisht, Gautam; Harries, Tim J.; Bate, Matthew R.; Gonzalez, Jean-François; Matter, Alexis; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Panic, Olja; Regaly, Zsolt; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Meru, Farzana; Wolf, Sebastian; Ilee, John; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Zhao, Ming; Kral, Quentin; Morlok, Andreas; Bonsor, Amy; Ciardi, David; Kane, Stephen R.; Kratter, Kaitlin; Laughlin, Greg; Pepper, Joshua; Raymond, Sean; Labadie, Lucas; Nelson, Richard P.; Weigelt, Gerd; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Pierens, Arnaud; Oudmaijer, Rene; Kley, Wilhelm; Pope, Benjamin; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Bayo, Amelia; Smith, Michael; Boyajian, Tabetha; Quiroga-Nuñez, Luis Henry; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Chiavassa, Andrea; Gallenne, Alexandre; Reynolds, Mark; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Wittkowski, Markus; Millour, Florentin; Gandhi, Poshak; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Alonso Herrero, Almudena; Packham, Chris; Kishimoto, Makoto; Tristram, Konrad R. W.; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Surdej, Jean; Buscher, David; Haniff, Chris; Lacour, Sylvestre; Petrov, Romain; Ridgway, Steve; Tuthill, Peter; van Belle, Gerard; Armitage, Phil; Baruteau, Clement; Benisty, Myriam; Bitsch, Bertram; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Pinte, Christophe; Masset, Frederic; Rosotti, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) project aims to provide a strong scientific vision for ground-based optical astronomy beyond the upcoming generation of Extremely Large Telescopes. We make the case that a breakthrough in angular resolution imaging capabilities is required in order to unravel the processes involved in planet formation. PFI will be optimised to provide a complete census of the protoplanet population at all stellocentric radii and over the age range from 0.1 to 100 Myr. Within this age period, planetary systems undergo dramatic changes and the final architecture of planetary systems is determined. Our goal is to study the planetary birth on the natural spatial scale where the material is assembled, which is the "Hill Sphere" of the forming planet, and to characterise the protoplanetary cores by measuring their masses and physical properties. Our science working group has investigated the observational characteristics of these young protoplanets as well as the migration mechanisms that might alter the system architecture. We simulated the imprints that the planets leave in the disk and study how PFI could revolutionise areas ranging from exoplanet to extragalactic science. In this contribution we outline the key science drivers of PFI and discuss the requirements that will guide the technology choices, the site selection, and potential science/technology tradeoffs.

  18. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  19. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  20. Interdisciplinary Science Courses for College General Education Requirements: Perspectives of Faculty at a State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Pradeep Maxwell

    Science educators have been advocating a broader role for science education--that of helping all students see the relevance of science to their own lives. Yet the only experience with post-secondary science that non-science majors get is through a couple of science courses which are part of the general education requirements (GERs) for a liberal…

  1. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  2. Professional determination problems of modern senior pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Danylenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Today, young people are more focused on getting education as such, without taking into account the profession. The relevance of this study is the identification of the level of professional self-determination of senior pupils, the mechanisms of formation of professional preferences. The article contains the concept and content of professional self-determination in adolescence; the results of the study on the formation of professional self-determination in senior pupils are presented. The study conducted among 9th grade pupils of secondary schools has revealed that the further gradual self-determination of the future specialty depends not only on psychological readiness for conscious choice. Materials and methods. The study involved 982 pupils of secondary schools in Ukraine. To study the level of formation of professional readiness, there was conducted a survey on the developed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using MS Excel and SPSS 17. Results. The results showed that professional intents of 9-graders are a key feature for solving the problem of high school selection and future careers. But for most students, these intentions are contradictory due to objective reasons. Radio, television, books don’t have a significant impact on the choice of professional self-determination. Conclusions. The conducted survey is self-sufficient for the analysis of professional orientation. But the choice of profession by the students is influenced by many factors. Therefore, carrying out the studies on vocational guidance requires an integrated approach.

  3. Junior Secondary School Pupils' Perception of the Relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Department of Science Education, Faculty of Science Education, Winneba, Ghana. .... therefore imperative to assess pupils' attitude to the environmental challenges ..... with skills that will allow them during their teaching to employ innovative, ... improve on the existing level of interest, belief, hope and concern with regard to ...

  4. Pupil Center as a Function of Pupil Diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbegi, Diako; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the gaze estimation error induced by pupil size changes using simulated data. We investigate the influence of pupil diameter changes on estimated gaze point error obtained by two gaze estimation models. Simulation data show that at wider viewing angles and at small eye...

  5. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented

  6. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented.

  7. Ground Validation Assessments of GPM Core Observatory Science Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Huffman, George; Kidd, Chris; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2017-04-01

    NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission science requirements define specific measurement error standards for retrieved precipitation parameters such as rain rate, raindrop size distribution, and falling snow detection on instantaneous temporal scales and spatial resolutions ranging from effective instrument fields of view [FOV], to grid scales of 50 km x 50 km. Quantitative evaluation of these requirements intrinsically relies on GPM precipitation retrieval algorithm performance in myriad precipitation regimes (and hence, assumptions related to physics) and on the quality of ground-validation (GV) data being used to assess the satellite products. We will review GPM GV products, their quality, and their application to assessing GPM science requirements, interleaving measurement and precipitation physical considerations applicable to the approaches used. Core GV data products used to assess GPM satellite products include 1) two minute and 30-minute rain gauge bias-adjusted radar rain rate products and precipitation types (rain/snow) adapted/modified from the NOAA/OU multi-radar multi-sensor (MRMS) product over the continental U.S.; 2) Polarimetric radar estimates of rain rate over the ocean collected using the K-Pol radar at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands and the Middleton Island WSR-88D radar located in the Gulf of Alaska; and 3) Multi-regime, field campaign and site-specific disdrometer-measured rain/snow size distribution (DSD), phase and fallspeed information used to derive polarimetric radar-based DSD retrievals and snow water equivalent rates (SWER) for comparison to coincident GPM-estimated DSD and precipitation rates/types, respectively. Within the limits of GV-product uncertainty we demonstrate that the GPM Core satellite meets its basic mission science requirements for a variety of precipitation regimes. For the liquid phase, we find that GPM radar-based products are particularly successful in meeting bias and random error requirements

  8. Automated Windowing Processing for Pupil Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebisawa, Y

    2001-01-01

    .... The pupil center in the video image is a focal point to determine the eye gaze. Recently, to improve the disadvantages of traditional pupil detection methods, a pupil detection technique using two light sources (LEDs...

  9. The IFS for WFIRST CGI: Science Requirements to Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Tyler; Gong, Qian; Mandell, Avi M.; Zimmerman, Neil; Rizzo, Maxime; McElwain, Michael; harvey, david; Saxena, Prabal; cady, eric; mejia prada, camilo

    2018-01-01

    Direct Imaging of exoplanets using a coronagraph has become a major field of research both on the ground and in space. Key to the science of direct imaging is the spectroscopic capabilities of the instrument, our ability to extract spectra, and measure the abundance of molecular species such as Methane. To take these spectra, the WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) uses an integral field spectrograph (IFS), which encodes the spectrum into a two-dimensional image on the detector. This results in more efficient detection and characterization of targets, and the spectral information is critical to achieving detection limits below the speckle floor of the imager. The CGI IFS operates in three 18% bands spanning 600nm to 970nm at a nominal spectral resolution of R50. We present the current science and engineering requirements for the IFS design, the instrument design, anticipated performance, and how the calibration is integrated into the focal plane wavefront control algorithms. We also highlight the role of the Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) at the JPL High Contrast Imaging Testbed to demonstrate performance and validate calibration methodologies for the flight instrument.

  10. Space Station Centrifuge: A Requirement for Life Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur H.; Fuller, Charles A.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Winget, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A centrifuge with the largest diameter that can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom is required to conduct life science research in the microgravity environment of space. (This was one of the findings of a group of life scientists convened at the University of California, Davis, by Ames Research Center.) The centrifuge will be used as a research tool to understand how gravity affects biological processes; to provide an on-orbit one-g control; and to assess the efficacy of using artificial gravity to counteract the deleterious biological effect of space flight. The rationale for the recommendation and examples of using ground-based centrifugation for animal and plant acceleration studies are presented. Included are four appendixes and an extensive bibliography of hypergravity studies.

  11. Observing System Simulations for ASCENDS: Synthesizing Science Measurement Requirements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Hammerling, D.; Michalak, A. M.; Wang, J. S.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ott, L.; Zaccheo, T.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Moore, B.; Crisp, D.

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of atmospheric CO2 from space using active (lidar) sensing techniques has several potentially significant advantages in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments. Application of this new technology aims to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle science into the next decade. The NASA Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission has been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for the next generation of space-based CO2 observing systems. ASCENDS is currently planned for launch in 2022. Several possible lidar instrument approaches have been demonstrated in airborne campaigns and the results indicate that such sensors are quite feasible. Studies are now underway to evaluate performance requirements for space mission implementation. Satellite CO2 observations must be highly precise and unbiased in order to accurately infer global carbon source/sink fluxes. Measurement demands are likely to further increase in the wake of GOSAT, OCO-2, and enhanced ground-based in situ and remote sensing CO2 data. The objective of our work is to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for ASCENDS in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. Considerations include requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we attempt to synthesize the results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, into a coherent set of mission performance guidelines. A variety of forward and inverse model frameworks are employed to reduce the potential dependence of the results on model

  12. Basic personality dimensions and vocational orientation with pupils of fourth grade of secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Ranđelović Dušan; Kašić Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to explore relationship between basic personality dimensions of 'Big Five' model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, opennes, agreeableness and conscientiousness) and thirteen different groups of activities which orienting pupils toward some vocations (administration, security, electrotechnics, creativity, culture, literature, science, helping jobs, agriculture, practical jobs, sport and management and services). The participants were 219 pupils of fo...

  13. Requirements, Science, and Measurements for Landsat 10 and Beyond: Perspectives from the Landsat Science Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, C. J.; Masek, J. G.; Roy, D. P.; Woodcock, C. E.; Wulder, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA are currently prioritizing requirements and investing in technology options for a "Landsat 10 and beyond" mission concept as part of the Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) architecture. Following the successful February 2013 launch of the Landsat 8, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have now added over 1 million images to the USGS Landsat archive. The USGS and NASA support and co-lead a Landsat Science Team made up largely of university and government experts to offer independent insight and guidance of program activities and directions. The rapid development of Landsat 9 reflects, in part, strong input from the 2012-2017 USGS Landsat Science Team (LST). During the last two years of the LST's tenure, individual LST members and within LST team working groups have made significant contributions to Landsat 10 and beyond's science traceability and future requirements justification. Central to this input, has been an effort to identify a trade space for enhanced measurement capabilities that maintains mission continuity with eight prior multispectral instruments, and will extend the Landsat Earth observation record beyond 55+ years with an approximate launch date of 2027. The trade space is framed by four fundamental principles in remote sensing theory and practice: (1) temporal resolution, (2) spatial resolution, (3) radiometric resolution, and (4) spectral coverage and resolution. The goal of this communication is to provide a synopsis of past and present 2012-2017 LST contributions to Landsat 10 and beyond measurement science and application priorities. A particular focus will be to document the links between new science and societal benefit areas with potential technical enhancements to the Landsat mission.

  14. Turkish Version of Students' Ideas about Nature of Science Questionnaire: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Cansiz, Nurcan; Tas, Yasemin; Yerdelen, Sundus

    2017-01-01

    Mass assessment of large samples' nature of science views has been one of the core concerns in science education research. Due to impracticality of using open-ended questionnaires or conducting interviews with large groups, another line of research has been required for mass assessment of pupils' nature of science conception meaningfully.…

  15. Developing a Pupil Transportation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dave

    1987-01-01

    District-level pupil transportation manuals that contain clear, concise information about objectives, policies, and regulations are a must. These manuals should also specify procedures concerning evaluation processes, personnel recruitment and selection, and the driver training program. (MLH)

  16. Survey of Mathematics and Science Requirements for Production-Oriented Agronomy Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aide, Michael; Terry, Danny

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes course requirements to determine the amount of required mathematics and science for production-oriented agronomy majors. Reports that mathematics requirements center around college algebra and statistics; science requirements generally include chemistry, biology, plant physiology, and genetics; and land-grant institutions have a…

  17. Computer Science in High School Graduation Requirements. ECS Education Trends (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Allowing high school students to fulfill a math or science high school graduation requirement via a computer science credit may encourage more student to pursue computer science coursework. This Education Trends report is an update to the original report released in April 2015 and explores state policies that allow or require districts to apply…

  18. Engaging Pupils in Decision-Making about Biodiversity Conservation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Marcus; Byrne, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Our pupils' generation will eventually have the daunting responsibility of making decisions about local and global biodiversity. School provides an early opportunity for them to enter into formal discussion about the science and values associated with biodiversity conservation; but the crowded curriculum offers little time for such activities.…

  19. Teachers pattern of instruction and location on pupils critical thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to ascertain the influence of teachers' pattern of instruction and location on pupils' critical thinking in science achievement in Imo State. To achieve this objective, two hypotheses were formulated. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A total of ninety (90) teachers and one thousand ...

  20. Mathematical literacy of school leaving pupils in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howie, S.; Plomp, T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some results of South African (SA) grade 12 pupils on an international test of mathematical literacy, administered in the framework of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of

  1. Pupils' Response to a Model for Water Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.; Mahmoud, N. A.

    1981-01-01

    Described is a model, based on the physical sciences, designed to teach secondary students about water transport through the use of an animated film. Pupils (N=440) taught by this method developed a self-consistent, although reduced, picture and understanding of osmosis. (Author/DC)

  2. Earth Science Informatics Community Requirements for Improving Sustainable Science Software Practices: User Perspectives and Implications for Organizational Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Robinson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Science software is integral to the scientific process and must be developed and managed in a sustainable manner to ensure future access to scientific data and related resources. Organizations that are part of the scientific enterprise, as well as members of the scientific community who work within these entities, can contribute to the sustainability of science software and to practices that improve scientific community capabilities for science software sustainability. As science becomes increasingly digital and therefore, dependent on software, improving community practices for sustainable science software will contribute to the sustainability of science. Members of the Earth science informatics community, including scientific data producers and distributers, end-user scientists, system and application developers, and data center managers, use science software regularly and face the challenges and the opportunities that science software presents for the sustainability of science. To gain insight on practices needed for the sustainability of science software from the science software experiences of the Earth science informatics community, an interdisciplinary group of 300 community members were asked to engage in simultaneous roundtable discussions and report on their answers to questions about the requirements for improving scientific software sustainability. This paper will present an analysis of the issues reported and the conclusions offered by the participants. These results provide perspectives for science software sustainability practices and have implications for actions that organizations and their leadership can initiate to improve the sustainability of science software.

  3. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  4. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A Literature Study and Critical Review of the American National Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a…

  5. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  6. Does the "Pupil Enterprise Programme" Influence Grades among Pupils with Special Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard; Somby, Hege M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Pupil Enterprise Programme (PEP) is a suitable working method for improving academic performance among pupils with special needs. Overall, 20% of pupils participate in PEP at some point during lower secondary school. Results from multilevel regression modelling indicate that pupils with special needs who have…

  7. Pupil and Staff Perceptions of Rewards at a Pupil Referral Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capstick, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the perceptions of both pupils and staff at a pupil referral unit (PRU) towards the reward system currently in use. The main aims were to establish whether teachers and pupils perceived the same rewards as effective, to determine whether staff and pupils perceived that rewards changed behaviour, and finally whether…

  8. Computer Science in High School Graduation Requirements. ECS Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Jennifer Dounay

    2015-01-01

    Computer science and coding skills are widely recognized as a valuable asset in the current and projected job market. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 37.5 percent growth from 2012 to 2022 in the "computer systems design and related services" industry--from 1,620,300 jobs in 2012 to an estimated 2,229,000 jobs in 2022. Yet some…

  9. Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation Project in Uyo ... and retraining in the hope that this will impact on the pupils' literacy development. ... process and often fail to engage the pupils in activities that promote literacy ... In other to empower such children for meaningful learning, reading needs to ...

  10. Image quality comparison of two multifocal IOLs: influence of the pupil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Domene, Mari Carmen; Felipe, Adelina; Peris-Martínez, Cristina; Navea, Amparo; Artigas, Jose M; Pons, Álvaro M

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of pupil size on image quality of a sectorial multifocal intraocular lens (IOL), the Lentis Mplus (Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany), and the Acri.LISA IOL (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). The authors measured the MTFs of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL and the Acri.LISA 366D IOL with three different sizes of pupil diameters: 3, 4, and 5 mm. The MTF was calculated from the cross-line spread function recorded with the OPAL Vector System (Image Science Ltd., Oxford, UK) by using fast Fourier-transform techniques. In distance focus, the image quality provided by the Lentis Mplus IOL was better than that of the Acri. LISA IOL with all pupil diameters. In near focus, the MTF of the Acri.LISA IOL was better with a 3-mm pupil, but poor with larger pupils. The aberration effect was equal in both IOLs in distance focus, but in near focus and with a 3-mm pupil, the Acri.LISA IOL was less affected by the aberration than the Lentis Mplus IOL. The Lentis Mplus IOL provides better distance image quality than the Acri.LISA IOL, whereas the near image quality of the Acri.LISA IOL is better with small-pupil diameter. The sectorial design makes this IOL more suitable for patients with a pupil diameter greater than 3 mm. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Eye gaze tracking based on the shape of pupil image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqing; Peng, Li; Han, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Eye tracker is an important instrument for research in psychology, widely used in attention, visual perception, reading and other fields of research. Because of its potential function in human-computer interaction, the eye gaze tracking has already been a topic of research in many fields over the last decades. Nowadays, with the development of technology, non-intrusive methods are more and more welcomed. In this paper, we will present a method based on the shape of pupil image to estimate the gaze point of human eyes without any other intrusive devices such as a hat, a pair of glasses and so on. After using the ellipse fitting algorithm to deal with the pupil image we get, we can determine the direction of the fixation by the shape of the pupil.The innovative aspect of this method is to utilize the new idea of the shape of the pupil so that we can avoid much complicated algorithm. The performance proposed is very helpful for the study of eye gaze tracking, which just needs one camera without infrared light to know the changes in the shape of the pupil to determine the direction of the eye gazing, no additional condition is required.

  12. Regulatory science requirements of labeling of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Jaeger, Lisa M; Shafei, Dania; Bloom, Lindsey L

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others. Subsequently claims on health risk, ecological risk, consumer choice, and corporate greed are evaluated based on BARS/MERSC and BAPI. The paper concludes by suggesting that labeling of food containing GMO should consider the consumer's choice, such as the food used by those who desire kosher and halal food. Furthermore, the consumer choice is already met by the exclusion of GMO in organic food.

  13. Program Analysis and Design Requirements for tne National Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    shell of an old exposition building with secondhand furniture to display exhibit items, to the Ontario Science Center, which is a more modem building...Storage Area Pigeonhole storage cabinets for children’s school books , coats, and boots are provided at the Indianapolis Center. The Ontario center...used shopping carts for school groups to store their coats and books . They do not work well according to center staff and are cumbersome and unsightly

  14. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  15. Archaeology in Delaware. Pupil's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    The archeology of Delaware, for all practical purposes meaning Indian prehistory, is the focus of this set consisting of teacher's and pupil's guides. Intended primarily for use at the fourth grade level, the material can successfully be adapted for use in grades 5 through 8. The teacher's guide is flexible and non-structured, allowing for…

  16. Research and test facilities required in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Experimental facilities are essential research tools both for the development of nuclear science and technology and for testing systems and materials which are currently being used or will be used in the future. As a result of economic pressures and the closure of older facilities, there are concerns that the ability to undertake the research necessary to maintain and to develop nuclear science and technology may be in jeopardy. An NEA expert group with representation from ten member countries, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission has reviewed the status of those research and test facilities of interest to the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. They include facilities relating to nuclear data measurement, reactor development, neutron scattering, neutron radiography, accelerator-driven systems, transmutation, nuclear fuel, materials, safety, radiochemistry, partitioning and nuclear process heat for hydrogen production. This report contains the expert group's detailed assessment of the current status of these nuclear research facilities and makes recommendations on how future developments in the field can be secured through the provision of high-quality, modern facilities. It also describes the online database which has been established by the expert group which includes more than 700 facilities. (authors)

  17. Pupils' liking for school: ability grouping, self-concept and perceptions of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Judith; Hallam, Susan

    2005-06-01

    Research indicates that affective aspects of development provide a basis for autonomous learning. Pupils' liking for school may be a useful indicator of their relationships with teachers and the school. The aim of the research reported in this paper is to establish the properties of a measure of pupils' liking for school and to examine associations between this measure, pupils' experiences in lessons, their self-concepts and the amount of setting implemented in school. A stratified sample of 45 mixed secondary comprehensive schools was selected for the research. Schools represented a variety of ability-grouping practices in the lower school (Years 7-9), from completely mixed-ability to setting in all academic subjects. All Year 9 pupils were included in the sample. Pupils completed a questionnaire containing items on their self-concept, liking for school, and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science. Data on pupils' gender, ethnic origin, social disadvantage and attainment was also collected. The properties and correlates of scales indicating pupils' liking for school and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science are established. Liking for school is greater among girls, pupils with higher academic self-concepts, and those with more positive perceptions of teaching. Pupils are more positive about teaching they experience in English than in mathematics or science. When other variables are statistically controlled, there is no significant effect of the extent of ability grouping in the school as a whole. Affective aspects of learning should not be neglected in the drive to raise standards.

  18. Facility Design Program Requirements for National Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    a turn of the century structure and secondhand furniture to display exhibit items, to the Ontario Science Center in Canada which is a 10-year-old...mothers should be considered. 1.3 Visitors Coat Storage Areas 550 sq ft Pigeon hole or other storage cabinets for children’s school books , coats, and...1.4.4 Work Area (200 sq ft) 1.4.5 Office for Assistant Museum Shop Manager (75 sq ft) Function: Area for sale of books , posters, cards, slides, games

  19. Planet Formation Imager (PFI) : science vision and key requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, S.; Monnier, J.D.; Ireland, M.J.; Duchene, G.; Espaillat, C.; Honig, S.; Juhasz, A.; Mordasini, C.; Olofsson, J.; Paladini, C.; Stassun, K.; Turner, N.; Vasisht, G.; Harries, T.J.; Bate, M.R.; Gonzalez, J-F.; Matter, A.; Zhu, Z.; Panic, O.; Regaly, Z.; Morbidelli, A.; Meru, F.; Wolf, S.; Ilee, J.; Berger, J-P.; Zhao, M.; Kral, Q.; Morlok, A.; Bonsor, A.; Ciardi, D.; Kane, S.R.; Kratter, K.; Laughlin, G.; Pepper, J.; Raymond, S.; Labadie, L.; Nelson, R.P.; Weigelt, G.; Brummelaar, ten T.; Pierens, A.; Oudmaijer, R.; Kley, W.; Pope, B.; Jensen, E.L.N.; Bayo, A.; Smith, M.; Boyajian, T.; Quiroga-Nunez, L.H.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Chiavassa, A.; Gallenne, A.; Reynolds, M.; Wit, de W-J.; Wittkowski, M.; Millour, F.; Gandhi, P.; Ramos, A. C.; Alonso, H. A.; Packham, C.; Kishimoto, M.; Tristram, K.R.W.; Pott, J.-U.; Surdej, J.; Buscher, D.; Haniff, C.; Lacour, S.; Petrov, R.; Ridgway, S.; Tuthill, P.; Belle, van G.; Armitage, P.; Baruteau, C.; Benisty, M.; Bitsch, B.; Paardekooper, S-J.; Pinte, C.; Masset, F.; Rosotti, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) project aims to provide a strong scientific vision for ground-based optical astronomy beyond the upcoming generation of Extremely Large Telescopes. We make the case that a breakthrough in angular resolution imaging capabilities is required in order to unravel the

  20. Science, a Psychological versus a Logical Approach in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2015-01-01

    Under which approach do pupils attain more optimally, a logical versus a psychological procedure of instruction? Pupils do need to achieve well in a world of science. Science is all around us and pupils need to understand various principles and laws of science. Thus, teachers in the school curriculum must choose carefully objectives for pupil…

  1. Using Pupil Diameter Changes for Measuring Mental Workload under Mental Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, Ihsan; Ozturk, Mustafa

    In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the mental workload by using a practical way which based on measuring pupil diameter changes that occurs under mental processing. To determine the mental effort required for each task, the video record of subjects` eyes are taken while they are performed different tasks and pupils were measured from the records. A group of university student, one female 9 males participated to the experiment. Additionally, NASA-TLX questionnaire is applied for the related mental tasks. For verification of results obtained from both indices, the correlation coefficient is calculated task base. The results show that there is weak and negative correlation between the indices on task base except 3rd task. By investigating pupil diameter measurements data too, it is founded that pupil dilates under mental workload during performing related tasks. For all tasks, pupil diameters of response periods increased according to reference baseline period.

  2. Inverse Argyll Robertson pupil in Burkitt′s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakarla V Chalam

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Kakarla V Chalam, Shailesh K Gupta, Vikram S BrarDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida Health Science Center, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: We present a case of an 18 year old white male with Burkitt’s lymphoma who was operated on for hydrocephalus and subsequently referred for evaluation of new onset diplopia. On examination, his visual acuity (VA was 20/20 in both eyes with a right superior oblique palsy. His pupillary reaction to light was intact while on near gaze there was no constriction of the pupils, bilaterally. The other two responses of the near gaze triad ie, convergence and accommodation were present. These findings were suggestive of an Inverse Argyll Robertson pupil (IARP, a rare entity in the literature. We could not find a specific cause attributable to this manifestation in this patient, though we feel it may be secondary to infiltration from Burkitt’s lymphoma and/or compression from elevated intracranial pressure of the efferent pupillary near reflex pathway.Keywords: Inverse Argyll Robertson pupil, Argyll Robertson pupil, pupillary abnormalities, Burkitt’s lymphoma

  3. The relationship between competencies acquired through Swiss academic sports science courses and the job requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, T; Studer, F; Nagel, S

    2016-01-01

    In view of the changes in and growing variety of sports-related occupations, it is highly relevant for educational institutions to know how well the educational contents of their sport science courses meet the professional requirements. This study analyses the relationship between the competencies acquired through academic sports science courses and the requirements of the relevant jobs in Switzerland. The data for this empirical analysis were drawn from a sample of n = 1054 graduates of different academic sport science programmes at all eight Swiss universities. The results show that academic sport science courses primarily communicate sports-specific expertise and practical sports skills. On the other hand, most graduates consider that the acquisition of interdisciplinary competencies plays a comparatively minor role in sport science education, even though these competencies are felt to be an important requirement in a variety of work-related environments and challenges.

  4. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  5. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  6. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  7. The Active Pupil: Pupil size in attention, working memory, and active vision

    OpenAIRE

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Slides for the following talk: Mathôt, S. (2015, June). The Active Pupil: Pupil Size in Attention, Working Memory, and Active Vision. Talk presented at the Laboratoire de Psychologie de la Perception, Paris, France.

  8. How pupils percieve the teacher's motivational techniques?

    OpenAIRE

    Bodroža, Bojana; Đerić, Ivana; Gutvajn, Nikoleta

    2015-01-01

    Current research in the field of education indicates that the behaviour of the teacher affects significantly the quality and level of the pupil's motivation. The aim of our research was to determine the structure of the motivational style of teachers seen from the pupils' perspective, and to find out whether the pupils' perceptions of the teacher's motivational style depend upon cultural-educational influences of the family, and some characteristics of the students (academic achievements, gen...

  9. Analytical Study of Self-Motivations among a Southwest Public University Nonpolitical Science Major Students in Required Political Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Gamal; Stevens, Tara; Zebidi, Amira

    2012-01-01

    All undergraduate students are required by state law to take six credited hours in political science. This study will help us identify if differences exist in self-determination among students enrolled in American Public Policy and American Government at a large, Southwestern public university. Because some types of motivation are associated with…

  10. AMTD: update of engineering specifications derived from science requirements for future UVOIR space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Mosier, Gary; Smith, W. Scott; Blaurock, Carl; Ha, Kong; Stark, Christopher C.

    2014-08-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND provide a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To give the science community options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. A key task is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints. A key finding of this effort is that the science requires an 8 meter or larger aperture telescope.

  11. How pupils percieve the teacher's motivational techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodroža Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research in the field of education indicates that the behaviour of the teacher affects significantly the quality and level of the pupil's motivation. The aim of our research was to determine the structure of the motivational style of teachers seen from the pupils' perspective, and to find out whether the pupils' perceptions of the teacher's motivational style depend upon cultural-educational influences of the family, and some characteristics of the students (academic achievements, gender. The sample included 856 pupils from 40 elementary schools in Serbia. We used the questionnaire with Likert's scale to obtain the evaluation of the teachers' behaviours. By the factor analysis we extracted three components of the teacher' behaviour: stimulating pupils' interest and competences, de-motivational teachers' behaviours and stimulating freedom of thinking and expression. The results show that the pupils whose parents have lower levels of education think that the behaviour of the teachers is directed to stimulating interest and competencies, as well as freedom of thinking and speech than the pupils of the parents of higher educational status. The control of the influence of the education of parents showed that the pupils of lower academic achievement perceive the teacher's behaviour as de-motivational. Compared to girls boys estimate more highly that teachers stimulate their interests and competencies. A suggestion is offered how a teacher should develop a behavioural style which would positively influence the quality of the pupils' motivation.

  12. Manpower Requirements and Education in Nuclear Science: An International Perspective Nuclear Science Manpower and Education Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Clark, S.B.; Parry, S.J.; Choppin, G.R.; Danesi, P.R.; Rossbach, M.; Williamson, C.; and others

    2005-01-01

    The MARC-VI conference served as an excellent setting for a session organized to present and discuss the problems in nuclear science manpower and education. A panel discussion and contributed papers reflected the world-wide situation. Major points of the panel discussion are presented. As a result, a resolution on the current situation of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry was drafted and endorsed by the conference attendees. (author)

  13. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-17

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display.

  15. Ghanaian Junior High School Science Teachers' attitude towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contextualising science instruction has been found to improve pupils' understanding of science content since it links science content to the context of the pupil. Science teachers play vital roles in this effort to make science teaching relevant to the Ghanaian child through contextualisation of science instruction.

  16. Assessments and Intervention for Pupils with Reading Difficulties in Sweden--A Text Analysis of Individual Education Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, Ingela; Wolff, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Since 1995 all Swedish compulsory schools have been required to establish Individual Educational Plans (IEPs) for pupils with special educational needs. According to the Swedish Education Act such a plan should be drawn up if pupils do not achieve the goals in the curriculum or the syllabus. The process of IEPs covers a prior investigation to…

  17. PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lected from school pupils between. 11.00 and 14.00 hours, a period when the eggs of Schistosoma hae- matobium are concentrated in the urine. Pupils involved in this study were randomly selected using the class register in each endemic school to avoid bias. Examination of the urine specimens was done qualitatively.

  18. Turkish Primary School Pupils' Views on Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bahri

    2010-01-01

    Teachers meet with unwanted behavior when they are acting as facilitators of the learning process and they resort to certain tactics to deal with them. One of these tactics is punishment. This study aimed to identify the views held by Turkish primary school pupils on punishment. According to the results of the study, pupils were punished for…

  19. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  20. Pupil Absenteeism and the Educational Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    From a review of the literature, it is concluded that (i) each form of pupil absenteeism relates to a heterogeneous group of children; (ii) because of such heterogeneity, those who are involved in assessment and intervention in relation to pupil absenteeism are faced with a demanding task; (iii) as a consequence of their education and training,…

  1. NEWS: Why choose science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    National concerns over the uptake of science subjects and an analysis of how school science departments together with careers programmes influence students' subject choices feature in a recent report from the UK's National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling. It points out that decisions on science subjects are taken very early in pupils' education, often well before the implications of those choices can be clearly understood. If pupils are to be encouraged to keep science options open, then both science teachers and careers advisers have important roles to play. Physics is in fact singled out in the report's recommendations as in need of special attention, due to its perceived difficulty both within the double-award science course and also at A-level. The lack of qualified teachers in physics is noted as a problem for schools and the many initiatives to address these issues should be encouraged according to the report, but within an overall high-profile and well funded national strategy for developing science education in schools. The report also notes that science teachers do not feel able to keep up with career information, whilst few careers advisers have a science background and have little opportunity to build up their knowledge of science syllabuses or of science and engineering careers. More contact between both types of specialist is naturally advocated. Copies of the full report, Choosing Science at 16 by Mary Munro and David Elsom, are available from NICEC, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX on receipt of an A4 stamped (70p) addressed envelope. A NICEC briefing summary is also available from the same address (20p stamp required).

