WorldWideScience

Sample records for science problem solving

  1. Molecular science solving global problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Stults, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    From the late 1940s to the late 1980s, the Department of Energy (DOE) had a critical role in the Cold War. Many sites were built to contribute to the nation's nuclear weapons effort. However, not enough attention was paid to how the waste generated at these facilities should be handled. As a result, a number of sites fouled the soil around them or dumped low-level radioactive waste into nearby rivers. A DOE laboratory is under construction with a charter to help. Called the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), this national user facility will be located at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, WA. This laboratory has been funded by DOE and Congress to play a major role as the nation confronts the enormous challenge of reducing environmental and human risks from hundreds of government and industrial waste sites in an economically viable manner. The original proposal for the EMSL took a number of twists and turns on its way to its present form, but one thing remained constant: the belief that safe, permanent, cost-effective solutions to many of the country's environmental problems could be achieved only by multidisciplinary teams working to understand and control molecular processes. The processes of most concern are those that govern the transport and transformation of contaminants, the treatment and storage of high-level mixed wastes, and the risks those contaminants ultimately pose to workers and the public

  2. The art and science of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....

  3. Problem Solving Model for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.

  4. The art and science of participative problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examinations planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....

  5. A Cognitive Model for Problem Solving in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in…

  6. Teaching science problem solving: an overview of experimental work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M.G.M.; Broekkamp, H.

    2001-01-01

    The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the

  7. Toward High-Performance Communications Interfaces for Science Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Sharon L.; Cohen, Adrienne O.

    2010-12-01

    From a theoretical viewpoint, educational interfaces that facilitate communicative actions involving representations central to a domain can maximize students' effort associated with constructing new schemas. In addition, interfaces that minimize working memory demands due to the interface per se, for example by mimicking existing non-digital work practice, can preserve students' attentional focus on their learning task. In this research, we asked the question: What type of interface input capabilities provide best support for science problem solving in both low- and high- performing students? High school students' ability to solve a diverse range of biology problems was compared over longitudinal sessions while they used: (1) hardcopy paper and pencil (2) a digital paper and pen interface (3) pen tablet interface, and (4) graphical tablet interface. Post-test evaluations revealed that time to solve problems, meta-cognitive control, solution correctness, and memory all were significantly enhanced when using the digital pen and paper interface, compared with tablet interfaces. The tangible pen and paper interface also was the only alternative that significantly facilitated skill acquisition in low-performing students. Paradoxically, all students nonetheless believed that the tablet interfaces provided best support for their performance, revealing a lack of self-awareness about how to use computational tools to best advantage. Implications are discussed for how pen interfaces can be optimized for future educational purposes, and for establishing technology fluency curricula to improve students' awareness of the impact of digital tools on their performance.

  8. Teaching creativity and inventive problem solving in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures.

  9. Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Community College Students Use when Solving Science Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibensteiner, Janice L.

    2012-01-01

    Successful science students have mastered their field of study by being able to apply their learned knowledge and problem solving skills on tests. Problem solving skills must be used to figure out the answer to many classes of questions. What this study is trying to determine is how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in…

  10. Creative and Participative Problem Solving - The Art and the Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    This book collects my experiences as a facilitator for many different communities and organizations and as a teacher at the Technical University of Denmark for the courses Creativity and Problem Solving and Systemic Operational Research. Several of the chapters has been used in my lecturing activ...

  11. The Effects of Problem Solving Applications on the Development of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Skills and Perception on Problem Solving Ability in the Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Hatice Güngör

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with 98 prospective science teachers, who were composed of 50 prospective teachers that had participated in problem-solving applications and 48 prospective teachers who were taught within a more researcher-oriented teaching method in science laboratories. The first aim of this study was to determine the levels of…

  12. Visual Attention for Solving Multiple-Choice Science Problem: An Eye-Tracking Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lai, Meng-Lung; Liu, Wan-Yi; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine students' visual attention when solving a multiple-choice science problem. Six university students participated in a problem-solving task to predict occurrences of landslide hazards from four images representing four combinations of four factors. Participants' responses and visual attention…

  13. The profile of problem-solving ability of students of distance education in science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiasih; Permanasari, A.; Riandi; Damayanti, T.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to analyze the students' problem-solving ability in science learning and lesson-planning ability. The method used is descriptive-quantitative. The subjects of the study were undergraduate students of Distance Higher Education located in Serang, majoring in Primary Teacher Education in-service training. Samples were taken thoroughly from 2 groups taking the course of Science Learning in Primary School in the first term of 2017, amounted to 39 students. The technique of data collection used is essay test of problem solving from case study done at the beginning of lecture in February 2017. The results of this research can be concluded that In-service Training of Primary School Teacher Education Program are categorized as quite capable (score 66) in solving science learning problem and planning science lesson. Therefore, efforts need to be done to improve the ability of students in problem solving, for instance through online tutorials with the basis of interactive discussions.

  14. Conceptual and procedural knowledge community college students use when solving a complex science problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee

    2006-07-01

    A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as

  15. An Investigation of Problem-Solving Skills of Preservice Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiyar, Asiye; Can, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in science and technology have created problems for some people who have difficulties adapting to the new environment. Improving problem solving skills of these people is very important for them to so have the ability to cope with new problems. From the education perspective, it is believed that teachers should help students by not…

  16. Excel 2016 for biological and life sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2016-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical biological and life science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel is an effective learning tool for quantitative analyses in biological and life sciences courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Biological and Life Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel 2016 to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand biological and life science problems. Practice problems are provided...

  17. Excel 2016 for physical sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2016-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical physical science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel is an effective learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Physical Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel 2016 to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand physical science problems. Practice problems are provided at the end of each chapter with their s...

  18. Excel 2016 for environmental sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2016-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical environmental science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel is an effective learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Environmental Science Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel 2016 to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand environmental science problems. Practice problems are provided at the end of each chapte...

  19. The Effect of Metacognitive Instruction on Problem Solving Skills in Iranian Students of Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh

    2015-05-17

    Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students' problem solving skills. The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. They were selected through convenience sampling technique and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control. For the experimental group, problem solving skills were taught through metacognitive instruction during ten two-hour sessions and for the control group, problem solving skills were taught via conventional teaching method. The instrument for data collection included problem solving inventory (Heppner, 1988), which was administered before and after instruction. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire had been previously confirmed. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested by t-test and ANCOVA. The findings of the posttest showed that the total mean scores of problem solving skills in the experimental and control groups were 151.90 and 101.65, respectively, indicating a significant difference between them (pproblem solving skills and its components, including problem solving confidence, orientation-avoidance coping style and personal control (pproblem solving skills and is required to enhance academic achievement, metacognitive strategies are recommended to be taught to the students.

  20. Effects of the Problem-Posing Approach on Students' Problem Solving Skills and Metacognitive Awareness in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akben, Nimet

    2018-05-01

    The interrelationship between mathematics and science education has frequently been emphasized, and common goals and approaches have often been adopted between disciplines. Improving students' problem-solving skills in mathematics and science education has always been given special attention; however, the problem-posing approach which plays a key role in mathematics education has not been commonly utilized in science education. As a result, the purpose of this study was to better determine the effects of the problem-posing approach on students' problem-solving skills and metacognitive awareness in science education. This was a quasi-experimental based study conducted with 61 chemistry and 40 physics students; a problem-solving inventory and a metacognitive awareness inventory were administered to participants both as a pre-test and a post-test. During the 2017-2018 academic year, problem-solving activities based on the problem-posing approach were performed with the participating students during their senior year in various university chemistry and physics departments throughout the Republic of Turkey. The study results suggested that structured, semi-structured, and free problem-posing activities improve students' problem-solving skills and metacognitive awareness. These findings indicated not only the usefulness of integrating problem-posing activities into science education programs but also the need for further research into this question.

  1. The Effect of Metacognitive Instruction on Problem Solving Skills in Iranian Students of Health Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students? problem solving skills. Methods: The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. T...

  2. Excel 2013 for physical sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2016-01-01

    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching physical sciences statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2010 for Physical Sciences Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Physical Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their ...

  3. Excel 2016 for social science statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching social science statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Social Sciences Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical social science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in social science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Social Science Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in ...

  4. Data science in R a case studies approach to computational reasoning and problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Access, Transform, Manipulate, Visualize, and Reason about Data and ComputationData Science in R: A Case Studies Approach to Computational Reasoning and Problem Solving illustrates the details involved in solving real computational problems encountered in data analysis. It reveals the dynamic and iterative process by which data analysts approach a problem and reason about different ways of implementing solutions. The book's collection of projects, comprehensive sample solutions, and follow-up exercises encompass practical topics pertaining to data processing, including: Non-standar

  5. Applying Catastrophe Theory to an Information-Processing Model of Problem Solving in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we test an information-processing model (IPM) of problem solving in science education, namely the working memory overload model, by applying catastrophe theory. Changes in students' achievement were modeled as discontinuities within a cusp catastrophe model, where working memory capacity was implemented as asymmetry and the degree…

  6. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Reflective Thinking Skills toward Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Sendil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the pre-service science teachers' reflective thinking skills toward problem solving and the effects of gender, grade level, academic achievement, type of graduated high school and father and mother's education level on these skills. The study was conducted through the survey method with the…

  7. Scientific Reasoning and Its Relationship with Problem Solving: The Case of Upper Primary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamali, Mahmoud A.; Daher, Wajeeh M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of scientific reasoning of upper primary stage (grades 4-7) science teachers based on their use of a problem-solving strategy. The study sample (N = 138; 32 % male and 68 % female) was randomly selected using stratified sampling from an original population of 437 upper primary school teachers. The…

  8. Creativity, Problem Solving and Innovative Science: Insights from History, Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the intersection between creativity, problem solving, cognitive psychology and neuroscience in a discussion surrounding the genesis of new ideas and innovative science. Three creative activities are considered. These are (a) the interaction between visual-spatial and analytical or verbal reasoning, (b) attending to feeling in…

  9. How to solve mathematical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wickelgren, Wayne A

    1995-01-01

    Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.

  10. Can Pollution Problems Be Effectively Solved by Environmental Science and Technology? An Analysis of Critical Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, Michael H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-12-01

    It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems. Second, both the conservation of mass principle and the second law of thermodynamics dictate that most remediation technologies - while successful in solving specific pollution problems - cause unavoidable negative environmental impacts elsewhere or in the future. Third, it is intrinsically impossible to design industrial processes that have no negative environmental impacts. This follows not only from the entropy law but also from the fact that any generation of energy is impossible without negative environmental consequences. It can therefore be concluded that science and technology have only very limited potential in solving current and future environmental problems. Consequently, it will be necessary to address the root cause of environmental deterioration, namely the prevailing materialistic values that are the main driving force for both overpopulation and overconsumption. The long-term protection of the environment is therefore not primarily a technical problem but rather a social and moral problem that can only be solved by drastically reducing the strong influence of materialistic values.

  11. Investigating Pre-Service Science Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine pre-service science teachers' critical thinking dispositions and problem solving skills based on gender, grade level and graduated high school variables. Also relationship between pre-service science teachers' critical thinking dispositions and problem solving skills was examined based on gender, grade level and…

  12. The Effect of Problem-Solving Video Games on the Science Reasoning Skills of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanetti, Tina M.

    As the world continues to rapidly change, students are faced with the need to develop flexible skills, such as science reasoning that will help them thrive in the new knowledge economy. Prensky (2001), Gee (2003), and Van Eck (2007) have all suggested that the way to engage learners and teach them the necessary skills is through digital games, but empirical studies focusing on popular games are scant. One way digital games, especially video games, could potentially be useful if there were a flexible and inexpensive method a student could use at their convenience to improve selected science reasoning skills. Problem-solving video games, which require the use of reasoning and problem solving to answer a variety of cognitive challenges could be a promising method to improve selected science reasoning skills. Using think-aloud protocols and interviews, a qualitative study was carried out with a small sample of college students to examine what impact two popular video games, Professor Layton and the Curious Village and Professor Layton and the Diabolical Box, had on specific science reasoning skills. The subject classified as an expert in both gaming and reasoning tended to use more higher order thinking and reasoning skills than the novice reasoners. Based on the assessments, the science reasoning of college students did not improve during the course of game play. Similar to earlier studies, students tended to use trial and error as their primary method of solving the various puzzles in the game and additionally did not recognize when to use the appropriate reasoning skill to solve a puzzle, such as proportional reasoning.

  13. Problem Solving on a Monorail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)

  14. Beyond Science and Technology: The need to incorporate Environmental Ethics to solve Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of science and technology has been critical in improving the lives of mankind. It helps mankind to cope with a number of manmade and natural challenges and disasters. Science cannot totally diminish the level of human dependency on nature; but, with the existing availability of natural resources, science has increased our productivity. However, science and technology can also have its own negative impacts on the natural environment. For the purpose of increasing productivity and satisfying human needs, humans have been egoistically exploiting nature but disregarding the effects of their activities on nature. Science has also been trying its level best to mitigate the negative effects that results from mankind’s exploitation of nature. However, science alone is incapable of solving all environmental problems. This desk research employs secondary sources of data, and argues that environmental ethics should come to the fore in order to address the gap left by science with regard to resolving environmental problems that mankind faces today.

  15. Excel 2010 for environmental sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach environmental sciences statistics effectively.  It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical environmental sciences problems.  If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.  Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses.  Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past.  However, Excel 2010 for Environmental Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Eac...

  16. Excel 2013 for social sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach social science statistics effectively.  It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical social science problems.  If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.  Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in social science courses.  Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past.  However, Excel 2013 for Social Science Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formul...

  17. Competence of matric physical science teachers in some basic problem-solving strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailoo Selvaratnam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Curriculum Statement for matric physical science places strong emphasis on the development of critical thinking and reasoning abilities of pupils. The successful implementation of this curriculum therefore requires teachers who are competent in the cognitive (intellectual skills and strategies needed for learning science effectively. Testing of teachers’ competence in this aspect is therefore important. I therefore analysed teachers’ answers to questions that were carefully designed to test competence in some basic intellectual strategies that are important for problem solving in physical science courses. A total of 73 matric physical science teachers, from about 50 Dinaledi schools in the North West and KwaZulu-Natal provinces in South Africa, were tested in five intellectual strategies: clear representation of problems, identifying and focusing on the goal, identification and use of relevant principles, use of equations for deductions and proceeding step-by-step with the solution. The teachers’ competence was poor in all the intellectual strategies tested. About 60% (the average performance in all 13 questions used for testing of teachers tested were unable to solve the questions correctly. An important objective of the curriculum is the development of critical thinking, scientific reasoning and strategies of pupils. This study shows that the achievement of this objective will be seriously handicapped because of the lack of competence of many teachers in intellectual strategies. There is therefore a need to train teachers in order to increase their competence in this aspect.

  18. Excel 2013 for environmental sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach environmentall sciences statistics effectively.  It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical environmental science problems.  If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.  Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses.  Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past.  However, Excel 2013 for Environmental Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chap...

  19. Excel 2013 for biological and life sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach biological and life sciences statistics effectively.  It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical science problems.  If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.  Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand science problems.  Practice problems are provided at the end of each chapter with their solutions in an appendix.  Separately, there is a full Practice Test (with answers in an Appendix) that allows readers to test what they have learned.  Includes 164 illustrations in color Suitable for undergraduates or graduate student Prof. Tom Quirk is currently a Professor of Marketing at The Walker School of Business and Technology at Webster University in St....

  20. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  1. A Science-Technology-Society Paradigm and Cross River State Secondary School Students' Scientific Literacy: Problem Solving and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoren, Grace

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Science-Technology-Society (STS) curriculum on students' scientific literacy, problem solving and decision making. Four hundred and eighty (480) Senior Secondary two science and non-science students were randomly selected from intact classes in six secondary schools in Calabar Municipality of…

  2. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  3. Teaching Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren

    1992-01-01

    Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)

  4. Comparison of PASCAL and FORTRAN for solving problems in the physical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, V. R.

    1981-01-01

    The paper compares PASCAL and FORTRAN for problem solving in the physical sciences, due to requests NASA has received to make PASCAL available on the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator (scheduled to be operational in 1986). PASCAL disadvantages include the lack of scientific utility procedures equivalent to the IBM scientific subroutine package or the IMSL package which are available in FORTRAN. Advantages include a well-organized, easy to read and maintain writing code, range checking to prevent errors, and a broad selection of data types. It is concluded that FORTRAN may be the better language, although ADA (patterned after PASCAL) may surpass FORTRAN due to its ability to add complex and vector math, and the specify the precision and range of variables.

  5. Analysis of expert validation on developing integrated science worksheet to improve problem solving skills of natural science prospective teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, W.; Sudibyo, E.; Sari, D. A. P.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to develop student worksheets for higher education that apply integrated science learning in discussing issues about motion in humans. These worksheets will guide students to solve the problem about human movement. They must integrate their knowledge about biology, physics, and chemistry to solve the problem. The worksheet was validated by three experts in Natural Science Integrated Science, especially in Human Movement topic. The aspects of the validation were feasibility of the content, the construction, and the language. This research used the Likert scale to measure the validity of each aspect, which is 4.00 for very good validity criteria, 3.00 for good validity criteria, 2.00 for more or less validity criteria, and 1.00 for not good validity criteria. Data showed that the validity for each aspect were in the range of good validity and very good validity criteria (3.33 to 3.67 for the content aspect, 2.33 to 4.00 for the construction aspect, and 3.33 to 4.00 for language aspect). However, there was a part of construction aspect that needed to improve. Overall, this students’ worksheet can be applied in classroom after some revisions based on suggestions from the validators.

  6. Using Science Inquiry Methods to Promote Self-Determination and Problem-Solving Skills for Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Doughty, Teresa; Krockover, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of guided science inquiry methods with self-monitoring checklists to support problem-solving for students and increased autonomy during science instruction for students with moderate intellectual disability. Three students with moderate intellectual disability were supported in not only accessing the general…

  7. The Usefulness of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Researching Problem-Solving Ability in Science Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyisi, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Research in science education is to discover the truth which involves the combination of reasoning and experiences. In order to find out appropriate teaching methods that are necessary for teaching science students problem-solving skills, different research approaches are used by educational researchers based on the data collection and analysis…

  8. An Exploration of the Use of Eye-Gaze Tracking to Study Problem-Solving on Standardized Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Robert H.; Loehr, John F.; Brigham, Frederick J.

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the capacity of eye-gaze tracking to identify differences in problem-solving behaviours within a group of individuals who possessed varying degrees of knowledge and expertise in three disciplines of science (biology, chemistry and physics). The six participants, all pre-service science teachers, completed an 18-item…

  9. On the Knowledge-sociological Problems in using Philosophy of Science Methods to solve Transdisciplinary Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    in information science. Suddenly there was research money to upgrade your position by making a PhD I was looking for a supervisor. But who would support such a project falling outside all professional areas and without any formal PhD study and any economic compensation for the work? Andur of course. We had deep....... After a couple of years I managed to finish and a year after it was published as a book. "Information er sølv ...: om muligheden for en pragmatisk informationsteori baseret på anden ordens kybernetik, semiotik og sprogspilsteori" Forlaget Biblioteksarbejde 1994. It saved my possibility of having...

  10. Triage: Making a Political Decision to Solve an Environmental Science Problem Through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Thomas

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of a class project concerned with examining a population problem and making some political decisions to solve it. A list of topics for the students to research as a basis for their decisions is provided. (DT)

  11. Side effects of problem-solving strategies in large-scale nutrition science: towards a diversification of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Vos, Rein; Horstman, Klasien

    2009-11-01

    Solving complex problems in large-scale research programmes requires cooperation and division of labour. Simultaneously, large-scale problem solving also gives rise to unintended side effects. Based upon 5 years of researching two large-scale nutrigenomic research programmes, we argue that problems are fragmented in order to be solved. These sub-problems are given priority for practical reasons and in the process of solving them, various changes are introduced in each sub-problem. Combined with additional diversity as a result of interdisciplinarity, this makes reassembling the original and overall goal of the research programme less likely. In the case of nutrigenomics and health, this produces a diversification of health. As a result, the public health goal of contemporary nutrition science is not reached in the large-scale research programmes we studied. Large-scale research programmes are very successful in producing scientific publications and new knowledge; however, in reaching their political goals they often are less successful.

  12. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...

  13. Solving Environmental Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...

  14. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  15. Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…

  16. Introspection in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…

  17. Problem Solving in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…

  18. Interactive problem solving using LOGO

    CERN Document Server

    Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more

  19. Solved problems in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piron, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems

  20. SCAMPER and Creative Problem Solving in Political Science: Insights from Classroom Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewski, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience using SCAMPER, a creativity-building technique, in a creative problem-solving session that was conducted in an environmental conflict course to generate ideas for managing postconflict stability. SCAMPER relies on cues to help students connect ideas from different domains of knowledge, explore random…

  1. A Problem Solving Model for Use in Science Student Teacher Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.; Tice, Craig J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes and suggests the use of a problem-solving model that improves communication between student teachers and supervisors through the student teaching practicum. The aim of the model is to promote experimentation with various teaching techniques and to stimulate thinking among student teachers about their teaching experiences. (PR)

  2. Children's Reasoning as Collective Social Action through Problem Solving in Grade 2/3 Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-01-01

    Research on young children's reasoning show the complex relationships of knowledge, theories, and evidence in their decision-making and problem solving. Most of the research on children's reasoning skills has been done in individualized and formal research settings, not collective classroom environments where children often engage in learning and…

  3. Generic Science Skills Enhancement of Students through Implementation of IDEAL Problem Solving Model on Genetic Information Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirconia, A.; Supriyanti, F. M. T.; Supriatna, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine generic science skills enhancement of students through implementation of IDEAL problem-solving model on genetic information course. Method of this research was mixed method, with pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. Subjects of this study were chemistry students enrolled in biochemistry course, consisted of 22 students in the experimental class and 19 students in control class. The instrument in this study was essayed involves 6 indicators generic science skills such as indirect observation, causality thinking, logical frame, self-consistent thinking, symbolic language, and developing concept. The results showed that genetic information course using IDEAL problem-solving model have been enhancing generic science skills in low category with of 20,93%. Based on result for each indicator, showed that there are indicators of generic science skills classified in the high category.

  4. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  5. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  6. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  7. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  8. Promotion of Problem Solving Skills by Using Metacognitive-based Instruction in Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yahya safari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Studies have indicated that metacognitive strategies control and direct cognitive strategies. Thus, application of metacognitive and cognitive strategies together is essential for successful learning to happen. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of metacognitive-oriented instruction on development of problem solving skills in students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research with pretest/posttest and control group design. The study sample included the students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (n=4283 in the academic year of 2013-2014. A total number of 40 students were selected through convenient sampling method as the study sample. The samples were randomly placed in experimental and control groups. For the experimental group, problem solving skills were taught based on metacognitive strategies in 8 sessions, each session for 1 and half hours. For the control group, however, problem solving skills were taught through conventional teaching method. The instrument for data collection was Heppner’s problem solving inventory (1988 whose validity and reliability were confirmed previously. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and the hypotheses were tested through t-test. Results: The results of the posttest showed that the total mean of scores for problem solving skills in the experimental group (99.75 was higher than that of the control group (26.800 (p<0.0001. This difference was significant in the case of confidence, approach/avoidance and personal control components (p<0.0001. Moreover, the mean of students’ scores was not significant in terms of gender and major. Conclusion: Given the positive effect of metacognitive strategies on the students’ performance and the necessity of teaching metacognition for the sake of academic achievement, these strategies are recommended to be

  9. Appreciative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    2012-01-01

    Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...

  10. Planning and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and ProblemSolving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R

  11. Female and male communication in co-operative problem solving in high school science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Egbert; Dhig, Ning; Tremante, A; Welsch, F; Malpica, F

    2007-01-01

    Empirical evidence is presented that males working in mixed-gender dyads on science problems do better than their female partners. This is not the case when males and females work in same gender dyads. There is a difference in communication style in mixed gender dyads in comparison with same gender

  12. Possibility of using sources of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation to solve problems of space material science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoutseva, E. T.; Yaremenko, E. I.

    1974-01-01

    An urgent problem in space materials science is simulating the interaction of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) of solar emission with solids in space conditions, that is, producing a light source with a distribution that approximates the distribution of solar energy. Information is presented on the distribution of the energy flux of VUV of solar radiation. Requirements that must be satisfied by the VUV source used for space materials science are formulated, and a critical evaluation is given of the possibilities of using existing sources for space materials science. From this evaluation it was established that none of the sources of VUV satisfies the specific requirements imposed on the simulator of solar radiation. A solution to the problem was found to be in the development of a new type of source based on exciting a supersonic gas jet flowing into vacuum with a sense electron beam. A description of this gas-jet source, along with its spectral and operation characteristics, is presented.

  13. The effects of a shared, Intranet science learning environment on the academic behaviors of problem-solving and metacognitive reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mary Jo

    This study investigated the effects of a shared, Intranet science environment on the academic behaviors of problem-solving and metacognitive reflection. Seventy-eight subjects included 9th and 10th grade male and female biology students. A quasi-experimental design with pre- and post-test data collection and randomization occurring through assignment of biology classes to traditional or shared, Intranet learning groups was employed. Pilot, web-based distance education software (CourseInfo) created the Intranet learning environment. A modified ecology curriculum provided contextualization and content for traditional and shared learning environments. The effect of this environment on problem-solving, was measured using the standardized Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal test. Metacognitive reflection, was measured in three ways: (a) number of concepts used, (b) number of concept links noted, and (c) number of concept nodes noted. Visual learning software, Inspiration, generated concept maps. Secondary research questions evaluated the pilot CourseInfo software for (a) tracked user movement, (b) discussion forum findings, and (c) difficulties experienced using CourseInfo software. Analysis of problem-solving group means reached no levels of significance resulting from the shared, Intranet environment. Paired t-Test of individual differences in problem-solving reached levels of significance. Analysis of metacognitive reflection by number of concepts reached levels of significance. Metacognitive reflection by number of concept links noted also reach significance. No significance was found for metacognitive reflection by number of concept nodes. No gender differences in problem-solving ability and metacognitive reflection emerged. Lack of gender differences in the shared, Intranet environment strongly suggests an equalizing effect due to the cooperative, collaborative nature of Intranet environments. Such environments appeal to, and rank high with, the female

  14. Finite element methods for engineering sciences. Theoretical approach and problem solving techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaskalovic, J. [Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel); Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris VI) Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Jean le Rond d' Alembert

    2008-07-01

    This self-tutorial offers a concise yet thorough grounding in the mathematics necessary for successfully applying FEMs to practical problems in science and engineering. The unique approach first summarizes and outlines the finite-element mathematics in general and then, in the second and major part, formulates problem examples that clearly demonstrate the techniques of functional analysis via numerous and diverse exercises. The solutions of the problems are given directly afterwards. Using this approach, the author motivates and encourages the reader to actively acquire the knowledge of finite- element methods instead of passively absorbing the material, as in most standard textbooks. The enlarged English-language edition, based on the original French, also contains a chapter on the approximation steps derived from the description of nature with differential equations and then applied to the specific model to be used. Furthermore, an introduction to tensor calculus using distribution theory offers further insight for readers with different mathematical backgrounds. (orig.)

  15. Solving math and science problems in the real world with a computational mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Olabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n=242 was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in mathematics, participants were introduced to a taxonomic tool for the description of K-12 Math problems. The tool allows the identification, decomposition and description of Type-A problems, the characteristic ones in the traditional curriculum, and of Type-B problems in the new paradigm. The workshops culminated with a set of surveys where participants were asked to assess both the current and the new proposed paradigms. The surveys in this study revealed that according to the majority of participants: (i The K-12 Mathematics curricula are designed to teach students exclusively the resolution of Type-A problems; (ii real life Math problems respond to a paradigm of Type-B problems; and (iii the current Math curriculum should be modified to include this new paradigm.

  16. The application of nuclear science technology to understanding and solving environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has for many years been involved in applying nuclear science-based and related technologies to the understanding of environmental processes and to the development and implementation of practical and effective solutions to site specific problems, for a broad spectrum of industry, government regulatory agencies, and other organisations in Australia, Europe, North and South America and South East Asia. ANSTO's environmental science program arose out of the need for research to predict, measure, evaluate and monitor the environmental impacts associated with : uranium mining and processing in Australia; the operation of the research reactor at Lucas Heights; and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive and conventional wastes associated with these activities. The expertise developed in these activities, has found application to a much broader range of environmental concerns. This paper will present an overview of ANSTO's application of nuclear science-based techniques to, inter alia: coastal and marine studies; minesite rehabilitation; transport and geochemical modelling of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the geosphere; the application of naturally-occurring radionuclides and radioactive tracers to corrosion and sedimentation studies in the coastal environment; dating sediments, fish corals and archaeological samples; the understanding of the kinetics and the physiological responses of aquatic organisms to radionuclides and metals in the environment: and the use of aquatic organism as archival and 'realtime' monitors of pollutants

  17. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Problem-Solving Skills of Suburban High School Physical Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herak, Patrick James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a problem-solving instrument that could easily be used by a classroom teacher. The research questions were (1) can the Problem-Solving Skills Assessments (PSSAs) differentiate between students with varying levels of selected problem-solving skills? (2) Can the PSSAs measure student growth due to…

  18. A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…

  19. Solving complex fisheries management problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2011-01-01

    A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...

  20. Examination of the relationship between preservice science teachers' scientific reasoning and problem solving skills on basic mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Ates, Salih

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine relationship between scientific reasoning and mechanics problem solving skills of students in science education program. Scientific Reasoning Skills Test (SRST) and Basic Mechanics Knowledge Test (BMKT) were applied to 90 second, third and fourth grade students who took Scientific Reasoning Skills course at science teaching program of Gazi Faculty of Education for three successive fall semesters of 2014, 2015 and 2016 academic years. It was found a statistically significant positive (p = 0.038 <0.05) but a low correlation (r = 0.219) between SRST and BMKT. There were no significant relationship among Conservation Laws, Proportional Thinking, Combinational Thinking, Correlational Thinking, Probabilistic Thinking subskills of reasoning and BMKT. There were significant and positive correlation among Hypothetical Thinking and Identifying and Controlling Variables subskills of reasoning and BMKT. The findings of the study were compared with other studies in the field and discussed.

  1. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons): Undergraduate Education Through Interdisciplinary, Team-Based, Real-World Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) - In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term. This work is supported in part by NSF grant DUE-1140805.

  2. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  3. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  4. Adaptive Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Borrajo and Raquel Fuentetaja, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid on the meta-level search architecture for finding good combinations of representations and...heuristics on a problem-by-problem basis. The other is with Carlos Linares also from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid on developing effective

  5. Solving radwaste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyen, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The combination of regulatory changes and increased waste volume has resulted in design changes in waste processing systems. Problems resulting from waste segregation as a basis for design philosophy are considered, and solutions to the problems are suggested. The importance of operator training, maintenance procedures, good housekeeping, water management, and offsite shipment of solids is discussed. Flowsheets for radioactive waste processing systems for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are included

  6. Improving Science Scores of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities through Engineering Problem Solving Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, A. Leyf Peirce; Lo, Ya-Yu; Rivera, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of three different science teaching methods, namely engineering teaching kit (ETK), explicit instruction (EI), and a combination of the two methods (ETK+EI), in two sixth-grade science classrooms. Twelve students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  7. Scaffolding 6th Graders' Problem Solving in Technology-Enhanced Science Classrooms: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minchi C.; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the calls to improve and deepen scientific understanding and literacy, considerable effort has been invested in developing sustainable technology-enhanced learning environments to improve science inquiry. Research has provided important guidance for scaffolding learning in mathematics and science. However, these reports have…

  8. Technology in the curriculum: A vehicle for the development of children's understanding of science concepts through problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Beverley; Smith, Leanne

    1992-12-01

    This research was carried out over a period of ten months with children in Grades 2 and 3 (aged 7 and 8) who were participating in a sequence of technology activities. Since the introduction into Victorian primary schools of The Technology Studies Framework P-10 (Crawford, 1988), more teachers are including technology studies in their classrooms and by so doing may assist children's understanding of science concepts. Children are being exposed to science phenomena related to the technology activities and Technology Studies may be a way of providing children with science experiences. ‘Technology Studies’ in this context refers to children carrying out practical problem solving tasks which can be completed without any particular scientific knowledge. Participation in the technology activities may encourage children to become actively involved, thereby facilitating an exploration of the related science concepts. The project identified the importance of challenge in relation to the children's involvement in the technology activities and the conference paper (available from the first author) discusses particular topics in terms of the balance between cognitive/metacognitive and affective influences (Baird et al., 1990)

  9. The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

    2005-08-01

    Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0

  10. Simon on Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  11. Gender Influences on Parent-Child Science Problem-Solving Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-Meyerson, Katherine; Sandrin, Susannah; Edwards, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Gender is a critical social factor influencing how children view the world from very early childhood. Additionally, during the early elementary years, parents can have a significant influence on their child's behaviors and dispositions in fields such as science. This study examined the influence of parent gender and child gender on 2nd- and…

  12. Solving Math and Science Problems in the Real World with a Computational Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Juan Carlos; Basogain, Xabier; Olabe, Miguel Ángel; Maíz, Inmaculada; Castaño, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n = 242) was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in…

  13. Retooling Asian-Pacific Teachers to Promote Creativity, Innovation and Problem Solving in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kar-Tin; Chalmers, Christina; Chandra, Vinesh; Yeh, Andy; Nason, Rod

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a Professional Learning Programme undertaken by primary school teachers in China that aimed to facilitate the development of "adaptive expertise" in using technology to facilitate innovative science teaching and learning such as that envisaged by the Chinese Ministry of Education's (2010--2020) education reforms.…

  14. Interactive Problem-Solving Interventions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frew Demeke Alemu

    concerted efforts of unofficial actors to establish unofficial communication ... Frew Demeke Alemu (LLB, LLM in International Human Rights Law from Lund ..... 24 Tamra Pearson d'Estrée (2009), “Problem-Solving Approaches”, (in The SAGE ...

  15. Group composition and its effect on female and male problem-solving in science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning; Suhre, Cor

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cooperative learning may help students elaborate upon problem information through interpersonal discourse, and this may provoke a higher level of thinking. Interaction stimulates students to put forward and order their thoughts, and to understand the ideas or questions of their peer

  16. Beyond agency: sources of knowing and learning in children's science- and technology-related problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-12-01

    In (science) education, primacy is given to agency, the human capability to act and, in this, to learn. However, phenomenological philosophers and societal-historical psychologists point out that agency, the purposeful (intentional) engagement with the world, is only the effect of a much more profound capacity: passibility, the capacity to be affected. In this study, we begin with what has been recognized as a fundamental condition of learning: learners cannot intentionally orient to the learning outcome because they inherently do not know it so that that knowledge cannot be the object of intention. In this study, we provide evidence for three empirically grounded assertions: (a) children do not intend new knowledge and understanding, which instead give themselves in and through materials and material configurations; (b) knowing-how is received (as unintended gifts) because our bodies are endowed with passibility, the capability to be affected; and (c) the new knowledge and understanding exists as and in social relation first. We suggest implications for engineering design in science classrooms.