  2. Pupils as Victims of Peer Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvek Mihaela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The school is an educational institution that has to provide appropriate control of adults over pupils, which they do. Nevertheless, violence cannot be avoided. Pupils encounter peer violence in different roles, as observers, victims, perpetrators, or both. The objective of our research was to examine how often pupils are victims of peer violence, and to what extent the latter depends on pupils’ gender and age. The results of the research made among pupils in the fifth, seventh, and eighth grades of various primary schools across Slovenia showed that 24.1 per cent of pupils had already been victims of peer violence. The ones that they tend to tell about such episodes are their parents. The results have also shown that school is really a place where violence is very common, and that psychological and verbal abuse are the most common types of violence used.

  3. Revising laboratory work: sociological perspectives on the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobér, Anna

    2017-09-01

    This study uses sociological perspectives to analyse one of the core practices in science education: schoolchildren's and students' laboratory work. Applying an ethnographic approach to the laboratory work done by pupils at a Swedish compulsory school, data were generated through observations, field notes, interviews, and a questionnaire. The pupils, ages 14 and 15, were observed as they took a 5-week physics unit (specifically, mechanics). The analysis shows that the episodes of laboratory work could be filled with curiosity and exciting challenges; however, another picture emerged when sociological concepts and notions were applied to what is a very common way of working in the classroom. Laboratory work is characterised as a social activity that is expected to be organised as a group activity. This entails groups becoming, to some extent, `safe havens' for the pupils. On the other hand, this way of working in groups required pupils to subject to the groups and the peer effect, sometimes undermining their chances to learn and perform better. In addition, the practice of working in groups when doing laboratory work left some pupils and the teacher blaming themselves, even though the outcome of the learning situation was a result of a complex interplay of social processes. This article suggests a stronger emphasis on the contradictions and consequences of the science subjects, which are strongly influenced by their socio-historical legacy.

  4. Pupils with leukemia and their reintegration into school

    OpenAIRE

    Purkat, Maja

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common childhood malignancies is leukemia. Treatments are now much more successful than in the past, but many children with leukemia are facing difficulties when returning to school. For pupils with leukemia, school is very important, providing them with a feeling of normalcy and hope for the future. But when such a child, with all his or her characteristics, returns to school, he meets with certain requirements. He or she encounters obstacles which are directly or indirectly ...

  5. Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 6 and 7, 2008. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Ed. Brian L; Dart, Ed. Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools

  6. Pupil-class determinants of aggressive and victim behaviour in pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, T

    1998-09-01

    Aggressive behaviour in pupils is expressed in, e.g., bullying, sexual harassment, and violence. Different kinds of variables could be relevant in explaining a pupil's aggressive or victim behaviour. To develop a multilevel theoretical and empirical explanation for different kinds of aggressive and victim behaviour displayed by pupils in a classroom and school environment. A national survey was carried out to identify different kinds of aggressive and victim behaviour displayed by pupils and to assess other variables related to pupils, classes, and schools. A total of 1998 pupils from 100 third and fourth year classes attending 71 different secondary schools took part in the research. Data were analysed by a series of secondary multilevel analyses using the MLA-program. Being a boy, being more extravert, being more disagreeable, coming across fewer teachers with positive teaching behaviour, and attending a lower type of secondary school, help explain why someone is a perpetrator as such. Being a boy, being more disagreeable, being more emotionally unstable, being open to new ideas, and seeing more teachers as being strict, function as explanatory pupil variables for victim behaviour. Other pupil level variables determine more specific aggressive and victim behaviour aspects. Various other class level and school level variables are relevant, too. Personal and environmental pupil variables are more important than class variables but class variables are in turn more important than school variables in explaining a pupil's aggressive and victim behaviour.

  7. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Magee, Linda; Osborne, Susan; Hall, Linda K; Whorwell, Peter J

    2012-09-05

    As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. 620 pupils (aged 11-17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1%) males, 322 (51.9%) females) at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an 'experiment' to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p color was chosen by 48.9% of normal and only 18.8% of depressed pupils (p colors which reached significance for sport and music. This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  8. Graduate teaching assistants' perceptions of teaching competencies required for work in undergraduate science labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Christopher; Hajek, Allyson; Schulz, Henry

    2017-11-01

    Many post-secondary institutions provide training and resources to help GTAs fulfil their teaching roles. However, few programmes focus specifically on the teaching competencies required by GTAs who work with undergraduate students in laboratory settings where learning tends to be more active and inquiry based than in classroom settings. From a review of 8 GTA manuals, we identified 20 competencies and then surveyed faculty and lab coordinators (FIS) and GTAs from a Faculty of Science at a comprehensive Canadian university to identify which of those competencies are required of GTAs who work in undergraduate science labs. GTAs and FIS did not significantly differ in the competencies they view as required for GTAs to work effectively in undergraduate labs. But, when comparing the responses of GTAs and FIS to TA manuals, 'Clearly and effectively communicates ideas and information with students' was the only competency for which there was agreement on the level of requirement. We also examined GTAs' self-efficacy for each of the identified competencies and found no overall relationship between self-efficacy and demographic characteristics, including experience and training. Our results can be used to inform the design of training programmes specifically for GTAs who work in undergraduate science labs, for example, programmes should provide strategies for GTAs to obtain feedback which they can use to enhance their teaching skills. The goal of this study is to improve undergraduate lab instruction in faculties of science and to enhance the teaching experience of GTAs by better preparing them for their role.

  9. Optimal power distribution for minimizing pupil walk in a 7.5X afocal zoom lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanyue; Zhao, Yang; Berman, Rebecca; Bodell, S. Yvonne; Fennig, Eryn; Ni, Yunhui; Papa, Jonathan C.; Yang, Tianyi; Yee, Anthony J.; Moore, Duncan T.; Bentley, Julie L.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive design study was conducted to find the best optimal power distribution and stop location for a 7.5x afocal zoom lens that controls the pupil walk and pupil location through zoom. This afocal zoom lens is one of the three components in a VIS-SWIR high-resolution microscope for inspection of photonic chips. The microscope consists of an afocal zoom, a nine-element objective and a tube lens and has diffraction limited performance with zero vignetting. In this case, the required change in object (sample) size and resolution is achieved by the magnification change of the afocal component. This creates strict requirements for both the entrance and exit pupil locations of the afocal zoom to couple the two sides successfully. The first phase of the design study looked at conventional four group zoom lenses with positive groups in the front and back and the stop at a fixed location outside the lens but resulted in significant pupil walk. The second phase of the design study focused on several promising unconventional four-group power distribution designs with moving stops that minimized pupil walk and had an acceptable pupil location (as determined by the objective and tube lens).

  10. Orienting of attention, pupil size, and the norepinephrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Pertzov, Yoni; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    This research examined a novel suggestion regarding the involvement of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system in orienting reflexive (exogenous) attention. A common procedure for studying exogenous orienting of attention is Posner's cuing task. Importantly, one can manipulate the required level of target processing by changing task requirements, which, in turn, can elicit a different time course of inhibition of return (IOR). An easy task (responding to target location) produces earlier onset IOR, whereas a demanding task (responding to target identity) produces later onset IOR. Aston-Jones and Cohen (Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403-450, 2005) presented a theory suggesting two different modes of LC activity: tonic and phasic. Accordingly, we suggest that in the more demanding task, the LC-NE system is activated in phasic mode, and in the easier task, it is activated in tonic mode. This, in turn, influences the appearance of IOR. We examined this suggestion by measuring participants' pupil size, which has been demonstrated to correlate with the LC-NE system, while they performed cuing tasks. We found a response-locked phasic dilation of the pupil in the discrimination task, as compared with the localization task, which may reflect different firing modes of the LC-NE system during the two tasks. We also demonstrated a correlation between pupil size at the time of cue presentation and magnitude of IOR.

  11. Numerical stress analysis of the iris tissue induced by pupil expansion: Comparison of commercial devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Perera, Shamira A.; Girard, Michaël J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose (1) To use finite element (FE) modelling to estimate local iris stresses (i.e. internal forces) as a result of mechanical pupil expansion; and to (2) compare such stresses as generated from several commercially available expanders (Iris hooks, APX dilator and Malyugin ring) to determine which design and deployment method are most likely to cause iris damage. Methods We used a biofidelic 3-part iris FE model that consisted of the stroma, sphincter and dilator muscles. Our FE model simulated expansion of the pupil from 3 mm to a maximum of 6 mm using the aforementioned pupil expanders, with uniform circular expansion used for baseline comparison. FE-derived stresses, resultant forces and area of final pupil opening were compared across devices for analysis. Results Our FE models demonstrated that the APX dilator generated the highest stresses on the sphincter muscles, (max: 6.446 MPa; average: 5.112 MPa), followed by the iris hooks (max: 5.680 MPa; average: 5.219 MPa), and the Malyugin ring (max: 2.144 MPa; average: 1.575 MPa). Uniform expansion generated the lowest stresses (max: 0.435MPa; average: 0.377 MPa). For pupil expansion, the APX dilator required the highest force (41.22 mN), followed by iris hooks (40.82 mN) and the Malyugin ring (18.56 mN). Conclusion Our study predicted that current pupil expanders exert significantly higher amount of stresses and forces than required during pupil expansion. Our work may serve as a guide for the development and design of next-generation pupil expanders. PMID:29538452

  12. Compatibility of the Space Station Freedom life sciences research centrifuge with microgravity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is developing a Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility for Space Station Freedom. In includes a 2.5-meter artificial gravity Bioresearch Centrifuge (BC), which is perhaps the most critical single element in the life sciences space research program. It rotates continuously at precise selectable rates, and utilizes advanced reliable technologies to reduce vibrations. Three disturbance types are analyzed using a current Space Station Freedom dynamic model in the 0.0 to 5.0 Hz range: sinusoidal, random, and transient. Results show that with proper selection of proven design techniques, BC vibrations are compatible with requirements.

  13. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  14. Teacher Pupil Contact in Junior Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, D.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the exploratory study reported here was to examine the nature of teacher-pupil contact in informal junior classrooms in terms of the teacher's method of talking to children and the teacher's conversational approach. (Author/RK)

  15. Learning Environment And Pupils Academic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning Environment And Pupils Academic Performance: Implications For Counselling. ... facilities as well as learning materials to make teaching and learning easy. In addition, teachers should provide conducive classroom environment to ...

  16. Holocaust Denial among Slovenian Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Pavlič

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tendencies of Holocaust denial among secondary school pupils in Slovenia. It focuses on research implemented in January 2012, in which 400 Slovenian secondary school pupils were included. In spite of the assumption that Holocaust denial amongst the youth in Slovenia already exists, we also assumed that a degree of Holocaust denial amongs Slovenian pupils is lower that amongst their peers in other EU countries. Research also inquired about the level of anti-Semitism in conjunction with Holocaust denial. The research project confirmed that students on lower levels of high school education and with less history and sociology lessons in curriculum are more receptive for the Holocaust denial and anti-Semitism is more present in this demographic. The level of Holocaust denial amongst secondary school pupils is not negligible; it suggests that this topic should be more thoroughly discussed in secondary schools.

  17. Junior High School Pupils' Perceptions of Air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Abstract. The study examined Junior High School (JHS) pupils' ideas of the concept air. The ... Stavy (1991) reported that students in his physics class had ... Research studies found that even after having been taught the particulate theory and.

  18. Understanding pressure: didactical transpositions and pupils' conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariotogloy, P.; Psillos, D.; Vallassiades, O.

    1990-03-01

    Using the concept of pressure two research trends-content analysis and pupils' conceptions of subject matter-are drawn together, in an attempt to understand the issues in teaching and learning specific domains of physics.

  19. Vocational Orientation of the Deaf Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevská, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the bachelor thesis is to learn about vocational orientation of deaf pupils in their last years of study at selected elementary schools for the Deaf and to compare the results to results of similar studies done with pupils without hearing impairment. Based on relevant scientific sources, the paper introduces general aspects that shape vocational orientation, also describes vocational development on D. E. Super's Career Development Theory. The thesis continues with characteriz...

  20. Adaptive optics retinal imaging with automatic detection of the pupil and its boundary in real time using Shack-Hartmann images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alberto; Sawides, Lucie; Qi, Xiaofeng; Burns, Stephen A

    2017-08-20

    Retinal imaging with an adaptive optics (AO) system usually requires that the eye be centered and stable relative to the exit pupil of the system. Aberrations are then typically corrected inside a fixed circular pupil. This approach can be restrictive when imaging some subjects, since the pupil may not be round and maintaining a stable head position can be difficult. In this paper, we present an automatic algorithm that relaxes these constraints. An image quality metric is computed for each spot of the Shack-Hartmann image to detect the pupil and its boundary, and the control algorithm is applied only to regions within the subject's pupil. Images on a model eye as well as for five subjects were obtained to show that a system exit pupil larger than the subject's eye pupil could be used for AO retinal imaging without a reduction in image quality. This algorithm automates the task of selecting pupil size. It also may relax constraints on centering the subject's pupil and on the shape of the pupil.

  1. Pupil dilation reveals top-down attentional load during spatial monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Matteo; Bonato, Mario; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-12-01

    It has long been known that the diameter of human pupil enlarges with increasing effort during the execution of a task. This has been observed not only for purely mechanical effort but also for mental effort, as for example the computation of arithmetic problems with different levels of difficulty. Here we show that pupil dilation reflects changes in visuospatial awareness induced by attentional load during multi-tasking. In the single-task condition, participants had to report the position of lateralized, briefly presented, masked visual targets ("right", "left", or "both" sides). In the multitasking conditions, participants also performed additional tasks, either visual or auditory, to increase the attentional load. Sensory stimulation was kept constant across all conditions to rule out the influence of low-level factors. Results show that event-related pupil dilation strikingly increased with task demands, mirroring a concurrent decrease in visuospatial awareness. Importantly, pupil dilation significantly differed between two dual-task conditions that required to process the same number of stimuli but yielded differed levels of accuracy (difficulty). In contrast, pupil dilation did not differ between two conditions which were equally challenging but differed both in the modality of the dual task (auditory vs. visual) and in the number of stimuli to be attended. We conclude that pupil dilation genuinely reflects the top-down allocation of supramodal attentional resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  3. Power constellations between Roma pupils and their teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Rožníčková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this empirical study is to describe power constellations that are generated in interactions between Roma pupils and their teachers, and also to summarize the basic findings of this research and to point out some real situations that can occur during the teaching lessons. The first part of the thesis describes the differences in the social interaction of Roma pupils. The second part is focused on the authority of the teachers and also on using this authority during the lessons. The third part is focused on pupils‘ strategies that are created based on the requirements of teachers. The basic findings of the research are selected in the methodological section. The research survey revealed five power constellations, which are the subject of this empirical study. The empirical study suggests how teachers and pupils define and shape relationships. From the present paper, a lot of influences are involved in the formation of power constellation, ranging from the personality of the teachers, socializing in school, through family upbringing to cultural differences.

  4. Improved Management of Water and Natural Resources Requires Open, Cognizant, Adaptive Science and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.; Jenni, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water issues impact the availability and use of other natural resources as well as environmental conditions. In an increasingly populated hyper-connected world, water issues are increasingly "wicked problems": complex problems with high uncertainties and no independent observers. Water is essential to life, and life affects water quality and availability. Scientists, managers, decision-makers, and the greater public all have a stake in improving the management of water resources. In turn, they are part of the systems that they are studying, deciding on, affecting, or trying to improve. Governance of water issues requires greater accessibility, traceability, and accountability (ATA) in science and policy. Water-related studies and decision-making need transdisciplinary science, inclusive participatory processes, and consideration and acceptance of multiple perspectives. Biases, Beliefs, Heuristics, and Values (BBHV) shape much of our perceptions and knowledge, and inevitably, affect both science and policy. Understanding the role of BBHV is critical to (1) understanding individual and group judgments and choices, (2) recognizing potential differences between societal "wants" and societal "needs", and (3) identifying "winners" and "losers" of policy decisions. Societal acceptance of proposed policies and actions can be fostered by enhancing participatory processes and by providing greater ATA in science, in policy, and in development of the laws, rules, and traditions that constrain decision-making. An adaptive science-infused governance framework is proposed that seeks greater cognizance of the role of BBHV in shaping science and policy choices and decisions, and that also seeks "Open Traceable Accountable Policy" to complement "Open Science". We discuss the limitations of the governance that we suggest, as well as tools and approaches to help implementation.

  5. Some comments on the requirement for nuclear data in the earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Patrick, B.H.; Sanders, L.G.; Sowerby, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing application of nuclear techniques in the earth sciences, and especially the use of particle tracking codes, has focussed attention on the need for more accurate nuclear data and for data which particularly refer to elements of interest in the analysis of rocks and ores. The present paper gives a brief summary of the current and potential requirement for nuclear data in nuclear geophysics and an indication of several important areas where better data would be valuable. (author)

  6. Pupil shape in the animal kingdom: from the pseudopupil to the vertical pupil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Gómez-Sanz, F; Sales-Sanz, A; Huguet-Baudin, E; Murube-del-Castillo, J

    2014-12-01

    To study the different pupil shapes adopted by the different animal species. Review of the related literature, using PubMed database. The initial search strategy was pupil shape (limited to animals). The first volume of System of Ophthalmology (Duke-Elder) and Evolution's witness (I. Schwab) were also reviewed. An optic illusion called pseudopupil is usually observed in the compound eyes of insects. The pupil is circular in most vertebrates, however slit vertical pupils are present in cats and in some snake species. Vertical pupils could have a photoprotective function, as it makes a more complete closure possible in photopic conditions, and helps to camouflage the predator. It has also been hypothesized that it could help to correct chromatic aberration. Ruminants are usually endowed with horizontal pupils. This shape could improve the capacity of the eye to detect vertical silhouettes. Some marine animals have crescent-shaped pupils. In these animals, a superior operculum helps to protect the inferior retina from the great amount of light coming from above. There is a surprising variability in pupil shape. Through this variability, nature has fitted the eye to different circumstances. The theories proposed to explain this high variability are discussed in detail in the article. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards Science Education for all: Teacher Support for Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Science Education for all: Teacher Support for Female Pupils in the Zimbabwean Science Class. ... Annals of Modern Education ... One hundred female pupils studying sciences at either Ordinary or Advanced level, and 10 science teachers from 10 selected secondary schools in one province in Zimbabwe, ...

  8. Frequency and Efficacy of Talk-Related Tasks in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Martin; Leigh, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Pupil talk and discussion are seen as having important social and cognitive outcomes. In science classes, pupils' collaborative talk supports the construction of meaning and helps examine the status of evidence, theory and knowledge. However, pupil interactive talk in groups is rare in science lessons. The research reported is part of a project to…

  9. Factors That Influence Student Pursuit of Science Careers; the Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Snape, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study adds to a body of research reporting on pupils' choices and outcomes in relation to science. The article reports on 536 Scottish pupils' perceptions regarding reported intention to choose careers in science, with further analysis in terms of family, friends, gender and ethnicity. The pupils, aged 14-15, from 5 schools in one Scottish…

  10. The pupil as an indicator of unconscious memory: Introducing the pupil priming effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    We explored whether object behavioral priming and pupil changes occur in the absence of recognition memory. Experiment 1 found behavioral priming for unrecognized objects (Ms) regardless of whether they had been encoded perceptually or conceptually. Using the same perceptual encoding task, Experiment 2 showed greater pupil dilation for Ms than for correct rejections of unstudied objects (CRs) when reaction times were matched. In Experiment 3, there was relatively less pupil dilation for Ms than for similarly matched CRs when objects had been encoded conceptually. Mean/peak pupil dilation for CRs, but not Ms, increased in Experiment 3, in which novelty expectation was also reduced, and the pupillary time course for both Ms and CRs was distinct in the two experiments. These findings indicate that both behavioral and pupil memory occur for studied, but unrecognized stimuli, and suggest that encoding and novelty expectation modulate pupillary memory responses. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Year 7 Pupils' Views of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Roberts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings from a study among 610 Year 7 (typically age 12 pupils at 27 nonselective secondary schools in three English regions: Cornwall and Devon, London, and Greater Manchester. Data was gathered in workshops, each with 15–25 pupils, who completed questionnaires and performed individual tasks, all related to their vocational and educational aims, their ideas on what counted as success, and the main influences on their forward thinking, then discussed their answers and results. The discussions were tape recorded. Most pupils expressed robust occupational aims, and most said that they wanted to go to university. Family class did not predict levels of educational or occupational aims, but was related to the importance attached to “the job that I want to do” in the pupils' forward thinking. SAT scores did predict levels of occupational aspiration, ideas on what counted as success, and by whom and what the pupils were most influenced. These findings are interpreted to challenge the view, on which a raft of current policies are based, that social class disparities in educational and labour market outcomes are due to the intergenerational transmission of low aspirations in lower-class families and neighbourhoods. The paper concludes with an alternative model of status transmission processes in which attainments during secondary education are posited as the key intervening variable.

  13. Efektivitas Penambahan Natrium Diklofenak terhadap Larutan Obat Dilatasi Pupil pada Pasien Retinopati Diabetik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief S. Kartasasmita

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemeriksaan fundus memerlukan akses visualisasi yang baik. Pada penderita diabetes melitus, pupil sulit lebar menggunakan obat pelebar pupil standar sehingga perlu ditambahkan agen pelebar pupil. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Rumah Sakit Mata Cicendo periode Januari sampai Juli 2014 menggunakan metode double masked rendomized cotrolled trial terhadap 64 mata dari 32 subjek penelitian yang telah didiagnosis menderita retinopati diabetika dengan tingkat yang sama antara mata kiri dan kanan. Dibuat larutan kombinasi campuran 10 mL tropikamid 0,5%/fenilefrin 0,5%, 10 mL fenilefrin 5% dan 10 ml 0,1% Na diklofenak (larutan I dan campuran 10 mL tropikamid 0,5%/fenilefrin 0,5%, dan 10 mL fenilefrin 5% (larutan II. Setiap subjek mendapat salah satu larutan pada mata dan larutan yang lain pada sebelahnya secara acak. Dilakukan pemantauan dengan cara memotret pupil pada menit ke-15, 20, dan 25 pada kedua mata. Lebar pupil kedua kelompok perlakuan diukur dengan perangkat lunak khusus (image processing. Dari penenelitian terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara penggunaan larutan I dan larutan II dalam melebarkan pupil baik pada menit ke-15 (t=2,02; p=0,047, menit ke 20 (t=2,23; p=0,029, dan pada menit ke-25 (t=2,041; p=0,045. Larutan kombinasi fenilefrin, tropikamid, dan natrium diklofenak menghasilkan efek dilatasi pupil yang lebih baik dibanding dengan larutan kombinasi fenilefrin dan tropikamid saja pada kasus retinopati diabetes. [MKB. 2017;49(3:199–207] Kata kunci: Dilatasi pupil, natrium diklofenak, retinopati diabetika Effectiveness of Sodium Diclofenac Addition to Pupil Dilatation Agent on Diabetic Retinopathy Patients Fundus examination requires good visualization of fundus. In diabetic patients, it is difficult for the pupil to dilate using the standard pupilarry dilating agent. To achieve proper dilation, special agents have to be added to the standard dilation agent. The study was conducted in Cicendo Eye Hospital from January to July 2014, using

  14. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  15. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Operations System: Version 4.0 - system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashporenko, D.

    1996-07-01

    This document is intended to provide an operations standard for the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory OPerations System (EMSL OPS). It is directed toward three primary audiences: (1) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) facility and operations personnel; (2) laboratory line managers and staff; and (3) researchers, equipment operators, and laboratory users. It is also a statement of system requirements for software developers of EMSL OPS. The need for a finely tuned, superior research environment as provided by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory has never been greater. The abrupt end of the Cold War and the realignment of national priorities caused major US and competing overseas laboratories to reposition themselves in a highly competitive research marketplace. For a new laboratory such as the EMSL, this means coming into existence in a rapidly changing external environment. For any major laboratory, these changes create funding uncertainties and increasing global competition along with concomitant demands for higher standards of research product quality and innovation. While more laboratories are chasing fewer funding dollars, research ideas and proposals, especially for molecular-level research in the materials and biological sciences, are burgeoning. In such an economically constrained atmosphere, reduced costs, improved productivity, and strategic research project portfolio building become essential to establish and maintain any distinct competitive advantage. For EMSL, this environment and these demands require clear operational objectives, specific goals, and a well-crafted strategy. Specific goals will evolve and change with the evolution of the nature and definition of DOE`s environmental research needs. Hence, EMSL OPS is designed to facilitate migration of these changes with ease into every pertinent job function, creating a facile {open_quotes}learning organization.{close_quotes}

  16. Pupil size in Jewish theological seminary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, G; Kesler, A; Lazar, M; Rothkoff, L

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the authors' clinical impression that pupil size among myopic Jewish theological seminary students is different from pupil size of similar secular subjects. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 male Jewish theological seminary students and 28 secular students or workers who were matched for age and refraction. All participants were consecutively enrolled. Scotopic and photopic pupil size was measured by means of a Colvard pupillometer. Comparisons of various parameters between the groups were performed using the two-sample t-test, Fisher exact test, a paired-sample t-test, a two-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation coefficients as appropriate. The two groups were statistically matched for age, refraction, and visual acuity. The seminary students were undercorrected by an average of 2.35 diopters (D), while the secular subjects were undercorrected by only 0.65 D (pwork or of apparently characteristic undercorrection of the myopia is undetermined.

  17. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruthers Helen R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW. This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. Methods 620 pupils (aged 11–17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1% males, 322 (51.9% females at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an ‘experiment’ to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Results Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p  Conclusion This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  18. Dataset of red light induced pupil constriction superimposed on post-illumination pupil response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Lei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed pupil diameter data from of 7 visually normal participants to compare the maximum pupil constriction (MPC induced by “Red Only” vs. “Blue+Red” visual stimulation conditions.The “Red Only” condition consisted of red light (640±10 nm stimuli of variable intensity and duration presented to dark-adapted eyes with pupils at resting state. This condition stimulates the cone-driven activity of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC. The “Blue+Red” condition consisted of the same red light stimulus presented during ongoing blue (470±17 nm light-induced post-illumination pupil response (PIPR, representing the cone-driven ipRGC activity superimposed on the melanopsin-driven intrinsic activity of the ipRGCs (“The Absence of Attenuating Effect of Red light Exposure on Pre-existing Melanopsin-Driven Post-illumination Pupil Response” Lei et al. (2016 [1].MPC induced by the “Red Only” condition was compared with the MPC induced by the “Blue+Red” condition by multiple paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni correction. Keywords: Pupil light reflex, Chromatic pupillometry, Melanopsin, Post-illumination pupil response

  19. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest…

  20. prevalence of rheumatic heart disease among primary school pupils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the prevalence of RHD among primary school pupils in Egor ... Results: Of the 1764 pupils recruited, 900 (51.02%) were females while 864 (48.98%) were males. The mean age of the pupils was 8.86 ± 2.14 years. ..... of socio-economic class in voluntary infertility control.

  1. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  2. Pupil – Teacher Ratio: Implication for Quality Education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly, pupil-teacher ratios are very essential to quality of education. They perhaps rank alongside professional knowledge, skill, as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This paper discusses pupil-teacher ratio and relevance that pupils seem to have a greater impact on ...

  3. Pupils' Humour Directed at Teachers: Its Types and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedová, Klára

    2013-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 137 texts written by pupils, this paper examines pupils' humour directed at teachers, its types and social functions. The collected data are divided into three categories that describe different modes of teachers as targets of pupils' humour. The first mode describes teachers as unintentionally comical, the second as duped…

  4. Cyberbullying: Its Nature and Impact in Secondary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K.; Mahdavi, Jess; Carvalho, Manuel; Fisher, Sonja; Russell, Shanette; Tippett, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cyberbullying describes bullying using mobile phones and the internet. Most previous studies have focused on the prevalence of text message and email bullying. Methods: Two surveys with pupils aged 11-16 years: (1) 92 pupils from 14 schools, supplemented by focus groups; (2) 533 pupils from 5 schools, to assess the generalisability of…

  5. Comparative analysis of knowledge representation and reasoning requirements across a range of life sciences textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, Vinay K; Elenius, Daniel; Goldenkranz, Andrew; Gong, Allison; Martone, Maryann E; Webb, William; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Using knowledge representation for biomedical projects is now commonplace. In previous work, we represented the knowledge found in a college-level biology textbook in a fashion useful for answering questions. We showed that embedding the knowledge representation and question-answering abilities in an electronic textbook helped to engage student interest and improve learning. A natural question that arises from this success, and this paper's primary focus, is whether a similar approach is applicable across a range of life science textbooks. To answer that question, we considered four different textbooks, ranging from a below-introductory college biology text to an advanced, graduate-level neuroscience textbook. For these textbooks, we investigated the following questions: (1) To what extent is knowledge shared between the different textbooks? (2) To what extent can the same upper ontology be used to represent the knowledge found in different textbooks? (3) To what extent can the questions of interest for a range of textbooks be answered by using the same reasoning mechanisms? Our existing modeling and reasoning methods apply especially well both to a textbook that is comparable in level to the text studied in our previous work (i.e., an introductory-level text) and to a textbook at a lower level, suggesting potential for a high degree of portability. Even for the overlapping knowledge found across the textbooks, the level of detail covered in each textbook was different, which requires that the representations must be customized for each textbook. We also found that for advanced textbooks, representing models and scientific reasoning processes was particularly important. With some additional work, our representation methodology would be applicable to a range of textbooks. The requirements for knowledge representation are common across textbooks, suggesting that a shared semantic infrastructure for the life sciences is feasible. Because our representation overlaps

  6. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  7. Grouping Pupils for Language Arts Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    A major task involved in teaching pupils is to group them wisely for instruction. Most elementary schools group learners in terms of a self-contained classroom. While it may seem extreme, all curriculum areas on each grade in the elementary school may be departmentalized. In some ways, departmentalization harmonizes more with a separate subjects…

  8. Curricular Content for Pupils' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Seyed Hossein; Keshtiaray, Narges; Aghaei, Asghar; Yousefy, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Present-day curricular designs have to take the pupils' psychological needs in account, thus becoming melodies of mental health and happiness for the next generation. Emphasizing the findings from previous investigations using the research synthesis methodology, the present study has been conducted aiming at achieving some integrative knowledge…

  9. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  10. Psychometric aspects of pupil monitoring systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Geerlings, Hanneke

    2009-01-01

    Pupil monitoring systems support the teacher in tailoring teaching to the individual level of a student and in comparing the progress and results of teaching with national standards. The systems are based on the availability of an item bank calibrated using item response theory. The assessment of

  11. Class composition influences on pupils' cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.; Koopman, P.; van Schooten, E.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of low-achieving children in a class can affect the progress of individual pupils in that class. Having a large proportion of low achievers in a class could slow down growth in cognitive achievement but, might also boost such growth, due to the effects of specialist teaching geared to

  12. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  13. Objective Lens Optimized for Wavefront Delivery, Pupil Imaging, and Pupil Ghosting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olzcak, Gene

    2009-01-01

    An interferometer objective lens (or diverger) may be used to transform a collimated beam into a diverging or converging beam. This innovation provides an objective lens that has diffraction-limited optical performance that is optimized at two sets of conjugates: imaging to the objective focus and imaging to the pupil. The lens thus provides for simultaneous delivery of a high-quality beam and excellent pupil resolution properties.

  14. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders, Joske

    2013-11-06

    Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors' understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils' mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and apply strategies to improve students' mental

  15. Objective lens simultaneously optimized for pupil ghosting, wavefront delivery and pupil imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens includes multiple optical elements disposed between a first end and a second end, each optical element oriented along an optical axis. Each optical surface of the multiple optical elements provides an angle of incidence to a marginal ray that is above a minimum threshold angle. This threshold angle minimizes pupil ghosts that may enter an interferometer. The objective lens also optimizes wavefront delivery and pupil imaging onto an optical surface under test.

  16. Youtube? SFBTube! - Through pupils to the people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Mareike; Dengg, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Humankind is strongly affected by natural hazards: Earthquakes and volcanoes shake the solid earth, storms and floods happen more and more frequently due to climate change, tsunamis threaten coastal areas. As the human population continues to expand, and stresses on the environment multiply, the need for an understanding of the fundamental issues becomes more urgent. A major task of Collaborative Research Centre "Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" and Collaborative Research Centre "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones" is to explain how the different components of the earth system interact and how they affect the world's population. Both Collaborative Research Centres implement a joint outreach program to communicate their research activities and results to the general public. In doing so, new strategies in public outreach are essential - considering the fast pace of changes in communication media and the increasing importance of edutainment as a way to reach the public and particularly the younger generations. Outreach materials have to be interesting, easy to understand and fun to explore, but without sacrificing the scientific content. Therefore, videos for the internet (e. g. Youtube) are one promising way to reach that target group. Blogs, podcasts, wikis or being part of social networks such as Facebook are further ways. But "being present where young people are" is not enough. You have to speak their language, too. To take another step forward we hence involve a critical part of the target audience actively into this new communication strategy. School students are able to contribute innovative views and their own language in presenting science to the public. In cooperation with pupils and teachers, we experiment with those new approaches to public outreach. Wherever it is possible, we are also making use of international cooperations of both Collaborative Research Centres with partner institutions in Latin America and Western

  17. Teachers on Perceived Traits and Academic Achievements of Regular Pupils and Pupils with Special Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesar, Irena; Cuk, Ivan; Pecek, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    When looking for answers to the question of academic (non)achievement of regular pupils and pupils with special needs, it is necessary to take into account the extraordinary complexity of factors, ranging from psychological across instructional to home environment variables. The academic achievement is not only a reflection of the pupil's…

  18. School and Pupil Effects on Secondary Pupils' Feelings of Safety in School, around School, and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan

    2013-01-01

    In line with fear of crime research, schools should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at school and pupil level may differently influence a pupil's feelings of safety in school, the school surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical…

  19. Theoretical foundations of forming value orientation of pupils by means of school sports abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Kh. Turchyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the theoretical basis for the formation of value orientations of pupils by means of school sports facilities abroad. Material: detailed analysis of 14 published sources. Results: found that in a foreign academic and journalistic literature dominates positive appreciation of cultural values of humanistic school sports in the formation of value orientations of pupils. Found that school sport abroad plays an important role not only as a means of forming the basic values - health, but also an important area of communication, the manifestations of social activity. As well as physical and mental form of organization and leisure facilities, excellent vehicle impacts on other values of human life: the authority and position in society, work, the structure of moral and volitional characteristics, aesthetic ideals and other value orientations. Conclusions: confirmed that the global experience of formation values pupil means school sports deserves attention and requires selective introduction into the domestic education system.

  20. Oral Health Status Of Handicapped Primary School Pupils In Dar Es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calculus, with highest mean scores mainly among the blind (p= 0.008). Conclusion: The caries prevalence among handicapped primary school pupils was quite low. However, there was relatively high level of gingival bleeding and calculus. Regarding treatment needs, 23% required dental fillings mainly of one and two ...

  1. Pupils' Knowledge and Spoken Literary Response beyond Polite Meaningless Words: Studying Yeats's "Easter, 1916"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John

    2016-01-01

    This article presents research exploring the knowledge pupils bring to texts introduced to them for literary study, how they share knowledge through talk, and how it is elicited by the teacher in the course of an English lesson. It sets classroom discussion in a context where new examination requirements diminish the relevance of social, cultural…

  2. "Invisible" Bilingualism--"Invisible" Language Ideologies: Greek Teachers' Attitudes Towards Immigrant Pupils' Heritage Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkaintartzi, Anastasia; Kiliari, Angeliki; Tsokalidou, Roula

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from two studies--a nationwide quantitative research and an ethnographic study--on Greek schoolteachers' attitudes towards immigrant pupils' bilingualism. The quantitative data come from a large-scale questionnaire survey, which aimed at the investigation of the needs and requirements for the implementation of a pilot…

  3. Skills of Chemistry Pupils during the Period of Curricular Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bayerová, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Přírodovědecká fakulta Katedra učitelství a didaktiky chemie Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science Department of Teaching and Didactics of Chemistry Doktorský studijní program: Vzdělávání v chemii Ph.D. study program: Education in Chemistry Autoreferát disertační práce Summary of the Ph.D. Thesis Mgr. Anna Bayerová Dovednosti žáků v chemii v období kurikulární reformy Skills of Chemistry Pupils during the Period of Curricular Reform Školitel/Supervisor: ...

  4. Extensions to the Joshua GDMS to support environmental science and analysis data handling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suich, J.E.; Honeck, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    For the past ten years, a generalized data management system (GDMS) called JOSHUA has been in use at the Savannah River Laboratory. Originally designed and implemented to support nuclear reactor physics and safety computational applications, the system is now also supporting environmental science modeling and impact assessment. Extensions to the original system are being developed to meet neet new data handling requirements, which include more general owner-member record relationships occurring in geographically encoded data sets, unstructured (relational) inquiry capability, cartographic analysis and display, and offsite data exchange. This paper discusses the need for these capabilities, places them in perspective as generic scientific data management activities, and presents the planned context-free extensions to the basic JOSHUA GDMS

  5. Extensions to the Joshua GDMS to support environmental science and analysis data handling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suich, J.E.; Honeck, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    For the past ten years, a generalized data management system (GDMS) called JOSHUA has been in use at the Savannah River Laboratory. Originally designed and implemented to support nuclear reactor physics and safety computational applications, the system is now also supporting environmental science modeling and impact assessment. Extensions to the original system are being developed to meet new data handling requirements, which include more general owner-member record relationships occurring in geographically encoded data sets, unstructured (relational) inquiry capability, cartographic analysis and display, and offsite data exchange. This paper discusses the need for these capabilities, places them in perspective as generic scientific data management activities, and presents the planned context-free extensions to the basic JOSHUA GDMS

  6. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam. The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors’ understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Results Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils’ mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Conclusions Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and

  7. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  8. Estimation of operators’ fatigue using optical methods for determination of pupil activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Różanowski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of this study was to develop and initially validate an objective, yet quick, method for assessment of human fatigue. This aim can be achieved by the use of an optical, non-contact method of analysis of pupil activity. The study involved 2 phenomena typical for the behavior of the human pupil: pupillary reflex and pupillary movements. The 1st phenomenon is related to the pupillary light reflex (PLR, which presents the results of physiological adaptation mechanisms of the human eye. The pupillary unrest index (PUI is an additional parameter referring to the tendency for instability of the pupil. Material and methods Indicators of these 2 mechanisms were assessed under the same experimental laboratory conditions. Assessment was conducted on a group of volunteers (N = 10 during 4 controlled series of measurements performed at night. Pupillary reflex parameters associated with PLR and pupillary unrest index (PUI were recorded using F²D Fit-For-Duty, a commercially available system made by AMTech Pupilknowlogy GmbH. Baseline pupil diameter, oscillations, reflex latency, maximum reaction time, pupil constriction time, pupil dilation time, and constriction amplitude were recorded. Results As a result of the study, we were able to demonstrate correlation and confirm the usefulness of PLR and PST methods in the assessment of sleep deprivation. Parameters of PLR that may indicate human fatigue were identified. The effect of light impulse sequences on the dynamics of pupillary reflex and the relationship between PUI (pupillary unrest index measurement duration and sleepiness assessment validity, were assessed. Conclusions The results of the pilot studies were sufficient to develop minimum requirements for a PLR sensor that would be capable of estimating the level of fatigue with accuracy of a PUI method, but at a 5 times faster rate.

  9. Technological literacy of fifth and sixth grade pupils of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Keše, Jaka

    2016-01-01

    The first part of this thesis contains a theoretical description of the importance of technology and technological literacy. It introduces the dimensions and standards of technological literacy for pupils aged 9 to 12, followed by a comparative analysis of the Slovenian curriculums of technical subjects (natural science, technical studies, engineering and technology). The thesis has two goals. The first is to evaluate the technological literacy rates among students in the 5th and 6th grade of...

  10. Pupil dilation co-varies with memory strength of individual traces in a delayed response paired-associate task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedderik van Rijn

    Full Text Available Studies on cognitive effort have shown that pupil dilation is a reliable indicator of memory load. However, it is conceivable that there are other sources of effort involved in memory that also affect pupil dilation. One of these is the ease with which an item can be retrieved from memory. Here, we present the results of an experiment in which we studied the way in which pupil dilation acts as an online marker for memory processing during the retrieval of paired associates while reducing confounds associated with motor responses. Paired associates were categorized into sets containing either 4 or 7 items. After learning the paired associates once, pupil dilation was measured during the presentation of the retrieval cue during four repetitions of each set. Memory strength was operationalized as the number of repetitions (frequency and set-size, since having more items per set results in a lower average recency. Dilation decreased with increased memory strength, supporting the hypothesis that the amplitude of the evoked pupillary response correlates positively with retrieval effort. Thus, while many studies have shown that "memory load" influences pupil dilation, our results indicate that the task-evoked pupillary response is also sensitive to the experimentally manipulated memory strength of individual items. As these effects were observed well before the response had been given, this study also suggests that pupil dilation can be used to assess an item's memory strength without requiring an overt response.

  11. The Loss of Biodiversity as a Challenge for Sustainable Development: How Do Pupils in Chile and Germany Perceive Resource Dilemmas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Susanne; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2009-08-01

    The topic of biodiversity is of high value for education for sustainable development as it reflects the interaction of ecological, economic and social issues particularly well. Especially in so-called biodiversity hotspots, among them Chile, natural resources are often depleted for economic interest which, in many cases, is required income. Therefore, economic and social aspects must be considered in order to fully understand biodiversity loss. Being such an important issue, it is surprising that little is known thus far about learning prerequisites concerning biodiversity. This paper presents a qualitative interview study that investigated 16 to 18-year-old Chilean and German learners’ perception of biodiversity and its loss ( n = 24). Firstly, the pupils’ cognitive frameworks were analysed. Secondly, subjective theories about biodiversity loss due to resource dilemmas were explored. Three subjective theories that emerged from the data reflected the notion that most pupils focused on either ecological or economic aspects of biodiversity loss. Pupils who concentrated on ecological aspects often referred to incorrect ecological facts. Moreover, these pupils showed difficulties in developing empathy and solidarity with impoverished people, who depend economically on plants in a resource dilemma. A smaller group of pupils succeeded in integrating the ecological, economic, and social aspects. Regarding the two samples, Chilean pupils seemed to have greater difficulties in recognising the social aspects of biodiversity loss, while German pupils were largely unaware of biodiversity loss on a local level. Implications for biodiversity education and future research will be outlined and discussed.

  12. The evolution of atmospheric science goals and enhanced technology needed to satisfy remote sensing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. M., III

    2017-12-01

    The era of satellite observations of Earth's atmosphere has undergone a remarkable and dramatic evolution since temperature measurements were first made from the Nimbus 3 satellite launched in April 1969. Since those early days of discovery, amazing progress has occurred in scientific understanding of the atmosphere. The launch of Nimbus 7 in October 1978 provided an explosion of information on the composition of the stratosphere revealing for the first time the global distributions of stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, HNO3 and aerosols. The SAGE series of satellites begun in 1979 and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite deployed from the Space Shuttle in October 1991 added new and more tenuous stratospheric gases especially in the odd chlorine family. Measurements of stratospheric ozone destroying chlorine and bromine compounds have continued with the EOS suite of satellites. Measurements from the TIMED satellite have provided a 15-year data set for study of the energetics, chemistry and dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and vertical coupling between atmospheric regions. The AIM satellite has provided a 10-year data base of the tenuous layer of mesopause level noctilucent clouds and horizontal coupling between hemispheres. This progression of knowledge and measurement capability has evolved together as the needs developed to observe and characterize less abundant but more important atmospheric constituents and processes. This talk summarizes some of the key science results, the technology challenges that had to be overcome to enable the measurements and a view toward the future to meet new science requirements.

  13. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF

  14. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeyratne, S.; Accardi, A.; Ahmed, S.; Barber, D.; Bisognano, J.; Bogacz, A.; Castilla, A.; Chevtsov, P.; Corneliussen, S.; Deconinck, W.; Degtiarenko, P.; Delayen, J.; Derbenev, Ya.; DeSilva, S.; Douglas, D.; Dudnikov, V.; Ent, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Evtushenko, P.; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Guzey, V.; Horn, T.; Hutton, A.; Hyde, C.; Johnson, R.; Kim, Y.; Klein, F.; Kondratenko, A.; Kondratenko, M.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Lin, F.; Manikonda, S.; Marhauser, F.; McKeown, R.; Morozov, V.; Dadel-Turonski, P.; Nissen, E.; Ostroumov, P.; Pivi, M.; Pilat, F.; Poelker, M.; Prokudin, A.; Rimmer, R.; Satogata, T.; Sayed, H.; Spata, M.; Sullivan, M.; Tennant, C.; Terzic, B.; Tiefenback, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.; Weiss, C.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10 34 cm -2 s -1 per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10 34 cm -2 s -1 at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R and D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF linac will serve as a

  15. Extra Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph and Science Requirements for the James Webb Telescope Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2004-01-01

    1) Extra solar planetary imaging coronagraph. Direct detection and characterization of Jovian planets, and other gas giants, in orbit around nearby stars is a necessary precursor to Terrestrial Planet Finder 0 in order to estimate the probability of Terrestrial planets in our stellar neighborhood. Ground based indirect methods are biased towards large close in Jovian planets in solar systems unlikely io harbor Earthlike planets. Thus to estimate the relative abundances of terrestrial planets and to determine optimal observing strategies for TPF a pathfinder mission would be desired. The Extra-Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is such a pathfinder mission. Upto 83 stellar systems are accessible with a 1.5 meter unobscured telescope and coronagraph combination located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Incorporating radiometric and angular resolution considerations show that Jovians could be directly detected (5 sigma) in the 0.5 - 1.0 micron band outside of an inner working distance of 5/D with integration times of -10 - 100 hours per observation. The primary considerations for a planet imager are optical wavefront quality due to manufacturing, alignment, structural and thermal considerations. pointing stability and control, and manufacturability of coronagraphic masks and stops to increase the planetary-to- stellar contrast and mitigate against straylight. Previously proposed coronagraphic concepts are driven to extreme tolerances. however. we have developed and studied a mission, telescope and coronagraphic detection concept, which is achievable in the time frame of a Discovery class NASA mission. 2) Science requirements for the James Webb Space Telescope observatory. The James Webb Space Observatory (JWST) is an infrared observatory, which will be launched in 201 1 to an orbit at L2. JWST is a segmented, 18 mirror segment telescope with a diameter of 6.5 meters, and a clear aperture of 25 mA2. The telescope is designed to conduct imaging and spectroscopic

  16. Bullying in Basic School: the Perspectives of Teachers and Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Posnic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of our study was to investigate how basic school pupils and teachers perceive and understand bullying. The participants in the study were 58 teachers and 396 pupils in basic school. The results indicate that both teachers and pupils perceive verbal bullying as the most frequent form of bullying compared to physical and relational bullying. Pupils report perceiving more bullying than teachers. Both pupils and teachers perceive physical and verbal bullying as more serious forms of bullying compared to relational bullying and report feeling more empathy toward victims of these two forms of bullying. In addition, teachers report that they are more willing to intervene in cases of physical and verbal bullying. There are significant differences between pupils’ and teachers’ reports of the likelihood of teachers’ interventions in cases of bullying; compared to pupils teachers report a higher likelihood of their intervention..

  17. The All-Purpose Science Teacher: An Analysis of Loopholes in State Requirements for High School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The basic story line of the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) crisis is, at this point, well known. In an increasingly interdependent and technology-driven economy, America is falling behind. A substantial number of students cannot perform basic math. U.S. students lag behind peers in international comparisons of science…

  18. In Pursuit of LSST Science Requirements: A Comparison of Photometry Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Andrew C.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Owen, Russell E.; Ivezić, Željko; Lupton, Robert H.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed an end-to-end photometric data-processing pipeline to compare current photometric algorithms commonly used on ground-based imaging data. This test bed is exceedingly adaptable and enables us to perform many research and development tasks, including image subtraction and co-addition, object detection and measurements, the production of photometric catalogs, and the creation and stocking of database tables with time-series information. This testing has been undertaken to evaluate existing photometry algorithms for consideration by a next-generation image-processing pipeline for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We outline the results of our tests for four packages: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Photo package, DAOPHOT and ALLFRAME, DOPHOT, and two versions of Source Extractor (SExtractor). The ability of these algorithms to perform point-source photometry, astrometry, shape measurements, and star-galaxy separation and to measure objects at low signal-to-noise ratio is quantified. We also perform a detailed crowded-field comparison of DAOPHOT and ALLFRAME, and profile the speed and memory requirements in detail for SExtractor. We find that both DAOPHOT and Photo are able to perform aperture photometry to high enough precision to meet LSST's science requirements, and less adequately at PSF-fitting photometry. Photo performs the best at simultaneous point- and extended-source shape and brightness measurements. SExtractor is the fastest algorithm, and recent upgrades in the software yield high-quality centroid and shape measurements with little bias toward faint magnitudes. ALLFRAME yields the best photometric results in crowded fields.

  19. Assessment of Teacher of Nursing Subjects by Pupils and Students

    OpenAIRE

    Bednářová, Markéta

    2006-01-01

    The dissertation Assessment of a teacher of nursing subjects by pupils and students focuses on finding the opinion of pupils of secondary nursing schools and students of higher nursing schools and universities on teachers of nursing. The subject of the interest was particularly qualities and skills of the nursing teachers which pupils and students consider important and desirable. The theoretical part of the work summarizes conclusions from thematically similar studies. The empirical part of ...

  20. Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    OpenAIRE

    Otipková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Title: Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives: The aim of the work was to determine the level of fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of the pupils with diagnosis ADHD at schools specialized on these pupils and compare it with the fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of children without this diagnosis at common elementary school. Further work objective was to determine the level of gross motor skills of lower limbs ...

  1. Spallation-based science and technology and associated nuclear data requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.; Lisowski, P.W.; Arthur, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid advances in accelerator technology in recent years promise average proton beam currents as high as 250 mA with energies greater than one GeV. Such an accelerator could produce very high intensities of neutrons and other nuclear particles thus opening up new areas of science and technology. An example is the efficient burning of transuranic and fission product waste. With such a spallation-burner it appears that high-level waste might be converted to low-level waste on a time scale comparable to the human lifespan at a reasonable additional cost for electric power generation. The emphasis of this paper is on the design of a high power proton target for neutron production, on the nuclear data needed to operate this target safely and effectively, and on data requirements for transmutation. It is suggested that a pilot facility consisting of a 1.6 GeV accelerator and target operating at 25 ma is the next major step in developing this technology. Bursts of protons near the terawatt level might also be generated using such an accelerator with a proton accumulator ring. Research prospects based on such proton bursts are briefly described. The status of established nuclear data needs and of accelerator-based sources for nuclear data measurements is reviewed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Spallation-based science and technology and associated nuclear data requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.; Lisowski, P.W.; Arthur, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid advances in accelerator technology in recent years promise average proton beam currents as high as 250 mA with energies greater than one GeV. Such an accelerator could produce very high intensities of neutrons and other nuclear particles thus opening up new areas of science and technology. An example is the efficient burning of transuranic and fission product waste. With such a spallation-burner it appears that high-level waste might be converted to low-level waste on a time scale comparable to the human lifespan at a reasonable additional cost for electric power generation. The emphasis of this paper is on the design of a high power proton target for neutron production, on the nuclear data needed to operate this target safely and effectively, and on data requirements for transmutation. It is suggested that a pilot facility consisting of a 1.6 GeV accelerator and target operating at 25 ma is the next major step in developing this technology. Bursts of protons near the terawatt level might also be generated using such an accelerator with a proton accumulator ring. Research prospects based on such proton bursts are briefly described. The status of established nuclear data needs and of accelerator-based sources for nuclear data measurements is reviewed. (author)

  3. Facilitating Creativity in Science Students' through Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study ascertained how teachers facilitate the creativity skills of the Pupils as an outcome of professional development. 450 primary school pupils and 50 Basic science teachers in the primary schools were sampled. The study adopted the Solomon four group design. The Torrance Test for Creative thinking (TTCT) and ...

  4. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Song

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional time loss is significantly associated with poor performance. In light of these results, policies to boost academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia are discussed.

  5. Sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils and professional qualification of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Zachová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented text shows the results of research carried out within the dissertation thesis. The main topic is the phenomenon of sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The research is based on the expert belief that integration of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue into Czech schools and the training of teachers in this field is still somewhat marginal, even though there is a growing debate about increasing cultural diversity, increasing heterogeneity of schools and introduction of inclusive measures. The aim of the research was to analyze professional training of teachers in relation to the sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The goal was refined by the formulation of research questions: What possible problems (difficulties reflect teachers in the teaching process of foreign pupils? What procedures and strategies do teachers use to help these pupils to be integrated successfully? How do teachers assess their professional readiness for education of foreign pupils (whether they were sufficiently prepared to work with foreign pupils in the course of their undergraduate studies, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? How do students assess their undergraduate education for foreign-pupil teaching (whether they were ready to work with foreign pupils in their previous undergraduate education, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? The research used questionnaire survey techniques for teachers and students and semi-structured interviews for teachers. The partial technique was the analysis of study subjects focused on the education of foreign pupils at the Faculty of Education at West Bohemian University in Pilsen (hereinafter WBU. The research group was made up of teachers of the 1st grade of primary schools of the Pilsen and Karlovy Vary regions and students of the 4th grade of the field of Teaching for the

  6. Barrier Island Activity to Illustrate Hands-On Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Suzanne H.

    The department of Physics of the University of Glasgow was concerned about losing students after the end of the level 1 Physics course. The current research project started as an attempt to find out the reasons for this, but moved to investigate attitudes towards Physics at several stages during secondary school and attitudes towards science with primary pupils. Analyses of factors, which influence students' intentions towards studying Physics, were performed against the background of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, which interprets people's behaviour by considering three factors: attitude towards behaviour (advantages or disadvantages of being involved in the behaviour, e.g. studying Physics for Honours); subjective norm (approval or disapproval of important people towards engaging in the behaviour, e.g. parents, teacher, general norms of the society); perceived behavioural control (skills, knowledge, cooperation of others, abilities, efforts required to perform the behaviour). Analysis of these factors revealed some reasons for students' withdrawal from Physics after level 1 and pointed to factors which may facilitate students' persistence in the subject. A general analysis of level 1 and level 2 students' attitudes towards different aspects of the university Physics course revealed that the level 1 students' attitudes towards their university course of lectures and course of laboratories tended to be negatively polarised. Recommendations were suggested on the basis of the gathered evidence about how to make students' experience in university Physics more satisfactory for them. The data obtained from the separate analyses of females' and males' attitudes towards university Physics course have showed that attitudes of females and males were similar. The only significant difference between level 1 females and males was found to be the perceived behavioural control factor (students' attitudes towards course difficulty, attitudes towards work load in the course

  7. Using task effort and pupil size to track covert shifts of visual attention independently of a pupillary light reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Harbecke, Raphael; Graf, Tim; Memmert, Daniel; Hüttermann, Stefanie

    2018-03-07

    We tested the link between pupil size and the task effort involved in covert shifts of visual attention. The goal of this study was to establish pupil size as a marker of attentional shifting in the absence of luminance manipulations. In three experiments, participants evaluated two stimuli that were presented peripherally, appearing equidistant from and on opposite sides of eye fixation. The angle between eye fixation and the peripherally presented target stimuli varied from 12.5° to 42.5°. The evaluation of more distant stimuli led to poorer performance than did the evaluation of more proximal stimuli throughout our study, confirming that the former required more effort than the latter. In addition, in Experiment 1 we found that pupil size increased with increasing angle and that this effect could not be reduced to the operation of low-level visual processes in the task. In Experiment 2 the pupil dilated more strongly overall when participants evaluated the target stimuli, which required shifts of attention, than when they merely reported on the target's presence versus absence. Both conditions yielded larger pupils for more distant than for more proximal stimuli, however. In Experiment 3, we manipulated task difficulty more directly, by changing the contrast at which the target stimuli were presented. We replicated the results from Experiment 1 only with the high-contrast stimuli. With stimuli of low contrast, ceiling effects in pupil size were observed. Our data show that the link between task effort and pupil size can be used to track the degree to which an observer covertly shifts attention to or detects stimuli in peripheral vision.

  8. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of

  9. Peculiarities of adaptive and compensatory abilities of the modern pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Володимирівна Фролова

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of an intense functioning of child organism an influence of unfavorable factors can result into breakdown of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and to become a presupposition for forming pathology.Aim: to define peculiarities of adaptive and compensatory abilities of school-aged children during the school year.Methods. 970 children 9-17 years old were examined at the beginning and at the end of school year. Children were divided in 2 groups: I – 673 children with chronic somatic diseases, II – 297 conventionally healthy children.The study of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms was carried out with a glance to vegetative regulation of body functions. Robinson index (IR was used for an express-assessment of somatic health. Statistic data-processing was done according to the requirements of evidence-based medicine.Result. An analysis of an examination results at the beginning of the school year showed that the pupils of the I group have a complex disturbances of vegetative regulation, low level of aerobic abilities of organism. Among the children of the II group no more than 25% have a satisfactory state of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms that ensure an adequate response of child organism on the stress factors of educational process.At the end of the school year the part of children who have a balanced level of neuroreflex systems of organism decreases by 50%, the number of children with an overstrain of regulatory systems of organism increases by 28%, with unsatisfactory state of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms – by 22% that becomes presupposition for formation and chronization of somatic pathology.An examination of pupils health level at the end of the school year showed that the number of conventionally healthy children decreases by 19,2%. The syntropy of pathological states formed in 54,2% of pupils with chronic somatic pathology, in 34,5% of children the functional disturbance transformed into somatic pathology

  10. It's Easier than You Think! Exploring an Outdoor Pedagogy for Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Mark

    2018-01-01

    As well as providing a valuable and enjoyable experience for pupils, outdoor learning also enhances and contextualises learning in science by helping pupils understand science concepts. Teachers' lack of confidence in which aspects of the science curriculum they can actually teach outdoors deters them from venturing outside the classroom for…

  11. The place of native language in Science teaching and learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of limited English language proficiency on the learning of science is investigated for some Junior Secondary School (J.S.S.) pupils. Despite serious efforts put up by pupils to learn science, difficulties in speaking and writing English were factors that limited their performance in science. Two types of schools: an ...

  12. Quiet pupils can be effective learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnhildur Óskarsdóttir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the importance for pupils’ learning of being generally visibly active participant in a classroom discussion. A class of six year-old pupils was taught about the human skeletal system and other organs. To determine what they had learnt, they were asked to produce drawings before and after the course of teaching. The pupils’ participation in the class discussion during the course of teaching was given values on a scale from 1–8, the most talkative receiving the value 1 and the least talkative (or most quiet the value 8. The study showed that the less talkative the pupils were in the discussion the more they gained from the teaching. The results could not be accounted for by ceiling effects and similar patterns obtained across the materials used support the robustness of the findings. The study suggests that it cannot be assumed that participating in classroom discussion during the learning process is a necessary precondition for learning.

  13. Inclusive School Is (Not) Possible--Pupil's Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education has been the focus of a number of research studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, most of the research was based on the teachers and to a lesser extent on parents' attitudes towards inclusive education, while pupils' views and voice were mainly neglected. The core of this paper is survey research on primary school pupils'…

  14. Knowledge and Experiences of Risks among Pupils in Vocational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Marie Andersson

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: A systematic approach to pupils' training in work environment, which is a basis for a safe and healthy workplace, is lacking. The study findings indicate that pupils are offered knowledge far from that intended by laws and by state-of-the-art occupational health risk research.

  15. Understanding Pupil Behaviour: Classroom Management Techniques for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    This book describes a system of successful classroom behaviour management techniques developed by the author over more than twenty-five years. It outlines the difficulties confronting teachers trying to manage pupils' misbehaviour in schools and describes four types of pupil who can be helped to behave responsibly. In "Understanding Pupil…

  16. The Relationship of Teacher Affective Behavior to Pupil Affective Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameen, Marilyn C.; Brown, Jeannette A.

    The study investigated the relationship of teacher affective behavior changes to pupil affective behavior changes in the presence of elementary school guidance services for both populations. Specifically, the study asked: Is teacher change in Intimacy and Esprit related to pupil change in Self Perception and Peer Acceptance? Activities were…

  17. Oregon Pupil Transportation Manual. Revised Regulations and Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Designed for use by Oregon school bus drivers and administrators, this manual answers common questions about school bus transportation in Oregon, including those about the laws governing pupil transportation, the regulations governing pupil transportation administration, and the laws on school bus operation. A chapter of advisory materials covers…

  18. Pupils' Plans to Study Abroad: Social Reproduction of Transnational Capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.; Gerhards, J.; Hans, S.; Carlson, S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses Dutch pupils' plans to study abroad. The main question is to what extent these plans are related to their social class position, their parents' and their own transnational capital and the school type they attend. The analyses are based on survey data of 549 Dutch pupils, aged

  19. Teaching High-Ability Pupils in Early Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of the intervention 'Excel Kwadraat' in primary schools. This intervention aims to improve teachers’ differentiation practices in order to better anticipate pupil differences, including excellent or high-ability pupils. In the end, the intervention

  20. Inferior ectopic pupil and typical ocular coloboma in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naho; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-08-01

    Ocular coloboma is sometimes accompanied by corectopia in humans and therefore ectopic pupil may indicate ocular coloboma in experimental animals. The RCS strain of rats has a low incidence of microphthalmia. We found that inferior ectopic pupil is associated exclusively with small-sized eyes in this strain. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether inferior ectopic pupil is associated with iridal coloboma and other types of ocular coloboma in RCS rats. Both eyes of RCS rats were examined clinically, and those with inferior ectopic pupils underwent morphologic and morphometric examinations. In a prenatal study, coronal serial sections of eyeballs from fetuses at gestational day 16.5 were examined by using light microscopy. Ectopic pupils in RCS rats were found exclusively in an inferior position, where the iris was shortened. Fundic examination revealed severe chorioretinal coloboma in all cases of inferior ectopic pupil. The morphologic characteristics closely resembled those of chorioretinal coloboma in humans. Histopathologic examination of primordia showed incomplete closure of the optic fissure in 4 eyeballs of RCS fetuses. Neither F(1) rats nor N(2) (progeny of RCS × BN matings) displayed any ocular anomalies, including ectopic pupils. The RCS strain is a suitable model for human ocular coloboma, and inferior ectopic pupil appears to be a strong indicator of ocular coloboma.

  1. Better for Both--Thoughts on Teacher-Pupil Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, John

    1978-01-01

    To remove the adversary emphasis from pupil-teacher interactions, the author presents a simple model, showing how an intervention can potentially make a situation better, worse, or unchanged for the pupil and the teacher. A sample scenario is provided of two teachers dealing with a misbehaving child. (SJL)

  2. Perspective reports of corporal punishment by pupils in Lesotho schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyooe, L A

    1993-10-01

    This study surveyed reports of practices of corporal punishment at secondary schools in Lesotho by 60 randomly selected pupils. There were 34 males and 26 females, whose mean age was 21 years, with a range between 14 and 29 years. Responses to a questionnaire confirmed that punishment was associated with pupils' reports of academic impairment, psychological damage, and physical injury.

  3. Does Lego Training Stimulate Pupils' Ability to Solve Logical Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Jorgen; Holgersson, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a one-year regular robotic toys (lego) training on school pupils' performance. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the "constructionist theory," where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made…

  4. Chimpanzees and humans mimic pupil-size of conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska E Kret

    Full Text Available Group-living typically provides benefits to individual group members but also confers costs. To avoid incredulity and betrayal and allow trust and cooperation, individuals must understand the intentions and emotions of their group members. Humans attend to other's eyes and from gaze and pupil-size cues, infer information about the state of mind of the observed. In humans, pupil-size tends to mimic that of the observed. Here we tested whether pupil-mimicry exists in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes. We conjectured that if pupil-mimicry has adaptive value, e.g. to promote swift communication of inner states and facilitate shared understanding and coordination, pupil-mimicry should emerge within but not across species. Pupillometry data was collected from human and chimpanzee subjects while they observed images of the eyes of both species with dilating/constricting pupils. Both species showed enhanced pupil-mimicry with members of their own species, with effects being strongest in humans and chimpanzee mothers. Pupil-mimicry may be deeply-rooted, but probably gained importance from the point in human evolution where the morphology of our eyes became more prominent. Humans' white sclera surrounding the iris, and the fine muscles around their eyes facilitate non-verbal communication via eye signals.