  17. Using Nanomaterials to Solve Environmental Problems: Advancing the Science and Engineering of Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Jonathon Andrew

    photocatalysis can be superiorly effective, engineering reactor systems that enable real-world testing of this technology, and increasing understanding of photocatalytic inhibition mechanisms, photocatalysis can become a tool to help solve global water challenges.

  18. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  19. Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.

  20. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  1. Customer-centered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Q B

    1999-11-01

    If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.

  2. Inference rule and problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S

    1982-04-01

    Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.

  3. The Effect of Problem-Solving Instruction on the Programming Self-efficacy and Achievement of Introductory Computer Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddrey, Elizabeth

    Research in academia and industry continues to identify a decline in enrollment in computer science. One major component of this decline in enrollment is a shortage of female students. The primary reasons for the gender gap presented in the research include lack of computer experience prior to their first year in college, misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, lack of female mentors and role models, subtle discriminations in the classroom, and lack of self-confidence (Pollock, McCoy, Carberry, Hundigopal, & You, 2004). Male students are also leaving the field due to misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, and a lack of self-confidence. Analysis of first year attrition revealed that one of the major challenges faced by students of both genders is a lack of problem-solving skills (Beaubouef, Lucas & Howatt, 2001; Olsen, 2005; Paxton & Mumey, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific, non-mathematical problem-solving instruction as part of introductory programming courses significantly increased computer programming self-efficacy and achievement of students. The results of this study showed that students in the experimental group had significantly higher achievement than students in the control group. While this shows statistical significance, due to the effect size and disordinal nature of the data between groups, care has to be taken in its interpretation. The study did not show significantly higher programming self-efficacy among the experimental students. There was not enough data collected to statistically analyze the effect of the treatment on self-efficacy and achievement by gender. However, differences in means were observed between the gender groups, with females in the experimental group demonstrating a higher than average degree of self-efficacy when compared with males in the experimental group and both genders in the control group. These results suggest that the treatment from this

  4. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-05-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.

  5. Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Wendy Kristine

    The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

  6. Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems were…

  7. Methods of solving nonstandard problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Ellina

    2015-01-01

    This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas.   It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions.  The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem.  Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems.   Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...

  8. Dreams and creative problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Deirdre

    2017-10-01

    Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Problem solving skills for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J; Li, Chunbo

    2007-04-18

    The severe and long-lasting symptoms of schizophrenia are often the cause of severe disability. Environmental stress such as life events and the practical problems people face in their daily can worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. Deficits in problem solving skills in people with schizophrenia affect their independent and interpersonal functioning and impair their quality of life. As a result, therapies such as problem solving therapy have been developed to improve problem solving skills for people with schizophrenia. To review the effectiveness of problem solving therapy compared with other comparable therapies or routine care for those with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (September 2006), which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all clinical randomised trials comparing problem solving therapy with other comparable therapies or routine care. We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) using a random effects statistical model. We included only three small trials (n=52) that evaluated problem solving versus routine care, coping skills training or non-specific interaction. Inadequate reporting of data rendered many outcomes unusable. We were unable to undertake meta-analysis. Overall results were limited and inconclusive with no significant differences between treatment groups for hospital admission, mental state, behaviour, social skills or leaving the study early. No data were presented for global state, quality of life or satisfaction. We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the benefits of problem solving therapy as an additional

  10. Problem solving through recreational mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Averbach, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga

  11. Human Problem Solving in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…

  12. Error Patterns in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Beatrice C.

    Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…

  13. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  14. Problem Solving in the Natural Sciences and Early Adolescent Girls' Gender Roles and Self-Esteem a Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis from AN Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Michael

    What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.

  15. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  16. Relationship among Students' Problem-Solving Attitude, Perceived Value, Behavioral Attitude, and Intention to Participate in a Science and Technology Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Neng-Tang Norman; Chiu, Li-Jia; Hong, Jon-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The strong humanistic and ethics-oriented philosophy of Confucianism tends to lead people influenced by these principles to undervalue the importance of hands-on practice and creativity in education. GreenMech, a science and technology contest, was implemented to encourage real-world, hands-on problem solving in an attempt to mitigate this effect.…

  17. The Effect on Pupils' Science Performance and Problem-Solving Ability through Lego: An Engineering Design-Based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Huang, Zhinan; Jiang, Menglu; Chang, Ting-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating scientific fundamentals via engineering through a design-based methodology has proven to be highly effective for STEM education. Engineering design can be instantiated for learning as they involve mental and physical stimulation and develop practical skills especially in solving problems. Lego bricks, as a set of toys based on design…

  18. The Relationship of Social Problem-Solving Skills and Dysfunctional Attitudes with Risk of Drug Abuse among Dormitory Students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrazadani, Ehteram; Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Mahrabi, Tayebeh

    2017-01-01

    Dormitory students encounter multiple social factors which cause pressure, such as new social relationships, fear of the future, and separation from family, which could cause serious problems such as tendency toward drug abuse. This research was conducted with the goal to determine social problem-solving skills, dysfunctional attitudes, and risk of drug abuse among dormitory students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This was a descriptive-analytical, correlational, and cross-sectional research. The research sample consisted of 211 students living in dormitories. The participants were selected using randomized quota sampling method. The data collection tools included the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), and Identifying People at Risk of Addiction Questionnaire. The results indicated an inverse relationship between social problem-solving skills and risk of drug abuse ( P = 0.0002), a direct relationship between dysfunctional attitude and risk of drug abuse ( P = 0.030), and an inverse relationship between social problem-solving skills and dysfunctional attitude among students ( P = 0.0004). Social problem-solving skills have a correlation with dysfunctional attitudes. As a result, teaching these skills and the way to create efficient attitudes should be considered in dormitory students.

  19. Students applying their knowledge of material science in problem-solving: implications for competence based-learning at the University of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kwaira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a class of serving teachers in their second year of a Bachelor of Education degree programme, in which one of the pre-requisite courses covered during first year was ‘Principles of Material Science (PMS. At the time of study, they were studying ‘Machine-shop Practice’ (MsP; a course based on the Design and Technology (D&T approach, in terms of teaching and learning. They were required to solve practical-technical problems through hands-on practical activities, supported by relevant ancillary theory. In practice, during such activities, students are expected to demonstrate the ability to apply their knowledge of Material Science (MS in various ways; for example, in the choice of materials for given projects aimed at solving specific problems and in the methods of working such materials. Now given this background, the problem was therefore to determine the extent to which students applied their knowledge of MS in solving selected problems under MsP. Data were gathered through interviews, discussions, observations and document analysis. Findings showed students being able to apply their knowledge of MS effectively during problem-solving under MsP; thereby, qualifying their learning as having been outcome-based in nature.

  20. Problem solving and inference mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K; Nakajima, R; Yonezawa, A; Goto, S; Aoyama, A

    1982-01-01

    The heart of the fifth generation computer will be powerful mechanisms for problem solving and inference. A deduction-oriented language is to be designed, which will form the core of the whole computing system. The language is based on predicate logic with the extended features of structuring facilities, meta structures and relational data base interfaces. Parallel computation mechanisms and specialized hardware architectures are being investigated to make possible efficient realization of the language features. The project includes research into an intelligent programming system, a knowledge representation language and system, and a meta inference system to be built on the core. 30 references.

  1. Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Dingyu

    2008-01-01

    Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.

  2. Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; MacKay, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called "Problems and Puzzles," which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom…

  3. Learning Matlab a problem solving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gander, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014.  Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.

  4. Community-powered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.

  5. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  6. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  7. An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisan, Yusuf

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...

  8. The Development of Student’s Activity Sheets (SAS) Based on Multiple Intelligences and Problem-Solving Skills Using Simple Science Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardani, D. S.; Kirana, T.; Ibrahim, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to produce SAS based on MI and problem-solving skills using simple science tools that are suitable to be used by elementary school students. The feasibility of SAS is evaluated based on its validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The completion Lesson Plan (LP) implementation and student’s activities are the indicators of SAS practicality. The effectiveness of SAS is measured by indicators of increased learning outcomes and problem-solving skills. The development of SAS follows the 4-D (define, design, develop, and disseminate) phase. However, this study was done until the third stage (develop). The written SAS was then validated through expert evaluation done by two experts of science, before its is tested to the target students. The try-out of SAS used one group with pre-test and post-test design. The result of this research shows that SAS is valid with “good” category. In addition, SAS is considered practical as seen from the increase of student activity at each meeting and LP implementation. Moreover, it was considered effective due to the significant difference between pre-test and post-test result of the learning outcomes and problem-solving skill test. Therefore, SAS is feasible to be used in learning.

  9. Students’ difficulties in probabilistic problem-solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-03-01

    There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.

  10. IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Susiana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make student’s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polya’s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.

  11. Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Verna

    1989-01-01

    Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...

  12. Solving-Problems and Hypermedia Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo LÓPEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The solving problems like the transfer constitute two nuclei, related, essential in the cognitive investigation and in the mathematical education. No is in and of itself casual that, from the first moment, in the investigations on the application gives the computer science to the teaching the mathematics, cybernetic models were developed that simulated processes problem solving and transfer cotexts (GPS, 1969 and IDEA (Interactive Decision Envisioning Aid, Pea, BrunerCohen, Webster & Mellen, 1987. The present articulates it analyzes, that can contribute to the development in this respect the new technologies hypermedias, give applications that are good to implement processes of learning the heuristic thought and give the capacity of «transfer». From our perspective and from the experience that we have developed in this field, to carry out a function gives analysis and the theories on the problem solving, it requires that we exercise a previous of interpretation the central aspsects over the theories gives the solving problem and transfer starting from the classic theories on the prosecution of the information. In this sense, so much the theory gives the dual memory as the most recent, J. Anderson (1993 based on the mechanisms activation nodes information they allow to establish an interpretation suggester over the mental mechanism that you/they operate in the heuristic processes. On this analysis, the present articulates it develops a theoritical interpretation over the function gives the supports based on technology hypermedia advancing in the definition of a necessary theoretical body, having in it counts that on the other hand the practical experimentation is permanent concluding in the efficiency and effectiveness gives the support hypermedia like mechanism of comunication in the processes heuristic learning.

  13. The effects of duration of exposure to the REAPS model in developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusaini, Abdulnasser Alashaal F.

    The Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was developed in 2004 by C. June Maker and colleagues as an intervention for gifted students to develop creative problem solving ability through the use of real-world problems. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the REAPS model on developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science with two durations as independent variables. The long duration of the REAPS model implementation lasted five academic quarters or approximately 10 months; the short duration lasted two quarters or approximately four months. The dependent variables were students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science. The second purpose of the study was to explore which aspects of creative problem solving (i.e., generating ideas, generating different types of ideas, generating original ideas, adding details to ideas, generating ideas with social impact, finding problems, generating and elaborating on solutions, and classifying elements) were most affected by the long duration of the intervention. The REAPS model in conjunction with Amabile's (1983; 1996) model of creative performance provided the theoretical framework for this study. The study was conducted using data from the Project of Differentiation for Diverse Learners in Regular Classrooms (i.e., the Australian Project) in which one public elementary school in the eastern region of Australia cooperated with the DISCOVER research team at the University of Arizona. All students in the school from first to sixth grade participated in the study. The total sample was 360 students, of which 115 were exposed to a long duration and 245 to a short duration of the REAPS model. The principal investigators used a quasi-experimental research design in which all students in the school received the treatment for different durations. Students in both groups completed pre- and posttests using the Test of Creative Thinking

  14. Perbedaan Keterampilan Pemecahan Masalah pada Pembelajaran Fisika Menggunakan Metode Problem Posing dan Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Adetya; Hartini, Sri; An'nur, Syubhan

    2015-01-01

    Teachers should be able to choose the method of learning that can help students in learning physics, namely the method of problem posing and problem solving method. The purposes of this study are : (1) describe the learning physics skills by using problem posing method, (2) describe the learning physics skills by using problem solving method, and (3) know difference between learning physics skills by using problem posing method and problem solving method in class XI of Science SMAN 6 Banjarma...

  15. Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM

    Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction

  16. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  17. Investigating a Proposed Problem Solving Theory in the Context of Mathematical Problem Solving: A Multi-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Nadia Monrose

    2015-01-01

    The ability to succeed in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers is contingent on a student's ability to engage in mathematical problem solving. As a result, there has been increased focus on students' ability to think critically by providing them more with problem solving experiences in the classroom. Much research has…

  18. Students' meaning making in science: solving energy resource problems in virtual worlds combined with spreadsheets to develop graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krange, Ingeborg; Arnseth, Hans Christian

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to scrutinize the characteristics of conceptual meaning making when students engage with virtual worlds in combination with a spreadsheet with the aim to develop graphs. We study how these tools and the representations they contain or enable students to construct serve to influence their understanding of energy resource consumption. The data were gathered in 1st grade upper-secondary science classes and they constitute the basis for the interaction analysis of students' meaning making with representations. Our analyses demonstrate the difficulties involved in developing students' orientation toward more conceptual orientations to representations of the knowledge domain. Virtual worlds do not in themselves represent a solution to this problem.

  19. THE EFFECT OF PROBLEM SOLVING LEARNING MODEL BASED JUST IN TIME TEACHING (JiTT ON SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS (SPS ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PLANT TISSUE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resha Maulida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Problem Solving learning model based Just in Time Teaching (JiTT on students' science process skills (SPS on structure and function of plant tissue concept. This research was conducted at State Senior High School in South Tangerang .The research conducted using the quasi-experimental with Nonequivalent pretest-Postest Control Group Design. The samples of this study were 34 students for experimental group and 34 students for the control group. Data was obtained using a process skill test instrument (essai type that has been tested for its validity and reliability. Result of data analysis by ANACOVA, show that there were significant difference of postest between experiment and control group, by controlling the pretest score (F = 4.958; p <0.05. Thus, the problem-solving learning based on JiTT proved to improve students’ SPS. The contribution of this treatment in improving the students’ SPS was 7.2%. This shows that there was effect of problem solving model based JiTT on students’ SPS on the Structure and function of plant tissue concept.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE LEARNING SET USING SCIENTIFIC APPROACH AND PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL ON LEARNING OUTCOMES OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SUBJECT OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Triyuni

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to produce the scientific approach for science learning using a problem solving model on the topic of heat and temperatureon the junior high school learning outcome. The curriculum used during the study was curriculum 2013 (valid, practical and effective). The development of the learning setfollowed the four-D model which was reduced to three-D model (without dissemination). The study was tested in Class VIIA, VIIB, and VIIC in SMP Negeri 5 Academic Year 2015/2016. The data...

  1. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.

  2. Strategy Keys as Tools for Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold-Blasius, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…

  3. Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Louis L.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

  4. Mathematical problem solving in primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolovou, A.

    2011-01-01

    A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each

  5. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...

  6. Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu

    2012-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.

  7. Indoor Air Quality Problem Solving Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.

  8. Pre-Service Class Teacher' Ability in Solving Mathematical Problems and Skills in Solving Daily Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…

  9. Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue 23, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.

  10. Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-solving Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Shelly Wismath; Doug Orr; Bruce MacKay

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called Problems and Puzzles, which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom observation and other qualitative data collected over three semesters, we have identified three significant changes in student behaviour at specific points in the course....

  11. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  12. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  13. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…

  14. Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…

  15. Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit

  16. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri...

  17. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  18. Problem Solving Strategies among Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Wun Thiam; Lian, Lim Hooi; Meng, Chew Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine problem solving strategies among primary school teachers. The researchers employed survey research design to examine their problem solving strategies. The participants of this study consisted of 120 primary school teachers from a public university in Peninsula Malaysia who enrolled in a 4-year Graduating…

  19. Readiness for Solving Story Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, William F.

    1982-01-01

    Readiness activities are described which are designed to help learning disabled (LD) students learn to perform computations in story problems. Activities proceed from concrete objects to numbers and involve the students in devising story problems. The language experience approach is incorporated with the enactive, iconic, and symbolic levels of…

  20. Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....

  1. Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R

    2017-06-01

    The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Students interest in learning science through fieldwork activity encourage critical thinking and problem solving skills among UPSI pre-university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Siti Zaheera Muhamad; Khairuddin, Raja Farhana Raja

    2017-05-01

    Graduates with good critical thinking and problem solving (CTPS) skills are likely to boost their employability to live in 21st century. The demands of graduates to be equipped with CTPS skills have shifted our education system in focusing on these elements in all levels of education, from primary, the secondary, and up to the tertiary education, by fostering interesting teaching and learning activities such as fieldwork activity in science classes. Despite the importance of the CTPS skills, little is known about whether students' interests in teaching and learning activities, such as fieldwork activity, have any influence on the students CTPS skills. Therefore, in this investigation, firstly to examine students interests in learning science through fieldwork activity. Secondly, this study examined whether the students' interest in learning science through fieldwork activity have affect on how the students employ CTPS skills. About 100 Diploma of Science students in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) were randomly chosen to participate in this study. All of the participants completed a survey on how they find the fieldwork activity implemented in their science classes and it relevents towards their CTPS skills development. From our findings, majority of the students (91%) find that fieldwork activity is interesting and helpful in increasing their interest in learning science (learning factor) and accommodate their learning process (utility). Results suggest that students' interest on the fieldwork activity in science classes does have some influence on the students development of CTPS skills. The findings could be used as an initial guideline by incorporating students' interest on other teaching and learning activities that being implemented in science classes in order to know the impacts of these learning activities in enhancing their CTPS skills.