  5. Junior Secondary School Pupils' Perception of the Relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    on the data and an independent sample 2-tailed t-test was used to explore the ... pupils' knowledge, attitudes towards and conceptions of the environmental ... challenges with 1200 fifteen-year-old Norwegian pupils as part of ROSE and ... Some comparative studies were carried out among children from different cultures.

  6. Pupils, the Forgotten Partners in Education Action Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Joan; Clough, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Education action zones (EAZs) involving local partnerships are one of the government's policies set up to help raise standards in pupils' performance and behaviour in areas of economic and social disadvantage. This article explores the nature of these partnerships and the fact that pupils are excluded. It reviews literature on student voice and…

  7. EFFICIENCY OF READING COMPREHENSION TRAINING IN PUPILS LIVING IN POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kosak Babuder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of Slovene and foreign studies reveal the connection between literacy levels and the level of education, employment opportunities and consequent socio-economic status of individuals and families. Reading efficiency relating to reading comprehension is an important element of reading literacy performance. The findings of several authors indicate empirical evidence of the existence of deficits and poor reading comprehension in pupils living in poverty and stress the importance of offsetting deficits and developing reading comprehension. Results of both foreign and Slovene studies indicate that the program of reading comprehension should be implemented in this group of pupils. In the article, we want to present effectiveness of the reading comprehension improvement program in pupils living in poverty. According to the findings of our research, in which we structured and implemented the reading comprehension program for pupils living in poverty with the Metacognitive-intersentential model of reading comprehension, the reading comprehension of the experimental group pupils who participated in the program improved compared to the control group pupils who did not participate in the program. Experimental group pupils also significantly improved correctness of their reading, their vocabulary and skills of verbal expression. When the program ended, we tested its efficiency by applied tests. The results on the manifest variables indicated that the program was good and efficient for pupils who live in poverty and experience reading comprehension problems.

  8. Cooperative learning in science: intervention in the secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; Tolmie, A.; Christie, D.; Murray, P.; Karagiannidou, E.

    2011-04-01

    The use of cooperative learning in secondary school is reported - an area of considerable concern given attempts to make secondary schools more interactive and gain higher recruitment to university science courses. In this study the intervention group was 259 pupils aged 12-14 years in nine secondary schools, taught by 12 self-selected teachers. Comparison pupils came from both intervention and comparison schools (n = 385). Intervention teachers attended three continuing professional development days, in which they received information, engaged with resource packs and involved themselves in cooperative learning. Measures included both general and specific tests of science, attitudes to science, sociometry, self-esteem, attitudes to cooperative learning and transferable skills (all for pupils) and observation of implementation fidelity. There were increases during cooperative learning in pupil formulation of propositions, explanations and disagreements. Intervened pupils gained in attainment, but comparison pupils gained even more. Pupils who had experienced cooperative learning in primary school had higher pre-test scores in secondary education irrespective of being in the intervention or comparison group. On sociometry, comparison pupils showed greater affiliation to science work groups for work, but intervention pupils greater affiliation to these groups at break and out of school. Other measures were not significant. The results are discussed in relation to practice and policy implications.

  9. Future engineers: the intrinsic technology motivation of secondary school pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lewis C. R.; McDermott, Hilary J.; Tyrer, John R.; Zanker, Nigel P.

    2018-07-01

    The supply of students motivated to study engineering in higher education is critical to the sector. Results are presented from the 'Mindsets STEM Enhancement Project'. Fifty-seven new resources packs, designed to improve STEM education in Design and Technology, were given to schools across London. A modified Intrinsic Motivation Inventory questionnaire measured pupils' (n = 458) motivation towards technology. The results show that although pupils have positive reactions to the technology content within Design and Technology lessons, the type of STEM resources and lessons created through the project had made no significant difference on pupils' interest/enjoyment towards technology. This suggests stand-alone resources do not improve pupil motivation. The impact of this work to engineering higher education is that the existing levels and the inability to improve pupil motivation in technology at school could be a factor affecting the pursuit of a technology or engineering related education or career.

  10. Joint optimization of source, mask, and pupil in optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2014-03-01

    Mask topography effects need to be taken into consideration for more advanced resolution enhancement techniques in optical lithography. However, rigorous 3D mask model achieves high accuracy at a large computational cost. This work develops a combined source, mask and pupil optimization (SMPO) approach by taking advantage of the fact that pupil phase manipulation is capable of partially compensating for mask topography effects. We first design the pupil wavefront function by incorporating primary and secondary spherical aberration through the coefficients of the Zernike polynomials, and achieve optimal source-mask pair under the condition of aberrated pupil. Evaluations against conventional source mask optimization (SMO) without incorporating pupil aberrations show that SMPO provides improved performance in terms of pattern fidelity and process window sizes.

  11. Optical Manufacturing and Testing Requirements Identified by the NASA Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Barney, Rich; Bauman, Jill; Feinberg, Lee; Mcleese, Dan; Singh, Upendra

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assess the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. The needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper reviews the optical manufacturing and testing technologies identified by SIOSS which require development in order to enable future NASA high priority missions.

  12. Profiles of Motivated Self-Regulation in College Computer Science Courses: Differences in Major versus Required Non-Major Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Duane F.; Soh, Leen-Kiat

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to utilize a profiling approach to understand differences in motivation and strategic self-regulation among post-secondary STEM students in major versus required non-major computer science courses. Participants were 233 students from required introductory computer science courses (194 men; 35 women; 4 unknown) at a large Midwestern state university. Cluster analysis identified five profiles: (1) a strategic profile of a highly motivated by-any-means good strategy user; (2) a knowledge-building profile of an intrinsically motivated autonomous, mastery-oriented student; (3) a surface learning profile of a utility motivated minimally engaged student; (4) an apathetic profile of an amotivational disengaged student; and (5) a learned helpless profile of a motivated but unable to effectively self-regulate student. Among CS majors and students in courses in their major field, the strategic and knowledge-building profiles were the most prevalent. Among non-CS majors and students in required non-major courses, the learned helpless, surface learning, and apathetic profiles were the most prevalent. Students in the strategic and knowledge-building profiles had significantly higher retention of computational thinking knowledge than students in other profiles. Students in the apathetic and surface learning profiles saw little instrumentality of the course for their future academic and career objectives. Findings show that students in STEM fields taking required computer science courses exhibit the same constellation of motivated strategic self-regulation profiles found in other post-secondary and K-12 settings.

  13. Alcohol consumption in Polish middle and high school pupils – has this rapidly increased during 2009–11?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] The dynamic rise of alcohol consumption in adolescents is a matter of serious concern, requiring frequently updated monitoring. By such means, it is possible to optimise preventative measures for dealing with this problem. [b]Objective[/b]. To estimate the magnitude/amount and frequency of alcohol consumed by middle and high school pupils in Poland, including the circumstances when alcohol was first drunk. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. A randomised survey was performed throughout Poland on middle school (junior high school pupils, (n=9360 in 2009, followed by both middle and high school pupils in 2011 (n=7971. The questionnaire was devised by the Polish Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS. [b]Results[/b]. A strikingly sharp increase in alcohol consumption (29% was observed in subjects between 2009 – 2011. In the latter year, 1 month prior to survey, respectively, 50% and 71% of middle school and high school pupils drank alcohol, and correspondingly, 36% and 63% of these pupils ever became intoxicated/drunk. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 Adolescent alcohol consumption increases with age and is highest in girls. Monitoring as well as in-depth analysis thus becomes necessary. 2 Systematic monitoring and analysis of changing healthy lifestyle behaviour should be used for taking the necessary corrective action. This should happen concurrently and consist of planned health education programmes, including health promotion.

  14. Frequency and Efficacy of Talk-Related Tasks in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Martin; Leigh, Joanne

    2013-04-01

    Pupil talk and discussion are seen as having important social and cognitive outcomes. In science classes, pupils' collaborative talk supports the construction of meaning and helps examine the status of evidence, theory and knowledge. However, pupil interactive talk in groups is rare in science lessons. The research reported is part of a project to increase the amount of pupil-pupil talk in primary schools through a programme of teaching and professional development. Pupils' self-reports of the frequency and learning efficacies of talk related activities in science lessons were collected before and after a programme of teaching in 24 schools in one of the most socially and educationally deprived areas of England. Findings showed pupils valued talking about their ideas over listening to those of other pupils. Science talk frequency (STF) was closely correlated with science talk efficacy (STE) and both were positively correlated with pupils' attitudes to school science. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of the correlation of STF with STE showed values were independent of gender and ability but that school experience was a significant factor. After the teaching programme and, contrary to expectations, the frequency of talk activities in science lessons appeared to have decreased but varied according to class grades. The degree of correlation between STF and STE was stronger after the teaching in over half of the schools. Schools where STF/STE strengthened most as a result of teaching were those involved in an additional initiative to use modelled talk related to industrial contexts.

  15. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of the rules governing pupils' carriage of inhalers for asthma treatment in secondary schools in North East England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, Wendy; Howard, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to assess the rules governing secondary school pupils' carriage of inhalers for emergency treatment of asthma in the North East of England. Design. This study was based upon a postal questionnaire survey. Setting. The setting for this study was mainstream free-to-attend secondary schools which admit 16 year old pupils within the 12 Local Authority areas which make up the North East of England. Participants. All 153 schools meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study, of which 106 (69%) took part. Main Outcome Measures. Our three main outcome measures were: whether pupils are permitted to carry inhalers on their person while at school; whether advance permission is required for pupils to carry inhalers, and from whom; and whether the school has an emergency 'standby' salbutamol inhaler for use in asthma emergencies, as permitted since October 2014 under recent amendments to The Human Medicines Regulations 2012. Results. Of 98 schools submitting valid responses to the question, 99% (n = 97) permitted pupils to carry inhalers on their person while at school; the remaining school stored pupils' inhalers in a central location within the school. A total of 22% of included schools (n = 22) required parental permission before pupils were permitted to carry inhalers. Of 102 schools submitting valid responses to the question, 44% (n = 45) had purchased a 'standby' salbutamol inhaler for use in asthma emergencies. Conclusions. Most secondary schools in North East England permit pupils to carry inhalers on their person. The requirement in a minority of schools for parental permission to be given possibly contravenes the standard ethical practices in clinical medicine for children of this age. Only a minority of schools hold a 'standby' salbutamol inhaler for use in asthma emergencies. Wider availability may improve outcomes for asthma emergencies occurring in schools.

  16. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods. A qualitative design was used to address the ma...

  17. Life Sciences Research Facility automation requirements and concepts for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the methods and preliminary results of a study on prospects for the automation of the NASA Space Station's Life Sciences Research Facility. In order to remain within current Space Station resource allocations, approximately 85 percent of planned life science experiment tasks must be automated; these tasks encompass specimen care and feeding, cage and instrument cleaning, data acquisition and control, sample analysis, waste management, instrument calibration, materials inventory and management, and janitorial work. Task automation will free crews for specimen manipulation, tissue sampling, data interpretation and communication with ground controllers, and experiment management.

  18. Schooling adaptation of Romanian remigrants pupils to the primary education in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Langa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The way and the level a school-aged pupil adapts to different learning systems are mainly influenced by the family, the social background, the educational background, all of which will later reflect upon school success. The theme of the present study places us on a new territory, being of interest for the specialists in the field of educational sciences, for all those who have concerns in the field of education, as well as for parents. Its main purpose has been the research of the impact this fact has on the students that returned to their homeland, who are at the early schooling stage, as well as how elementary teachers respond to the real needs of their adaptation through specialized psycho-pedagogical assistance to such children. The method used in this investigative approach was the questionnaire-based research. The study was carried out on elementary teachers from the Olt county, who, during the current school year, have enrolled remigrants pupils in their classroom. The study objectives were aimed at analyzing the factors involved in adapting remigrants pupils to schools

  19. 3R Practices Among Moe Preschool Pupils through the Environmental Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahat Hanifah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is the key to increasing the knowledge and awareness of the general public on environmental issues at early ages, as envisaged in the concept of sustainable development. Hence, this study aims to discuss the sustainability practices among children at a Ministry of Education (MOE pre-school as a result of the implementation of environmental education through a formal curriculum. Sustainability practices of pupils in this study involves the concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Survey methods were used, which involved 500 pupils in MOE preschools in Hulu Langat district, Selangor Malaysia. Results showed that pre-school pupils practice the 3Rs only at a moderate level while the level of knowledge of sustainability was at a high level. The results also showed that there was no significant relationship between prolonged knowledge in practicing the 3Rs among pre-school students. Obviously the input given by the teacher in teaching and learning science was not aligned with sustainability activities such as the 3Rs. Space conservation practices using a structured curriculum platform should be utilised in order to produce citizens who are aware of sustainable development.

  20. Modern foreign investigations of difficulties in understanding of texts among primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanina S.P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the reader can observe the experience taken from foreign publications that focus on the problems of teaching primary school pupils how to understand the texts, which is one of the most important universal competences in the educational process. The author studied and analyzed the investigations of American, Finnish, Canadian, Chinese and other scientists in this field. The author found out that during the latest half of the century the quality of reading among pupils has dramatically decreased and has a tendency to get even worse. The most attention in the article was paid to the investigations that demonstrate the possible causes of incorrect reading and understanding of the informative texts among pupils. Among the causes there are: the difficulty of the text that influences the understanding of it, using different methods of teaching how to read the text, the control and evaluation of reading skills etc. In the article there are enlisted the factors that contribute to the better understanding of texts. There are also mentioned some strategies of coping with problems and forming the good reading skills. The scientific works that are mentioned in the article have a great importance in the theory and practice of pedagogical science, as the ability to understand the text correctly is not only important for successful educational process at school, but is also an essential ability in life.

  1. Pupil identity in the context of testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Annette

    Based on results from a long term research project (two years) in three school classes focusing on the implementation of national standardized testing in Danish schools this paper discuss how testing and assessment influence processes of in- and exclusion in class rooms. The analysis will draw...... on theory of Basil Bernstein about different pedagogies (visible and invisible) (Bernstein 1997). Recently national mandatory standardized testing has been implemented in compulsory school in Denmark (2010). Getting insight into how and by which processes such kind of assessment affect pedagogic practise...... in school classes and in- and exclusion of pupils, is relevant since assessment play an important role in such processes (McDermott & Varenne, 1995; Reay, 2006). The implementation formed a situation making it possible to make research on this. Such influence are reflected in and depending on what can...

  2. User requirements Massive Point Clouds for eSciences (WP1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, P.M.; Alkemade, I.; Kodde, M.P.; Nonhebel, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a milestone in work package 1 (WP1) of the project Massive point clouds for eSciences. In WP1 the basic functionalities needed for a new Point Cloud Spatial Database Management System are identified. This is achieved by (1) literature research, (2) discussions with the project

  3. Nursing implementation science: how evidence-based nursing requires evidence-based implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, T. van; Schoonhoven, L.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evidence is not always used in practice, and many examples of problematic implementation of research into practice exist. The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction and overview of current developments in implementation science and to apply these to nursing. METHODS: We discuss a

  4. Science case and requirements for the MOSAIC concept for a multi-object spectrograph for the European extremely large telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.J.; Puech, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Hammer, F.; Jagourel, P.; Caffau, E.; Disseau, K.; Flores, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Aussel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries. In this contribution we summarise the key cases relating to studies of high-redshift galaxies, galaxy evolution, and stellar populations, with a more expansive presentation of a new case relating to detection of exoplanets in stellar clusters. A general requirement is the need for two observational modes to best exploit the large (=40 arcmin 2 ) patrol field of the E-ELT. The first mode ('high multiplex') requires integrated-light (or coarsely resolved) optical/near-IR spectroscopy of ≥100 objects simultaneously. The second ('high definition'), enabled by wide-field adaptive optics, requires spatially-resolved, near-IR of ≥10 objects/sub-fields. Within the context of the conceptual study for an ELT-MOS called MOSAIC, we summarise the top level requirements from each case and introduce the next steps in the design process. (authors)

  5. Ethnic School Segregation and Self-Esteem: The Role of Teacher-Pupil Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirdag, Orhan; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van Avermaet, Piet

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine whether school segregation is related to pupils' global self-esteem and whether this association is mediated by teacher-pupil relationships. Multilevel analyses based on a survey of 2,845 pupils (aged 10 to 12) in 68 primary schools in Belgian urban areas reveal that, for native-Belgian pupils, a higher proportion of immigrants…

  6. Cooking and Hammering: Primary School Pupils' Concepts of Their Craft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müürsepp, Mare; Kikkull, Andry

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to clear the significance of craft skills for the pupils in age nine and twelve years. More than 200 pupils were asked to define, what are the most important skills for the pupils of their age. The results bring out that category of the skills related to craft subject is of the most presented categories in pupils' self…

  7. MSE spectrograph optical design: a novel pupil slicing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer shall be mainly devoted to perform deep, wide-field, spectroscopic surveys at spectral resolutions from ~2000 to ~20000, at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectral coverage at low resolution is required, while at high resolution only selected windows can be covered. Moreover, very high multiplexing (3200 objects) must be obtained at low resolution. At higher resolutions a decreased number of objects (~800) can be observed. To meet such high demanding requirements, a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph concept has been designed by pupil-slicing the collimated beam, followed by multiple dispersive and camera optics. Different resolution modes are obtained by introducing anamorphic lenslets in front of the fiber arrays. The spectrograph is able to switch between three resolution modes (2000, 6500, 20000) by removing the anamorphic lenses and exchanging gratings. Camera lenses are fixed in place to increase stability. To enhance throughput, VPH first-order gratings has been preferred over echelle gratings. Moreover, throughput is kept high over all wavelength ranges by splitting light into more arms by dichroic beamsplitters and optimizing efficiency for each channel by proper selection of glass materials, coatings, and grating parameters.

  8. Extracurricular activities do little for pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesh, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Science-related extracurricular activities do not encourage more students to study science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) subjects at high school, according to a study by researchers at the University of Exeter in the UK.

  9. Preventive oral health practices of school pupils in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Onyejaka, Nneka; Popoola, Bamidele O; Adeyemo, Yewande Isabella

    2014-07-07

    One of the goals of the World Health Organisation goal is to ensure increased uptake of preventive oral self-care by 2020. This would require the design public health programmes that will ensure children place premium on preventive oral health care uptake. One effort in that direction is the need for countries to define baseline measures on use of preventive oral self-care measures by their population as well as identify factors that impact on its use. This study aims to determine the prevalence and the impact of age and sex on the use of recommended oral self-care measures by pupils in Southern Nigeria. Pupils age 8 to 16 years (N = 2,676) in two urban sites in Southern Nigeria completed a questionnaire about recommended oral self-care (use of fluoridated toothpaste, flossing, regularity of consuming sugary snacks between main meals), time of the last dental check-up and cigarette smoking habit. Chi square was used to test association between age (8-10years, 11-16 years), sex, and use of recommended oral self-care. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of use of recommended oral self-care. Only 7.8% of the study population practiced the recommended oral self-care. Older adolescents had an 8.0% increased odds (OR: 1.08; CI:0.81-1.43; p = 0.61) and males had a 20.0% decreased odds (OR: 0.80; CI:0.60-1.06; p = 0.12) of practicing recommended oral self-care though observed differences were not statistically significant. Very few respondents (12.7%) had visited the dental clinic for a check-up in the last one year. Majority of the respondents (92.2%) were non-smokers. The use of a combination of oral self-care approaches was very low for this study population. Age and sex were predictive factors for the use of components of the oral self-care measures but not significant predictors of use of recommended oral self-care. Future studies would be required to understand 'why' and 'how' age and sex impacts on the use of caries

  10. Meeting report: Ocean ‘omics science, technology and cyberinfrastructure: current challenges and future requirements (August 20-23, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jack A; Dick, Gregory J.; Jenkins, Bethany; Heidelberg, John; Allen, Eric; Mackey, Katherine R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation’s EarthCube End User Workshop was held at USC Wrigley Marine Science Center on Catalina Island, California in August 2013. The workshop was designed to explore and characterize the needs and tools available to the community that is focusing on microbial and physical oceanography research with a particular emphasis on ‘omic research. The assembled researchers outlined the existing concerns regarding the vast data resources that are being generated, and how we will deal with these resources as their volume and diversity increases. Particular attention was focused on the tools for handling and analyzing the existing data, on the need for the construction and curation of diverse federated databases, as well as development of shared, interoperable, “big-data capable” analytical tools. The key outputs from this workshop include (i) critical scientific challenges and cyber infrastructure constraints, (ii) the current and future ocean ‘omics science grand challenges and questions, and (iii) data management, analytical and associated and cyber-infrastructure capabilities required to meet critical current and future scientific challenges. The main thrust of the meeting and the outcome of this report is a definition of the ‘omics tools, technologies and infrastructures that facilitate continued advance in ocean science biology, marine biogeochemistry, and biological oceanography. PMID:25197495

  11. Meeting report: Ocean 'omics science, technology and cyberinfrastructure: current challenges and future requirements (August 20-23, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jack A; Dick, Gregory J; Jenkins, Bethany; Heidelberg, John; Allen, Eric; Mackey, Katherine R M; DeLong, Edward F

    2014-06-15

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube End User Workshop was held at USC Wrigley Marine Science Center on Catalina Island, California in August 2013. The workshop was designed to explore and characterize the needs and tools available to the community that is focusing on microbial and physical oceanography research with a particular emphasis on 'omic research. The assembled researchers outlined the existing concerns regarding the vast data resources that are being generated, and how we will deal with these resources as their volume and diversity increases. Particular attention was focused on the tools for handling and analyzing the existing data, on the need for the construction and curation of diverse federated databases, as well as development of shared, interoperable, "big-data capable" analytical tools. The key outputs from this workshop include (i) critical scientific challenges and cyber infrastructure constraints, (ii) the current and future ocean 'omics science grand challenges and questions, and (iii) data management, analytical and associated and cyber-infrastructure capabilities required to meet critical current and future scientific challenges. The main thrust of the meeting and the outcome of this report is a definition of the 'omics tools, technologies and infrastructures that facilitate continued advance in ocean science biology, marine biogeochemistry, and biological oceanography.

  12. Compliance with National Ethics Requirements for Human-Subject Research in Non-biomedical Sciences in Brazil: A Changing Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2018-02-06

    Ethics regulation for human-subject research (HSR) has been established for about 20 years in Brazil. However, compliance with this regulation is controversial for non-biomedical sciences, particularly for human and social sciences (HSS), the source of a recent debate at the National Commission for Research Ethics. We hypothesized that for these fields, formal requirements for compliance with HSR regulation in graduate programs, responsible for the greatest share of Brazilian science, would be small in number. We analyzed institutional documents (collected from June 2014 to May 2015) from 171 graduate programs at six prestigious Brazilian universities in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the states that fund most of the science conducted in Brazil. Among these programs, 149 were in HSS. The results suggest that non-compliance with standard regulation seems to be the rule in most of these programs. The data may reflect not only a resistance from scientists in these fields to comply with standard regulations for ethics in HSR but also a disciplinary tradition that seems prevalent when it comes to research ethics in HSR. However, recent encounters between Brazilian biomedical and non-biomedical scientists for debates over ethics in HSR point to a changing culture in the approach to research ethics in the country.

  13. Social Social Media and the Moral Development of Adolescent Pupils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Social Media and the Moral Development of Adolescent Pupils: ... this article interrogates the impact of this rapid growth of social media networks, ... Given that the abuse of Internet by adolescents and other social groups who interact ...

  14. Pupil response and the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants' pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference.

  15. Pupil Response and the Subliminal Mere Exposure Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants’ pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference. PMID:24587408

  16. Brief Report Teachers' work as appreciated by pupils, parents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brief Report Teachers' work as appreciated by pupils, parents, department heads and principals. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee ... one does contributes to job satisfaction which in turn leads to a high level of

  17. Monitoring the Achievement of Deaf Pupils in Sweden and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendar, Nils Ola Ebbe; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been major developments in deaf education in many countries. Medical and technical advances have made it possible for more deaf children to hear and speak successfully. Most deaf pupils learn in ordinary classes in mainstream schools. In this article we explore...... patterns of achievements of deaf pupils to see if these reforms had improved attainment outcomes. International surveys such as PISA do not include deaf pupils. This article describes two independent large-scale surveys about deaf pupils in Sweden and Scotland. The similar results from both countries show...... that deaf children, after two decades of social reform and technical advances, still lag behind their hearing peers. The results also show how large-scale surveys can contribute to a greater understanding of educational outcomes in a small, vulnerable group and make it possible to continue to reform...

  18. pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: pmb moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recog~ nise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space. (MOSS) are outlined. long-tenn ...

  19. Perceptions of elementary school teachers of their pupils\\' eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of elementary school teachers of their pupils\\' eye health in ilorin, nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... roles that school teachers are expected to play in school eye health programmes, their perceptions ...

  20. The psichological peculiarity structure organization of pupils and students

    OpenAIRE

    N P Kirina

    2009-01-01

    The article considers age differences of the psychological structure of pupils and students organization baseol on the general-functional approach to studying the qualities of the personality, which gives an opportunity to study age pecularities of organization in detail.

  1. Pupil response and the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Yoshimoto

    Full Text Available The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants' pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference.

  2. Error analysis of pupils in calculating with fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Uranič, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I examine the correlation between the frequency of errors that seventh grade pupils make in their calculations with fractions and their level of understanding of fractions. Fractions are a relevant and demanding theme in the mathematics curriculum. Although we use fractions on a daily basis, pupils find learning fractions to be very difficult. They generally do not struggle with the concept of fractions itself, but they frequently have problems with mathematical operations ...

  3. Musicality Development Among Primary School Pupils in Music Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vilde, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research goal. To explore the structure of musicality, to examine components that characterize musicality among primary school pupils and the pedagogic logic of its development during music lessons in primary school. As a result of the theoretical study, characterizing components and criteria of musicality among primary school pupils were researched and described and the description of musicality was broadened. The created model for music studies for facilitating the developme...

  4. Pupils' evaluation and generation of evidence and explanation in argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Amnon; Weinstock, Michael; Neuman, Yair

    2005-03-01

    Studies on argument have found that participants tend to prefer explanations to evidence. This apparent bias toward explanation has been qualified recently by research that has found it to diminish with the availability of evidence. This study examines the use of explanation versus evidence in the context of argumentation with reference to the goals of particular argument situations. Seventy-nine eighth-grade pupils at a regular, urban middle school. The pupils read argumentation scenarios, each having the stated goal of either explaining or proving a claim. The pupils rated the degree to which each of two provided assertions (one a theoretical explanation, and the other evidence-based) helped achieve the goal of the argument. On a second task, the pupils chose which of the two assertions should be more effective in achieving the argument goal. On the third task, the pupils generated either an explanation or evidence for each of the argumentation scenarios. Pupils demonstrated sensitivity to the relative epistemic strength of explanation and evidence. They rated explanations as more advantageous in achieving the explanation goal, and evidence as more advantageous in achieving the proof goal. Conversely, however, when asked to generate or recall an explanation or evidence, pupils produced more explanations than evidence independent of the argumentation goal. The study refines the definition of argumentation context to include specific goals. Pupils were sensitive to the context of the argumentation situation (e.g.goals, availability of evidence). However, they appeared to have a disposition toward explanation when asked to produce an explanation or evidence-based justification.

  5. Career-Related Learning and Science Education: The Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…

  6. Searching for religion and mental health studies required health, social science, and grey literature databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Judy M; Cottrell, David J; Mir, Ghazala

    2014-07-01

    To determine the optimal databases to search for studies of faith-sensitive interventions for treating depression. We examined 23 health, social science, religious, and grey literature databases searched for an evidence synthesis. Databases were prioritized by yield of (1) search results, (2) potentially relevant references identified during screening, (3) included references contained in the synthesis, and (4) included references that were available in the database. We assessed the impact of databases beyond MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO by their ability to supply studies identifying new themes and issues. We identified pragmatic workload factors that influence database selection. PsycINFO was the best performing database within all priority lists. ArabPsyNet, CINAHL, Dissertations and Theses, EMBASE, Global Health, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts were essential for our searches to retrieve the included references. Citation tracking activities and the personal library of one of the research teams made significant contributions of unique, relevant references. Religion studies databases (Am Theo Lib Assoc, FRANCIS) did not provide unique, relevant references. Literature searches for reviews and evidence syntheses of religion and health studies should include social science, grey literature, non-Western databases, personal libraries, and citation tracking activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing and Enhancing Science Education at the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroka, Keith W.

    The department of Physics of the University of Glasgow was concerned about losing students after the end of the level 1 Physics course. The current research project started as an attempt to find out the reasons for this, but moved to investigate attitudes towards Physics at several stages during secondary school and attitudes towards science with primary pupils. Analyses of factors, which influence students' intentions towards studying Physics, were performed against the background of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, which interprets people's behaviour by considering three factors: attitude towards behaviour (advantages or disadvantages of being involved in the behaviour, e.g. studying Physics for Honours); subjective norm (approval or disapproval of important people towards engaging in the behaviour, e.g. parents, teacher, general norms of the society); perceived behavioural control (skills, knowledge, cooperation of others, abilities, efforts required to perform the behaviour). Analysis of these factors revealed some reasons for students' withdrawal from Physics after level 1 and pointed to factors which may facilitate students' persistence in the subject. A general analysis of level 1 and level 2 students' attitudes towards different aspects of the university Physics course revealed that the level 1 students' attitudes towards their university course of lectures and course of laboratories tended to be negatively polarised. Recommendations were suggested on the basis of the gathered evidence about how to make students' experience in university Physics more satisfactory for them. The data obtained from the separate analyses of females' and males' attitudes towards university Physics course have showed that attitudes of females and males were similar. The only significant difference between level 1 females and males was found to be the perceived behavioural control factor (students' attitudes towards course difficulty, attitudes towards work load in the course

  8. Pupil-led sex education in England (RIPPLE study): cluster-randomised intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J M; Strange, V; Forrest, S; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Allen, E; Babiker, A; Black, S; Ali, M; Monteiro, H; Johnson, A M

    Improvement of sex education in schools is a key part of the UK government's strategy to reduce teenage pregnancy in England. We examined the effectiveness of one form of peer-led sex education in a school-based randomised trial of over 8000 pupils. 29 schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). In intervention schools, peer educators aged 16-17 years delivered three sessions of sex education to 13-14 year-old pupils from the same schools. Primary outcome was unprotected (without condom) first heterosexual intercourse by age 16 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. By age 16 years, significantly fewer girls reported intercourse in the peer-led arm than in the control arm, but proportions were similar for boys. The proportions of pupils reporting unprotected first sex did not differ for girls (8.4% intervention vs 8.3% control) or for boys (6.2% vs 4.7%). Stratified estimates of the difference between arms were -0.4% (95% CI -3.7% to 2.8%, p=0.79) for girls and -1.4% (-4.4% to 1.6%, p=0.36) for boys. At follow-up (mean age 16.0 years [SD 0.32]), girls in the intervention arm reported fewer unintended pregnancies, although the difference was borderline (2.3% vs 3.3%, p=0.07). Girls and boys were more satisfied with peer-led than teacher-led sex education, but 57% of girls and 32% of boys wanted sex education in single-sex groups. Peer-led sex education was effective in some ways, but broader strategies are needed to improve young people's sexual health. The role of single-sex sessions should be investigated further.

  9. Are teachers' judgements of pupils' ability influenced by body shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, N L; Campbell, T

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that teachers can judge pupils on the basis of their physical appearance, including their body shape. Teacher bias towards obese pupils has been suggested as a potential pathway through which obese children attain relatively lower academic levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by the body shape of the child. The sample includes English, singleton children in state schools from the Millennium Cohort Study. The data were taken from the fourth wave of data collection, when the children were approximately 7 years old. In all, 5086/5072 children had teacher ability ratings of reading and maths. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether teachers' perceptions of the child's reading and mathematics ability were influenced by the pupil's waist circumference, conditional upon cognitive test scores of reading and maths ability. After adjustment for cognitive test scores, no significant overall relationship was found between the pupil's waist circumference and the teacher's judgements of ability. No statistically significant differences were observed in the probability of being judged as above average after further adjustments were made for potential confounders. There is little evidence that teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by obesity.