  3. Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-solving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Wismath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called Problems and Puzzles, which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom observation and other qualitative data collected over three semesters, we have identified three significant changes in student behaviour at specific points in the course. These changes can be posited to reveal three underlying threshold concepts in the evolution and establishment of students’ problem-solving skills.

  4. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Barczi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

  5. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.

  6. The Missing Curriculum in Physics Problem-Solving Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mobolaji

    2018-05-01

    Physics is often seen as an excellent introduction to science because it allows students to learn not only the laws governing the world around them, but also, through the problems students solve, a way of thinking which is conducive to solving problems outside of physics and even outside of science. In this article, we contest this latter idea and argue that in physics classes, students do not learn widely applicable problem-solving skills because physics education almost exclusively requires students to solve well-defined problems rather than the less-defined problems which better model problem solving outside of a formal class. Using personal, constructed, and the historical accounts of Schrödinger's development of the wave equation and Feynman's development of path integrals, we argue that what is missing in problem-solving education is practice in identifying gaps in knowledge and in framing these knowledge gaps as questions of the kind answerable using techniques students have learned. We discuss why these elements are typically not taught as part of the problem-solving curriculum and end with suggestions on how to incorporate these missing elements into physics classes.

  7. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-01-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV

  8. Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

    2009-01-01

    How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

  9. Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleci, Carolann

    What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).

  10. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  11. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  12. Education for complex problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....

  13. Solving complex problems a handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,

  14. Solving inversion problems with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.

  15. Solving computationally expensive engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Computational complexity is a serious bottleneck for the design process in virtually any engineering area. While migration from prototyping and experimental-based design validation to verification using computer simulation models is inevitable and has a number of advantages, high computational costs of accurate, high-fidelity simulations can be a major issue that slows down the development of computer-aided design methodologies, particularly those exploiting automated design improvement procedures, e.g., numerical optimization. The continuous increase of available computational resources does not always translate into shortening of the design cycle because of the growing demand for higher accuracy and necessity to simulate larger and more complex systems. Accurate simulation of a single design of a given system may be as long as several hours, days or even weeks, which often makes design automation using conventional methods impractical or even prohibitive. Additional problems include numerical noise often pr...

  16. ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    Gamification Summit 2012  Mensa Colloquium 2012.2: Social and Video Games  Seattle Science Festival  TED Salon Vancouver : http...From - To) 6/1/2012 – 6/30/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b...Popović ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework (Task 1 Month 4) Progress, Status and Management Report Monthly Progress

  17. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...

  18. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  19. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Docktor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  20. The Los Alamos, Sandia, and Livermore Laboratories: Integration and collaboration solving science and technology problems for the nation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    More than 40 years ago, three laboratories were established to take on scientific responsibility for the nation`s nuclear weapons - Los Alamos, Sandia, and Livermore. This triad of laboratories has provided the state-of-the-art science and technology to create America`s nuclear deterrent and to ensure that the weapons are safe, secure, and to ensure that the weapons are safe, secure, and reliable. These national security laboratories carried out their responsibilities through intense efforts involving almost every field of science, engineering, and technology. Today, they are recognized as three of the world`s premier research and development laboratories. This report sketches the history of the laboratories and their evolution to an integrated three-laboratory system. The characteristics that make them unique are described and some of the major contributions they have made over the years are highlighted.

  1. Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly

    2013-01-01

    At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…

  2. Three-M in Word Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Sayonita Ghosh; Kofman, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    We describe three activities that help undergraduates (pre-service teachers) to develop scientific vocabulary on measurable attributes and units of measurement. Measurable attributes are important features in understanding a word problem and solving the problem. These activities help students comprehend word problems better by identifying…

  3. How to solve applied mathematics problems

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2011-01-01

    This workbook bridges the gap between lectures and practical applications, offering students of mathematics, engineering, and physics the chance to practice solving problems from a wide variety of fields. 2011 edition.

  4. Physics: Quantum problems solved through games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210

  5. Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.

  6. Methods of solving sequence and series problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Ellina

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to dispel the mystery and fear experienced by students surrounding sequences, series, convergence, and their applications. The author, an accomplished female mathematician, achieves this by taking a problem solving approach, starting with fascinating problems and solving them step by step with clear explanations and illuminating diagrams. The reader will find the problems interesting, unusual, and fun, yet solved with the rigor expected in a competition. Some problems are taken directly from mathematics competitions, with the name and year of the exam provided for reference. Proof techniques are emphasized, with a variety of methods presented. The text aims to expand the mind of the reader by often presenting multiple ways to attack the same problem, as well as drawing connections with different fields of mathematics. Intuitive and visual arguments are presented alongside technical proofs to provide a well-rounded methodology. With nearly 300 problems including hints, answers, and solutions,Met...

  7. Mobile Technology in Science Classrooms: Using iPad-Enabled Constructivist Learning to Promote Collaborative Problem Solving and Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Melodie Mirth G.

    Most recently, there has been a noticeable rise in the push for use of technology in the classroom. The advancement in digital science has increased greatly the capacity to explore animations, models, and interesting apps. that should substantially enhance science cognition. At the same time, there is a great need to increase collaboration in the science classroom. There is a concern that the collaborative experience will be lost with the use of technology in the classroom. This study seeks to explore the use of iPads in conjunction with a constructivist learning approach to promote student collaboration. The participants in this study included two sections of 11 th grade AP Chemistry students. Data was generated from different sources such as teacher observations of classroom interactions patterned after Gilles (2004). In order to gauge student perception of working in groups with the use of the iPad, survey questions adapted from Knezek, Mills and Wakefield (2012) and group interviews were used (Galleta, 2013). Learning outcomes were assessed using methods adapted from a study by Lord and Baviskar (2007). Findings of this study showed high percentages of evidence for increased community, productive student group communication, effective feedback through use of the iPads, and value of the interactive apps., but it also showed that students still preferred face-to-face interactions over virtual interactions for certain learning situations. The study showed good content learning outcomes, as well as favorable opinions among the students for the effectiveness of the use of iPads in collaborative settings in the classroom.

  8. Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Beverly C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…

  9. Students' errors in solving linear equation word problems: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofi.mereku

    Development in most areas of life is based on effective knowledge of science and ... Problem solving, as used in mathematics education literature, refers ... word problems, on the other hand, are those linear equation tasks or ... taught LEWPs in the junior high school, many of them reach the senior high school without a.

  10. On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Pehkonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.

  11. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  12. Projective geometry solved problems and theory review

    CERN Document Server

    Fortuna, Elisabetta; Pardini, Rita

    2016-01-01

    This book starts with a concise but rigorous overview of the basic notions of projective geometry, using straightforward and modern language. The goal is not only to establish the notation and terminology used, but also to offer the reader a quick survey of the subject matter. In the second part, the book presents more than 200 solved problems, for many of which several alternative solutions are provided. The level of difficulty of the exercises varies considerably: they range from computations to harder problems of a more theoretical nature, up to some actual complements of the theory. The structure of the text allows the reader to use the solutions of the exercises both to master the basic notions and techniques and to further their knowledge of the subject, thus learning some classical results not covered in the first part of the book. The book addresses the needs of undergraduate and graduate students in the theoretical and applied sciences, and will especially benefit those readers with a solid grasp of ...

  13. Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  14. Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.

  15. Problem solving and problem strategies in the teaching and learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perennial poor performance recorded annually in both internal and external examinations in Mathematics has been a great concern for the Mathematics Educators in Nigeria. This paper discusses problem-solving and influence of problem-solving strategies on students' performance in mathematics. The concept of ...

  16. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved

  17. A Microgenetic Study of Insightful Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…

  18. Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

  19. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  20. Using Computer Simulations in Chemistry Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramiotis, Spyridon; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the effects of computer simulations of two novel chemistry problems on the problem solving ability of students. A control-experimental group, equalized by pair groups (n[subscript Exp] = n[subscript Ctrl] = 78), research design was used. The students had no previous experience of chemical practical work. Student…

  1. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

  2. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

  3. A reflexive perspective in problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Chio, José Angel; Álvarez, Aida; López, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.

  4. Language and mathematical problem solving among bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2002-05-01

    Does using a bilingual's 1st or 2nd language have an effect on problem solving in semantically rich domains like school mathematics? The author conducted a study to determine whether Filipino-English bilingual students' understanding and solving of word problems in arithmetic differed when the problems were in the students' 1st and 2nd languages. Two groups participated-students whose 1st language was Filipino and students whose 1st language was English-and easy and difficult arithmetic problems were used. The author used a recall paradigm to assess how students understood the word problems and coded the solution accuracy to assess problem solving. The results indicated a 1st-language advantage; that is, the students were better able to understand and solve problems in their 1st language, whether the 1st language was English or Filipino. Moreover, the advantage was more marked with the easy problems. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  5. New method for solving multidimensional scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is developed for solving the quantum mechanical problem of scattering of a particle with internal structure. The multichannel scattering problem is formulated as a system of nonlinear functional equations for the wave function and reaction matrix. The method is successfully tested for the scattering from a nonspherical potential well and a long-range nonspherical scatterer. The method is also applicable to solving the multidimensional Schroedinger equation with a discrete spectrum. As an example the known problem of a hydrogen atom in a homogeneous magnetic field is analyzed

  6. Student Obstacles in Solving Algebraic Thinking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andini, W.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this research is to analize the student obstacles on solving algebraic thinking problems in low grades elementary school. This research is a preliminary qualitative research, and involved 66 students of grade 3 elementary school. From the analysis student test results, most of student experience difficulty in solving algebraic thinking problems. The main obstacle is the student’s difficulty in understanding the problem of generalizing the pattern because the students are not accustomed to see the rules that exist in generalize the pattern.

  7. Students' Errors in Solving the Permutation and Combination Problems Based on Problem Solving Steps of Polya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…

  8. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students' Achievements of Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…

  9. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  10. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.

  11. Processes involved in solving mathematical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi, Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra

    2018-04-01

    This study examines one of the instructional practices features utilized within the Year 8 mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. The codes from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were applied and strictly followed, and from the 183 mathematics problems recorded, there were 95 problems with a solution presented during the public segments of the video-recorded lesson sequences of the four sampled teachers. The analyses involved firstly, identifying the processes related to mathematical problem statements, and secondly, examining the different processes used in solving the mathematical problems for each problem publicly completed during the lessons. The findings revealed that for three of the teachers, their problem statements coded as `using procedures' ranged from 64% to 83%, while the remaining teacher had 40% of his problem statements coded as `making connections.' The processes used when solving the problems were mainly `using procedures', and none of the problems were coded as `giving results only'. Furthermore, all four teachers made use of making the relevant connections in solving the problems given to their respective students.

  12. Rational approximatons for solving cauchy problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veyis Turut

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, numerical solutions of Cauchy problems are considered by multivariate Padé approximations (MPA. Multivariate Padé approximations (MPA were applied to power series solutions of Cauchy problems that solved by using He’s variational iteration method (VIM. Then, numerical results obtained by using multivariate Padé approximations were compared with the exact solutions of Cauchy problems.

  13. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  14. Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

  15. Modeling visual problem solving as analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons. When images fail to align, the model dynamically rerepresents them to facilitate the comparison. In our analysis, we find that the model matches adult human performance on the Standard Progressive Matrices test, and that problems which are difficult for the model are also difficult for people. Furthermore, we show that model operations involving abstraction and rerepresentation are particularly difficult for people, suggesting that these operations may be critical for performing visual problem solving, and reasoning more generally, at the highest level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  17. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  18. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the

  19. Solving the SAT problem using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Bhattacharjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose our genetic algorithm for solving the SAT problem. We introduce various crossover and mutation techniques and then make a comparative analysis between them in order to find out which techniques are the best suited for solving a SAT instance. Before the genetic algorithm is applied to an instance it is better to seek for unit and pure literals in the given formula and then try to eradicate them. This can considerably reduce the search space, and to demonstrate this we tested our algorithm on some random SAT instances. However, to analyse the various crossover and mutation techniques and also to evaluate the optimality of our algorithm we performed extensive experiments on benchmark instances of the SAT problem. We also estimated the ideal crossover length that would maximise the chances to solve a given SAT instance.

  20. What is physics problem solving competency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2018-01-01

    on the nature of physics problem- solving competency. The first, Sommerfeld’s, is a “theory first, phenomenon second” approach. Here the relevant problems originate in one of the theories of physics and the job goal of the problem- solver is to make a mathematical analysis of the suitable equation......A central goal of physics education is to teach problem-solving competency, but the nature of this competency is not well-described in the literature. The present paperarticle uses recent historical scholarship on Arnold Sommerfeld and Enrico Fermi to identify and characterize two positions......(s) and then give a qualitative analysis of the phenomenon that arise from these mathematical results. Fermi’s position is a “phenomenon first, theory second” approach, where the starting point is a physical phenomenon that is analyzed and then brought into the realm of a physics theory. The two positions...

  1. Perceptual Salience and Children's Multidimensional Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Richard D.; Corbin, David W.

    1973-01-01

    Uni- and multidimensional processing of 6- to 9-year olds was studied using recall tasks in which an array of stimuli was reconstructed to match a model array. Results indicated that both age groups were able to solve multidimensional problems, but that solution rate was retarded by the unidimensional processing of highly salient dimensions.…

  2. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  3. Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…

  4. Solving Mathematical Problems A Personal Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2006-01-01

    Authored by a leading name in mathematics, this engaging and clearly presented text leads the reader through the tactics involved in solving mathematical problems at the Mathematical Olympiad level. With numerous exercises and assuming only basic mathematics, this text is ideal for students of 14 years and above in pure mathematics.

  5. Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

  6. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  7. Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…

  8. Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    G. [., and Sussman, G. J. AMORD: Explicit Control or Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Artificial Intellignece and Programming Languagues...0505 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA& WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545...extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (A), we describ office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge embedding language called

  9. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  10. Problem solving environment for distributed interactive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.

    2008-01-01

    Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE

  11. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  12. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  13. Quickfire Challenges to Inspire Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Cox, Dana C.

    2017-01-01

    In the authors' attempts to incorporate problem solving into their mathematics courses, they have found that student ambition and creativity are often hampered by feelings of risk, as many students are conditioned to value a produced solution over the actual process of building one. Eliminating risk is neither possible nor desired. The challenge,…

  14. [Problem-solving strategies and marital satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegelewicz, Olga

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between problem-solving strategies in the marital conflict and marital satisfaction. Four problem-solving strategies (Dialogue, Loyalty, Escalation of conflict and Withdrawal) were measured by the Problem-Solving Strategies Inventory, in two versions: self-report and report of partners' perceived behaviour. This measure refers to the concept of Rusbult, Johnson and Morrow, and meets high standards of reliability (alpha Cronbach from alpha = 0.78 to alpha = 0.94) and validity. Marital satisfaction was measured by Marriage Success Scale. The sample was composed of 147 marital couples. The study revealed that satisfied couples, in comparison with non-satisfied couples, tend to use constructive problem-solving strategies (Dialogue and Loyalty). They rarely use destructive strategies like Escalation of conflict or Withdrawal. Dialogue is the strategy connected with satisfaction in a most positive manner. These might be very important guidelines to couples' psychotherapy. Loyalty to oneself is a significant positive predictor of male satisfaction is also own Loyalty. The study shows that constructive attitudes are the most significant predictors of marriage satisfaction. It is therefore worth concentrating mostly on them in the psychotherapeutic process instead of eliminating destructive attitudes.

  15. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    10, 2012. 39. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts. F. Bahmaei6 & N. ... out cooperative learning in the end, post-test was done and by analyzing the tests it was concluded that ... Johnson et al, 1991 b, Reynolds et al. 1995, Vidakovic .... connection of mental constructs (Hiebert, Carpenter, 1992).

  16. Behaviors of Problem-Solving Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennis, Warren G

    1958-01-01

    The results of two studies are contained in this report in summary form. They represent the first parts of a program of research designed to study the effects of change and history on the on the behaviors of problem-solving Groups...

  17. Algorithmic Puzzles: History, Taxonomies, and Applications in Human Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Anany

    2017-01-01

    The paper concerns an important but underappreciated genre of algorithmic puzzles, explaining what these puzzles are, reviewing milestones in their long history, and giving two different ways to classify them. Also covered are major applications of algorithmic puzzles in cognitive science research, with an emphasis on insight problem solving, and…

  18. Problem solving stages in the five square problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFedor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviourally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. 101 participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and 67 of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We have found that 49% (19 out of 39 of the solvers and 13% (8 out of 62 of the non-solvers followed the classic four-stage model of insight. The rest of the participants had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model must be extended to explain variability on the individual level. We provide a model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviourally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behaviour to verify insight theory.

  19. Problem solving stages in the five square problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.

  20. Characteristics of students in comparative problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M.; Sudirman; Rahardi, R.

    2018-01-01

    Often teachers provided examples and exercised to students with regard to comparative problems consisting of one quantity. In this study, the researchers gave the problem of comparison with the two quantities mixed. It was necessary to have a good understanding to solve this problem. This study aimed to determine whether students understand the comparison in depth and be able to solve the problem of non-routine comparison. This study used qualitative explorative methods, with researchers conducting in-depth interviews on subjects to explore the thinking process when solving comparative problems. The subject of this study was three students selected by purposive sampling of 120 students. From this research, researchers found there were three subjects with different characteristics, namely: subject 1, he did the first and second questions with methods of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); subject 2, he did the first question with the concept of comparison although the answer was wrong, and did the second question with the method of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); and subject 3, he did both questions with the concept of comparison. In the first question, he did wrong because he was unable to understand the problem, while on the second he did correctly. From the characteristics of the answers, the researchers divided into 3 groups based on thinking process, namely: blind-proportion, partial-proportion, and proportion thinking.

  1. Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...

  2. Neural bases for basic processes in heuristic problem solving: Take solving Sudoku puzzles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning

    2012-12-01

    Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Students’ Covariational Reasoning in Solving Integrals’ Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, N. V.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    Covariational reasoning plays an important role to indicate quantities vary in learning calculus. This study investigates students’ covariational reasoning during their studies concerning two covarying quantities in integral problem. Six undergraduate students were chosen to solve problems that involved interpreting and representing how quantities change in tandem. Interviews were conducted to reveal the students’ reasoning while solving covariational problems. The result emphasizes that undergraduate students were able to construct the relation of dependent variables that changes in tandem with the independent variable. However, students faced difficulty in forming images of continuously changing rates and could not accurately apply the concept of integrals. These findings suggest that learning calculus should be increased emphasis on coordinating images of two quantities changing in tandem about instantaneously rate of change and to promote conceptual knowledge in integral techniques.

  4. Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

  5. Modelling human problem solving with data from an online game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Tim; Kirsch, Alexandra

    2016-11-01

    Since the beginning of cognitive science, researchers have tried to understand human strategies in order to develop efficient and adequate computational methods. In the domain of problem solving, the travelling salesperson problem has been used for the investigation and modelling of human solutions. We propose to extend this effort with an online game, in which instances of the travelling salesperson problem have to be solved in the context of a game experience. We report on our effort to design and run such a game, present the data contained in the resulting openly available data set and provide an outlook on the use of games in general for cognitive science research. In addition, we present three geometrical models mapping the starting point preferences in the problems presented in the game as the result of an evaluation of the data set.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF QUIZ TEAM AND MURDER METHOD ON LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE LEARNING FOR 8th GRADE STUDENTS AT UPI LABORATORY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwanti Darwanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are three objectives that shape the study, first, the study is aimed at identifying different problem-solving skills of the students' who were acquainted with quiz team, lecture and MURDER method. Secondly, the study is to point out the difference of students' problem-solving skills when they are exposed to the three methods in a high, moderate, and low intensity. The third objective is to determine interactions among learning methods, learning activities and problem-solving skills. Quasi experiment is used as a method of the study by applying two experiment classes, and one controlled factorial designed class. In analyzing the data, a two-way Anova analysis and variants analysis are implemented to measure the interaction level among the three variables. The results of the study indicate that (1 there are differences in students' problem-solving skills who were exposed to quiz team, lecture and MURDER method; (2 there are also differences in students' problem-solving skills when they were exposed by the mentioned methods in a high, moderate, and low intensity; there are no relevant interactions among learning methods, learning activities and problem-solving skills. The current results are presented such that they can be used as an aid to the methods of social science learning.

  7. Protocol Analysis of Group Problem Solving in Mathematics: A Cognitive-Metacognitive Framework for Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    The roles of cognition and metacognition were examined in the mathematical problem-solving behaviors of students as they worked in small groups. As an outcome, a framework that links the literature of cognitive science and mathematical problem solving was developed for protocol analysis of mathematical problem solving. Within this framework, each…

  8. An Assessment of the Effect of Collaborative Groups on Students' Problem-Solving Strategies and Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Nammouz, Minory; Case, Edward; Stevens, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Improving students' problem-solving skills is a major goal for most science educators. While a large body of research on problem solving exists, assessment of meaningful problem solving is very difficult, particularly for courses with large numbers of students in which one-on-one interactions are not feasible. We have used a suite of software…

  9. Sequenced Integration and the Identification of a Problem-Solving Approach through a Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormas, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice teachers (N = 27) in two sections of a sequenced, methodological and process integrated mathematics/science course solved a levers problem with three similar learning processes and a problem-solving approach, and identified a problem-solving approach through one different learning process. Similar learning processes used included:…

  10. Doing physics with scientific notebook a problem solving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this book is to teach undergraduate students how to use Scientific Notebook (SNB) to solve physics problems. SNB software combines word processing and mathematics in standard notation with the power of symbolic computation. As its name implies, SNB can be used as a notebook in which students set up a math or science problem, write and solve equations, and analyze and discuss their results. Written by a physics teacher with over 20 years experience, this text includes topics that have educational value, fit within the typical physics curriculum, and show the benefits of using SNB.

  11. impact of the curriculum reform on problem solving ability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    that “learning is problem solving”. Therefore, teaching problem solving is teaching people how to learn, so is problem solving in chemistry education. Kalbag (4) states that problem solving orientation in chemistry education has an importance in that problem solving converts information into knowledge. Kalbag further states.

  12. The Effects of Two Strategic and Meta-Cognitive Questioning Approaches on Children's Explanatory Behaviour, Problem-Solving, and Learning during Cooperative, Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Haynes, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Teaching students to ask and answer questions is critically important if they are to engage in reasoned argumentation, problem-solving, and learning. This study involved 35 groups of grade 6 children from 18 classrooms in three conditions (cognitive questioning condition, community of inquiry condition, and the comparison condition) who were…

  13. Learning via problem solving in mathematics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Human

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproficiency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the

  14. Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.

  15. Counterfactual Problem Solving and Situated Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glebkin V.V.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes and interprets data of a study on counterfactual problem solving in representatives of modern industrial culture. The study was inspired by similar experiments carried out by A.R. Luria during his expedition to Central Asia. The hypothesis of our study was that representatives of modern industrial culture would solve counterfactual puzzles at a slower rate and with higher numbers of mistakes than similar non-counterfactual tasks. The experiments we conducted supported this hypothesis as well as provided us with some insights as to how to further develop it. For instance, we found no significant differences in time lag in solving counterfactual and ‘realistic’ tasks between the subjects with mathematical and the ones with liberal arts education. As an interpretation of the obtained data, we suggest a two-stage model of counterfactual problem solving: on the first stage, where situated cognition dominates, the realistic situation is transferred into the system of symbols unrelated to this very situation; on the second stage, operations are carried out within the framework of this new system of symbols.

  16. Developing Food Science Core Competencies in Vietnam: The Role of Experience and Problem Solving in an Industry-Based Undergraduate Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Karen; Yamashita, Lina; Trexler, Cary J.; Vu, Thi Lam An; Young, Glenn M.

    2017-01-01

    Although many educators now recognize the value of problem-based learning and experiential learning, undergraduate-level food science courses that reflect these pedagogical approaches are still relatively novel, especially in East and Southeast Asia. Leveraging existing partnerships with farmers in Vietnam, a food science course for students at…

  17. Problem solving in nuclear engineering using supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Scheuermann, W.; Schatz, A.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of supercomputers enables the engineer to formulate new strategies for problem solving. One such strategy is the Integrated Planning and Simulation System (IPSS). With the integrated systems, simulation models with greater consistency and good agreement with actual plant data can be effectively realized. In the present work some of the basic ideas of IPSS are described as well as some of the conditions necessary to build such systems. Hardware and software characteristics as realized are outlined. (orig.) [de

  18. Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.

  19. Students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana

    2018-03-01

    A linear equation is an algebra material that exists in junior high school to university. It is a very important material for students in order to learn more advanced mathematics topics. Therefore, linear equation material is essential to be mastered. However, the result of 2016 national examination in Indonesia showed that students’ achievement in solving linear equation problem was low. This fact became a background to investigate students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems. This study used qualitative descriptive method. An individual written test on linear equation tasks was administered, followed by interviews. Twenty-one sample students of grade VIII of SMPIT Insan Kamil Karanganyar did the written test, and 6 of them were interviewed afterward. The result showed that students with high mathematics achievement donot have difficulties, students with medium mathematics achievement have factual difficulties, and students with low mathematics achievement have factual, conceptual, operational, and principle difficulties. Based on the result there is a need of meaningfulness teaching strategy to help students to overcome difficulties in solving linear equation problems.

  20. Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Johnson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.

  1. Solving Multiobjective Optimization Problems Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Zou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization has been a difficult problem and focus for research in fields of science and engineering. This paper presents a novel algorithm based on artificial bee colony (ABC to deal with multi-objective optimization problems. ABC is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. It uses less control parameters, and it can be efficiently used for solving multimodal and multidimensional optimization problems. Our algorithm uses the concept of Pareto dominance to determine the flight direction of a bee, and it maintains nondominated solution vectors which have been found in an external archive. The proposed algorithm is validated using the standard test problems, and simulation results show that the proposed approach is highly competitive and can be considered a viable alternative to solve multi-objective optimization problems.

  2. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  3. The Effect of Problem Solving Teaching with Texts of Turkish Lesson on Students’ Problem Solving Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Havva ILGIN; Derya ARSLAN

    2012-01-01

    In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...

  4. Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…

  5. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  6. A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David

    The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).

  7. A literature review of expert problem solving using analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Mair, C; Martincova, M; Shepperd, MJ

    2009-01-01

    We consider software project cost estimation from a problem solving perspective. Taking a cognitive psychological approach, we argue that the algorithmic basis for CBR tools is not representative of human problem solving and this mismatch could account for inconsistent results. We describe the fundamentals of problem solving, focusing on experts solving ill-defined problems. This is supplemented by a systematic literature review of empirical studies of expert problem solving of non-trivial pr...

  8. Data completion problems solved as Nash games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbal, A; Kallel, M

    2012-01-01

    The Cauchy problem for an elliptic operator is formulated as a two-player Nash game. Player (1) is given the known Dirichlet data, and uses as strategy variable the Neumann condition prescribed over the inaccessible part of the boundary. Player (2) is given the known Neumann data, and plays with the Dirichlet condition prescribed over the inaccessible boundary. The two players solve in parallel the associated Boundary Value Problems. Their respective objectives involve the gap between the non used Neumann/Dirichlet known data and the traces of the BVP's solutions over the accessible boundary, and are coupled through a difference term. We prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium, which turns out to be the reconstructed data when the Cauchy problem has a solution. We also prove that the completion algorithm is stable with respect to noise, and present two 3D experiments which illustrate the efficiency and stability of our algorithm.

  9. Programming languages for business problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shouhong

    2007-01-01

    It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin

  10. "I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…

  11. Analysis of mathematical problem-solving ability based on metacognition on problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono; Hadiyanti, R.

    2018-03-01

    Problem-solving is the primary purpose of the mathematics curriculum. Problem-solving abilities influenced beliefs and metacognition. Metacognition as superordinate capabilities can direct, regulate cognition and motivation and then problem-solving processes. This study aims to (1) test and analyzes the quality of problem-based learning and (2) investigate the problem-solving capabilities based on metacognition. This research uses mixed method study with The subject research are class XI students of Mathematics and Science at High School Kesatrian 2 Semarang which divided into tacit use, aware use, strategic use and reflective use level. The collecting data using scale, interviews, and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, and paired samples t-test. The result shows that the students with levels tacit use were able to complete the whole matter given, but do not understand what and why a strategy is used. Students with aware use level were able to solve the problem, be able to build new knowledge through problem-solving to the indicators, understand the problem, determine the strategies used, although not right. Students on the Strategic ladder Use can be applied and adopt a wide variety of appropriate strategies to solve the issues and achieved re-examine indicators of process and outcome. The student with reflective use level is not found in this study. Based on the results suggested that study about the identification of metacognition in problem-solving so that the characteristics of each level of metacognition more clearly in a more significant sampling. Teachers need to know in depth about the student metacognitive activity and its relationship with mathematical problem solving and another problem resolution.

  12. Problem-Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Travis J; Butner, Jonathan E; Fiore, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams' CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Exploring mathematics problem-solving and proof

    CERN Document Server

    Grieser, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Have you ever faced a mathematical problem and had no idea how to approach it? Or perhaps you had an idea but got stuck halfway through? This book guides you in developing your creativity, as it takes you on a voyage of discovery into mathematics. Readers will not only learn strategies for solving problems and logical reasoning, but they will also learn about the importance of proofs and various proof techniques. Other topics covered include recursion, mathematical induction, graphs, counting, elementary number theory, and the pigeonhole, extremal and invariance principles. Designed to help students make the transition from secondary school to university level, this book provides readers with a refreshing look at mathematics and deep insights into universal principles that are valuable far beyond the scope of this book. Aimed especially at undergraduate and secondary school students as well as teachers, this book will appeal to anyone interested in mathematics. Only basic secondary school mathematics is requi...

  14. Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...

  15. Solving a Deconvolution Problem in Photon Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, D; Hille, P T; Polichtchouk, B; Kharlov, Y; Sukhorukov, M; Wang, D; Shabratova, G; Demanov, V; Wang, Y; Tveter, T; Faltys, M; Mao, Y; Larsen, D T; Zaporozhets, S; Sibiryak, I; Lovhoiden, G; Potcheptsov, T; Kucheryaev, Y; Basmanov, V; Mares, J; Yanovsky, V; Qvigstad, H; Zenin, A; Nikolaev, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Yuan, X; Cai, X; Redlich, K; Pavlinov, A; Roehrich, D; Manko, V; Deloff, A; Ma, K; Maruyama, Y; Dobrowolski, T; Shigaki, K; Nikulin, S; Wan, R; Mizoguchi, K; Petrov, V; Mueller, H; Ippolitov, M; Liu, L; Sadovsky, S; Stolpovsky, P; Kurashvili, P; Nomokonov, P; Xu, C; Torii, H; Il'kaev, R; Zhang, X; Peresunko, D; Soloviev, A; Vodopyanov, A; Sugitate, T; Ullaland, K; Huang, M; Zhou, D; Nystrand, J; Punin, V; Yin, Z; Batyunya, B; Karadzhev, K; Nazarov, G; Fil'chagin, S; Nazarenko, S; Buskenes, J I; Horaguchi, T; Djuvsland, O; Chuman, F; Senko, V; Alme, J; Wilk, G; Fehlker, D; Vinogradov, Y; Budilov, V; Iwasaki, T; Ilkiv, I; Budnikov, D; Vinogradov, A; Kazantsev, A; Bogolyubsky, M; Lindal, S; Polak, K; Skaali, B; Mamonov, A; Kuryakin, A; Wikne, J; Skjerdal, K

    2010-01-01

    We solve numerically a deconvolution problem to extract the undisturbed spectrum from the measured distribution contaminated by the finite resolution of the measuring device. A problem of this kind emerges when one wants to infer the momentum distribution of the neutral pions by detecting the it decay photons using the photon spectrometer of the ALICE LHC experiment at CERN {[}1]. The underlying integral equation connecting the sought for pion spectrum and the measured gamma spectrum has been discretized and subsequently reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. The latter system, however, is known to be ill-posed and must be regularized to obtain a stable solution. This task has been accomplished here by means of the Tikhonov regularization scheme combined with the L-curve method. The resulting pion spectrum is in an excellent quantitative agreement with the pion spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solving the Examination Timetabling Problem in GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Kolonias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The examination timetabling problem belongs to the class of combinatorial optimization problems and is of great importance for every University. In this paper, a hybrid evolutionary algorithm running on a GPU is employed to solve the examination timetabling problem. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm proposed has a genetic algorithm component and a greedy steepest descent component. The GPU computational capabilities allow the use of very large population sizes, leading to a more thorough exploration of the problem solution space. The GPU implementation, depending on the size of the problem, is up to twenty six times faster than the identical single-threaded CPU implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm is evaluated with the well known Toronto datasets and compares well with the best results found in the bibliography. Moreover, the selection of the encoding of the chromosomes and the tournament selection size as the population grows are examined and optimized. The compressed sparse row format is used for the conflict matrix and was proven essential to the process, since most of the datasets have a small conflict density, which translates into an extremely sparse matrix.

  17. Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ganor-Stern

    Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.

  18. Using qualitative problem-solving strategies to highlight the role of conceptual knowledge in solving problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.

    1996-12-01

    We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.

  19. The Place of Problem Solving in Contemporary Mathematics Curriculum Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Kaye

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the presentation of problem solving and process aspects of mathematics in curriculum documents from Australia, UK, USA and Singapore. The place of problem solving in the documents is reviewed and contrasted, and illustrative problems from teachers' support materials are used to demonstrate how problem solving is now more often…

  20. Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando V. Obiedo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.

  1. Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941

  2. Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Yih Chen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.

  3. Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping Instructional ... mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. ... development of problem solving skills before the end of SSCE Programmebr ...

  4. Spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibali, Martha W; Spencer, Robert C; Knox, Lucy; Kita, Sotaro

    2011-09-01

    Do gestures merely reflect problem-solving processes, or do they play a functional role in problem solving? We hypothesized that gestures highlight and structure perceptual-motor information, and thereby make such information more likely to be used in problem solving. Participants in two experiments solved problems requiring the prediction of gear movement, either with gesture allowed or with gesture prohibited. Such problems can be correctly solved using either a perceptual-motor strategy (simulation of gear movements) or an abstract strategy (the parity strategy). Participants in the gesture-allowed condition were more likely to use perceptual-motor strategies than were participants in the gesture-prohibited condition. Gesture promoted use of perceptual-motor strategies both for participants who talked aloud while solving the problems (Experiment 1) and for participants who solved the problems silently (Experiment 2). Thus, spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.

  5. The Automatic Generation of Knowledge Spaces From Problem Solving Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovanovic, Ivica; Jeuring, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore theoretical and practical aspects of the automatic generation of knowledge spaces from problem solving strategies. We show how the generated spaces can be used for adapting strategy-based problem solving learning environments (PSLEs).