  10. PRAGMATIC ABILITIES OF PUPILS WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja SHILC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses characteristics of pragmatic abilities of storytelling of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities (MID, in the light of vocabulary characteristics, grammar structure and substantive structure of a story, considering their age and gender. The sample consists of 60 pupils with MID, aged 7 to 9, who attend special school. Child’s pragmatic abilities are assessed with The Storytelling Test. The research results reveal considerable progress of the older group in vocabulary, whereas the progress in grammatical and substantive structure was less substantial. When comparing achievements of pupils with MID according to the vocabulary, grammatical and substantive story structure, no gender differences are determined. A comparison of pragmatic abilities of younger and older groups of pupils with MID with the norms for peers with typical development shows minor deviation of the younger group. The research results reveal characteristics of pragmatic abilities of pupils with MID and can provide insights to speech therapists, teachers, special education teachers and counsellors when considering profiles of individuals that are taken as a basis for designing intervention programs. By implementing such program, we would encourage development of pragmatic abilities of pupils, thus affecting their academic achievements, communication competency and social skills.

  11. Language approaches used with deaf pupils in Scottish schools: 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Marian; Thoutenhoofd, Ernst D; Byrne, Delma

    2007-01-01

    In this article we address "language approach" data as a key variable in quantitative, large-scale research on educational achievement, focusing on our work for the Achievements of Deaf Pupils in Scotland (ADPS) project. The complexity of approaches is addressed, with a particular focus on a "no-exclusion" model of service. In this context 3 years of language-related data are discussed, using constructions of language variables that take into account the variability in deaf pupils' hearing loss levels, types of provision, and professional practice. We see this as a necessary first step toward offering a nuanced context for understanding patterns in the educational outcomes among the ADPS population to be reported in a later article. The ADPS data on language approach can reveal general patterns at macro levels: our analysis suggests that, in Scotland, the extent and quality of British Sign Language/English provision may be determined more by local factors than by linguistic requirements and that ostensibly responsive policies can mask a limited spectrum for pupils and their families. However, the ADPS data are insufficiently sensitive to detailed and local variations to reflect the full complexity of language situations over time-a situation which represents an ongoing challenge for all long-term, large-scale studies.

  12. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.

    2014-03-01

    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  13. Dealing with pupils digital everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl F. Dons.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to answer the following research question: How can we prepare student teachers to deal with pupils who have a wide range of day-to-day experiences of the digital world? This question arises out of the understanding that today's student-teacher training is inadequately equipped to realize the potential for learning found in the way that digital technology is now an integral part of the social and cultural practices of children and young people. Based on theory and practice from research and development activities in primary and lower secondary school, the article points out some perspectives connected to the technology culture of children and young people that may have importance for the professional training of student teachers. The article concludes by summarizing some findings from a research project in general teacher education, where it is argued that student teachers can be qualified to cope with the way children and young people use technology by teaching them to adopt solutions based on personal publishing. In many ways the article deals with classical issues in the education field; how the relations between cognition, learning, technology and fellow-citizenship raise practical issues connected to teaching and learning (Dewey, 1915; 1938; 1958.

  14. Born Pupils? Natural Pedagogy and Cultural Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    The theory of natural pedagogy is an important focus of research on the evolution and development of cultural learning. It proposes that we are born pupils; that human children genetically inherit a package of psychological adaptations that make them receptive to teaching. In this article, I first examine the components of the package-eye contact, contingencies, infant-directed speech, gaze cuing, and rational imitation-asking in each case whether current evidence indicates that the component is a reliable feature of infant behavior and a genetic adaptation for teaching. I then discuss three fundamental insights embodied in the theory: Imitation is not enough for cumulative cultural inheritance, the extra comes from blind trust, and tweaking is a powerful source of cognitive change. Combining the results of the empirical review with these insights, I argue that human receptivity to teaching is founded on nonspecific genetic adaptations for social bonding and social learning and acquires its species- and functionally specific features through the operation of domain-general processes of learning in sociocultural contexts. We engage, not in natural pedagogy, but in cultural pedagogy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. The Origins of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    science of the 20th century, called this "the tradition of critical discussion". In all or almost ... says that he likes to imagine that Thales was the first teacher to tell his pupils: "This is how I see ... indestructible primary matter. Here, Anaximander is ...

  16. Efficient and robust pupil size and blink estimation from near-field video sequences for human-machine interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyuan; Epps, Julien

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring pupil and blink dynamics has applications in cognitive load measurement during human-machine interaction. However, accurate, efficient, and robust pupil size and blink estimation pose significant challenges to the efficacy of real-time applications due to the variability of eye images, hence to date, require manual intervention for fine tuning of parameters. In this paper, a novel self-tuning threshold method, which is applicable to any infrared-illuminated eye images without a tuning parameter, is proposed for segmenting the pupil from the background images recorded by a low cost webcam placed near the eye. A convex hull and a dual-ellipse fitting method are also proposed to select pupil boundary points and to detect the eyelid occlusion state. Experimental results on a realistic video dataset show that the measurement accuracy using the proposed methods is higher than that of widely used manually tuned parameter methods or fixed parameter methods. Importantly, it demonstrates convenience and robustness for an accurate and fast estimate of eye activity in the presence of variations due to different users, task types, load, and environments. Cognitive load measurement in human-machine interaction can benefit from this computationally efficient implementation without requiring a threshold calibration beforehand. Thus, one can envisage a mini IR camera embedded in a lightweight glasses frame, like Google Glass, for convenient applications of real-time adaptive aiding and task management in the future.

  17. Fusion Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Fusion Energy Sciences, January 27-29, 2016, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Choong-Seock [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, Martin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne, IL (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Esnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Andre, R. [TRANSP Group, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bernholdt, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bonoli, Paul [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyd, Iain [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bulanov, Stepan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cary, John R. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, Yang [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curreli, Davide [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Ernst, Darin R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hager, Robert [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hakim, Ammar [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hassanein, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hatch, David [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Held, E. D. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Howard, Nathan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Izzo, Valerie A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jardin, Steve [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Jenkins, T. G. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Jenko, Frank [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kemp, Andreas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); King, Jacob [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Kritz, Arnold [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Krstic, Predrag [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Kruger, Scott E. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Kurtz, Rick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nandipati, Giridhar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Parker, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pigarov, Alex Y. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Poli, Francesca [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Pueschel, M. J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rafiq, Tariq [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Rübel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Setyawan, Wahyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sizyuk, Valeryi A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Smithe, D. N. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Sovinec, C. R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Turner, Miles [Dublin City University, Leinster (Ireland); Umansky, Maxim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Verboncoeur, John [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Vincenti, Henri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Voter, Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Weixing [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wright, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Yuan, X. [TRANSP Group, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The additional computing power offered by the planned exascale facilities could be transformational across the spectrum of plasma and fusion research — provided that the new architectures can be efficiently applied to our problem space. The collaboration that will be required to succeed should be viewed as an opportunity to identify and exploit cross-disciplinary synergies. To assess the opportunities and requirements as part of the development of an overall strategy for computing in the exascale era, the Exascale Requirements Review meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) community was convened January 27–29, 2016, with participation from a broad range of fusion and plasma scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its major computing facilities. This report is a summary of that meeting and the preparatory activities for it and includes a wealth of detail to support the findings. Technical opportunities, requirements, and challenges are detailed in this report (and in the recent report on the Workshop on Integrated Simulation). Science applications are described, along with mathematical and computational enabling technologies. Also see http://exascaleage.org/fes/ for more information.

  18. Innovative Technologies in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Cecilia; Pombo, Lucia; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Technology plays a crucial role in pupils' and primary teachers' lives nowadays and its use can facilitate change towards an innovative school environment. The internet, for example, can act as a platform to foster science teaching and offers a variety of opportunities for effective science learning and engaging and motivating children. But…

  19. REQUIREMENTS TO AUTOMATIZATION PROCESSING IN THE PROGRAMMING INFORMATION SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES IN ACADEMY OF PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Kilchenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A construction and introduction of the information systems in a management education is the actual task of forming of modern information society. In the article the results of research of automation of treatment of financial documents, which was conducted within the project «Scientific-methodical providing of the informative system of programming of scientific researches in Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine based on the Internet» № 0109U002139 are represented. The article contains methodical principles of automation of treatment programming and financial documents as well as requirements to the information system, which will be the base to next project stages.

  20. Proposed combination of training and education to meet the bachelor of science requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The basic similarities and differences of the education and training which, in the author's opinion, are actually needed by reactor operators are outlined and compared with the NRC requirements. Examples of engineering degree programs are presented to demonstrate that they are NOT the appropriate educational goal for a senior reactor operator. A possible program of study which could be implemented jointly by a utility and a nearby college or university is presented. The program combines both education and training to complete the requirements for a bachelors degree. Those student-operators entering the program should be able to work as auxiliary operators while pursuing the degree part time and qualify for the NRC Reactor Operator exam in five years. Then, while working as RO's, they should complete the degree requirements in another year. After an additional year of RO experience, they should meet the NRC requirements for Senior Operator. Finally, some of the possible pitfalls of such a program are discussed. These include such things as drop-outs, union agreements, inflexibility of educational institutions and, of course, cost

  1. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  2. The Gemini Planet Imager: From Science to Design to Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J R; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Dunn, J; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erickson, D; Marois, C; Poyneer, L; Soummer, R

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a facility instrument under construction for the 8-m Gemini South telescope. It combines a 1500 subaperture AO system using a MEMS deformable mirror, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a high-accuracy IR interferometer calibration system, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph to allow detection and characterization of self-luminous extrasolar planets at planet/star contrast ratios of 10{sup -7}. I will discuss the evolution from science requirements through modeling to the final detailed design, provide an overview of the subsystems and show models of the instrument's predicted performance.

  3. Analyzing processing effort during sentence comprehension in quiet and in noise: Evidence from eye-fixations and pupil size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-01-01

    structures . Here, we compare both methods, i.e. p rocessing speed and pupil size , as indicator s for the required effort when processing sentences that differ in their level of syntactic complexity . Furthermore, an interaction of background noise and syntactic complexity is exanimated by analyzing...... processing effort for sentence s presented in quiet and in noise. Moreover, it is investigated whether both measure s provide similar or complementary information about sentence processing and the required effort....

  4. Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs designs for future segmented space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent, Kathryn; Fogarty, Kevin; Zimmerman, Neil; N’Diaye, Mamadou; Stark, Chris; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Pueyo, Laurent; Vanderbei, Robert; Soummer, Remi

    2018-01-01

    A coronagraphic starlight suppression system situated on a future flagship space observatory offers a promising avenue to image Earth-like exoplanets and search for biomarkers in their atmospheric spectra. One NASA mission concept that could serve as the platform to realize this scientific breakthrough is the Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR). Such a mission would also address a broad range of topics in astrophysics with a multi-wavelength suite of instruments.In support of the community’s assessment of the scientific capability of a LUVOIR mission, the Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) has launched a multi-team technical study: Segmented Coronagraph Design and Analysis (SCDA). The goal of this study is to develop viable coronagraph instrument concepts for a LUVOIR-type mission. Results of the SCDA effort will directly inform the mission concept evaluation being carried out by the LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team. The apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) is one of several coronagraph design families that the SCDA study is assessing. The APLC is a Lyot-style coronagraph that suppresses starlight through a series of amplitude operations on the on-axis field. Given a suite of seven plausible segmented telescope apertures, we have developed an object-oriented software toolkit to automate the exploration of thousands of APLC design parameter combinations. In the course of exploring this parameter space we have established relationships between APLC throughput and telescope aperture geometry, Lyot stop, inner working angle, bandwidth, and contrast level. In parallel with the parameter space exploration, we have investigated several strategies to improve the robustness of APLC designs to fabrication and alignment errors and integrated a Design Reference Mission framework to evaluate designs with scientific yield metrics.

  5. Basic personality dimensions and vocational orientation with pupils of fourth grade of secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Dušan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to explore relationship between basic personality dimensions of 'Big Five' model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, opennes, agreeableness and conscientiousness and thirteen different groups of activities which orienting pupils toward some vocations (administration, security, electrotechnics, creativity, culture, literature, science, helping jobs, agriculture, practical jobs, sport and management and services. The participants were 219 pupils of fourth grade of secondary school from different regions of Serbia (Central Serbia, Southern Serbia and Kosovo and Metohija. Two instruments had been used: Test of Personality (FMLI and Test of Vocational Orientation (TPO. The results show that there is significant correlation between basic personality dimensions and vocational orientation. There is positive significant correlation between neuroticism and choosing security, helping jobs, agriculture and practical jobs. Extraversion is in significant positive correlation with choosing administration, security, sport, management, services, culture and literature. Opennes is in significant positive correlation with choosing creativity, culture, literature, helping jobs and services. There is positive significant correlation between agreeableness and choosing helping jobs and negative significant correlation between aggreeableness and choosing security. Conscientiousness is in significant positive correlation with choosing management and science. Also, concerning choosing certain groups of activities there is statistical significant mean difference between male and female.

  6. Functional requirements document for NASA/MSFC Earth Science and Applications Division: Data and information system (ESAD-DIS). Interoperability, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. Briscoe; Grider, Gary W.

    1992-01-01

    These Earth Science and Applications Division-Data and Information System (ESAD-DIS) interoperability requirements are designed to quantify the Earth Science and Application Division's hardware and software requirements in terms of communications between personal and visualization workstation, and mainframe computers. The electronic mail requirements and local area network (LAN) requirements are addressed. These interoperability requirements are top-level requirements framed around defining the existing ESAD-DIS interoperability and projecting known near-term requirements for both operational support and for management planning. Detailed requirements will be submitted on a case-by-case basis. This document is also intended as an overview of ESAD-DIs interoperability for new-comers and management not familiar with these activities. It is intended as background documentation to support requests for resources and support requirements.

  7. School Science and the Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2014-01-01

    An integrated science curriculum assists pupils to retain learnings better than to separate academic disciplines. Too frequently, science teachers teach each academic discipline as separate entities. However, there is much correlating of science with language, for example which might well be implemented in teaching and learning situations. Thus,…

  8. Crosscut report: Exascale Requirements Reviews, March 9–10, 2017 – Tysons Corner, Virginia. An Office of Science review sponsored by: Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility; Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet

    2018-01-22

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE SC) is the delivery of scientific discoveries and major scientific tools to transform our understanding of nature and to advance the energy, economic, and national security missions of the United States. To achieve these goals in today’s world requires investments in not only the traditional scientific endeavors of theory and experiment, but also in computational science and the facilities that support large-scale simulation and data analysis. The Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program addresses these challenges in the Office of Science. ASCR’s mission is to discover, develop, and deploy computational and networking capabilities to analyze, model, simulate, and predict complex phenomena important to DOE. ASCR supports research in computational science, three high-performance computing (HPC) facilities — the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Leadership Computing Facilities at Argonne (ALCF) and Oak Ridge (OLCF) National Laboratories — and the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) at Berkeley Lab. ASCR is guided by science needs as it develops research programs, computers, and networks at the leading edge of technologies. As we approach the era of exascale computing, technology changes are creating challenges for science programs in SC for those who need to use high performance computing and data systems effectively. Numerous significant modifications to today’s tools and techniques will be needed to realize the full potential of emerging computing systems and other novel computing architectures. To assess these needs and challenges, ASCR held a series of Exascale Requirements Reviews in 2015–2017, one with each of the six SC program offices,1 and a subsequent Crosscut Review that sought to integrate the findings from each. Participants at the reviews were drawn from the communities of leading domain

  9. Inquiry-based science teasching competence of pre-service primary teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake-Tuenter, E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, improving primary science education has received considerable attention. In particular, researchers and policymakers advocate the use of inquiry-based science teaching and learning, believing that pupils learn best through direct personal experience and by incorporating new

  10. 191 Students' Self-Concept and Their Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Achievement Test in Basic showed Science (SATBS) were employed as .... Higher Studies; Teacher-Students opinion and found out that students .... Factors and Pupils Leaning Outcome in Bended Primary Science Project,.

  11. Caffeine intake is associated with pupil dilation and enhanced accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokyi, S; Owusu-Mensah, J; Osei, K A

    2017-04-01

    PurposeIt is purported that caffeine, an autonomic stimulant, affects visual performance. This study sought to assess whether caffeine intake was associated with changes in pupil size and/or amplitude of accommodation.Patients and methodsA double-masked, crossover study was conducted in 50 healthy subjects of age range 19 to 25 years. Subjects were randomized to treatments such that subjects consumed either 250 mg caffeine drink or vehicle on separate days. Amplitude of accommodation was measured by the push-up technique, and pupil size using a millimeter ruler fixed to a slit lamp biomicroscope in dim illumination (5 lux). Amplitude of accommodation and pupil size were taken at baseline, and at 30, 60 and 90 min time points post treatment. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used in analyzing data.ResultsAmplitude of accommodation and pupil size after caffeine intake were significantly greater than vehicle (Pcaffeine beverage was associated with significant increases in amplitude of accommodation and pupil size with time (Pcaffeine. This study suggests caffeine may have some influence on visual functions.

  12. Pupil size reflects the focus of feature-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, Paola; Pereverzeva, Maria; Murray, Scott O

    2014-12-15

    We measured pupil size in adult human subjects while they selectively attended to one of two surfaces, bright and dark, defined by coherently moving dots. The two surfaces were presented at the same location; therefore, subjects could select the cued surface only on the basis of its features. With no luminance change in the stimulus, we find that pupil size was smaller when the bright surface was attended and larger when the dark surface was attended: an effect of feature-based (or surface-based) attention. With the same surfaces at nonoverlapping locations, we find a similar effect of spatial attention. The pupil size modulation cannot be accounted for by differences in eye position and by other variables known to affect pupil size such as task difficulty, accommodation, or the mere anticipation (imagery) of bright/dark stimuli. We conclude that pupil size reflects not just luminance or cognitive state, but the interaction between the two: it reflects which luminance level in the visual scene is relevant for the task at hand. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Science and Measurement Requirements for a Plant Physiology and Functional Types Mission: Measuring the Composition, Function and Health of Global Land and Coastal Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Rogez, Francois; Green, Rob; Ungar, Steve; Knox, Robert; Asner, Greg; Muller-Karger, Frank; Bissett, Paul; Chekalyuk, Alex; Dierssen, Heidi; hide

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed Plant Physiology and Functional Types (PPFT) Mission. The National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, placed a critical priority on a Mission to observe distribution and changes in ecosystem functions. The PPFT satellite mission provides the essential measurements needed to assess drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystem services that affect human welfare. The presentation reviews the science questions that the mission will be designed to answer, the science rationale, the science measurements, the mission concept, the planned instrumentation, the calibration method, and key signal to noise ratios and uniformity requirements.

  14. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  15. Requirements and Design Reference Mission for the WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument take s advantage of AFTA s 2.4 -meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes : Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, yot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architecture s. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predict s the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  16. Pupil-mimicry conditions trust in partners: moderation by oxytocin and group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-15

    Across species, oxytocin, an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide, facilitates social communication by attuning individuals to conspecifics' social signals, fostering trust and bonding. The eyes have an important signalling function; and humans use their salient and communicative eyes to intentionally and unintentionally send social signals to others, by contracting the muscles around their eyes and pupils. In our earlier research, we observed that interaction partners with dilating pupils are trusted more than partners with constricting pupils. But over and beyond this effect, we found that the pupil sizes of partners synchronize and that when pupils synchronously dilate, trust is further boosted. Critically, this linkage between mimicry and trust was bound to interactions between ingroup members. The current study investigates whether these findings are modulated by oxytocin and sex of participant and partner. Using incentivized trust games with partners from ingroup and outgroup whose pupils dilated, remained static or constricted, this study replicates our earlier findings. It further reveals that (i) male participants withhold trust from partners with constricting pupils and extend trust to partners with dilating pupils, especially when given oxytocin rather than placebo; (ii) female participants trust partners with dilating pupils most, but this effect is blunted under oxytocin; (iii) under oxytocin rather than placebo, pupil dilation mimicry is weaker and pupil constriction mimicry stronger; and (iv) the link between pupil constriction mimicry and distrust observed under placebo disappears under oxytocin. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is parochial and evolved in social species in and because of group life. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Indoor environment and pupils' health in primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, F.; van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H.; Sundell, Jan

    2006-01-01

    the associations between indoor environmental quality in Dutch schools and pupils' health, also taking into account the children's home environment and personal factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 11 classrooms in 11 different schools in the Netherlands. The study included exposure measurements......Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess......, building inspections, and a questionnaire survey on pupils' health and domestic exposure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and non-parametric tests were performed to assess relationships. None of the schools complied with all indoor environmental quality standards. The importance of both the school...

  18. Viewpoint of policy science is required for measures against the global warming. Chikyu ondanka taisaku ni motomerareru seisaku kagakuteki shiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Shuzo [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1990-01-25

    It is a matter of course that the issue of the global warming requires management of policy science, but the ultimate target of various propositions is not just the holding back of the global warming which causes the collapse of living; it is necessary to check the propositions from the viewpoints of evasion of international strifes, security of fairness among generations, measures against uncertainty, and measures delayed from the actual phenomena. For Japan it is necessary to declare its responsibility to the environment, and make it clear that Japan pays sufficient costs and efforts. In order to exhibit its leadership, Japan must clarify its stance and then contribute to the world making the most of its unparalleled ability consolidated in the systematic and technical background of public pollution and in the cultural conception. Targeted policies will be the support of developing countries in their independent environmental management, exhibition of leadership in the environmental field and acceleration of international agreements. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Intended and Unintended Effects of State-Mandated High School Science and Mathematics Course Graduation Requirements on Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunk, Andrew D; Tate, William F; Bierut, Laura J; Grucza, Richard A

    2014-06-01

    Mathematics and science course graduation requirement (CGR) increases in the 1980s and 1990s might have had both intended and unintended consequences. Using logistic regression with Census and American Community Survey (ACS) data ( n = 2,892,444), we modeled CGR exposure on (a) high school dropout, (b) beginning college, and (c) obtaining any college degree. Possible between-groups differences were also assessed. We found that higher CGRs were associated with higher odds to drop out of high school, but results for the college-level outcomes varied by group. Some were less likely to enroll, whereas others who began college were more likely to obtain a degree. Increased high school dropout was consistent across the population, but some potential benefit was also observed, primarily for those reporting Hispanic ethnicity.

  20. Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Brabcová, Věra

    2015-01-01

    Title: English: Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils Author: Věra Brabcová Department: Pedagogy Supervisor: PaedDr. Eva Marádová, CSc. ANNOTATION: The objective of the Bachelor Thesis, divided into two parts, is to find out whether there are any differences in the approach to catering; the discussed group of diners are basic school pupils of the second stage (Czech education system). The work compares the attitude of boys and girls at the age of 11 - 16. The the...

  1. Basic Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences, November 3-5, 2015, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windus, Theresa [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Banda, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Devereaux, Thomas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); White, Julia C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Energy Sciences Network (ESNet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Energy Sciences Network (ESNet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Energy Sciences Network (ESNet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baruah, Tunna [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Benali, Anouar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Borland, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brabec, Jiri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carter, Emily [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ceperley, David [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chan, Maria [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chelikowsky, James [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Chen, Jackie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Clark, Aurora [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Darancet, Pierre [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); DeJong, Wibe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deslippe, Jack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dixon, David [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Donatelli, Jeffrey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunning, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez-Serra, Marivi [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Freericks, James [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Gagliardi, Laura [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Garrett, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gordon, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Govind, Niri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gray, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gull, Emanuel [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gygi, Francois [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Hexemer, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Isborn, Christine [Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States); Jarrell, Mark [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kent, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Klippenstein, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kowalski, Karol [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krishnamurthy, Hulikal [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Dinesh [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lena, Charles [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Li, Xiaosong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Maier, Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markland, Thomas [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); McNulty, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Millis, Andrew [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Mundy, Chris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nakano, Aiichiro [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Niklasson, A.M.N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Thanos [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Pandolfi, Ron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parkinson, Dula [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pask, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Perazzo, Amedeo [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rehr, John [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rousseau, Roger [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenter, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Selloni, Annabella [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sethian, Jamie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Siepmann, Ilja [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Slipchenko, Lyudmila [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sternberg, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stevens, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Summers, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sumpter, Bobby [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sushko, Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thayer, Jana [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Toby, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tull, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Valeev, Edward [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Vashishta, Priya [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Venkatakrishnan, V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Sciences (BES) mission need. Simulation, visualization, and data analysis are crucial for advances in energy science and technology. Revolutionary mathematical, software, and algorithm developments are required in all areas of BES science to take advantage of exascale computing architectures and to meet data analysis, management, and workflow needs. In partnership with ASCR, BES has an emerging and pressing need to develop new and disruptive capabilities in data science. More capable and larger high-performance computing (HPC) and data ecosystems are required to support priority research in BES. Continued success in BES research requires developing the next-generation workforce through education and training and by providing sustained career opportunities.

  2. Junior High School Pupils' Perceptions of Air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    learning of science at the basic level. ... Stavy (1991) reported that students in his physics class had ... In a cross-level study of junior secondary, senior secondary and .... interview guide consisted of the items culled from Section B of the test.

  3. Application of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to determining science and user requirements for space-based missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) provide an effective method for evaluating the potential impact of proposed new observing systems, as well as for evaluating trade-offs in observing system design, and in developing and assessing improved methodology for assimilating new observations. As such, OSSEs can be an important tool for determining science and user requirements, and for incorporating these requirements into the planning for future missions. Detailed OSSEs have been conducted at NASA/ GSFC and NOAA/AOML in collaboration with Simpson Weather Associates and operational data assimilation centers over the last three decades. These OSSEs determined correctly the quantitative potential for several proposed satellite observing systems to improve weather analysis and prediction prior to their launch, evaluated trade-offs in orbits, coverage and accuracy for space-based wind lidars, and were used in the development of the methodology that led to the first beneficial impacts of satellite surface winds on numerical weather prediction. In this talk, the speaker will summarize the development of OSSE methodology, early and current applications of OSSEs and how OSSEs will evolve in order to enhance mission planning.

  4. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  5. Performing below the Targeted Level: An Investigation into KS3 Pupils' Attitudes towards Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Anusha; Hussain, Nasreen

    2018-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate the attitude KS3 pupils have towards mathematics and the factors that influence this attitude. A case study approach was used as the pupils were a unit of the school under study and a survey method was chosen to provide scope to the study. Purposeful sampling was employed for the selection of 200 pupils from…

  6. Adie’s Tonic Pupil in Systemic Sclerosis: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Venkataraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare association of Adie’s tonic pupil in a patient with systemic sclerosis who was otherwise systemically stable. This paper is an effort to unravel whether the tonic pupil and systemic sclerosis are an association by chance (which may be the case or systemic sclerosis is the source of the tonic pupil.

  7. Entrepreneurship Education: Motivation and Effort for Pupils with Special Needs in Norwegian Compulsory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somby, Hege Merete; Johansen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    Pupil enterprises are a widespread type of entrepreneurship education. In this working method, pupils start up, manage and close a business over short period of time. National and international policy documents claim that practical working methods through the use of pupil enterprises are beneficial to increase motivation by being a realistic and…

  8. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  9. Are Polish Primary School Pupils in Favor of Wearing Uniforms? Snapshot Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asotska, Julia; Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Brown, Veda E.; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss whether Polish primary school pupils want to wear uniforms, and it is motivated by the Polish government's recently proposed policy: Zero Tolerance for Violence at School. Seventy one pupils, who attend Podstawowka Nr30 school in Cracow, were surveyed, and the authors found that most pupils are not in…

  10. Sticky Assessments--The Impact of Teachers' Grading Standard on Pupils' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that school grades cannot be interpreted solely as a reward for a given school performance, since they also reflect teachers' assessments of pupils. A teacher's evaluation of a pupil's performance, as reflected in the grade awarded, might influence the effort that the pupil invests in learning. Grades might therefore serve as…

  11. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans

    2015-01-01

    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  12. What Can National Data Sets Tell Us about Inclusion and Pupil Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Lani; Rouse, Martyn; Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Jull, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) have produced a national pupil database (NPD) that contains information about the attainments of individual pupils. Every child in the country has been allocated a unique pupil number (UPN), which means that the academic progress of individuals can be tracked over time. It is…

  13. Safe and sensible preprocessing and baseline correction of pupil-size data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Fabius, Jasper; Van Heusden, Elle; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, i.e., analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a

  14. Safe and sensible preprocessing and baseline correction of pupil-size data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Fabius, Jasper; Van Heusden, Elle; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, i.e., analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a baseline period. Baseline correction is useful in experiments that investigate the effect of some experimental manipulation on pupil size. In such experiments, baseline correction improves statistical power by taking into account random fluctuations in pupil size over time. However, we show that baseline correction can also distort data if unrealistically small pupil sizes are recorded during the baseline period, which can easily occur due to eye blinks, data loss, or other distortions. Divisive baseline correction (corrected pupil size = pupil size/baseline) is affected more strongly by such distortions than subtractive baseline correction (corrected pupil size = pupil size - baseline). We discuss the role of baseline correction as a part of preprocessing of pupillometric data, and make five recommendations: (1) before baseline correction, perform data preprocessing to mark missing and invalid data, but assume that some distortions will remain in the data; (2) use subtractive baseline correction; (3) visually compare your corrected and uncorrected data; (4) be wary of pupil-size effects that emerge faster than the latency of the pupillary response allows (within ±220 ms after the manipulation that induces the effect); and (5) remove trials on which baseline pupil size is unrealistically small (indicative of blinks and other distortions).

  15. Safe and sensible preprocessing and baseline correction of pupil-size data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Fabius, Jasper; Van Heusden, Elle; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, that is, analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a

  16. The Matthew effect in Dutch primary education, differences between school, cohorts and pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Johannes W.; Cremers-van Wees, L.M.C.M.; Bosker, Roel

    2003-01-01

    Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from Dutch primary education was used to assess to what extent differences between educationally disadvantaged pupils and other pupils increase during their school careers. For language and arithmetic the differences between pupils with poorly educated and

  17. Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

  18. Learning a Musical Instrument: The Influence of Interpersonal Interaction on Outcomes for School-Aged Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in recent years have increasingly placed an emphasis on seeking pupils' perceptions of educational settings. Alongside this shift towards attaching value to the pupil viewpoint has been a growing interest concerning how interpersonal relationships, manifested as control or responsiveness between teachers and pupils or parents and…

  19. Tomorrow's Workforce: School Pupils' Views of a Career in Hospitality. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregaskis, Olga; And Others

    A survey involving 1,024 secondary pupils and 22 career educators from schools throughout the United Kingdom collected information on pupils' perceptions of entering the hotel and catering industry as a career. The research looked in detail at the job expectations of pupils, the status they associated with hotel and catering and nonhotel and…

  20. Comparative Study of Pupils' Academic Performance between Private and Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Sunday B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares pupils' academic performance between the private and public primary schools. The sample, made up of 240 pupils were randomly selected from the private and public primary schools in Ilesa East and West Local Government Council Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used. A structured questionnaire and Pupils'…

  1. High School Pupils' Attitudes and Self-Efficacy of Using Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

    2017-01-01

    This paper regards a study aiming to investigate junior high school pupils' attitudes and self-efficacy of using mobile devices. A 25-item questionnaire was administered to 260 pupils aged 12-15 years old, in Greece. Pupils' attitudes were positive, and four factors were extracted, "perceived usefulness", "affection",…

  2. The GEOSS User Requirement Registry (URR): A Cross-Cutting Service-Oriented Infrastructure Linking Science, Society and GEOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H.-P.; Foley, G.; Jules-Plag, S.; Ondich, G.; Kaufman, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as a user-driven service infrastructure responding to the needs of users in nine interdependent Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) of Earth observations (EOs). GEOSS applies an interdisciplinary scientific approach integrating observations, research, and knowledge in these SBAs in order to enable scientific interpretation of the collected observations and the extraction of actionable information. Using EOs to actually produce these societal benefits means getting the data and information to users, i.e., decision-makers. Thus, GEO needs to know what the users need and how they would use the information. The GEOSS User Requirements Registry (URR) is developed as a service-oriented infrastructure enabling a wide range of users, including science and technology (S&T) users, to express their needs in terms of EOs and to understand the benefits of GEOSS for their fields. S&T communities need to be involved in both the development and the use of GEOSS, and the development of the URR accounts for the special needs of these communities. The GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) at the core of GEOSS includes system-oriented registries enabling users to discover, access, and use EOs and derived products and services available through GEOSS. In addition, the user-oriented URR is a place for the collection, sharing, and analysis of user needs and EO requirements, and it provides means for an efficient dialog between users and providers. The URR is a community-based infrastructure for the publishing, viewing, and analyzing of user-need related information. The data model of the URR has a core of seven relations for User Types, Applications, Requirements, Research Needs, Infrastructure Needs, Technology Needs, and Capacity Building Needs. The URR also includes a Lexicon, a number of controlled vocabularies, and

  3. Guided Reading: Young Pupils' Perspectives on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Guided reading is widely perceived to be tricky in English primary schools; prior research has found difficulties with teacher interpretation and implementation. The study reported here suggests that to understand the problems associated with it we should also take into account pupils' perspectives on their guided reading lessons. In this case,…

  4. Pupils Learning Preferences and Interest Development in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikpo, Ofem U.; Domike, Grace

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the extent pupils learning preference and interest development influences their learning in schools. Interest is refers to an individual's relatively enduring psychological predisposition (preference) to re-engage in particular classes of objects, available evidence indicates that, there are many factors that…

  5. Applying a workbook at Aikido lessons when teaching younger pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova O. P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to creating the structure and the contents of a workbook for the first year children learning Aikido. The results prove the effectiveness of using the workbook: children learn the material successfully, younger pupils get enough theoretical and practical Aikido skills during the course of this martial art.