  6. Effects of Concept Mapping and Problem Solving Instructional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    (iii). lack of organizational skill in solving quantitative problems. (Onwu, 1982, Onwu ... improved in terms of conceptual thinking, intuitive knowledge and insightful ... Problem Solving: This is a cognitive learning strategy which has to do with ...

  7. Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout their B.Sc. Course. ... there is a need for explicitly identifying important cognitive skills and strategies and ... Keywords: Cognitive skills, thinking skills, problem solving, students' ...

  8. How to make university students solve physics problems requiring mathematical skills: The "Adventurous Problem Solving" approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mul, F.F.M.; Martin Batlle, C.; Martin i Batlle, Cristina; de Bruijn, Imme; Rinzema, K.; Rinzema, Kees

    2003-01-01

    Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential

  9. Network Analysis of Students' Use of Representations in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPadden, Daryl; Brewe, Eric

    2016-03-01

    We present the preliminary results of a study on student use of representations in problem solving within the Modeling Instruction - Electricity and Magnetism (MI-E&M) course. Representational competence is a critical skill needed for students to develop a sophisticated understanding of college science topics and to succeed in their science courses. In this study, 70 students from the MI-E&M, calculus-based course were given a survey of 25 physics problem statements both pre- and post- instruction, covering both Newtonian Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism (E&M). For each problem statement, students were asked which representations they would use in that given situation. We analyze the survey results through network analysis, identifying which representations are linked together in which contexts. We also compare the representation networks for those students who had already taken the first-semester Modeling Instruction Mechanics course and those students who had taken a non-Modeling Mechanics course.

  10. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks...... by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have...... an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non...

  11. Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chien Sing

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.

  12. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  13. Using Systemic Problem Solving (SPS) to Assess Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the uses of systemic problem solving in chemistry at the tertiary level. Traditional problem solving (TPS) is a useful tool to help teachers examine recall of information, comprehension, and application. However, systemic problem solving (SPS) can challenge students and probe higher cognitive skills ...

  14. The Role of Expository Writing in Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Tracy S.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical problem-solving is notoriously difficult to teach in a standard university mathematics classroom. The project on which this article reports aimed to investigate the effect of the writing of explanatory strategies in the context of mathematical problem solving on problem-solving behaviour. This article serves to describe the…

  15. Using Digital Mapping Tool in Ill-Structured Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Scaffolding students' problem solving and helping them to improve problem solving skills are critical in instructional design courses. This study investigated the effects of students' uses of a digital mapping tool on their problem solving performance in a design case study. It was found that the students who used the digital mapping tool…

  16. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  17. Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…

  18. Systematic Problem Solving in Production: The NAX Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsdottir, Aslaug; Nygaard, Martin; Edwards, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the NAX problem solving approach developed by a group of problem solving experts at a large Danish Producer of medical equipment. The company, “Medicmeter” is one of Denmark’s leading companies when it comes to lean and it has developed a strong problem solving culture. The ma...

  19. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  20. Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-10-01

    In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two-step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

  1. Find the Dimensions: Students Solving a Tiling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Students learn mathematics by solving problems. Mathematics textbooks are full of problems, and mathematics teachers use these problems to test students' understanding of mathematical concepts. This paper discusses how problem-solving skills can be fostered with a geometric tiling problem.

  2. Novel Problem Solving - The NASA Solution Mechanism Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the

  3. A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.

    1989-03-01

    This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.

  4. Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.

    2017-03-01

    Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.

  5. Solved Problems in Quantum and Statistical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Cini, Michele; Sbragaglia, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    This work arises from our teaching this subject during many years. The vast majority of these exercises are the exams we gave to our students in this period. We carefully selected the subjects of the exercises to cover all the material which is most needed  and which is treated in the most well known texts on these subjects. Each exercise is carefully solved in full details, explaining the theory behind the solution with particular care for those issues that, from our experience, are found most difficult from the average student. Indeed, several exercises are designed to throw light on  aspects of the theory that, for one reason or another, are usually neglected with the result to make the students feel uneasy about them. In fact most students get acquainted just with the more common manipulations,  which are illustrated by  many examples in textbooks. Our exercises never require extensive calculations  but tend to be somewhat unusual  and force the solver  to think about the problem starting from the ...

  6. Flexibility in Mathematics Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, N. A.; Amin, S. M.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    Flexibility is an ability which is needed in problem solving. One of the ways in problem solving is influenced by Adversity Quotient (AQ). AQ is the power of facing difficulties. There are three categories of AQ namely climber, camper, and quitter. This research is a descriptive research using qualitative approach. The aim of this research is to describe flexibility in mathematics problem solving based on Adversity Quotient. The subjects of this research are climber student, camper student, and quitter student. This research was started by giving Adversity Response Profile (ARP) questioner continued by giving problem solving task and interviews. The validity of data measurement was using time triangulation. The results of this research shows that climber student uses two strategies in solving problem and doesn’t have difficulty. The camper student uses two strategies in solving problem but has difficulty to finish the second strategies. The quitter student uses one strategy in solving problem and has difficulty to finish it.

  7. Improving mathematical problem solving skills through visual media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, S. A.; Darhim; Ikhwanudin, T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to find out the enhancement of students’ mathematical problem solving by using visual learning media. The ability to solve mathematical problems is the ability possessed by students to solve problems encountered, one of the problem-solving model of Polya. This preliminary study was not to make a model, but it only took a conceptual approach by comparing the various literature of problem-solving skills by linking visual learning media. The results of the study indicated that the use of learning media had not been appropriated so that the ability to solve mathematical problems was not optimal. The inappropriateness of media use was due to the instructional media that was not adapted to the characteristics of the learners. Suggestions that can be given is the need to develop visual media to increase the ability to solve problems.

  8. Problem Solving: Helping Students Move From Novices Toward Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2010-10-01

    When introductory physics students engage in problem solving, they often exhibit behaviors that can frustrate their teachers. Some well-known examples of these habits include refusing to draw free-body diagrams, hunting through the book to find an example problem to use as a (perhaps inappropriate) template, and the classic ``plug-n-chug'' mentality. Studies in science education and cognitive science have yielded rational explanations for many of these novice behaviors and lay a groundwork for instructors to aid their students in beginning to develop more expert-like skills and behaviors. A few examples of these studies, as well as curricular tools that have developed as a result, will be shared. These tools not only encourage students to try more expert-like strategies, but also prime them for developing conceptual understanding.

  9. Creative Problem Solving as a Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ninck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Business School at the Bern University of Applied Sciences is offering a new MScBA degree program in business development. The paper presents a practical report about the action learning approach in the course 'Business Analysis and Design'. Our problem-based approach is more than simply 'learning by doing'. In a world of increasing complexity, taking action alone will not result in a learning effect per se. What is imperative is to structure and facilitate the learning process on different levels: individual construction of mental models; understanding needs and developing adequate solutions; critical reflection of methods and processes. Reflective practice, where individuals are learning from their own professional experiences rather than from formal teaching or knowledge transfer, may be the most important source for lifelong learning.

  10. Making Sure you Solve the Right Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Cartledge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macleod et al. have given us an admirable case study and argued that "... there is an urgent need to create stronger and more transparent, integrated, and adaptive linkages between opening-up and closing down mechanisms at the science-policy interface." Two questions must be addressed: what sorts of managerial reform would be required to achieve this? and Is this likely to happen? A natural subsidiarity makes large institutions more inclined to "closing down" (specification actions and smaller ones more inclined to open problems up. The method of boundary judgments developed in integrative research could be applied to the science-policy interface but there are political and sociological reasons why this is unlikely to happen. Receptiveness to opening up actions is a prerequisite of innovation. Innovations are suppressed in times of geopolitical and economic stress. The result is often an ill-structured, co-evolutionary dynamic in which the actions of one species or population reduce the fitness of another.

  11. 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya

    2015-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  12. Strategies, Not Solutions: Involving Students in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Kuster, Lee N.

    1984-01-01

    Defines problem solving, discusses the use of problems developed by students that are relevant to their own lives, presents examples of practical mathematics problems that deal with local situations, discusses fringe benefits of this type of problem solving, and addresses teachers' concern that this method consumes too much time. (MBR)

  13. Examination of Turkish Junior High-School Students' Perceptions of the General Problem-Solving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Didem Inel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process. The Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process were examined in relation to their gender, grade level, age and their grade point with regards to the science course identified in the…

  14. A case study of analyzing 11th graders’ problem solving ability on heat and temperature topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianawati, D.; Muslim; Hasanah, L.; Samsudin, A.

    2018-05-01

    Problem solving ability must be owned by students after the process of physics learning so that the concept of physics becomes meaningful. Consequently, the research aims to describe their problem solving ability. Metacognition is contributed to physics learning to the success of students in solving problems. This research has already been implemented to 37 science students (30 women and 7 men) of eleventh grade from one of the secondary schools in Bandung. The research methods utilized the single case study with embedded research design. The instrument is Heat and Temperature Problem Solving Ability Test (HT-PSAT) which consists of twelve questions from three context problems. The result shows that the average value of the test is 8.27 out of the maximum total value of 36. In conclusion, eleventh graders’ problem-solving ability is still under expected. The implication of the findings is able to create learning situations which are probably developing students to embrace better problem solving ability.

  15. Teaching problem solving: Don't forget the problem solver(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Saidas M.; Corrales, Angela

    2013-05-01

    The importance of intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences has long been known but educators have debated whether to and how to incorporate those topics in an already crowded engineering curriculum. In 2010, the authors used the classroom as a laboratory to observe the usefulness of including selected case studies and exercises from the fields of neurology, artificial intelligence, cognitive sciences and social psychology in a new problem-solving course. To further validate their initial findings, in 2012, the authors conducted an online survey of engineering students and engineers. The main conclusion is that engineering students will benefit from learning more about the impact of emotions, culture, diversity and cognitive biases when solving problems. Specifically, the work shows that an augmented problem-solving curriculum needs to include lessons on labelling emotions and cognitive biases, 'evidence-based' data on the importance of culture and diversity and additional practice on estimating conditional probability.

  16. Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Insufficiencies in solving global environmental problems by specialized scientific expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, S.G.; Kra, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The most paradoxical and urgent problem faces the world today. We find ourselves between the horns of a dilemma. One horn represents the accelerating demand for energy, and the other, the irreversible degradation of our natural environment. There are two directions that we can take to solve our growing global crisis. The first step is to encourage scientific specialists to think in broader terms. The second necessary approach is to make decision makers aware of the complexity of the situation as well as the dangers of tunnel vision that experts often fall into. Therefore, to find a long-term holistic solution, decision makers, be they government officials or academics, must be, themselves, solution oriented and capable of directing scientists along broadened problem-solving pathways. Up till now, scientists have been required to research environmental problems, discover causal associations and determine effects. Contemporary scientists, in the truest sense of the meaning, are no longer generalists but are specialists in their own fields with great depth and accuracy of knowledge. However, experts of high standing may have difficulty visualizing adjacent sciences, which causes them to lose sight of topics peripheral to their main field of interest. The consequence of this can be that solutions to a problem will be sought only within particular and specialized areas, but it is, unfortunately, a fact of life that environmental problems do not come neatly packaged in scientific disciplines: they happen in their entirety, with all their synergistic implications. 5 refs., 5 figs

  18. Problem solving therapy - use and effectiveness in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, David

    2012-09-01

    Problem solving therapy (PST) is one of the focused psychological strategies supported by Medicare for use by appropriately trained general practitioners. This article reviews the evidence base for PST and its use in the general practice setting. Problem solving therapy involves patients learning or reactivating problem solving skills. These skills can then be applied to specific life problems associated with psychological and somatic symptoms. Problem solving therapy is suitable for use in general practice for patients experiencing common mental health conditions and has been shown to be as effective in the treatment of depression as antidepressants. Problem solving therapy involves a series of sequential stages. The clinician assists the patient to develop new empowering skills, and then supports them to work through the stages of therapy to determine and implement the solution selected by the patient. Many experienced GPs will identify their own existing problem solving skills. Learning about PST may involve refining and focusing these skills.

  19. Analysing student written solutions to investigate if problem-solving processes are evident throughout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Regina; McLoughlin, Eilish; Finlayson, Odilla E.

    2016-07-01

    An interdisciplinary science course has been implemented at a university with the intention of providing students the opportunity to develop a range of key skills in relation to: real-world connections of science, problem-solving, information and communications technology use and team while linking subject knowledge in each of the science disciplines. One of the problems used in this interdisciplinary course has been selected to evaluate if it affords students the opportunity to explicitly display problem-solving processes. While the benefits of implementing problem-based learning have been well reported, far less research has been devoted to methods of assessing student problem-solving solutions. A problem-solving theoretical framework was used as a tool to assess student written solutions to indicate if problem-solving processes were present. In two academic years, student problem-solving processes were satisfactory for exploring and understanding, representing and formulating, and planning and executing, indicating that student collaboration on problems is a good initiator of developing these processes. In both academic years, students displayed poor monitoring and reflecting (MR) processes at the intermediate level. A key impact of evaluating student work in this way is that it facilitated meaningful feedback about the students' problem-solving process rather than solely assessing the correctness of problem solutions.

  20. Computational Psychometrics for the Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Stephen T.; von Davier, Alina A.; Peterschmidt, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses. PMID:29238314

  1. Computational Psychometrics for the Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Polyak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.

  2. Computational Psychometrics for the Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Stephen T; von Davier, Alina A; Peterschmidt, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.

  3. Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W. (2013). Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies, Open Universiteit, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  4. Visual Problem Solving and Self‐regulation in Training Air Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwen van, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W. (2013). Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies, Open Universiteit, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  5. The semantic system is involved in mathematical problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinlin; Li, Mengyi; Li, Leinian; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Liu, Jie; Chen, Chuansheng

    2018-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation. Direct subject- and item-wise comparisons revealed that mathematical problem solving typically had greater activation than arithmetical computation in all 7 regions of the semantic system (which was based on a meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies on semantic processing). Arithmetical computation typically had greater activation in the supplementary motor area and left precentral gyrus. The results suggest that the semantic system in the brain supports mathematical problem solving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of monitoring environment on problem-solving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian K; Bailey, Charles D; Hester, Kim

    2018-01-01

    While effective and efficient solving of everyday problems is important in business domains, little is known about the effects of workplace monitoring on problem-solving performance. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the monitoring environment's effects on an individual's propensity to (1) establish pattern solutions to problems, (2) recognize when pattern solutions are no longer efficient, and (3) solve complex problems. Under three work monitoring regimes-no monitoring, human monitoring, and electronic monitoring-114 participants solved puzzles for monetary rewards. Based on research related to worker autonomy and theory of social facilitation, we hypothesized that monitored (versus non-monitored) participants would (1) have more difficulty finding a pattern solution, (2) more often fail to recognize when the pattern solution is no longer efficient, and (3) solve fewer complex problems. Our results support the first two hypotheses, but in complex problem solving, an interaction was found between self-assessed ability and the monitoring environment.

  7. PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCHOOL MATHEMATICS BASED ON HEURISTIC STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-term work, in this case only over the period of three months, can result in improvement of pupils’ abilities to solve problems whose solving algorithms are easily accessible. It also answers the question which strategies pupils will prefer and with what results. The experiment shows that even short-term work can bear positive results as far as pupils’ approach to problem solving is concerned.

  8. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

  9. Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…

  10. Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…

  11. Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum flow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and flows. This problem can be solved using two minimum flow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and flows.

  12. Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G; Jacobs, Rachel H; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire--Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Rubric for Assessing Students' Experimental Problem-Solving Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Susan E.; Brown, Eric C.; Towns, Marcy H.; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to couple problem solving both to the understanding of chemical concepts and to laboratory practices is an essential skill for undergraduate chemistry programs to foster in our students. Therefore, chemistry programs must offer opportunities to answer real problems that require use of problem-solving processes used by practicing…

  14. Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…

  15. Problem solving and Program design using the TI-92

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir.ing. Ton Marée; ir Martijn van Dongen

    2000-01-01

    This textbook is intended for a basic course in problem solving and program design needed by scientists and engineers using the TI-92. The TI-92 is an extremely powerful problem solving tool that can help you manage complicated problems quickly. We assume no prior knowledge of computers or

  16. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.

  17. The Role of Content Knowledge in Ill-Structured Problem Solving for High School Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Jeff; Wiebe, Eric

    2018-01-01

    While Physics Education Research has a rich tradition of problem-solving scholarship, most of the work has focused on more traditional, well-defined problems. Less work has been done with ill-structured problems, problems that are better aligned with the engineering and design-based scenarios promoted by the Next Generation Science Standards. This…

  18. Transformational and transactional leadership and problem solving in restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The study tries to give information on the leadership behavior of restaurant managers in their problem solving. The results of the study were collected by evaluating three restaurant managers by interviewing them. The restaurant managers’ answers were compared to transformational and transactional leadership model and the aspects of it. Their problem solving skills were evaluated by the help of a rational and creative problem solving model. The study showed that restaurant managers have both ...

  19. Understanding adults’ strong problem-solving skills based on PIAAC

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic, work-related and everyday life factors that are associated with a strong problem-solving performance. Design/methodology/approach The study builds...

  20. The Unified Problem-Solving Method Development Language UPML

    OpenAIRE

    Fensel, Dieter; Motta, Enrico; van Harmelen, Frank; Benjamins, V. Richard; Crubezy, Monica; Decker, Stefan; Gaspari, Mauro; Groenboom, Rix; Grosso, William; Musen, Mark; Plaza, Enric; Schreiber, Guus; Studer, Rudi; Wielinga, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Problem-solving methods provide reusable architectures and components for implementing the reasoning part of knowledge-based systems. The UNIFIED PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (UPML) has been developed to describe and implement such architectures and components to facilitate their semi-automatic reuse and adaptation. In a nutshell, UPML is a framework for developing knowledge-intensive reasoning systems based on libraries ofg eneric problem-solving components. The paper describe...

  1. The Enhancement of Communication Skill and Prediction Skill in Colloidal Concept by Problem Solving Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraini, Agita Dzulhajh; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy educators in selecting and implementing learning models influence students' science process skills. Models of learning that can be applied to improve science process skills and tend constructivist among athers learning model of problem solving. This research was conducted to describe the effectiveness of the learning model of problem solving in improving communication skills and prediction skills. Subjects in this research were students of high school YP Unila Bandar Lampung Even ...

  2. Solving Minimal Covering Location Problems with Single and Multiple Node Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko DRAKULIĆ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Location science represents a very attractiveresearch field in combinatorial optimization and it is in expansion in last five decades. The main objective of location problems is determining the best position for facilities in a given set of nodes.Location science includes techniques for modelling problemsand methods for solving them. This paper presents results of solving two types of minimal covering location problems, with single and multiple node coverage, by using CPLEX optimizer and Particle Swarm Optimization method.

  3. Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David

    2014-11-01

    Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Solving Dynamic Battlespace Movement Problems Using Dynamic Distributed Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradford, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... The thesis designs a system using this architecture that invokes operations research network optimization algorithms to solve problems involving movement of people and equipment over dynamic road networks...

  5. Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)

  6. Student’s scheme in solving mathematics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, Nining; Juniati, Dwi; Suwarsono

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ scheme in solving mathematics problems. Scheme are data structures for representing the concepts stored in memory. In this study, we used it in solving mathematics problems, especially ratio and proportion topics. Scheme is related to problem solving that assumes that a system is developed in the human mind by acquiring a structure in which problem solving procedures are integrated with some concepts. The data were collected by interview and students’ written works. The results of this study revealed are students’ scheme in solving the problem of ratio and proportion as follows: (1) the content scheme, where students can describe the selected components of the problem according to their prior knowledge, (2) the formal scheme, where students can explain in construct a mental model based on components that have been selected from the problem and can use existing schemes to build planning steps, create something that will be used to solve problems and (3) the language scheme, where students can identify terms, or symbols of the components of the problem.Therefore, by using the different strategies to solve the problems, the students’ scheme in solving the ratio and proportion problems will also differ.

  7. Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    undertaken by 29 subsidiary units supports our hypotheses, demonstrating that these activities are a means to systematically reduce inherent problem solving biases. This study contributes to problem solving theory, the literature on headquarters’ roles in complex organizations, as well as the literature......This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...

  8. Design and Application of Interactive Simulations in Problem-Solving in University-Level Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceberio, Mikel; Almudí, José Manuel; Franco, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, interactive computer simulations have been progressively integrated in the teaching of the sciences and have contributed significant improvements in the teaching-learning process. Practicing problem-solving is a key factor in science and engineering education. The aim of this study was to design simulation-based problem-solving…

  9. A New Method for Solving Supervised Data Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Shabanzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supervised data classification is one of the techniques used to extract nontrivial information from data. Classification is a widely used technique in various fields, including data mining, industry, medicine, science, and law. This paper considers a new algorithm for supervised data classification problems associated with the cluster analysis. The mathematical formulations for this algorithm are based on nonsmooth, nonconvex optimization. A new algorithm for solving this optimization problem is utilized. The new algorithm uses a derivative-free technique, with robustness and efficiency. To improve classification performance and efficiency in generating classification model, a new feature selection algorithm based on techniques of convex programming is suggested. Proposed methods are tested on real-world datasets. Results of numerical experiments have been presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  10. MAUVE: A New Strategy for Solving and Grading Physics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicole Breanne

    2016-05-01

    MAUVE (magnitude, answer, units, variables, and equations) is a framework and rubric to help students and teachers through the process of clearly solving and assessing solutions to introductory physics problems. Success in introductory physics often derives from an understanding of units, a command over dimensional analysis, and good bookkeeping. I developed MAUVE for an introductory-level environmental physics course as an easy-to-remember checklist to help students construct organized and thoughtful solutions to physics problems. Environmental physics is a core physics course for environmental and sustainability science (ESS) majors that teaches principles of radiation, thermodynamics, and mechanics within the context of the environment and sustainable energy systems. ESS student concentrations include environmental biology, applied ecology, biogeochemistry, and natural resources. The MAUVE rubric, inspired by nature, has encouraged my students to produce legible and tactical work, and has significantly clarified the grading process.

  11. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  12. The effect of problem-based and lecture-based instructional strategies on learner problem solving performance, problem solving processes, and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Yusra Laila

    This study compared the effect of lecture-based instruction to that of problem-based instruction on learner performance (on near-transfer and far-transfer problems), problem solving processes (reasoning strategy usage and reasoning efficiency), and attitudes (overall motivation and learner confidence) in a Genetics course. The study also analyzed the effect of self-regulatory skills and prior-academic achievement on performance for both instructional strategies. Sixty 11th grade students at a public math and science academy were assigned to either a lecture-based instructional strategy or a problem-based instructional strategy. Both treatment groups received 18 weeks of Genetics instruction through the assigned instructional strategy. In terms of problem solving performance, results revealed that the lecture-based group performed significantly better on near-transfer post-test problems. The problem-based group performed significantly better on far-transfer post-test problems. In addition, results indicated the learners in the lecture-based instructional treatment were significantly more likely to employ data-driven reasoning in the solving of problems, whereas learners in the problem-based instructional treatment were significantly more likely to employ hypothesis-driven reasoning in problem solving. No significant differences in reasoning efficiency were uncovered between treatment groups. Preliminary analysis of the motivation data suggested that there were no significant differences in motivation between treatment groups. However, a post-research exploratory analysis suggests that overall motivation was significantly higher in the lecture-based instructional treatment than in the problem-based instructional treatment. Learner confidence was significantly higher in the lecture-based group than in the problem-based group. A significant positive correlation was detected between self-regulatory skills scores and problem solving performance scores in the problem

  13. Block Model Approach in Problem Solving: Effects on Problem Solving Performance of the Grade V Pupils in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Niño Jose P.; Belecina, Rene R.

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics involves problem solving skills which prove to be difficult on the part of the pupils due to misrepresentation of the word problems. Oftentimes, pupils tend to represent the phrase "more than" as addition and the word difference as "- ". This paper aims to address the problem solving skills of grade…

  14. Understanding catastrophizing from a misdirected problem-solving perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Ida K; Boersma, Katja; MacDonald, Shane; Linton, Steven J

    2012-05-01

    The aim is to explore pain catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective. The links between catastrophizing, problem framing, and problem-solving behaviour are examined through two possible models of mediation as inferred by two contemporary and complementary theoretical models, the misdirected problem solving model (Eccleston & Crombez, 2007) and the fear-anxiety-avoidance model (Asmundson, Norton, & Vlaeyen, 2004). In this prospective study, a general population sample (n= 173) with perceived problems with spinal pain filled out questionnaires twice; catastrophizing and problem framing were assessed on the first occasion and health care seeking (as a proxy for medically oriented problem solving) was assessed 7 months later. Two different approaches were used to explore whether the data supported any of the proposed models of mediation. First, multiple regressions were used according to traditional recommendations for mediation analyses. Second, a bootstrapping method (n= 1000 bootstrap resamples) was used to explore the significance of the indirect effects in both possible models of mediation. The results verified the concepts included in the misdirected problem solving model. However, the direction of the relations was more in line with the fear-anxiety-avoidance model. More specifically, the mediation analyses provided support for viewing catastrophizing as a mediator of the relation between biomedical problem framing and medically oriented problem-solving behaviour. These findings provide support for viewing catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective and imply a need to examine and address problem framing and catastrophizing in back pain patients. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  15. The process model of problem solving difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pala, O.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Groups and organizations, or in general multi-actor decision-making groups, frequently come across complex problems in which neither the problem definition nor the interrelations of parts that make up the problem are well defined. In these kinds of situations, members of a decision-making group

  16. Interdisciplinaridade e resolução de problemas: algumas questões para quem forma futuros professores de ciências Interdisciplinarity and problem solving: some important issues for those who educate future science teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Nossa intenção, neste ensaio, é contribuir para o debate sobre o currículo implantado no curso "Licenciatura em Ciências da Natureza" da Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades (EACH da Universidade de São Paulo, no que concerne especificamente aos construtos interdisciplinaridade e resolução de problemas.Our intention in this essay is to contribute to the debate about the Natural Science Bachelor course curriculum for the Art, Science and Human Learning School (Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades - EACH at the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo - USP, focusing specifically on interdisciplinarity and problem solving.

  17. Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Problem Solving across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Hertzog, Christopher; Park, Denise C

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age. Two hundred and twenty-one healthy adults from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, aged 24-93 years, completed a cognitive battery that included measures of fluid ability (i.e., processing speed, working memory, inductive reasoning) and crystallized ability (i.e., multiple measures of vocabulary). These measures were used to predict performance on EPT. Everyday problem solving showed an increase in performance from young to early middle age, with performance beginning to decrease at about age of 50 years. As hypothesized, fluid ability was the primary predictor of performance on everyday problem solving for young adults, but with increasing age, crystallized ability became the dominant predictor. This study provides evidence that everyday problem solving ability differs with age, and, more importantly, that the processes underlying it differ with age as well. The findings indicate that older adults increasingly rely on knowledge to support everyday problem solving, whereas young adults rely almost exclusively on fluid intelligence. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Branch and bound algorithms to solve semiring constraint satisfaction problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. Considerable research has been done in solving SCSPs, but limited work has been done in building...

  19. An approach to solve replacement problems under intuitionistic fuzzy nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaganesan, M.; Ganesan, K.

    2018-04-01

    Due to impreciseness to solve the day to day problems the researchers use fuzzy sets in their discussions of the replacement problems. The aim of this paper is to solve the replacement theory problems with triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. An effective methodology based on fuzziness index and location index is proposed to determine the optimal solution of the replacement problem. A numerical example is illustrated to validate the proposed method.

  20. Strategies of solving arithmetic word problems in students with learning difficulties in mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving as an important skill is, beside arithmetic, measure and algebra, included in standards of school mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) (NCTM, 2000) and needed as a necessary skill for successfulness in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). Since solving of human problems is connected to the real life, the arithmetic word problems (in short AWP) are an important kind of mathematics tasks in scho...

  1. Students' Epistemological Framing in Quantum Mechanics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Bahar; Thompson, John D.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-01-01

    Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four…

  2. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin

    2015-01-01

    We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…

  3. Emergent Leadership in Children's Cooperative Problem Solving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjng; Anderson, Richard C.; Perry, Michelle; Lin, Tzu-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Social skills involved in leadership were examined in a problem-solving activity in which 252 Chinese 5th-graders worked in small groups on a spatial-reasoning puzzle. Results showed that students who engaged in peer-managed small-group discussions of stories prior to problem solving produced significantly better solutions and initiated…

  4. Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…

  5. Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Fredrick B.

    This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…

  6. Schema Knowledge for Solving Arithmetic Story Problems: Some Affective Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sandra P.

    This report discusses the role of affect in cognitive processing. The importance of affect in processing mathematical information is described in the context of solving arithmetic story problems. Some ideas are offered about the way affective responses to mathematical problem solving situations influence the development, maintenance, and retrieval…

  7. A theory of intelligence: networked problem solving in animal societies

    OpenAIRE

    Shour, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.

  8. Visual Attention Modulates Insight versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals,…

  9. High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

    2001-01-01

    Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…

  10. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…

  11. Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dae S.

    2011-01-01

    In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…

  12. Solving L-L Extraction Problems with Excel Spreadsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teppaitoon, Wittaya

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the use of Excel spreadsheets for solving L-L extraction problems. The key to solving the problems successfully is to be able to determine a tie line on the ternary diagram where the calculation must be carried out. This enables the reader to analyze the extraction process starting with a simple operation, the…

  13. Relationship between Problem-Solving Ability and Career Maturity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...

  14. Teachers Beliefs in Problem Solving in Rural Malaysian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palraj, Shalini; DeWitt, Dorothy; Alias, Norlidah

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving is the highest level of cognitive skill. However, this skill seems to be lacking among secondary school students. Teachers' beliefs influence the instructional strategies used for students' learning. Hence, it is important to understand teachers' beliefs so as to improve the processes for teaching problem solving. The purpose of…

  15. Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)

  16. The Relationship between Students' Problem Solving Frames and Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Wendi N.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. "Matter and Interactions"…

  17. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  18. Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

  19. Determining Students' Attitude towards Physics through Problem-Solving Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Naki

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of teacher-directed and self-directed problem-solving strategies on students' attitudes toward physics were explored. Problem-solving strategies were used with the experimental group, while the control group was instructed using traditional teaching methods. The study was conducted with 270 students at various high…

  20. Problem Solving Frameworks for Mathematics and Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…

  1. Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

    The research reported in this paper was designed to investigate the hypothesis that computer programming may support the teaching and learning of problem solving, but that to do so, problem solving must be explicitly taught. Three studies involved students in several grades: 4th, 6th, 8th, 11th, and 12th. Findings collectively show that five…

  2. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Deficits in Self-Poisoning Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared self-poisoning patients with psychiatric patients and nonpatient controls on problem-solving skills and locus of control. The psychiatric and self-poisoning groups showed deficits on interpersonal problem solving compared with nonpatient controls. The self-poisoning group performed below or at the level of the psychiatric group. Locus of…

  3. Decision-Making Styles and Problem-Solving Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared decision-making style and problem-solving appraisal in 243 undergraduates. Results suggested that individuals who employ rational decision-making strategies approach problematic situations, while individuals who endorse dependent decisional strategies approach problematic situations without confidence in their problem-solving abilities.…

  4. Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)

  5. An approach for solving linear fractional programming problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The approach adopted is based mainly upon solving the problem algebraically using the concept of duality ...

  6. Using Everyday Materials To Promote Problem Solving in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segatti, Laura; Brown-DuPaul, Judy; Keyes, Tracy L.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines benefits of and skills involved in problem solving. Details how an environment rich in materials that foster cause-and-effect or trial-and-error explorations promote cognitive development among toddlers. Offers examples of problem-solving experiences and lists materials for use in curriculum planning. Describes the teacher' role as one of…

  7. A problem solving model for regulatory policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for

  8. Elementary School Students Perception Levels of Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Günes; Yasemin, Deringöl; Arslan, Çigdem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the perception levels of problem solving skills of elementary school students. The sample of the study is formed by totally 264 elementary students attending to 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in a big city in Turkey. Data were collected by means of "Perception Scale for Problem Solving Skills" which…

  9. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solving the rectangular assignment problem and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, J.; Volgenant, A.

    2010-01-01

    The rectangular assignment problem is a generalization of the linear assignment problem (LAP): one wants to assign a number of persons to a smaller number of jobs, minimizing the total corresponding costs. Applications are, e.g., in the fields of object recognition and scheduling. Further, we show

  11. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  12. Effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiana, Yunita; Wahyudin, Sispiyati, Ririn

    2017-08-01

    This research is aimed to describe the effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving. This research investigate the students' problem solving competency before and after learned by using discovery learning model. The population used in this research was student in grade VII in one of junior high school in West Bandung Regency. From nine classes, class VII B were randomly selected as the sample of experiment class, and class VII C as control class, which consist of 35 students every class. The method in this research was quasi experiment. The instrument in this research is pre-test, worksheet and post-test about problem solving of mathematics. Based on the research, it can be conclude that the qualification of problem solving competency of students who gets discovery learning model on level 80%, including in medium category and it show that discovery learning model effective to improve mathematical problem solving.

  13. Analysis of problem solving in terms of cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthycamurty, Rr C. C.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the problem solving based on the type of cognitive style. Subjects used in this study are students of class X SMK located in Purworejo. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. Data collection techniques used in this research is a problem-solving test to determine student problem solving and GEFT to determine the type of cognitive style possessed by students. The result of this research is to determine the mastery of each type in cognitive style, that is Field Independent type and Field Dependent type on problem solving indicator. The impact of this research is the teacher can know the mastery of student problem solving on each type of cognitive style so that teacher can determine the proper way of delivering to student at next meeting.

  14. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers’ Problem Solving Processes with Geometer’s Sketchpad: Mirror Problem

    OpenAIRE

    ÖÇAL, Mehmet Fatih; ŞİMŞEK, Mertkan

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving skill is the core of mathematics education and its importance cannot be denied. This study specifically examined 56 freshmen pre-service mathematics teachers’ problem solving processes on a specific problem with the help of Geometer’s Sketchpad (GSP). They were grouped into two-person teams to solve a problem called "the mirror problem". They were expected to solve it by means of GSP. According to their works on GSP and related reflections, there appeared two differe...

  15. Negotiation as a metaphor for distributed problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Smith, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the concept of distributed problem solving and defines it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. A framework is presented called the contract net that specifies communication and control in a distribution problem solver. Task distribution is viewed as an interactive process, a discussion carried on between a node with a task to be executed and a group of nodes that may be able to execute the task. The kinds of information are described that must be passed between nodes during the discussion in order to obtain effective problem-solving behavior. This discussion is the origin of the negotiation metaphor: task distribution is viewed as a form of contract negotiation. 32 references.