  6. Nurses struggle to help pupils with long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris

    2016-10-07

    Most school nurses are not confident they can give essential support to pupils with long-term health conditions. Research by the National Children's Bureau found that, due to heavy workloads and the need to work across several schools, nine out of ten school nurses were less confident they can help children with conditions such as diabetes and asthma.

  7. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP) and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically ...

  8. breakfast skipping and academic / social development of pupils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abasiama Akpan

    “Assessment of the effects of skipping breakfast on the children by pupils was the basic ... concludes that since proper feeding is necessary for the child's academic and social development, the ... people feed influence their behaviour in a variety ... J. C. Duruamaku-Dim, Department of Curriculum & Teaching, Faculty of ...

  9. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  10. The Value of Bilingualism in Pupils' Understanding of Scientific Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsey, John; Turner, Sheila

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, although some bilingual pupils may be at a disadvantage in understanding scientific language, there may be some circumstances where being bilingual is an advantage in understanding scientific language. Presents evidence of circumstances where being bilingual was an advantage and circumstances where it was a disadvantage in…

  11. Finnish Pupils' Views on the Place of Religion in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Arniika; Poulter, Saila; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2017-01-01

    This mixed method study examines Finnish pupils' (N = 825; age groups 12-13, 15-16) views on the place of religion in the public school. Religious landscape in Finnish society has changed significantly in recent years, as the "new" diversity (Vertovec 2015) has supplemented the "old" one. The role of institutionalized religion…

  12. Assess the physical activity of pupils aged 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to assess physical activity among pupils in primary schools in Novi Sad, aged 11 years. The sample consisted of 185 participants (90 boys and 95 girls. Data were collected through a questionnaire, and modified Beacke Q questionnaire was used. Physical activity related to school - physical education, sports and leisure were assessed. Frequencies were calculated for all data, and significance of differences in inclusion and type of physical activity of pupils by sex was determined by Chi-square test. In all three dimensions of physical activity, the significant differences between boys and girls (p ≤ 0.05 were established. Boys have a higher level of physical activity compared to girls. Regular attendance of physical education is high, but the class intensity is low, while girls exercise with yet lower intensity compared to the boys. Boys are more active in sports and the most common sports for them are: football and basketball, while for girls those are volleyball and tennis. Pupils involved in sports generally carry out their activities more than 4 hours per week and 9 months per year. Most of their leisure time pupils spend with computers and TV, boys spend more time in sports, while girls spend more time walking.

  13. Junior Secondary School Pupils' Perception of the Relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significance of the differences in the items' mean at p ≤ 0.05. On the average, the results suggest that the majority of pupils in the sample, irrespective of the gender shared almost similar sentiments towards environmental protection issues and to a large extent, placed the same items on top as well as at the bottom of their ...

  14. Carriage rate of Neisseria meningitides among pupils of islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a cross-sectional study that determined the carriage rate of Neisseria meningitides among pupils of Islamic boarding schools (Tsangaya Almajirai) in Kano, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were randomly collected from 150 children aged 5 years to 10 years and above from three selected Tsangaya Almajiri schools in ...

  15. Pupil Clustering in English Secondary Schools: One Pattern or Several?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Cheng, Shou Chen

    2011-01-01

    Previous international work has shown that clustering pupils with similar characteristics in particular schools yields no clear academic benefit, and can be disadvantageous both socially and personally. Understanding how and why this clustering happens, and how it may be reduced, is therefore important for policy. Yet previous work has tended to…

  16. "All in Favour, Say Aye!" Voting in Pupils' Collaborative Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council and British Telecom-funded project which explored the teaching of collaborative talk in the secondary English classroom. During the analysis of the video data collected, voting was observed as a strategy in pupils' collaborative decision-making. Converse to its democratic…

  17. Prevalence and pattern of intestinal parasites among pupils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Intestinal parasitic infestation remains a very common health issue among the children particularly in the public schools. Distribution of free antiparasitic drugs to pupils at the beginning of every term should be incorporated into the school health program. Key words: Intestinal Parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, ...

  18. Indoor environment and pupils' health in primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, F; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Sundell, J.

    2006-01-01

    Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess the

  19. Effects of Bilingual Teaching Strategy on Pupils' Achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After a careful analytical observation, Primary Education which is the foundation upon which further education is built is considered not to be at its best presently in Nigeria. The mode of instruction used by teachers of Mathematics (being a core subject) seems to be contributory to the performance of pupils in primary schools ...

  20. Intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in Ekwulumili Community, Nnewi South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria, between April and July 2012. Five primary schools were involved in the study namely, Bethel Nursery and Primary ...

  1. Pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: PMB MOSS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief background to Greenbelt and urban nature trail development in Pietermaritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recognise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space (MOSS) are outlined. long-term ...

  2. Pupils' Fear in the Classroom: Portraits from Palestine and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Affouneh, Saida

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the concept of fear related to the authoritarian classroom and how children express its influence on their learning. Its investigations draw on the comments of four classes of primary-age pupils, two from a school near London, England, and two from boys' and girls' schools in the West Bank, Palestine. It is written by one…

  3. The Relationship between Pupil Control Ideology and Academic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between pupil control ideology and academic optimism. Information was generated through responses to a questionnaire emailed to teachers in two school districts in Central New Jersey. The districts were categorized GH, as determined by the State's district factor grouping. The research concludes that there…

  4. ROOTing Out Meaning: More Morphemic Analysis for Primary Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Lee

    2005-01-01

    In an elementary-school professional development program, a group of primary teachers and a university consultant reviewed the research on morphemic analysis and then explored ways to give pupils in grades 1, 2, and 3 an early start on using prefixes, suffixes, and roots to construct word meaning. The teachers examined some middle-grade strategies…

  5. Pupils, Tools and the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Yasmine

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I use the Vygotskian concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to examine the learning experience of two grade seven pupils as they attempted to solve an addition of fractions problem using fraction strips. The aim is to highlight how tools can facilitate the enactment of a ZPD, within which the tool provides the guidance.…

  6. Primary Education in Vietnam and Pupil Online Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Thi; Naguib, Raouf N. G.; Das, Ashish K.; Papathomas, Michail; Vallar, Edgar A.; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Santos, Gil Nonato; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Nguyen, Viet Anh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the disparities in social awareness and use of the internet between urban and rural school children in the North of Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 525 pupils, aged 9-11 years old, randomly selected from seven urban and rural schools, who are internet users, participated in the…

  7. Radio listening habits of pupils of Nomadic Pastoralists and Migrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to integrate Nigeria with other nations in the world that have achieved landmark results in Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) innovation necessitated this study on radio listening habits of pupils of nomadic pastoralists and migrant fisherfolks in Nigeria. The study was carried out in four pastoralists' states of Borno, ...

  8. A Comparison of Middle School Teachers' Pupil Control Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Garner, Arthur E.

    1978-01-01

    Compares pupil control ideology--discipline policy--of middle school classroom teachers with the intent of finding what attributes are needed for middle school teachers and the particular type classroom environment that facilitates optimum learning conditions for middle school children. (Author/RK)

  9. Family Integrants Obstructing Pupils' School Attendance and Girl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is hinged on finding out the family integrants obstructing pupils' school attendance, the girl – child education and proffering solution to it via counsellors' strategies. The samples were three hundred (300) parents and twenty (20) counsellors. This brought the total sample to three hundred and twenty (320).

  10. Grounding by Attention Simulation in Peripersonal Space: Pupils Dilate to Pinch Grip But Not Big Size Nominal Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobben, Marit; Bochynska, Agata

    2018-03-01

    Grammatical categories represent implicit knowledge, and it is not known if such abstract linguistic knowledge can be continuously grounded in real-life experiences, nor is it known what types of mental states can be simulated. A former study showed that attention bias in peripersonal space (PPS) affects reaction times in grammatical congruency judgments of nominal classifiers, suggesting that simulated semantics may include reenactment of attention. In this study, we contrasted a Chinese nominal classifier used with nouns denoting pinch grip objects with a classifier for nouns with big object referents in a pupil dilation experiment. Twenty Chinese native speakers read grammatical and ungrammatical classifier-noun combinations and made grammaticality judgment while their pupillary responses were measured. It was found that their pupils dilated significantly more to the pinch grip classifier than to the big object classifier, indicating attention simulation in PPS. Pupil dilations were also significantly larger with congruent trials on the whole than in incongruent trials, but crucially, congruency and classifier semantics were independent of each other. No such effects were found in controls. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Wavefront-Error Performance Characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES). In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing (also known as phase retrieval), and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) plate scale measurements made using a Pseudo-Nonredundant Mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil geometry predictions as a function of SI and field point, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse translation diversity sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a sub-aperture is translated andor rotated across the exit pupil of the system.Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also describes the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis of focus-sweep data, used to establish the

  12. Expectancy modulates pupil size during endogenous orienting of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Alessio; Lasaponara, Stefano; Pinto, Mario; Rotondaro, Francesca; De Luca, Maria; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2018-05-01

    fMRI investigations in healthy humans have documented phasic changes in the level of activation of the right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) during cued voluntary orienting of spatial attention. Cues that correctly predict the position of upcoming targets in the majority of trials, i.e., predictive cues, produce higher deactivation of the right TPJ as compared with non-predictive cues. Since the right TPJ is the recipient of noradrenergic (NE) innervation, it has been hypothesised that changes in the level of TPJ activity are matched with changes in the level of NE activity. Based on aforementioned fMRI findings, this might imply that orienting with predictive cues is matched with different levels of NE activity as compared with non-predictive cues. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in pupil dilation, an indirect index of NE activity, during voluntary orienting of attention with highly predictive (80% validity) or non-predictive (50% validity) cues. In agreement with current interpretations of the tonic/phasic activity of the Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrinic system (LC-NE), we found that the steady level of cue predictiveness that characterised both the predictive and non-predictive conditions caused, across consecutive blocks of trials, a progressive decrement in pupil dilation during the baseline-fixation period that anticipated the cue period. With predictive cues we observed increased pupil dilation as compared with non-predictive cues. In addition, the relative reduction in pupil size observed with non-predictive cues increased as a function of cue-duration. These results show that changes in the predictiveness of cues that guide voluntary orienting of spatial attention are matched with changes in pupil dilation and, putatively, with corresponding changes in LC-NE activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inadequacy of vitamins and minerals among high-school pupils in Ouarzazate, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzid, Karim; Baali, Abdellatif; Vimard, Patrice; Levy-Desroches, Susan; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; López, Pilar Montero

    2014-08-01

    To assess micronutrient intakes and the prevalence of inadequacy in a sample of high-school pupils in Ouarzazate, Morocco. Food records were compiled over three non-consecutive days by pre-trained pupils. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using the DIAL software, adapted to include foods commonly eaten in Morocco. The prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by the proportion of individuals with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins B12, A and K, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folate, ascorbic acid, iodine, Ca, Mg and P; below the Adequate Intake (AI) level for pantothenic acid, biotin, Na and K; and using the probability approach for Fe. Data were adjusted for intra-individual variation with exclusion of under-reporters. Ouarzazate, a semi-urban region situated on the southern slopes of the High Atlas with little industrial development but an important tourism sector. A self-selected sample of 312 pupils aged 15-19 years from the five public high schools. After exclusion of under-reporters, 293 remained for analysis. The highest proportions of below-EAR/AI intakes were seen for pantothenic acid (girls 85·1 %, boys 78·0 %), biotin (boys 83·1 %, girls 79·4 %), thiamin (boys 66·9 %), folate (girls 93·1 %, boys 74·6 %), iodine (boys 94·9 %, girls 88·0 %) and Ca (girls 83·4 %, boys 74·6 %). Na intake was generally in excess whereas K intake was below the AI level. In general, girls had better-quality diets than boys, who appeared to consume more 'empty calories'. Our findings suggest that in this population of Moroccan adolescents, nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating habits and correct micronutrient inadequacies. To provide reliable and precise estimates of nutrient intakes, an update of Moroccan food composition databases is urgently needed. We recommend that national authorities address these issues.

  14. Pupil Selection Segments Urban Comprehensive Schooling in Finland: Composition of School Classes in Pupils' School Performance, Gender, and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Seppänen, Piia

    2017-01-01

    The Finnish comprehensive school system is regularly referred to as a uniform and "no-tracking". In this article, we show with novel urban case data in Finland that school performance differed significantly between schools, most strikingly between school classes, and was connected to the school's selectiveness in pupil admission. A…

  15. Effective Teaching of Able Pupils in the Primary School: The Findings of the Oxfordshire Effective Teachers of Able Pupils Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Deborah; Coates, David; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Higgins, Chris; McClure, Lynne; Wilson, Helen; Chamberlin, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    A review of British research on effective teaching of able students leads to a report on the Oxfordshire Effective Teachers of Able Pupils Project. This study found effective teachers shared similar beliefs about learning, had empathy with the needs of able children, created a secure classroom environment, held high expectations, used…

  16. Formative and summative assessment of science in English primary schools: evidence from the Primary Science Quality Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    Background:Since the discontinuation of Standard Attainment Tests (SATs) in science at age 11 in England, pupil performance data in science reported to the UK government by each primary school has relied largely on teacher assessment undertaken in the classroom. Purpose:The process by which teachers are making these judgements has been unclear, so this study made use of the extensive Primary Science Quality Mark (PSQM) database to obtain a 'snapshot' (as of March 2013) of the approaches taken by 91 English primary schools to the formative and summative assessment of pupils' learning in science. PSQM is an award scheme for UK primary schools. It requires the science subject leader (co-ordinator) in each school to reflect upon and develop practice over the course of one year, then upload a set of reflections and supporting evidence to the database to support their application. One of the criteria requires the subject leader to explain how science is assessed within the school. Sample:The data set consists of the electronic text in the assessment section of all 91 PSQM primary schools which worked towards the Quality Mark in the year April 2012 to March 2013. Design and methods:Content analysis of a pre-existing qualitative data set. Text in the assessment section of each submission was first coded as describing formative or summative processes, then sub-coded into different strategies used. Results:A wide range of formative and summative approaches were reported, which tended to be described separately, with few links between them. Talk-based strategies are widely used for formative assessment, with some evidence of feedback to pupils. Whilst the use of tests or tracking grids for summative assessment is widespread, few schools rely on one system alone. Enquiry skills and conceptual knowledge were often assessed separately. Conclusions:There is little consistency in the approaches being used by teachers to assess science in English primary schools. Nevertheless

  17. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—A synthesis of science, 2005 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Albers, Janice L.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B; Haas, Justin D.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    This report is intended to synthesize the state of the scientific understanding of pallid sturgeon ecological requirements to provide recommendations for future science directions and context for Missouri River restoration and management decisions. Recruitment of pallid sturgeon has been low to non-existent throughout its range. Emerging understanding of the genetic structure of pallid sturgeon populations sets a broad framework for species and river management decisions, including decisions about managing the future genetic diversity of the species, but also decisions about where and what type of river restoration actions will be effective for subpopulations of this highly migratory species. Adult pallid sturgeon may migrate hundreds of kilometers (km) to spawn and their progeny may disperse even greater distances downstream as drifting free embryos. As a result of their complex life history pallid sturgeon naturally exploit a wide range of habitats during their life cycles. The construction of dams and reservoirs has fragmented habitats and may have shifted Missouri River subpopulations downstream. Research has not identified one primary biological or ecological constraint that appears to limit populations of the pallid sturgeon. With the present (2013) state of knowledge many life stages and life-stage transitions cannot be ruled out as contributing to recruitment failure.

  18. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate Vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden......More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor......, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment....

  19. Science Club--A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Claas; Issak, Nicole; Tesch, Katharina; Zehne, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a concept of a science club which was developed by two master's students as a part of their thesis and which has been developed and improved ever since. The extra-curricular concept emphasises pupils' individuality through focusing on problem based leaning, station learning, and mixed age groups. Having joined the…

  20. Educational Applications for Blind and Partially Sighted Pupils Based on Speech Technologies for Serbian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lučić, Branko; Ostrogonac, Stevan; Vujnović Sedlar, Nataša; Sečujski, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of persons with disabilities has always represented an important issue. Advancements within the field of computer science have enabled the development of different types of aids, which have significantly improved the quality of life of the disabled. However, for some disabilities, such as visual impairment, the purpose of these aids is to establish an alternative communication channel and thus overcome the user's disability. Speech technologies play the crucial role in this process. This paper presents the ongoing efforts to create a set of educational applications based on speech technologies for Serbian for the early stages of education of blind and partially sighted children. Two educational applications dealing with memory exercises and comprehension of geometrical shapes are presented, along with the initial tests results obtained from research including visually impaired pupils. PMID:26171422

  1. Educational Applications for Blind and Partially Sighted Pupils Based on Speech Technologies for Serbian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lučić, Branko; Ostrogonac, Stevan; Vujnović Sedlar, Nataša; Sečujski, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of persons with disabilities has always represented an important issue. Advancements within the field of computer science have enabled the development of different types of aids, which have significantly improved the quality of life of the disabled. However, for some disabilities, such as visual impairment, the purpose of these aids is to establish an alternative communication channel and thus overcome the user's disability. Speech technologies play the crucial role in this process. This paper presents the ongoing efforts to create a set of educational applications based on speech technologies for Serbian for the early stages of education of blind and partially sighted children. Two educational applications dealing with memory exercises and comprehension of geometrical shapes are presented, along with the initial tests results obtained from research including visually impaired pupils.

  2. Pupil Perspectives on the Purposes and Benefits of Studying History in High School: A View from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Terry; Harris, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from 1740 pupil questionnaires and 160 pupils in focus-group interviews, the study aimed to gain insight into British pupils' ideas about why they study history at school. The paper considers the implications of these ideas for history teachers and teacher educators. The data suggest that many pupils have very vague ideas about the…

  3. Assessment Accommodations for Foreign Pupils in the Light of Educational Justice: Empirical Research among Slovenian Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelic, Mojca Žveglic

    2017-01-01

    The starting points of primary school pupils in a foreign country differ significantly from those of native pupils. In Slovenia, the knowledge of pupils who are foreign citizens (foreign pupils) may be assessed with different accommodations for no more than two years. The presented research conducted on a representative sample of 697 Slovenian…

  4. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  5. Investigating Arabic Academic Vocabulary Knowledge Among Middle School Pupils: Receptive Versus Productive Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Baha

    2017-08-01

    The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.

  6. High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Barnaby; Cvetojevic, Nick; Gross, Simon; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Stewart, Paul N; Charles, Ned; Lawrence, Jon S; Withford, Michael J; Tuthill, Peter

    2014-07-28

    The detection and characterization of extra-solar planets is a major theme driving modern astronomy. Direct imaging of exoplanets allows access to a parameter space complementary to other detection methods, and potentially the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and surfaces. However achieving the required levels of performance with direct imaging from ground-based telescopes (subject to Earth's turbulent atmosphere) has been extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate a new generation of photonic pupil-remapping devices which build upon the Dragonfly instrument, a high contrast waveguide-based interferometer. This new generation overcomes problems caused by interference from unguided light and low throughput. Closure phase measurement scatter of only ∼ 0.2° has been achieved, with waveguide throughputs of > 70%. This translates to a maximum contrast-ratio sensitivity between star and planet at 1λ/D (1σ detection) of 5.3 × 10(-4) (with a conventional adaptive-optics system) or 1.8 × 10(-4) (with 'extreme-AO'), improving even further when random error is minimized by averaging over multiple exposures. This is an order of magnitude beyond conventional pupil-segmenting interferometry techniques (such as aperture masking), allowing a previously inaccessible part of the star to planet contrast-separation parameter space to be explored.

  7. Pupil interest in physics: A survey in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Lavonen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors interrelating with interest in physics learning are gender, perceived relevance, contents and contexts of physics, and teaching methods. Finnish ninth grade secondary school pupil interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international ROSE project. The sample consisted of 3626 pupils (median age 15 in 61 schools. Means of all items that belong to school physics context for both girls and boys were under the middle of the scale. The most interesting things (especially for girls were connected with human being and the less interesting (especially for girls were connected in artefacts and technological processes. Astronomical context was rather interesting for both genders. The main message of the study is that interesting new curricular approaches and textbooks can be developed by combining technological and human or astronomical contexts.

  8. Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optics for microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Na; Milkie, Daniel E.; Betzig, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Inhomogeneous optical properties of biological samples make it difficult to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in depth. Correcting the sample-induced optical aberrations needs adaptive optics (AO). However, the direct wavefront-sensing approach commonly used in astronomy is not suitable for most biological samples due to their strong scattering of light. We developed an image-based AO approach that is insensitive to sample scattering. By comparing images of the sample taken with different segments of the pupil illuminated, local tilt in the wavefront is measured from image shift. The aberrated wavefront is then obtained either by measuring the local phase directly using interference or with phase reconstruction algorithms similar to those used in astronomical AO. We implemented this pupil-segmentation-based approach in a two-photon fluorescence microscope and demonstrated that diffraction-limited resolution can be recovered from nonbiological and biological samples.

  9. Forecasting transient sleep episodes by pupil size variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumann Andy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict when a person is about to fall asleep is an important challenge in recent biomedical research and has various possible applications. Sleepiness and fatigue are known to increase pupillary fluctuations and the occurrence of eye blinks. In this study, we evaluated the use of the pupil diameter to forecast sleep episodes of short duration (>1s. We conducted multi-channel physiological and pupillometric recordings (diameter, gaze position in 91 healthy volunteers at rest in supine position. Although they were instructed to keep their eyes open, short sleep episodes were detected in 20 participants (16 males, age: 26.2±5.6 years, 53 events in total. Before each sleep event, pupil size was extracted in a window of 30s (without additional sleep event. Mean pupil diameter and its standard deviation, Shannon entropy and wavelet entropy in the first half (15s were compared to the second half of the window (15s. Linear and nonlinear measures demonstrated an elevation of pupil size variability before sleep onset. Most obviously, WE and SD increased significantly from 0.054±0.056 and 0.38±0.16 mm to 0.113±0.103 (T(102=2.44, p<0.001 and 0.46±0.18 mm (T(104=3.67, p<0.05 in the second half of each analysis window. We were able to identify 83% of the pre-sleep segments by linear discriminant analysis. Although our data was acquired in an experimental condition, it suggests that pupillary unrest might be a suitable predictor of events related to transient sleep or inattentiveness. In the future, we are going to involve the other recorded physiological signals into the analysis.

  10. Sibling constellation effects on learning and career aspirations of pupils.

    OpenAIRE

    KOROTVIČKOVÁ, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis "Sibling Constellation Effects on Learning and Career Aspirations of Pupils" is aimed at the description of a relationship between birth order and personality development. It also deals with the general characteristics of sibling constellation and its historical development. It points out the importance of sibling constellation in human life and presents the personality description with regard to birth order in relation to parents, siblings, peers, education and occupation. The the...

  11. Developing Teachers' Capacity for Teaching Pupils' Initial Reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The t-test results showed a significant difference between the pre- and post-test scores of the pupils and this difference was attributed to the treatment given to the teachers t- calculated value of 24.6 and t-value of 1.984 at 0.05 level of significance with degree of freedom 98. Also the t-test t-test comparison of the mean ...

  12. Comparison of mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilewská, Eliška

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe the role of educational strategy especially in field of the teaching of mathematics and to compare the mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils which are taught by using different educational strategies. In the theoretical part, the main focus is on divergent educational strategies and their characteristics, next on factors affected teaching/learning process and finally on solving the problems. The empirical part of the disse...

  13. The attitude of elementary school pupils towards healthy nutrition recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Positive attitude to healthy diet, recommendations and advice on healthy eating is very important during childhood and teenage years. As children develop healthy eating practices, the choice of foods and their eating style will be part of the lifestyle. This helps to maintain good health through all the stages of their lives and prevents chronic non-contagious diseases as well as promotes a good well-being. The intention of this degree thesis is to determine what is the attitude of pupils ...

  14. Teaching Foreign Languages to Pupils with Specific Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    VOLDÁNOVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic of specific learning disability. In the theoretical part I define the term specific learning disability and I mention the related terms. I deal with the history, types and causes of specific learning disability, further I describe the possibilities of diagnostics and re-education concerning specific learning disability. I also attend to the situation of a pupil in the family and school background. The main attention is especially paid to teaching forei...

  15. Pupil Response and the Subliminal Mere Exposure Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associ...

  16. The influence of playing computer games on pupil's development

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is about the effects of playing computer games on pupils and students behavior. It is divided into a theoretical and an investigative part. The theoretical part is dedicated to historical development of technologies and principals of game systems in relationship to technical progress. It adverts to psychological, social and biological effects of long time, intensive playing of games. It shows positive and negative effects ofthis activity. The work analyses typical pathological eve...

  17. Improving the quality of innovative science teaching materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelhof, H.M.C.; Krüger, J.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of scientists of different fields is working together in interdisciplinary subjects. For school science it is difficult to bring these interdisciplinary developments into the classroom. Pupils thus get an outdated view of science and of possibilities in science and technology

  18. Competence of matric physical science teachers in some basic problem-solving strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailoo Selvaratnam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Curriculum Statement for matric physical science places strong emphasis on the development of critical thinking and reasoning abilities of pupils. The successful implementation of this curriculum therefore requires teachers who are competent in the cognitive (intellectual skills and strategies needed for learning science effectively. Testing of teachers’ competence in this aspect is therefore important. I therefore analysed teachers’ answers to questions that were carefully designed to test competence in some basic intellectual strategies that are important for problem solving in physical science courses. A total of 73 matric physical science teachers, from about 50 Dinaledi schools in the North West and KwaZulu-Natal provinces in South Africa, were tested in five intellectual strategies: clear representation of problems, identifying and focusing on the goal, identification and use of relevant principles, use of equations for deductions and proceeding step-by-step with the solution. The teachers’ competence was poor in all the intellectual strategies tested. About 60% (the average performance in all 13 questions used for testing of teachers tested were unable to solve the questions correctly. An important objective of the curriculum is the development of critical thinking, scientific reasoning and strategies of pupils. This study shows that the achievement of this objective will be seriously handicapped because of the lack of competence of many teachers in intellectual strategies. There is therefore a need to train teachers in order to increase their competence in this aspect.

  19. Olanzapine Overdose in a Pin Point Pupil with Altered Sensorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Midha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Olanzapine is a highly tolerable and easily affordable atypical antipsychotic drug which has been commonly prescribed in both inpatient and outpatient settings for several mental disorders. Olanzapine overdose is commonly seen in psychiatric patients, who attempt suicide by intoxicating themselves with their own prescribed medications. Increased olanzapine use is associated with increased incidence of overdosing. Case Presentation:We are reporting a case of olanzapine overdosage as a cause of pinpoint pupils and altered sensorium with exclusion of other differentials. The mainstay of managementof olanzapine overdose is general supportive and symptomatic measures. Discussion: Pinpoint pupils with altered sensorium and agitation are always an alarming situation for a clinician, because of differentials like organophosphorus poisoning, pontine hemorrhage and opium overdosing. Due to olanzapine overdosage, similar clinical picture can be confusing in the emergency department and early identification of such cases is helpful to decrease the risk of fatality. Conclusion: This case highlights the significance of olanzapine overdosing as a differential diagnosis for patients presented with altered sensorium and pinpoint pupils in the emergency department. Olanzapine overdosage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although there is no specific antidote for olanzapine overdose, appropriate history, assessment and early diagnosis are very useful for the better outcome.

  20. Capsule-Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation in Small Pupil Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schojai, Merita; Schultz, Tim; Burkhard Dick, H

    2017-08-01

    To describe a new technique for implantation of capsule-fixated intraocular lenses (IOLs) (FEMTIS; Oculentis, Berlin, Germany) in patients with small pupils. In 4 eyes with small pupils, an anterior capsule-fixated IOL was implanted into the capsular bag after femtosecond laser treatment. The two large and two small flaps of the IOL were elevated to the front of the iris and the anterior capsule. Finally, the iris was flipped over the flaps to ensure a fixation of the capsule inside of the capsulotomy. In all cases, the implantation of anterior capsule-fixated IOLs was possible. No complications occurred during surgery or within the first months after surgery. With the described technique, capsulefixated IOLs can be implanted in eyes with small pupil easily and safely. This type of IOL has great potential to improve the refractive outcome by better prediction of the postoperative IOL position and eliminating IOL rotation after cataract surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):568-570.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Dietary Factors Associated To Obesity In Ahwaz Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosty A.R; Tabatabaei M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increase in obesity prevalence in recent years are associated to genetics as well environmental and behavioral factors. Change in dietary patterns including fatty and high density energy foods consumption have been reported to be very important. This study aimed to determine dietary factors (daily energy and macronutrient intakes, energy percentage of macronutrient, energy and macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight, frequency of cola, natural fruit juice drinking, dairy products except cheese, tomato chips, puff, chocolate and fast food consumption and eating speed associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils. Materials and Methods: Using two stage cluster sampling from 35 Ahwaz primary schools, all 10-11y students who had a BMI 95th percentile of Hosseini et al. (1999 reference, were identified as obese (n=150 and 150 same age and gender pupils (having BMI0.05. macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight were significantly lower in obese group (p0.05. Obese students used to eat faster (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, high intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, tomato chips and puff and high eating speed were associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils.

  2. The interaction of pupil response with the vergence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Moritz; Moser, Barbara; Abegg, Mathias

    2017-11-01

    A gaze shift from a target at distance to a target at near leads to pupillary constriction. The regulation of this pupillary near response is ill known. We investigated the impact of accommodation, convergence, and proximity on the pupillary diameter. We recorded pupil size and vergence eye movements with the use of an infrared eye tracker. We determined the pupillary response in four conditions: (1) after a gaze shift from far to near without accommodation, (2) after a gaze shift from far to near with neither accommodation nor convergence, (3) after accommodation alone, and (4) after accommodation with convergence without a gaze shift to near. These responses were compared to the pupil response of a full near response and to a gaze shift from one far target to another. We found a reliable pupillary near response. The removal of both accommodation and convergence in gaze shift from far to near abolished the pupillary near response. Accommodation alone did not induce pupillary constriction, while convergence and accommodation together induced a pupil response similar to the full near response. The main trigger for the pupillary response seems to be convergence. Neither accommodation nor proximity alone induce a significant pupillary constriction. This suggests that the miosis of the near triad is closely coupled to the vergence system rather than being independently regulated.

  3. Students Teach Pupils Environmental Issues and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, H.; Banner, I.; Tuchin, B. S.; Einav, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Technological advances and accessibility to information on the internet have opened a new channel of pupils that are being taught by students throughout the country. Students, full of motivation and a will to learn and teach, have understood that this way is good for them – enabling them to profit from a side job and take advantage of the knowledge they have accumulated in their degree. Holon Institute of Technology (“HIT”) developed a new program at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. The Renewable Energy program gives the students technical and practical aspects of energy use (technology and methodology of the study) and energy efficiency. The program also deals with minimizing the environmental impacts of energy use, as well as with energy economy and environmental policy. The entrance of students to the field of teaching pupils while still in their studies brings many advantages, such as: fresh knowledge, motivation to teach, and innovative, out of the ordinary methods that arouse interest in the pupils and intrigue them.

  4. DIDACTIC POTENTIAL OF PUPILS UPBRINGING BY MEANS OF LITARATURE WORKS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF WESTERN UKRAINIAN DIASPORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Rybak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Didactic potential of upbringing pupils in educational institutions of the Diaspora by means of artistic word has been analyzed. The attention is paid to the function of art – Ukrainian literature, which promotes the formation of fully developed personality, their preparation for the conscious and active labour activity, and therefore upbringing is closely connected with life. It is cleared out that when plunging into the system of the artistic world, the pupil learns from the life of the main positive characters how to live in the society and to be useful, because textbooks and manuals on the native literature, readers in the Diaspora provide the basis for children to learn the behaviour of consciousness, and the latter, as it is known, depends on the construction of the world in themselves, that is called the worldview. It is proved that the powerful moral-educational and artistic-aesthetic potential of Ukrainian literature is being implemented in the books of Western Ukrainian Diaspora with the aim of ethnic and cultural enrichment of pupils and above all the formation of national consciousness of Ukrainian children, active choice of their values of national spirituality. It is established that the didactic potential of the upbringing of pupils by means of artistic word allows instilling love to the native language, to Ukraine, and thus it slows down the process of assimilation. On the basis of the study of the scientific-pedagogical heritage of emigration teachers-philologists, the theoretical approaches and practice of schoolchildren education by means of the word have been analyzed, the significance of their experience for the modern educational practice has been substantiated. The system of education of schoolchildren by means of the word, which has been developed over the years, is actual for the development of pedagogical science and practice. The analysis of pedagogical practice, accumulated didactic potential of upbringing pupils in

  5. Systemics, Communication and Knowledge: Shifts of Perspective and the Need for Requirements in Second-Order Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Marlowe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The systemic view of second-order science emphasizes the interaction of observer and observed, but tacitly assumes a single observer, or at least a unity of observer perspective. But experience in multiple domains, including software engineering, decision science, health sciences, co-creation and Living Labs, knowledge management, community development and government policy has emphasized the multiplicity of goals and perspectives across stakeholders. We look at the issues that arise when multiple views are incorporated, and propose a toolkit for addressing those issues.

  6. Shoring Up Math and Science in the Elementary Grades: Schools Enlist Specialists to Teach Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    As science gets squeezed in the elementary curriculum, at least two Florida districts are trying a new approach to keeping hands-on lessons a part of pupils' experiences. This article reports how Broward and Palm Beach county districts have increased the number of science specialists working in their elementary schools--teachers who, like physical…

  7. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; hide

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  8. Sex-related differences in the determinants and process of science and mathematics choice in pre-university education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Langen, A.; Rekers-Mombarg, L; Dekkers, H

    2006-01-01

    The more science and mathematics subjects that pupils in pre-university education include in their final examination package, the more future academic routes are available to them. Equality of educational opportunity is thus threatened when groups of pupils, distinguished by sex and family

  9. Judging a book by its cover: the unconscious influence of pupil size on consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Watt, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Past research suggests that men perceive women with large pupils as especially attractive. We employed an innovative methodology to examine whether this effect influences consumer decision-making. A popular psychology book was published with two slightly different front covers. Both covers contained the same photograph of a woman; however, the woman's pupils on one cover were digitally enlarged. Readers indicated whether they were male or female, and whether they possessed the cover with small or large pupils. A significantly greater percentage of men than women had chosen the cover with the large pupils. None of the participants who attempted to guess the nature of the experiment was correct, suggesting that the influence exerted by pupil size was unconscious. These findings provide further support for the notion that people's judgments are unconsciously swayed by pupil size, and demonstrate that this effect operates in a real world setting.

  10. Cooking and Hammering: Primary School Pupils' Concepts of their Craft Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare MÜÜRSEPP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to clear the significance of craft skills for the pupils in age nine and twelve years. More than 200 pupils were asked to define, what are the most important skills for the pupils of their age. The results bring out that category of the skills related to craft subject is of the most presented categories in pupils' self description. Thus the primary school pupils essentially defined themselves by the activities they could do practically (building, cooking, repairing of things. The most undefined relation to craft activities is reflected in the answer of smaller boys in our study. A suspicion arisen from the analysis of pupils' sayings, that the craft lessons in the 1st school stage tend to be organized kind of poorly was asserted by the teachers who pointed out the need for special rooms and materials to implement different techniques.

  11. Satisfaction with the program of school bullying prevention and mental health promotion - cross sectional study among primary school pupils in Mostar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černi Obrdalj, Edita; Zadro, Kristina; Batić-Mujanović, Olivera; Zalihić, Amra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of experience in school bullying and family violence, satisfaction with the preventive-promotional program, knowledge about methods for opposing violence and attitudes toward the role of the family physician in bullying prevention. The project was conducted by family physicians, nurses and sixth year medical students. The target group were 5th to 8th grade pupils of two primary schools randomly selected by computer. Basic information about the presence and types of bullying, the long-term consequences of violence and methods to oppose violent behavior was given as an interactive lecture to large groups of pupils. After the lecture, pupils received questionnaires about their experience of school violence, satisfaction with the program and their opinion about the role of the family physician in bullying prevention. The results of the short term outcome evaluation of the program show that younger pupils evaluate the program better than older ones. Furthermore, we found that the frequency of experienced violence is not connected with satisfaction with the program. Most students have never experienced violence in schools and families, 5th and 6th grade students showed greater satisfaction with training, better knowledge of help in case of violence and a more positive attitude towards medical help. We found no significant differences in pupil's satisfaction with the program, knowledge about methods of opposing violence and attitudes towards the role of the family physician in bullying prevention, in relation to the frequency of experience of family violence and school violence. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. Eating behavior and quality of life in high school pupils in Lviv

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    S.L. Nyankovskyy

    2018-02-01

    decrease of viability index in group of children using computer for a long time (3 hours per day and more. In children go in for sport, there are significantly higher quality of life indexes determined by the scale of psychological health and by the scale of general health. Besides, in older children sleeping 8 hours per night, a sufficiently higher emotional stability is noticed determined by the scale of role-emotional functioning (p < 0.05. Conclusions. The diet of high school pupils does not meet the established standards. This may be a risk factor for gastroduodenal pathology in the future, and therefore requires systematic correction. In addition to rational nutrition, factors affecting the health status and the psycho-emotional status of high school pupils are controlled physical activity, regular outdoor exercise and limited use of the computer. The method of assessing the quality of life is a simple and informative mean for comprehensive study of the health status of high school pupils and can be recommended for widespread use in pediatrics.

  13. [The role of physical education teachers to support overweight and obese pupils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    School-based physical education (PE) is often proposed as a strategy for obesity prevention and treatment. Thus the role of PE teachers is crucial on this field. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of PE teachers towards overweight and obese pupils aged 13-15 years, especially psychosomatic problems and support for obese adolescents in realisation of physical activity programme. A random sample of 185 PE teachers from 112 lower secondary schools in Poland were surveyed regarding their perception of pupils obesity and their support for obese adolescents. PE teachers observed many negative features among obese pupils: Two thirds of teachers (67% male and 74% teachers with work experience 6-10 years) observed decreased physical fitness and exercise capacity in this group of pupils. Body-related barriers in obese pupils and anxiety caused by weight related peer teasing were observed by respectively 30% and 20% teachers more often women teachers and teachers with shorter work experience. PE teachers were engaged in activities to support obese pupils: 90% of them assessed obese pupils by personal development, 70% conducted counseling and 20% cooperated with obese pupils' parents. Two third of teachers reported successes in their work with obese pupils. Their difficulties were connected with body-related barriers in pupils (24%), and aversion to exercise and physical efforts and location of PE lessons at school (9-16%). 1. The PE teachers can play an important role in preventing and combating obesity in pupils. 2. PE teachers should be motivated to organize interesting PE lessons, school sport and competitions for both normal and overweight pupils.

  14. Socially-pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils to service in Military Powers of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Ryutin V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of preparation of senior pupils is investigational to military service. The social pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils are certain to military service. Adequate psychological pedagogical measures are developed on overcoming of tendency of subzero perception by the senior pupils of service in Military Powers of Ukraine. Basic directions the personal interest are rotined in harmonious, valuable psychical and physical development of the Ukrainian young people. The natio...

  15. A Study on the Influence of Teacher's Verbal Guidance on Pupil's Emotional Functions

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 靖宏

    2006-01-01

    How do the pupils accept teachers' words of guidance? The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of teachers' verbal guidance on pupil's consciousness ( of emotions and enthusiasm). Although speech (language) is the fastest method of communication between people, it is not the only means of communication. We usually have two means of communication in human interaction, that is verbal communication and nonverbal communication. This is the same with pupil or student guidance. Nonverbal...

  16. The Predictive Role of Maternal Parenting and Stress on Pupils' Bullying involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Maralani, Fatemeh; Mirnasab, Mirmahmoud; Hashemi, Touraj

    2016-10-01

    The link between inappropriate parenting style and both bullying and victimization is well documented. However, it is not clear as to which kind of parenting style is associated with victimization. Furthermore, no studies have yet been conducted regarding the role of parental stress in bullying and victimization. This study aimed to examine the role of parenting styles and maternal stress in pupils' bullying and victimization. A total of 300 primary school pupils, enrolled in fourth and fifth grades, participated in the study. Initially, 100 noninvolved pupils were randomly selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Then using a screening method, 100 bully pupils and 100 victimized peers were selected. Olweus Bullying Scale and teacher nomination were administered for screening these pupils. Baumrind Parenting Style Questionnaire and revised version of Abidin Parental Stress Index (short form) were also applied to all pupils in the study. Data were analyzed using discriminant function analysis. The findings showed that (a) with regard to parenting styles, significant differences were found among groups. Authoritarian parenting style could significantly predict pupils' bullying behavior, whereas victimization was predictable in families with permissive parenting style. In addition, noninvolved pupils were predicted to have authoritative parenting style. (b) Considering maternal stress, significant differences were observed across groups. Parents of bullies and victims were predicted to have higher maternal stress than noninvolved pupils. The implications of the study in relation to the role of mothers in bullying and victimization are discussed.

  17. Is Tadpole Pupil in an Adolescent Girl Caused by Denervation Hypersensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jonas Kjeldbjerg; Møller, Hans Ulrik

    2017-06-01

    Tadpole pupil is a rarely encountered phenomenon caused by episodic, segmental iris dilator muscle spasm of short duration (2-15 minutes), occurring in clusters without a known precipitating factor. It has most commonly been described in women aged 28 to 48 years. A few hypotheses on pathogenesis have been discussed but none has been proved. Here, we present an adolescent girl with bilateral tadpole pupil that appeared during physical exercise. This is the first pediatric case of tadpole pupil, not caused by preceding surgery, to be published. Based on (1) this case in which tadpole pupil developed when the norepinephrine level rose during exercise, (2) the high ratio of patients with tadpole pupil who concurrently have or later develop Horner syndrome, in which denervation hypersensitivity is well described, (3) a previous report of a patient with both tadpole pupil and Horner syndrome who had denervation hypersensitivity on pharmacological testing, (4) a 29-year-old man with unilateral tadpole pupil induced by exercise, and (5) a 19-year-old man with bilateral tadpole pupil and possible autonomic neuropathy, we suggest denervation hypersensitivity as a probable pathogenic mechanism causing tadpole pupil. In addition, a suggestion for investigations to be performed in future pediatric cases is provided. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Socially-pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils to service in Military Powers of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutin V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of preparation of senior pupils is investigational to military service. The social pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils are certain to military service. Adequate psychological pedagogical measures are developed on overcoming of tendency of subzero perception by the senior pupils of service in Military Powers of Ukraine. Basic directions the personal interest are rotined in harmonious, valuable psychical and physical development of the Ukrainian young people. The national orientation of military patriotic education of senior pupils is marked. It is based on ethnology and regional principles of education, respect to history of the people and state.

  19. Promoting Climate Literacy and Conceptual Understanding among In-service Secondary Science Teachers requires an Epistemological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Forbes, C.; Roehrig, G.; Chandler, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Promoting climate literacy among in-service science teachers necessitates an understanding of fundamental concepts about the Earth's climate System (USGCRP, 2009). Very few teachers report having any formal instruction in climate science (Plutzer et al., 2016), therefore, rather simple conceptions of climate systems and their variability exist, which has implications for students' science learning (Francies et al., 1993; Libarkin, 2005; Rebich, 2005). This study uses the inferences from a NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) teacher professional development program (CYCLES) to establish the necessity for developing an epistemological perspective among teachers. In CYCLES, 19 middle and high school (male=8, female=11) teachers were assessed for their understanding of global climate change (GCC). A qualitative analysis of their concept maps and an alignment of their conceptions with the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy (NOAA, 2009) demonstrated that participants emphasized on EPCL 1, 3, 6, 7 focusing on the Earth system, atmospheric, social and ecological impacts of GCC. However, EPCL 4 (variability in climate) and 5 (data-based observations and modeling) were least represented and emphasized upon. Thus, participants' descriptions about global climatic patterns were often factual rather than incorporating causation (why the temperatures are increasing) and/or correlation (describing what other factors might influence global temperatures). Therefore, engaging with epistemic dimensions of climate science to understand the processes, tools, and norms through which climate scientists study the Earth's climate system (Huxter et al., 2013) is critical for developing an in-depth conceptual understanding of climate. CLiMES (Climate Modeling and Epistemology of Science), a NSF initiative proposes to use EzGCM (EzGlobal Climate Model) to engage students and teachers in designing and running simulations, performing data processing activities, and analyzing

  20. Digital Learning Aids for Nynorsk Pupils in School: - A Politically Sensitive Area or a Question of a Deeper Scientific Understanding of Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Johan Krumsvik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This position paper focuses on Nynorsk in the digital era and the need for research-based knowledge about it in school settings in Norway. The Norwegian language situation is exceptional because Norway has two written standards, Bokmål (majority variety and Nynorsk (minority variety, and both the Education Act and the Norwegian Directorate of Education require that publishers provide parallel editions of all paper-based and digital learning aids for pupils. However, a national report by Skjær,Eiksund, Fretland, Holen & Netteland(2008 revealed that few publishers have developed and offered digital learning aids in Nynorsk. In 2015 the situation appears to be largely unchanged, even though the authorities, language organisations and “leadings lights” have taken several initiatives to encourage compliance with the Education Act; however, what is needed is further research into the situation of parallel editions of digital learning aids. This is of particular interest today since the pupils in the county with the highest rate (97% of Nynorsk-pupils has consistently been at the top of the list as one of the best performing counties in Norway in national tests since 2006 (Directorate of Education 2015. In addition, Vangsnes, Söderlund & Blekesaune (2015 find that municipalities in Norway with more than 50% Nynorsk-pupils achieve better in National tests when compared to Bokmål municipalities. The main message in our position paper is that the digital revolution might have changed some underlying premises for how we understand and use language and dialects, and the need for parallel editions of digital learning aids in Bokmål and Nynorsk is no longer a question of economics or of political statements for or against Nynorsk, etc., but is instead a question of a more nuanced scientific understanding of learning and achievement in today’s digitized school. The achievements of Nynorsk pupils in national tests is one indicator of school

  1. MOTIVATION AND COMMUNICATIVE ATTITUDES AMONG JAPANESE EFL PUPILS

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    Rie Adachi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how gender and age affect Japanese pupils’ motivation for learning English and their attitudes to communication with people from different cultures. A new foreign language curriculum was introduced to Japanese elementary schools in 2011. Although each school can officially choose any foreign language in its own right, most elementary schools are now conducting English activity. However, as most homeroom teachers lack both experiences and qualifications for teaching English, this activity puts them under pressure. In addition, the number of foreign assistant language teachers (ALTs is not sufficient in most elementary schools. The writer surveyed fifth and sixth grade pupils’ motivation and their communicative attitudes in Japan during 2010, before the new course program, “foreign language activities,” began in 2011. The data were collected from three elementary schools in Japan via a questionnaire. The items on the questionnaire are related to motivational attitudes, orientations (reasons for studying a foreign language, communicative attitudes and some other variables relevant to learning foreign languages. The main focus of this study is to examine motivational and attitudinal variables among the pupils with regard to learning English, especially gender and age effects on these variables. The results show that girls generally have higher scores on motivation and communicative attitudes. Most previous studies have also shown that girls generally have a positive attitude toward learning a foreign language. This study argues that the reason behind this positive attitude toward learning English is due to their positive attitude toward communication in general. With regard to the age, there are a few differences between two school grades. As there is only one year difference in age between fifth and sixth grade pupils, the result is to be expected. The study suggests that Japanese elementary schools face a number of

  2. AUTHOR’S EXPERIENCE IN TRAINING PUPILS OF SPECIALIZED OUT-OF-SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS TO RESEARCH WORK BY MEANS OF INFORMATIONAL AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Voronkin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author’s experience in pupils’ training of Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukraine to research work by means of informational and communication technologies. The three-tiered approach (popular science, experimental, fundamental levels to the organization of personal oriented study in Physics covered such didactic principles as accessibility, visibility, scientific and systematic is considered. At the first level, pupils should be inculcated by interest in physics, its specificity, the terms etc. At the second level the experiment and demonstration of physical phenomena have a paramount importance, which aims to encourage students to make self-facilitated conclusions. At the third level the laboratory works and method of problem learning allow students to develop the ability independently to solve physical tasks. It is concluded that at each of these levels the means of information and communication technologies should be used. As an example, the author reviews the experience of open online course «Introduction to Physics of Sound», designed for pupils of specialized out-of-school educational institutions. We presented the main issues of the online course and examples of cognitive activity of pupils

  3. Historical Development and Key Issues of Data Management Plan Requirements for National Science Foundation Grants: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Sharing scientific research data has become increasingly important for knowledge advancement in today's networked, digital world. This article describes the evolution of access to United States government information in relation to scientific research funded by federal grants. It analyzes the data sharing policy of the National Science Foundation,…

  4. Wavefront control performance modeling with WFIRST shaped pupil coronagraph testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying; Nemati, Bijian; Krist, John; Cady, Eric; Kern, Brian; Poberezhskiy, Ilya

    2017-09-01

    NASA's WFIRST mission includes a coronagraph instrument (CGI) for direct imaging of exoplanets. Significant improvement in CGI model fidelity has been made recently, alongside a testbed high contrast demonstration in a simulated dynamic environment at JPL. We present our modeling method and results of comparisons to testbed's high order wavefront correction performance for the shaped pupil coronagraph. Agreement between model prediction and testbed result at better than a factor of 2 has been consistently achieved in raw contrast (contrast floor, chromaticity, and convergence), and with that comes good agreement in contrast sensitivity to wavefront perturbations and mask lateral shear.

  5. The peculiarities of physical development of pupils and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Menshikh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented results of physical development of young people. 965 pupils and 438 students participated in research. One measured length and mass of the body, registered cardiorespiratory indexes – cardiac rate at peace and after 20 squats, vital capacity of lungs, breath-holding on inhalation and exhalation. The coefficient of physical development was calculated on a formula taking into account actual and middling population indexes. Gradual development of morphofunctional indexes is set for pupils and students from 7 to 20 years old. Rates of such changes were different both in age-old and sexual groups. It is educed that for boys and girls 7-8 years middling the statistical values of coefficient of physical development exceeded standard indexes. In 9-13 years on a background of further increase of morphofunctional parameters the rates of increase of physical development diminished a bit. From 13 to 16 years the index of coefficient of physical development changed a little, except for an insignificant increase in 14 years. It is shown that in an age-old period 17-20 years a mesosomia prevails for the inspected students. It is educed reliable differences between the values of coefficient of physical development in the groups of boys and girls 17 and 19 years.

  6. The prevalence of computer and Internet addiction among pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboralski, Krzysztof; Orzechowska, Agata; Talarowska, Monika; Darmosz, Anna; Janiak, Aneta; Janiak, Marcin; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr

    2009-02-02

    Media have an influence on the human psyche similar to the addictive actions of psychoactive substances or gambling. Computer overuse is claimed to be a cause of psychiatric disturbances such as computer and Internet addiction. It has not yet been recognized as a disease, but it evokes increasing controversy and results in mental disorders commonly defined as computer and Internet addiction. This study was based on a diagnostic survey in which 120 subjects participated. The participants were pupils of three kinds of schools: primary, middle, and secondary school (high school). Information for this study was obtained from a questionnaire prepared by the authors as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Psychological Inventory of Aggression Syndrome (IPSA-II). he results confirmed that every fourth pupil was addicted to the Internet. Internet addiction was very common among the youngest users of computers and the Internet, especially those who had no brothers and sisters or came from families with some kind of problems. Moreover, more frequent use of the computer and the Internet was connected with higher levels of aggression and anxiety. Because computer and Internet addiction already constitute a real danger, it is worth considering preventive activities to treat this phenomenon. It is also necessary to make the youth and their parents aware of the dangers of uncontrolled Internet use and pay attention to behavior connected with Internet addiction.

  7. A Xhosa communicative test for senior L2 pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Gxilishe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The writer shows to what extent the aims of the Xhosa syllabus for the Senior Certificate examination (Higher and Standard Grade under the Cape Education Department are met by constructing and administering an oral proficiency test in Xhosa. The writer takes into account the two main objectives of the syllabus: to use the communication means in every day situations and to develop the listening and speaking skills of the pupils. The emphasis of the test items is not on linguistic accuracy but on the pupil's ability to function effectively through language in particular settings and contexts. The validity, reliability and practicability of the test are discussed as well as the trial test and the administration. Die skrywer wys in watter mate die doelstellings van die Xhosaleerplan vir die Senior Sertifikaat-eksamen (Hoer en Standaard Graad van die Kaapse Onderwysdepartement bereik word deur die samestelling en toepassing van 'n vaardigheidstoets in mondelinge werk. Die skrywer neem die twee hoofdoelstellings van die leerplan in ag, nl. om die bedrewenheid om te kommunikeer in alledaagse situasies te gebruik en die luister- en mondelinge vermoe van die Ieerlinge te ontwikkel. Die klem van die toetsitems val nie op taalkundige akkuraatheid nie, maar op die vermoe van die leerlinge om in spesifieke situasies en omstandighede doeltreffend te kommunikeer. Die geldigheid, betroubaarheid en uitvoerbaarheid van die toets word bespreek asook die voorlopige toets en die administrasie daarvan.

  8. Extracting information of fixational eye movements through pupil tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, JiangWei; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqin; Peng, Li; Han, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Human eyes are never completely static even when they are fixing a stationary point. These irregular, small movements, which consist of micro-tremors, micro-saccades and drifts, can prevent the fading of the images that enter our eyes. The importance of researching the fixational eye movements has been experimentally demonstrated recently. However, the characteristics of fixational eye movements and their roles in visual process have not been explained clearly, because these signals can hardly be completely extracted by now. In this paper, we developed a new eye movement detection device with a high-speed camera. This device includes a beam splitter mirror, an infrared light source and a high-speed digital video camera with a frame rate of 200Hz. To avoid the influence of head shaking, we made the device wearable by fixing the camera on a safety helmet. Using this device, the experiments of pupil tracking were conducted. By localizing the pupil center and spectrum analysis, the envelope frequency spectrum of micro-saccades, micro-tremors and drifts are shown obviously. The experimental results show that the device is feasible and effective, so that the device can be applied in further characteristic analysis.

  9. Using Songs To Support Vocabulary Learning For Grade Four Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the recent years the teaching of foreign language vocabulary has been the subject of much discussion and arguments and a number of research and methodology books on such topic have emerged as it is the case for example with Nation 2001 and Schmitt 2000. For a long time grammar seemed to have attracted more attention but this renewed interest in vocabulary reflects the belief that it is becoming a major component in knowing a language and as some recent scholars would admit even more important than grammar already. In addition to the various strategies used to promote vocabulary learning in the classroom environment songs are widely being used nowadays as a powerful tool in teaching new vocabulary to early grades pupils. Throughout our teaching of young learners we have noticed that they are amazingly captured by songs and they always enjoy listening to them. This might be one of the main reasons why songs have now become one of the cornerstones in the demanding and challenging process of teaching children. The purpose of this research paper is to find out as to what extent and how the use of songs may support new vocabulary learning for grade four pupils in Oman and how much it actually helps these young learners in developing their vocabulary learning habits.

  10. Researching Pupil Well-Being in UK Secondary Schools: Community Psychology and the Politics of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Paul; Sixsmith, Judith; Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between a school, its staff and its pupils and the impact of these relationships on school pupils' well-being. The authors adopted a community psychological perspective and applied critical, social constructionist epistemologies and participatory, multi-method research tools. The article discusses the…

  11. Pupil size reflects successful encoding and recall of memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucewicz, Michal T; Dolezal, Jaromir; Kremen, Vaclav; Berry, Brent M; Miller, Laura R; Magee, Abigail L; Fabian, Vratislav; Worrell, Gregory A

    2018-03-21

    Pupil responses are known to indicate brain processes involved in perception, attention and decision-making. They can provide an accessible biomarker of human memory performance and cognitive states in general. Here we investigated changes in the pupil size during encoding and recall of word lists. Consistent patterns in the pupil response were found across and within distinct phases of the free recall task. The pupil was most constricted in the initial fixation phase and was gradually more dilated through the subsequent encoding, distractor and recall phases of the task, as the word items were maintained in memory. Within the final recall phase, retrieving memory for individual words was associated with pupil dilation in absence of visual stimulation. Words that were successfully recalled showed significant differences in pupil response during their encoding compared to those that were forgotten - the pupil was more constricted before and more dilated after the onset of word presentation. Our results suggest pupil size as a potential biomarker for probing and modulation of memory processing.

  12. Prevalence for Private Tuition among Parents, Teachers and Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Machakos County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigwi, Lucy Wambui; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    Private tuition refers to tutoring offered outside mainstream teaching. The study sought to establish the difference in prevalence for private tuition among parents, teachers and pupils in public primary schools in Machakos County. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target populations were all teachers, parents and pupils of public…

  13. A Study of the Relationship between Academic Achievement Motivation and Home Environment among Standard Eight Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muola, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two…

  14. Pupils' Readiness for Self-Regulated Learning in the Forethought Phase of Exploratory Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne; Virta, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses pupils' readiness for self-regulation in Exploratory Production in Technology Education. In the forethought phase of Exploratory Production, pupils envision and regulate their technological production activities. Next, in the performance phase, the envisioned goals are tried and implemented through ideating, planning and…

  15. Habermas, Pupil Voice, Rationalism, and Their Meeting with Lacan's Objet Petit A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul; Murphy, Mark

    2012-01-01

    "Pupil voice" is a movement within state education in England that is associated with democracy, change, participation and the raising of educational standards. While receiving much attention from educators and policy makers, less attention has been paid to the theory behind the concept of pupil voice. An obvious point of theoretical…

  16. Including Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Classroom: The Role of Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Wendy; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were (i) to explore the extent to which pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were effectively included in lessons, compared with pupils with dyslexia (DYS) or no Special Educational Needs (CON) and (ii) to understand how the presence of a teaching assistant (TA) influences the inclusion/exclusion process. One…

  17. Socio-demographic factors of pupils who use tobacco in randomly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report the prevalence and socio-economic correlates of tobacco use among primary school pupils in Nairobi‚ Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting: Ten primary schools in Nairobi‚ Kenya. Subjects: A questionnaire was administered to 1198 primary school pupils aged 12 to 17 years ...

  18. What Pupils Can Learn from Working with Robotic Direct Manipulation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slangen, Lou; van Keulen, Hanno; Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four perspectives were distinguished with increasing…

  19. Differential ability and attainment in language and arithmetic of Dutch primary school pupils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Driessen, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. In pre-school and primary education pupils differ in many abilities and competences (‘giftedness’). Yet mainstream educational practice seems rather homogeneous in providing age-based or grade-class subject matter approaches. Aims. To clarify whether pupils scoring initially at high

  20. Inclusion in education: comparing pupils' development in special and regular education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.T.D.; Vergeer, M.M.; Roeleveld, J.; Karsten, S.

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale longitudinal data on differences in pupils' cognitive and psychosocial development in various types of special and mainstream schools are reported in this article. The study focuses on comparing the development of matched pairs of primary-aged pupils in mainstream and special education

  1. Showing You're Working: A Project Using Former Pupils' Experiences to Engage Current Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, Garrod

    2008-01-01

    To help students view mathematics in a more favourable light, a number of former pupils were contacted and asked to give details of how they use mathematics in their daily lives. This information was gathered through an online questionnaire or visits to the school to talk to pupils--a booklet of responses was also given to students. Attitudinally…

  2. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  3. Raising the Achievement of Portuguese Pupils in British Schools: A Case Study of Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the experiences of Portuguese heritage pupils in British schools. The main findings from empirical data suggest Portuguese children are underachieving at the end of primary education but the case study confirms that in good schools Portuguese pupils do well and have made huge improvements over the periods. The…

  4. Teacher Stress and Pupil Behaviour Explored through a Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using the psychological framework of rational-emotive behaviour therapy, the principal aim of this study was to establish whether irrational beliefs, self-efficacy or pupil behaviour predicted teacher reports of stress. A secondary aim was to establish whether these variables, in addition to teachers' verbal feedback to pupils in class, predicted…

  5. How Dr Math reaches pupils with competitions and computer games by using MXit

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In a world where school books, pencils and paper have to compete with cell phones, IPODs, and MP3 players for pupils' attention, Dr Math entices pupils to practice basic mathematics skills by providing games and competitions using Mxit over cell...

  6. Sensitive "Heritage" of Slavery in a Multicultural Classroom: Pupils' Ideas Regarding Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, Geerte; van Boxtel, Carla; Grever, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Pupils' attribution of significance to sensitive "heritage" of slavery may differ, particularly in multicultural classrooms. Little is known about the ways in which pupils establish a relationship with the present when discussing the significance of heritage of slavery. Starting from theories of historical significance and identity,…

  7. Monitoring the Achievement of Deaf Pupils in Sweden and Scotland: Approaches and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendar, Ola; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been major developments in deaf education in many countries. Medical and technical advances have made it possible for more deaf children to hear and speak successfully. Most deaf pupils learn in ordinary classes in mainstream schools. In this article we explore patterns of achievements of deaf pupils to see if…

  8. Contradictions around Differentiation for Pupils with Dyslexia Learning English as a Foreign Language at Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with differentiation of teaching methods and extra time in class for pupils with dyslexia by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in two Greek state secondary schools. Activity theory is applied to analyse the contradictions that emerge around the issue of differentiation for pupils with dyslexia from data compiled from…

  9. What pupils can learn from working with robotic direct manipulation environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou Slangen; Hanno van Keulen; Koeno Gravemeijer

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four

  10. What pupils can learn from working with robotic direct manipulation environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou Slangen; Hanno van Keulen; Koeno Gravemeijer

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four

  11. Free Primary Education Policy and Pupil School Mobility in Urban Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Ngware, Moses; Ezeh, Alex C.; Epari, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines pupil school mobility in urban Kenya using African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC) household survey data which contain information on pupil transfers between schools. The aim is to identify which school characteristics attract the greatest demand for incoming transfers. The analysis reveals that there are frequent…

  12. Using of Video Modeling in Teaching a Simple Meal Preparation Skill for Pupils of Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Salahat, Mohammad Mousa

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the impact of video modeling upon teaching three pupils with Down syndrome the skill of preparing a simple meal (sandwich), where the training was conducted in a separate classroom in schools of normal students. The training consisted of (i) watching the video of an intellectually disabled pupil, who is…

  13. A Web-Based Screening System for Dyslexic Pupils: Do Teachers Need It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidullah, Nor Hasbiah Bt.; Hamid, Jamilah

    2012-01-01

    Currently in Malaysia, schools that conduct the Dyslexia Special Program for dyslexic pupils have to rely on a manual screening instrument, which is cumbersome and slow in diagnosing dyslexic traits in pupils. Thus, this study was carried out to examine prevailing problems that helped in formulating an appropriate solution to overcome existing…

  14. Measuring Attitude towards RE: Factoring Pupil Experience and Home Faith Background into Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have increasingly favoured contextualisation of religious education (RE) to pupils' home faith background in spite of current assessment methods that might hinder this. For a multi-religious, multi-ethnic sample of 369 London school pupils aged from 13 to 15 years, this study found that the participatory, transformative and…

  15. An Examination of the Role of Nursery Education on Primary School Pupils in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniwon, H. O. Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of Nursery education among primary school pupils. The sole objective of the study was to find out the differences in academic achievement between primary school pupils who received nursery education and those who did not. Descriptive survey research design was adopted to achieve the study objective. Consequently, 20…

  16. A Study of Pupil Control Ideology: A Person-Oriented Approach to Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Responses of urban school teachers to the Pupil Control Ideology questionnaire were studied using Latent Class Analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that the best fitting model to the data is a two-cluster solution. In particular, the pupil control ideology of the sample delineates into two clusters of teachers, those with humanistic and…

  17. Pupils' perceptions of teaching behaviour : Evaluation of an instrument and importance for academic motivation in Indonesian secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulana, Ridwan; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the psychometric quality of a measure tapping pupils' perceptions of teachers' teaching behaviour in the Indonesian context. It also examines the relationship between pupils' perceptions of teaching behaviour and their perceived academic motivation. Surveys from a

  18. An Extra Radiator? Teachers' Views of Support Teaching and Withdrawal in Developing the English of Bilingual Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, John

    1989-01-01

    Explores the attitudes of British secondary school teachers toward withdrawal and mainstream support as ways of helping bilingual pupils develop competence in English. Suggests that the results allow for envisaging an ideal classroom situation for teaching bilingual pupils. (KO)

  19. Pupils with sensory disabilities in physical education classes: Attitudes and preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kurková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The key factor that affects the success of shaping positive attitudes towards regular life-long performance of physical activity (PA is the pupils' level of inner motivation. This is influenced, among other things, by their family background, the educational institution that they attend and the educator's competencies. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the attitudes among pupils with sensory disabilities in physical education (PE classes. A partial objective was to compare the preferences for various PA by pupils with sensory disabilities in PE classes. Method: A non-standardized questionnaire was used to collect the data. The sample was based on the following features: a a participant had to be deaf or hard of hearing, b a participant had to have a visual disability, and c had to have been educated in special educational settings. The data were quantified on the percentage basis. To carry out cross-group statistical testing of differences, a ratio analysis with the help of the Chi-square test was applied. The level of statistical significance was set to p < .05. We analysed the data of 70 pupils attending the second stage of two elementary schools in Slovakia: a 37 pupils (22 boys and 15 girls, age 13.3 ± 1.45 years from a school for the deaf, and b 33 pupils (14 boys and 19 girls, age 13.4 ± 1.41 years from a school for the blind. Results: The differences in the preferences for various PA during PE classes in the cross-group comparison of pupils with sensory disabilities were discovered. A comparison of the opinions of pupils with sensory disabilities pointed out a difference consisting in a higher percentage of positive attitudes among pupils with visual disabilities in indicators of popularity, importance, the pupils' efforts and feelings towards education. A statistically significant difference was discovered only in feelings during PE classes. This result may be considered

  20. Understanding Basic Temporal Relations in Primary School Pupils with Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcić, Adinda; Bakota, Koraljka; Saler, Zrinka

    2015-09-01

    Time can be observed as a subjective, as well as an objective phenomenon which is a component of our life, and due to its communicational needs, it is standardized by temporal signs and symbols. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of basic temporal relations of pupils with hearing impairments. We assumed that the knowledge of basic time relations is a precondition for the acquisition of knowledge that is connected with the understanding of the syllabus in regular school programs. Three groups of pupils have been examined: pupils with hearing impairments who attend the primary school of SUVAG Polyclinic under special condition, integrated hearing impaired pupils with minor additional difficulties who attend regular primary schools in Zagreb with a prolonged expert procedure and pupils of the control group. The subjects have been examined with a measuring instrument constructed by the expert team of the Polyclinic Suvag. Twenty nine subjects have been questioned, chronologically aged between 10 and 12.

  1. Robust adaptive optics systems for vision science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. A.; de Castro, A.; Sawides, L.; Luo, T.; Sapoznik, K.

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is of growing importance for understanding the impact of retinal and systemic diseases on the retina. While AO retinal imaging in healthy eyes is now routine, AO imaging in older eyes and eyes with optical changes to the anterior eye can be difficult and requires a control and an imaging system that is resilient when there is scattering and occlusion from the cornea and lens, as well as in the presence of irregular and small pupils. Our AO retinal imaging system combines evaluation of local image quality of the pupil, with spatially programmable detection. The wavefront control system uses a woofer tweeter approach, combining an electromagnetic mirror and a MEMS mirror and a single Shack Hartmann sensor. The SH sensor samples an 8 mm exit pupil and the subject is aligned to a region within this larger system pupil using a chin and forehead rest. A spot quality metric is calculated in real time for each lenslet. Individual lenslets that do not meet the quality metric are eliminated from the processing. Mirror shapes are smoothed outside the region of wavefront control when pupils are small. The system allows imaging even with smaller irregular pupils, however because the depth of field increases under these conditions, sectioning performance decreases. A retinal conjugate micromirror array selectively directs mid-range scatter to additional detectors. This improves detection of retinal capillaries even when the confocal image has poorer image quality that includes both photoreceptors and blood vessels.

  2. Effects of a six-session introductory psychology programme on Year 9 pupils' interest in psychology and approaches to learning

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, E.; De Aguiar Chaves, T.; Dunsmuir, S.

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is a popular UK A-level, despite many pupils having no previous taught experience of it. Prior introduction to psychology teaching could help pupils make more informed choices to study it. This study evaluates a six-session introduction to psychology programme for 20 Year 9 pupils called ‘Myth-Busting the Brain’. A pre-/post-programme questionnaire investigated pupil interest towards future psychology study, interest in the programme and approaches to learning. There wa...

  3. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  4. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp 446-450 Series Article. Dawn of Science - Logarithms · T Padmanabhan · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 451-462 Classroom. Fluid Dynamics of a Liquid in a U-shaped Tank · Seok-In Hong · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 463-467 Personal Reflections. Ya B. Zeldovich – Personal Reminiscences of a Pupil · Varun Sahni.

  5. Meteorology and Climate Inspire Secondary Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Dacre, Helen; Maskell, Kathy; Reynolds, Ross; South, Rachel; Wood, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    As part of its National Science and Engineering Week activities in 2009 and 2010, the University of Reading organised two open days for 60 local key stage 4 pupils. The theme of both open days was "How do we predict weather and climate?" Making use of the students' familiarity with weather and climate, several concepts of relevance to secondary…

  6. An Interdisciplinary Approach Between Medical Informatics and Social Sciences to Transdisciplinary Requirements Engineering for an Integrated Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Jan; Böckmann, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Requirements engineering of software products for elderly people faces some special challenges to ensure a maximum of user acceptance. Within the scope of a research project, a web-based platform and a mobile app are approached to enable people to live in their own home as long as possible. This paper is about a developed method of interdisciplinary requirements engineering by a team of social scientists in cooperation with computer scientists.

  7. Unilateral Adie's tonic pupil and viral hepatitis: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adie’s (tonic pupil is a neuro-ophthalmological disorder characterized by a tonically dilated pupil, which is unresponsive to light. It is caused by damage to postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic innervation of the eye, usually by a viral or bacterial infection. Adie’s syndrome includes diminished deep tendon reflexes. Outline of Cases. We report data of a 59-year-old female with unequal pupil sizes. She complained of blurred vision and headache mainly while reading. She had a 35-year history of hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis. On exam, left pupil was mydriatic and there was no response to light and at slit lamp we saw segments of the sphincter constrict. We performed 0.125% pilocarpine test and there was a remarkable reduction of size in the left pupil. The second case is a 55-year-old female who was referred to the University Eye Clinic because of a headache and mydriatic left pupil. She had diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as hepatitis A virus 20 years earlier. On exam, the left pupil was mydriatic, with no response to light. Test with diluted pilocarpine was positive. Neurological examinations revealed no abnormality in either case so we excluded Adie’s syndrome. Conclusion. Adie’s tonic pupil is benign neuro-ophthalmological disorder of unknown etiology. Most patients commonly present no symptoms and anisocoria is noticed accidentally. Although the etiology is unknown, there are some conditions that cause tonic pupil. It may be a part of a syndrome in which tonic pupil is associated with absent deep tendon reflexes.

  8. Science Learning via Multimedia Portal Resources: The Scottish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Dely; Wilson, Delia; Boyle, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Scotland's rich heritage in the field of science and engineering and recent curricular developments led to major investment in education to equip pupils with improved scientific knowledge and skills. However, due to its abstract and conceptual nature, learning science can be challenging. Literature supports the role of multimedia technology in…

  9. Configuration and Dynamics of the Earth-Sun-Moon System: An Investigation into Conceptions of Deaf and Hearing Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roald, Ingvild; Mikalsen, Oyvind

    2001-01-01

    Reports and analyzes the day and night cycle, the seasons, and the phases of the moon as seen by Norwegian deaf pupils aged 7, 9, 11, and 17 years, and by hearing Norwegian pupils 9 years old. Among the 9-year-olds there was no difference in the inner coherence of the conceptions between deaf pupils. (Author/SAH)

  10. Learning for self-regulation: Improving instructional benefits for pupils, teachers, parents, schools, and society at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    Compulsory education laws oblige primary and secondary schools to give each pupil positive encouragement in, for example, social, emotional, cognitive, creative, and ethical respects. This is a fairly smooth process for most pupils, but it is not as easy to achieve with others. A pattern of pupil,

  11. Effects of a Six-Session Introductory Psychology Programme on Year 9 Pupils' Interest in Psychology and Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Chaves, Tahirah De Aguiar; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is a popular UK A-level, despite many pupils having no previous taught experience of it. Prior introduction to psychology teaching could help pupils make more informed choices to study it. This study evaluates a six-session introduction to psychology programme for 20 Year 9 pupils called "Myth-Busting the Brain." A…

  12. Pupils' Self-Perceptions: The Role of Teachers' Judgment Controlling for Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressoux, Pascal; Pansu, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to study the relationship between teachers' judgment and pupils' self-perceptions controlling for the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). Three studies were conducted among third-grade pupils. Study 1 (n = 585) focused on pupils' perceptions of their scholastic competence. Teachers' judgment and BFLPE were found to have an…

  13. Modern approaches to forming value orientations of junior pupils nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla Matsuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of approaches to the formation of value orientations of primary school children today is outlined in the article. One of the most important tasks of the school in terms of national revival of Ukraine appears education of harmonious, spiritually rich and nationally conscious personality. Educating of the current generation needs serious updating of educational content, development of a wide spectrum of problems associated with the formation of ideological orientations of a personality, development and activity, independence, consciousness, self-consciousness. The solution of the abovementioned problem is possible subject to optimize management of process education through the humanization of education that will ensure the establishment of priority of human values in society.Key words: values, value orientations, training and education, junior pupils, patriotism, identity, dignity, courage, duty, responsibility, tolerance.

  14. Reading strategies of primary school pupils in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Najvarová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on reading with comprehension – an activity of the readerwhich is seen as an interaction between the author and the recipient. In order tounderstand a text better, a reader may employ various techniques and strategies. Thearticle consists of three parts. In the first part, categories reading strategy and readingskill and the relationship between them are defined. In the second part, classificationsof reading strategies are presented and sorted according to various criteria. The thirdpart summarises the findings of a research project that concentrated on the readingstrategies of primary school pupils in Czech primary schools in the 2005/06 schoolyear. The findings indicate primary school teachers’ preferred procedures of using textsin teaching and pupils’ preferred reading strategies by the end of primary education.

  15. Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, S M; Bendek, E; Guyon, O

    2011-09-08

    The practical use of astrometry to detect exoplanets via the reflex motion of the parent star depends critically on the elimination of systematic floors in imaging systems. In the diffractive pupil technique proposed for space-based detection of exo-earths, extended diffraction spikes generated by a dotted primary mirror are referenced against a wide-field grid of background stars to calibrate changing optical distortion and achieve microarcsecond astrometric precision on bright targets (Guyon et al. 2010). We describe applications of this concept to ground-based uncrowded astrometry using a diffractive, monopupil telescope and a wide-field camera to image as many as {approx}4000 background reference stars. Final relative astrometric precision is limited by differential tip/tilt jitter caused by high altitude layers of turbulence. A diffractive 3-meter telescope is capable of reaching {approx}35 {micro}as relative astrometric error per coordinate perpendicular to the zenith vector in three hours on a bright target star (I < 10) in fields of moderate stellar density ({approx}40 stars arcmin{sup -2} with I < 23). Smaller diffractive apertures (D < 1 m) can achieve 100-200 {micro}as performance with the same stellar density and exposure time and a large telescope (6.5-10 m) could achieve as low as 10 {micro}as, nearly an order of magnitude better than current space-based facilities. The diffractive pupil enables the use of larger fields of view through calibration of changing optical distortion as well as brighter target stars (V < 6) by preventing star saturation. Permitting the sky to naturally roll to average signals over many thousands of pixels can mitigate the effects of detector imperfections.

  16. A teacher's decade passed with pupils and a simple radiometric instrument. Could junior and senior high school pupils see the radiation with their eyes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The author, a teacher of Naragakuen Junior High School-High School in Nara Prefecture, looks back the history of his given education about radiation to 3rd year pupils for the decade from 2002. The main theme of the education includes an actual radiometric study of the already attained, naturally cleaned-up radioactivity derived from A-bomb from the ground of Hiroshima City, and an asking investigation to know how many people misunderstand, as pupils have done so, that Hiroshima ground surface is still radio-contaminated. In 2011, pupils stayed at Fukushima, not Hiroshima. For the radiometric study, pupils first learn the movement of substances in the ground by rain with a model of naturally abundant 40 KCl using a simple radiometer, HAKARUKUN. Then in Hiroshuma, they measure the ambient dose at >600 spots to compare with the doses in other cities like Nara and Kyoto, and the beta-ray of A-bomb-exposed buildings and air dust to see the same half life as that measured in Nara. Their asking investigation revealed that 32.2% and 31.5% of Hiroshima citizen and the resident in other cities, respectively, misunderstand that radiation in the City is higher than other cities. These results have been presented at the conference for pupils mainly held by the Kinki Branch of Chemical Society of Japan. The author expects the exchange of radiological information between learned pupils and parents who have probably not been taught about radiation as its education has been absent during these 30 years. Though, the education is to be given to all pupils hereafter in Japan. (T.T.)

  17. [Correspondence analysis of association between types of unintentional injuries and influential factors among rural rear pupils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Dongmei; Wang, Peixi

    2015-07-01

    To explore the association between types of unintentional injuries and influential factors among rural rear pupils. The multistage stratified sampling method was used to select the study participant and thus 594 rural pupils were sampled, 292 rear pupils were confirmed and measured with unintentional injuries and influential factors of rural rear pupils scale. Binary logistic regression analysis indicate that the risk facts related to unintentional injury were left-behind status (OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.06-6.79), gender (OR = 5.12, 95% C2.68-9.79) and surrounding environment (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.37-8.70). Correspondence analysis showed living with father, middle personality and low age were related possibly with traffic accident injury. Living with grandparents, extrovert personality and elder pupils were related possibly with unintentional falls injury. Living with mother, introvert personality and middle-age pupils were related possibly with animmal injury. The personality, ages and guardian types of rural rear pupils are correlated with types of unintentional injuries.

  18. Pupil size directly modulates the feedforward response in human primary visual cortex independently of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombeke, Klaas; Duthoo, Wout; Mueller, Sven C; Hopf, Jens-Max; Boehler, C Nico

    2016-02-15

    Controversy revolves around the question of whether psychological factors like attention and emotion can influence the initial feedforward response in primary visual cortex (V1). Although traditionally, the electrophysiological correlate of this response in humans (the C1 component) has been found to be unaltered by psychological influences, a number of recent studies have described attentional and emotional modulations. Yet, research into psychological effects on the feedforward V1 response has neglected possible direct contributions of concomitant pupil-size modulations, which are known to also occur under various conditions of attentional load and emotional state. Here we tested the hypothesis that such pupil-size differences themselves directly affect the feedforward V1 response. We report data from two complementary experiments, in which we used procedures that modulate pupil size without differences in attentional load or emotion while simultaneously recording pupil-size and EEG data. Our results confirm that pupil size indeed directly influences the feedforward V1 response, showing an inverse relationship between pupil size and early V1 activity. While it is unclear in how far this effect represents a functionally-relevant adaptation, it identifies pupil-size differences as an important modulating factor of the feedforward response of V1 and could hence represent a confounding variable in research investigating the neural influence of psychological factors on early visual processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary and Secondary Teachers' Ideas on School Visits to Science Centres in the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morentin, Maite; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, research has shown the challenge posed to teachers by science education in informal contexts such as science museums or centres. In addition, there is consensus that in the case of pupils visiting a science centre, learning improves when the visit is connected to the classroom curriculum, so the teachers' involvement in…

  20. Links between Teachers' Beliefs and Their Practices in a Science and Technology Museum Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnezou, Maria; Avgitidou, Sofia; Kariotoglou, Petros

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of research examining the impact of science field trips on pupils' learning in science education and the factors that influence their success. However, there is a limited number of studies that focus on the way teachers' beliefs influence their practices in an informal science-learning venue. This research aimed to…

  1. School Xenophobia and Interethnic Relationships Among Secondary Level Pupils in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Deusdad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Migratory processes in southern Europe over the last two decades have brought about substantial changes to the ethnic makeup of secondary schools. Classrooms have increased in their complexity in terms of teaching, as there are pupils with different cultural and economic backgrounds and educational needs, but also in the relationships among the peer groups of pupils. What kinds of attitudes and relations can be found among the members of this culturally diverse pupil body? What kinds of views are held by the pupils about each other? The aim of this paper is to shed light on stereotypes and xenophobic attitudes towards immigrant pupils in secondary schools in Spain, principally among peer groups, and on how teachers address this multicultural classroom dynamic and complexity and any possible prejudices towards stereotypes and racist attitudes that surface inside the classroom. Relationships tend to be formed among peer groups of the same ethnicity and there is a marked rejection of pupils from Moroccan origin. Teachers are neither aware of pupils’ stereotypes nor of their own. As a consequence, they are not giving sufficient pedagogical responses to resolve arguments or disrespectful situations against immigrant pupils. This in turn is contributing, on the one hand, to racist and xenophobic societies (Banks 2011; Deusdad 2013. On the other hand, teachers’ low expectations of these immigrant pupils has had an effect on their academic achievements and on dropout rates (Deusdad 2009. The present study is based on 2196 questionnaires administered to pupils at 43 Spanish secondary schools. In-depth interviews with 54 secondary school teachers were also carried out, so as to understand teachers’ discourses and pedagogical resources. 

  2. Science by the young for the young

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2012-01-01

    At last week's "Fête de la science", CERN hosted students from Geneva and the Pays de Gex for a full day of (scientific) exchange.    On 13 October some 140 pupils from Geneva collèges and lycées in the Pays de Gex took part in a cross-border colloquium in the Globe of Science and Innovation entitled “La Science en partage” (Sharing Science) organised by CERN and Euroscience-Léman with the support of the Department of Public Instruction of the Canton of Geneva and the French Ministry of National Education. During the conference, pupils presented their scientific projects as part of their work for their maturité leaving certificate in Switzerland or for their supervised practical assignments (TPE) in France. Their presentations of their research were notable for their commendable clarity, becoming modesty and not a little humour, highlighting the enthusiasm with which the work had been co...

  3. A requirement for Australian research: access to 'big science' facilities, a report by the Australian National Committee for crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    Two types of 'Big Science' research facility - synchrotron radiation sources and intense neutron beams - are now recognised as essential resources for a wide range of research activities in chemistry, physics and biology. The cost of such facilities and the lack of a sufficiently large user base will probably preclude their construction in Australia in the foreseeable future. The needs of Australian crystallographers for access to such facilities are assessed. In relation to synchrotron radiation sources, the Committee considered only the question of access to such facilities overseas. In relation to neutron beam sources, the Committee's inquiries included not only the question of access to powerful facilities overseas but also the special problems which confront Australian crystallographers as a result of the obsolescence of the HIFAR reactor. The arguments about, and options for, funding Australian use of facilities overseas are presented. The Committee concluded there is a strong case for the purchase of a beam-line at an overseas synchrotron radiation facility and a strong, though less urgent, case for substantial Australian involvement in an overseas neutron beam facility. The Committee recommended that the Australian HIFAR reactor be refurbished in its present shell, retaining the present flux and power levels, and that in the upgrading of the neutron scattering instrumentation at HIFAR special consideration be given to including items which are sufficiently specialised to attract the international neutron scattering community

  4. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  5. Relations Between Self-Reported Daily-Life Fatigue, Hearing Status, and Pupil Dilation During a Speech Perception in Noise Task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E

    2017-01-01

    during the speech processing, and we used peak pupil dilation (PPD) as the main outcome measure of the pupillometry. No correlation was found between subjectively measured fatigue and hearing acuity, nor was a group difference found between the normally hearing and the hearing-impaired participants...... on the fatigue scores. A significant negative correlation was found between self-reported fatigue and PPD. A similar correlation was also found between Speech Intelligibility Index required for 50% correct and PPD. Multiple regression analysis showed that factors representing "hearing acuity" and "self......-reported fatigue" had equal and independent associations with the PPD during the speech in noise test. Less fatigue and better hearing acuity were associated with a larger pupil dilation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between a subjective measure of daily...

  6. Cognitive load during speech perception in noise: the influence of age, hearing loss, and cognition on the pupil response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A; Kramer, Sophia E; Festen, Joost M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age, hearing loss, and cognitive ability on the cognitive processing load during listening to speech presented in noise. Cognitive load was assessed by means of pupillometry (i.e., examination of pupil dilation), supplemented with subjective ratings. Two groups of subjects participated: 38 middle-aged participants (mean age = 55 yrs) with normal hearing and 36 middle-aged participants (mean age = 61 yrs) with hearing loss. Using three Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) in stationary noise tests, we estimated the speech-to-noise ratios (SNRs) required for the correct repetition of 50%, 71%, or 84% of the sentences (SRT50%, SRT71%, and SRT84%, respectively). We examined the pupil response during listening: the peak amplitude, the peak latency, the mean dilation, and the pupil response duration. For each condition, participants rated the experienced listening effort and estimated their performance level. Participants also performed the Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test, a test of processing speed, and a word vocabulary test. Data were compared with previously published data from young participants with normal hearing. Hearing loss was related to relatively poor SRTs, and higher speech intelligibility was associated with lower effort and higher performance ratings. For listeners with normal hearing, increasing age was associated with poorer TRTs and slower processing speed but with larger word vocabulary. A multivariate repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated main effects of group and SNR and an interaction effect between these factors on the pupil response. The peak latency was relatively short and the mean dilation was relatively small at low intelligibility levels for the middle-aged groups, whereas the reverse was observed for high intelligibility levels. The decrease in the pupil response as a function of increasing SNR was relatively small for the listeners with hearing loss. Spearman

  7. Observation and assessment of the nutritional quality of 'out of school' foods popular with secondary school pupils at lunchtime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Fiona; Mackison, Dionne; Mooney, John D; Ellaway, Anne

    2017-11-17

    The contemporary Scottish diet is unhealthy and a risk factor for poor health outcomes including obesity. Over a third of Scottish children are at risk of being overweight or obese, and there have been calls to strengthen the evidence base on the role of the food retail environment around schools in influencing the consumption of unhealthy foods. We examined the food retail environment around five secondary schools in Glasgow city, Scotland. Trained fieldworkers observed the food purchasing behaviour of school pupils in local shops. Samples of the most popular foods were subsequently purchased by the research team and assessed for nutritional content, including energy, total and saturated fat, and salt. This was compared with the nutrient standards for school lunches established by the Scottish Government. There was marked variation in the number of outlets identified within a 10 min walk from each school, ranging from five in the area with the lowest number of outlets to thirty in the area with the highest number of outlets. Outlets identified were heterogeneous and included fish and chip shops, kebab shops, convenience stores, newsagents, bakeries, mobile catering units, cafés, pizzerias, sandwich shops and supermarkets. Lunchtime offers and other marketing strategies targeting school pupils were observed at most outlets. Nutritional analysis of the 45 savoury food items purchased was conducted by laboratory staff. Of the foods analysed, 49% of the samples exceeded recommended calorie intake, 58% exceeded total fat recommendations and 64% exceeded saturated fat recommendations, 42% exceeded recommended salt levels. Over 80% of the 45 food items sampled did not comply with one of more of the nutrient standards for fat, saturated fat and salt. Meal deals and promotions of unhealthy foods aimed at pupils were widely available. The majority of pupils purchased unhealthy convenience food of poor nutritional value at lunchtime in local shops around their school

  8. Science and scientists in the drawings of European children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The first step of the SEDEC project has been a survey on teachers and pupils perception of science, scientists, and the European dimension of science. Different research actions have been organized for the different targets, and have been held in the six countries involved in the project: Czech Republic, France, Italy, Portugal, Poland and Romania. This article will present the analysis of more then 1000 drawings realized by 9 and 14 years old pupils and representing "a scientist". Form the drawings emerge stereotypes, fears, desires, expectations and more, a whole imaginery that has to be taken in account for an effective educative adn communicative action.

  9. Monitoring cognitive and emotional processes through pupil and cardiac response during dynamic versus logical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mickaël; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Démonet, Jean François; Pastor, Josette

    2010-06-01

    The paper deals with the links between physiological measurements and cognitive and emotional functioning. As long as the operator is a key agent in charge of complex systems, the definition of metrics able to predict his performance is a great challenge. The measurement of the physiological state is a very promising way but a very acute comprehension is required; in particular few studies compare autonomous nervous system reactivity according to specific cognitive processes during task performance and task related psychological stress is often ignored. We compared physiological parameters recorded on 24 healthy subjects facing two neuropsychological tasks: a dynamic task that require problem solving in a world that continually evolves over time and a logical task representative of cognitive processes performed by operators facing everyday problem solving. Results showed that the mean pupil diameter change was higher during the dynamic task; conversely, the heart rate was more elevated during the logical task. Finally, the systolic blood pressure seemed to be strongly sensitive to psychological stress. A better taking into account of the precise influence of a given cognitive activity and both workload and related task-induced psychological stress during task performance is a promising way to better monitor operators in complex working situations to detect mental overload or pejorative stress factor of error.

  10. History of Science and Instructional Design: The Case of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroglou, Fanny; Koumaras, Panagiotis; Tselfes, Vassilis

    This paper deals with two main research questions: a) Can we search for pupils'' potential alternative ideas in the history of science and especially in those areas where early scientific ideas were distinct from the current ones? b) Is it possible to overcome pupils'' alternative ideas by using experiments in the classroom, based on early experiments carried out by scientists in the past, in order to promote current scientific ideas? In this paper we present a case study in the field of electromagnetism. From the age of Thales up to the 16th century electrostatic and magnetic phenomena were unified in the context of a ''magic'' idea and were supposed to be of the same nature. Their differences were pointed out during the 16th century by Gardano and Gilbert and the two fields of science were established: electrostatics and magnetism. From the 17th century up to 1830, scientists dealt with the question whether electricities derived from different sources were of the same nature. During 1832-1833, Faraday successfully carried out a number of experiments in order to compare the ability of various electricities to produce the same effects. The above data from the history of science indicated electrostatic, electrodynamic and magnetic phenomena as a field of research on pupils'' and student-teachers'' ideas. The research was carried out in three phases: 10 individual in-depth interviews with 10-14-year-old pupils and 19-21-year-old student-teachers, questionnaire distribution to 109 13-year-old pupils and 148 student-teachers, 10 individual in-depth interviews for further clarification of pupils'' and student-teachers'' reasoning. Research results show that 53% of the student-teachers and 83% of the pupils that were involved in the investigation relate electrostatic with magnetic phenomena, in the same way scientists related these phenomena up to the 16th century. The results also indicate that the lack of common perceptions, commonly observed effects or procedures

  11. Dr Math Rocks!: Using instant messaging to help pupils with mathematics homework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, LL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics education in South Africa needs help. This paper describes a project where school aged pupils could get help with their mathematics homework using MXit, South Africa's most popular instant messaging system, on their cell phones...

  12. Designing instruction and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2013). Designing education and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(6), 597-613. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.696727

  13. Pupil-linked arousal is driven by decision uncertainty and alters serial choice bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Anne E.; Braun, Anke; Donner, Tobias H.

    2017-03-01

    While judging their sensory environments, decision-makers seem to use the uncertainty about their choices to guide adjustments of their subsequent behaviour. One possible source of these behavioural adjustments is arousal: decision uncertainty might drive the brain's arousal systems, which control global brain state and might thereby shape subsequent decision-making. Here, we measure pupil diameter, a proxy for central arousal state, in human observers performing a perceptual choice task of varying difficulty. Pupil dilation, after choice but before external feedback, reflects three hallmark signatures of decision uncertainty derived from a computational model. This increase in pupil-linked arousal boosts observers' tendency to alternate their choice on the subsequent trial. We conclude that decision uncertainty drives rapid changes in pupil-linked arousal state, which shape the serial correlation structure of ongoing choice behaviour.

  14. The pupil response is sensitive to divided attention during speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelewijn, Thomas; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Zekveld, Adriana A; Kramer, Sophia E

    2014-06-01

    Dividing attention over two streams of speech strongly decreases performance compared to focusing on only one. How divided attention affects cognitive processing load as indexed with pupillometry during speech recognition has so far not been investigated. In 12 young adults the pupil response was recorded while they focused on either one or both of two sentences that were presented dichotically and masked by fluctuating noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios. In line with previous studies, the performance decreases when processing two target sentences instead of one. Additionally, dividing attention to process two sentences caused larger pupil dilation and later peak pupil latency than processing only one. This suggests an effect of attention on cognitive processing load (pupil dilation) during speech processing in noise. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical education problems of 5–9 grade pupils in the context of health preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Idrisova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of the causes of deterioration of health and related problems of physical education of 5–9 grade pupils. Material & Methods: analysis of the causes and definition of the behavioral characteristics of pupils in relation to physical education was studied during 2012–2017 in one parallel class. In the experiment conducted in two stages, 52 pupils of the secondary school No. 1 of Melitopol took part. In the study used questionnaires, analytical, comparative, experimental and statistical methods. Result: tendency of deterioration of pupils health during training in middle classes is proved; obtained data in accordance with the typology compiled reflect the awareness of some students health as a means of raising the status, as well as the failure to understand half the researched values of physical education in maintaining health and disinterest in physical education. Conclusion: problems of school physical education are determined by the low level of the culture of health of the entire Ukrainian society.

  16. Workshop to review problem-behavior research programs : pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop on pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety. The purpose of this workshop was to develop specific recommendations for the planning and implementation of NHTSA research, development, and d...

  17. ADAPTATION OF THE FIRST FORM PUPILS TO EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Прозар

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of adaptive possibilities (social and psychological of pupils of the first form to the educational activities in secondary schools. Using the research methods, an one-year experiment was conducted: the pupils of the first forms of Kamjanets-Podilsky secondary schools  № 13 and № 14 (73 boys and 87 girls were selected by the method of random sample. The study found that the living conditions of the 6-year-olds (due to the beginning of education in secondary school do not assist formation of adequate adaptation: at the beginning, the social and psychological adaptation correspond to the average level, and in the end – to the lowest one. Obtained results give reason to conclude that the learning activities in the first year of study negatively affects the adaptive possibilities of the first form pupils; it results in poor mental capacity and health of pupils.

  18. Pupil Diameter Does Not Correlate with Fixation Duration - or Does It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt; Carl, Michael; Elming, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A number of pupillometric studies have suggested that dynamic differences in pupil diameter correlate with dierent levels of cognitive intensity or excitement. Other studies have suggested a similar correlation between fixation duration and cognitive effort. Since both methodologies for hypothesi...

  19. PECULIARITIES OF GRAMMAR STUDY OF MOUNTAIN FIRST-FORM PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kiryk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The articles describes the role of analiztor system (auditory, visual, kinesthetic at the initial stage of learning literacy and language development six years old. They from specific integration system, that provides more efficient perception, memorization and reproduction of educational material. The article deals with attempt to ascertain linguadidactic interconnections and interdependence between grammar education (reading, writing and speech of six-year pupils. Summing up it should be mentioned to organize 6-year pupils studing in the country mountain school becides pedagogical, economical, geographic and social problems psychologic linguadidactic are added. Preferences of mountain country children: –                    Formation from childhood ability to live in harmony with nature; –                    Sensitive  perception of alive and inanimate surrounding nature; –                    Life-style form children’s responsibility for entrusted things, labour habits, training by hard nature conditions. They should be solved in complex providing achievents of psychology, pedagogics, linguists and up-to-date technology. The aim of the article  - to reveal individual peculiarities of country mountain child who needs special method of approach to grammar studing as well as to help country teacher who strongly feels lack for efficient method help. All these affect on prepearing level, children’s outlook, general development. Scientific and methodogical institutions have not easy task-system training and skill raising of primary school teachers to realize State standart of primary general education. Acquaintance of country teacher with up-to-date achievements in psychologic, pedagogic and linguistic education will help him to organize his work in the country school on rather higher level as well as let him give more qualitative education services and save country school as the

  20. The development of creativity of primary school pupils by fairy-tales

    OpenAIRE

    Bražienė, Nijolė

    2005-01-01

    This summary shows that the positive improvements of creativity are obtained by broadening and deepening the knowledge of fairy tales of primary school pupils in the theoretical and practical level, and by realization of potentialities rendered by teaching means of Lithuanian language for the develpment of divergent thinking and imagination of pupils and nurturance of sense of humour, emotionality and empathy purposefully employing additional educational activities.