  16. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  17. Using Problem-solving Therapy to Improve Problem-solving Orientation, Problem-solving Skills and Quality of Life in Older Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdley-Kass, Shiloh D; Kass, Darrin S; Gellis, Zvi D; Bogner, Hillary A; Berger, Andrea; Perkins, Robert M

    2017-08-24

    To determine the effectiveness of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) in older hemodialysis (HD) patients by assessing changes in health-related quality of life and problem-solving skills. 33 HD patients in an outpatient hemodialysis center without active medical and psychiatric illness were enrolled. The intervention group (n = 15) received PST from a licensed social worker for 6 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 18) received usual care treatment. In comparison to the control group, patients receiving PST intervention reported improved perceptions of mental health, were more likely to view their problems with a positive orientation and were more likely to use functional problem-solving methods. Furthermore, this group was also more likely to view their overall health, activity limits, social activities and ability to accomplish desired tasks with a more positive mindset. The results demonstrate that PST may positively impact mental health components of quality of life and problem-solving coping among older HD patients. PST is an effective, efficient, and easy to implement intervention that can benefit problem-solving abilities and mental health-related quality of life in older HD patients. In turn, this will help patients manage their daily living activities related to their medical condition and reduce daily stressors.

  18. Learning Nucleic Acids Solving by Bioinformatics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rhewter; de Almeida Júnior, Edivaldo Barbosa; de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the development of a new approach to teach molecular biology to undergraduate biology students. The 34 students who participated in this research belonged to the first period of the Biological Sciences teaching course of the Instituto Federal Goiano at Urutaí Campus, Brazil. They were registered in Cell Biology in the first…

  19. Cloudbursting - Solving the 3-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G.; Heistand, S.; Vakhnin, A.; Huang, T.; Zimdars, P.; Hua, H.; Hood, R.; Koenig, J.; Mehrotra, P.; Little, M. M.; Law, E.

    2014-12-01

    Many science projects in the future will be accomplished through collaboration among 2 or more NASA centers along with, potentially, external scientists. Science teams will be composed of more geographically dispersed individuals and groups. However, the current computing environment does not make this easy and seamless. By being able to share computing resources among members of a multi-center team working on a science/ engineering project, limited pre-competition funds could be more efficiently applied and technical work could be conducted more effectively with less time spent moving data or waiting for computing resources to free up. Based on the work from an NASA CIO IT Labs task, this presentation will highlight our prototype work in identifying the feasibility and identify the obstacles, both technical and management, to perform "Cloudbursting" among private clouds located at three different centers. We will demonstrate the use of private cloud computing infrastructure at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, and Ames Research Center to provide elastic computation to each other to perform parallel Earth Science data imaging. We leverage elastic load balancing and auto-scaling features at each data center so that each location can independently define how many resources to allocate to a particular job that was "bursted" from another data center and demonstrate that compute capacity scales up and down with the job. We will also discuss future work in the area, which could include the use of cloud infrastructure from different cloud framework providers as well as other cloud service providers.

  20. A Conceptual Model for Solving Percent Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.; Nelson, L. Ted

    1994-01-01

    Presents an alternative method to teaching percent problems which uses a 10x10 grid to help students visualize percents. Offers a means of representing information and suggests different approaches for finding solutions. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  1. Solved problems in dynamical systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Tenreiro-Machado, J; Valério, Duarte; Galhano, Alexandra M

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of exercises on dynamical systems, modelling and control. Each topic covered includes a summary of the theoretical background, problems with solutions, and further exercises.

  2. Use of model analysis to analyse Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkapao, S.; Prasitpong, S.

    2018-03-01

    This study applies the model analysis technique to explore the distribution of Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving and how those attitudes and approaches change as a result of different experiences in physics learning. We administered the Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to over 700 Thai university students from five different levels, namely students entering science, first-year science students, and second-, third- and fourth-year physics students. We found that their inferred mental states were generally mixed. The largest gap between physics experts and all levels of the students was about the role of equations and formulas in physics problem solving, and in views towards difficult problems. Most participants of all levels believed that being able to handle the mathematics is the most important part of physics problem solving. Most students’ views did not change even though they gained experiences in physics learning.

  3. Dimensional analysis and qualitative methods in problem solving: II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescetti, D

    2009-01-01

    We show that the underlying mathematical structure of dimensional analysis (DA), in the qualitative methods in problem-solving context, is the algebra of the affine spaces. In particular, we show that the qualitative problem-solving procedure based on the parallel decomposition of a problem into simple special cases yields the new original mathematical concepts of special points and special representations of affine spaces. A qualitative problem-solving algorithm piloted by the mathematics of DA is illustrated by a set of examples.

  4. Collaborative problem solving with a total quality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, C M; Monnig, R

    1993-01-01

    A collaborative problem-solving system committed to the interests of those involved complies with the teachings of the total quality management movement in health care. Deming espoused that any quality system must become an integral part of routine activities. A process that is used consistently in dealing with problems, issues, or conflicts provides a mechanism for accomplishing total quality improvement. The collaborative problem-solving process described here results in quality decision-making. This model incorporates Ishikawa's cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagram, Moore's key causes of conflict, and the steps of the University of North Dakota Conflict Resolution Center's collaborative problem solving model.

  5. The Effects of a Problem Solving Intervention on Problem Solving Skills of Students with Autism during Vocational Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubova, Gulnoza

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…

  6. Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.

  7. 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya; Das, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2015) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  8. 正向情緒及幽默有助於國中生之科學問題解決嗎? Whether Positive Emotions and Humor Can Improve the Science Problem-Solving Performance of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    方紫薇 Tzu-Wei Fang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究旨在探討正向情緒及幽默對學生在科學問題解決時的成績表現、認知評估與事後情緒之影響。本研究針對國中生進行調查研究,共施測318位八年級學生,男生166 位、女生152 位。經進行t檢定及多變量變異數之統計分析後,研究結果顯示,在油醋分離之問題解決題目上,高正向情緒者在科學問題解決之成績表現、有趣程度之認知評估及事後之正向情緒,皆顯著高於低正向情緒者;在事後負向情緒上則顯著低於低正向情緒者。在鐵棒戳紙題目方面,高正向情緒者認知評估之挑戰、有趣、容易之分數,以及事後正向情緒皆顯著高於低正向情緒者。幽默版本激起之正向情緒是有比原始版本高。但幽默版本與原始版本在科學問題解決上之成績表現、認知評估與事後情緒上皆未達顯著差異。本研究可提供教師教學之參考,即如何營造正向情緒的學習氛圍及環境,來促進科學問題解決能力之學習。 This study investigates whether emotions and humor can influence science problem-solving performance, cognitive appraisal, and emotion after the event. This study conducts a survey of 318 junior high school students (166 Male and 152 Female. The statistical methods used to analyze the data are t test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The results of this study are as follows: (1 When solving the scientific problem of Oil and Vinegar Separation, students with high positive emotions had superior science problem-solving performance, interest appraisal, and positive emotions after the event compared to students with low positive emotions; however, they experienced lower negative emotion after the event than low positive emotion students did; and (2 when solving the scientific problem of Can the Iron Bar Pierce the Paper, students with high positive emotions reported higher scores of cognitive

  9. Sociodrama: Group Creative Problem Solving in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, John F.

    1990-01-01

    Sociodrama is presented as a structured, yet flexible, method of encouraging the use of creative thinking to examine a difficult problem. An example illustrates the steps involved in putting sociodrama into action. Production techniques useful in sociodrama include the soliloquy, double, role reversal, magic shop, unity of opposites, and audience…

  10. Writing Plays Using Creative Problem-Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; Hinson, Shirley

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a project which involved inner city elementary grade children with disabilities in writing and performing their own plays. A four-step playwriting process focuses on theme and character development, problem finding, and writing dialogue. The project has led to improved reading skills, attention, memory skills,…

  11. Regularization method for solving the inverse scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, A.M.; Krylov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The inverse scattering problem for the Schroedinger radial equation consisting in determining the potential according to the scattering phase is considered. The problem of potential restoration according to the phase specified with fixed error in a finite range is solved by the regularization method based on minimization of the Tikhonov's smoothing functional. The regularization method is used for solving the problem of neutron-proton potential restoration according to the scattering phases. The determined potentials are given in the table

  12. An Approach for Solving Linear Fractional Programming Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Oyakhobo Odior

    2012-01-01

    Linear fractional programming problems are useful tools in production planning, financial and corporate planning, health care and hospital planning and as such have attracted considerable research interest. The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The approach adopted is based mainly upon solving the problem algebr...

  13. Solving SAT Problem Based on Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan

    Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.

  14. Computational physics problem solving with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Rubin H; Bordeianu, Cristian C

    2015-01-01

    The use of computation and simulation has become an essential part of the scientific process. Being able to transform a theory into an algorithm requires significant theoretical insight, detailed physical and mathematical understanding, and a working level of competency in programming. This upper-division text provides an unusually broad survey of the topics of modern computational physics from a multidisciplinary, computational science point of view. Its philosophy is rooted in learning by doing (assisted by many model programs), with new scientific materials as well as with the Python progr

  15. Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers,  which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.

  16. Interference thinking in constructing students’ knowledge to solve mathematical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, W. E.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to describe interference thinking in constructing students’ knowledge to solve mathematical problems. Interference thinking in solving problems occurs when students have two concepts that interfere with each other’s concept. Construction of problem-solving can be traced using Piaget’s assimilation and accommodation framework, helping to know the students’ thinking structures in solving the problems. The method of this research was a qualitative method with case research strategy. The data in this research involving problem-solving result and transcripts of interviews about students’ errors in solving the problem. The results of this research focus only on the student who experience proactive interference, where student in solving a problem using old information to interfere with the ability to recall new information. The student who experience interference thinking in constructing their knowledge occurs when the students’ thinking structures in the assimilation and accommodation process are incomplete. However, after being given reflection to the student, then the students’ thinking process has reached equilibrium condition even though the result obtained remains wrong.

  17. [Investigation of problem solving skills among psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póos, Judit; Annus, Rita; Perczel Forintos, Dóra

    2008-01-01

    According to our present knowledge depression and hopelessness play an important role in attempted suicide and the development of hopelessness seems to be closely associated with poor problem solving skills. In the present study we have used the internationally well-known MEPS (Means-Ends Problem Solving Test; a measure of social problem solving ability) in Hungary for the first time and combined with other tests. We intended to explore the cognitive risk factors that potentially play a role in the suicidal behavior in clinical population. In our study we compared a group of individuals who had attempted suicide to a nonsuicidal psychiatric control group and a normal control group (61 subjects in each group). Our results confirm the findings of others that psychiatric patients have difficulties in social problem solving compared to normal controls. Moreover, they generate less and poorer solutions. According to our data problem solving skills of the two clinical groups were similar. A strong positive correlation was found between poor problem solving skills, depression and hopelessness which may suggest that the development of problem solving skills could help to reduce negative mood.

  18. Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Jia Sian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90

  19. Solving the uncommon reactor core neutronics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1980-01-01

    The common reactor core neutronics problems have fundamental neutron space, energy spectrum solutions. Typically the most positive eigenvalue is associated with an all-positive flux for the pseudo-steady-state condition (k/sub eff/), or the critical state is to be effected by selective adjustment of some variable such as the fuel concentration. With sophistication in reactor analysis has come the demand for solutions of other, uncommon neutronics problems. Importance functionss are needed for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, as for ratios of intergral reaction rates such as the fuel conversion (breeding) ratio. The dominant higher harmonic solution is needed in stability analysis. Typically the desired neutronics solution must contain negative values to qualify as a higher harmonic or to satisfy a fixed source containing negative values. Both regular and adjoint solutions are of interest as are special integrals of the solutions to support analysis

  20. Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzini, Andrea; Vilone, Daniele; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-11-01

    Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing.

  1. How to solve nuclear siting problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, finding sites for nuclear facilities, both reactors and waste repositories, has become more of a problem. While all agree that the difficulties are more than technical, a technical solution is presently pursued. The reverse Dutch auction generates a solution to siting. It produces a volunteer community or state, at the same time retaining public safety and environmental standards. No coercion is required. Elements of the system already exist in a number of public policy areas. (orig.) [de

  2. Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…

  3. Assessing Student Written Problem Solutions: A Problem-Solving Rubric with Application to Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic…

  4. Dasar Perspektif Model Dan Pemodelan Pada Pembelajaran Matematika Dan Problem Solving Di Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmartina

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is a complex mathematical activity, the teaching and learning of modeling and applications involves many aspects, of mathematical thinking and learning. Mathematical model is not use only in mathematics learning and natural sciences (such as physics, biology, earth science, meteorology and engineering) but also in the social sciences (such as economic, psychology, sociology and political science). Mathematical modeling in mathematical learning and problem solving involve...

  5. 1000 Solved Problems in Modern Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kamal, Ahmad A

    2010-01-01

    This book basically caters to the needs of undergraduates and graduates physics students in the area of modern physics, specially particle and nuclear physics. Lecturers/tutors may use it as a resource book. The contents of the book are based on the syllabi currently used in the undergraduate courses in USA, U.K., and other countries. The book is divided into 10 chapters, each chapter beginning with a brief but adequate summary and necessary formulas, tables and line diagrams followed by a variety of typical problems useful for assignments and exams. Detailed solutions are provided at the end of each chapter.

  6. Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyid Hasan Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by

  7. ITOUGH2: Solving TOUGH inverse problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    ITOUGH2 is a program that provides inverse modeling capabilities for the TOUGH2 code. While the main purpose of ITOUGH2 is to estimate two-phase hydraulic properties of calibrating a TOUGH2 model to laboratory or field data, the information obtained by evaluating parameter sensitivities can also be used to optimize the design of an experiment, and to analyze the uncertainty of model predictions. ITOUGH2 has been applied to a number of laboratory and field experiments on different scales. Three examples are discussed in this paper, demonstrating the code`s capability to support test design, data analysis, and model predictions for a variety of TOUGH problems.

  8. From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyub, Bilal M.

    2004-01-01

    Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters

  9. From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyub, Bilal M

    2004-09-01

    Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters.

  10. Transformational and derivational strategies in analogical problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelhorn, Sven-Eric; Griego, Jacqueline; Schmid, Ute

    2007-03-01

    Analogical problem solving is mostly described as transfer of a source solution to a target problem based on the structural correspondences (mapping) between source and target. Derivational analogy (Carbonell, Machine learning: an artificial intelligence approach Los Altos. Morgan Kaufmann, 1986) proposes an alternative view: a target problem is solved by replaying a remembered problem-solving episode. Thus, the experience with the source problem is used to guide the search for the target solution by applying the same solution technique rather than by transferring the complete solution. We report an empirical study using the path finding problems presented in Novick and Hmelo (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 20:1296-1321, 1994) as material. We show that both transformational and derivational analogy are problem-solving strategies realized by human problem solvers. Which strategy is evoked in a given problem-solving context depends on the constraints guiding object-to-object mapping between source and target problem. Specifically, if constraints facilitating mapping are available, subjects are more likely to employ a transformational strategy, otherwise they are more likely to use a derivational strategy.

  11. Problem-Solving Training: Effects on the Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ancel, Gulsum

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach problem-solving skills. The present study, as a first study in Turkey, may provide valuable insight for nurse academicians employed at üniversities. Purpose of ...

  12. Renewable Energy: An Interdisciplinary Problem Solving Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Mcgowan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new intermediate course given in the Environmental Studies Program at The New School. It incorporates research activities by the class as a whole, in the process of which the class learns a great deal about the science and technology of non-fossil fuels, their promises and difficulties. Since ameliorating human influenced global climate change, educating and training students in the skills necessary to accomplish the necessary transition is essential. The course embodies a class project on which everyone works, entitled "Fueling America," whose purpose is to determine what technologies deployed in what manner and in what quantities can eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the United States by a date certain. Knowing that it was impossible, we nevertheless chose an early date, 2030, so that it seemed reachable for the students. The project resulted in a technical paper, which included an economic analysis. In addition to alternative energy technologies, the technologies of energy efficiencies were also included.

  13. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…

  14. A descriptive model of information problem solving while using internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information

  15. Solving the uncalibrated photometric stereo problem using total variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quéau, Yvain; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Durou, Jean-Denis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method to solve the problem of uncalibrated photometric stereo, making very weak assumptions on the properties of the scene to be reconstructed. Our goal is to solve the generalized bas-relief ambiguity (GBR) by performing a total variation regularization of both...

  16. Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…

  17. Information theory and coding solved problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivaniš, Predrag

    2017-01-01

    This book is offers a comprehensive overview of information theory and error control coding, using a different approach then in existed literature. The chapters are organized according to the Shannon system model, where one block affects the others. A relatively brief theoretical introduction is provided at the beginning of every chapter, including a few additional examples and explanations, but without any proofs. And a short overview of some aspects of abstract algebra is given at the end of the corresponding chapters. The characteristic complex examples with a lot of illustrations and tables are chosen to provide detailed insights into the nature of the problem. Some limiting cases are presented to illustrate the connections with the theoretical bounds. The numerical values are carefully selected to provide in-depth explanations of the described algorithms. Although the examples in the different chapters can be considered separately, they are mutually connected and the conclusions for one considered proble...

  18. Solving the decompactification problem in string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias B; Petropoulos, P M; Rizos, J

    1996-01-01

    We investigate heterotic ground states in four dimensions in which N=4 supersymmetry is spontaneously broken to N=2. N=4 supersymmetry is restored at a decompactification limit corresponding to m_{3/2}\\to 0. We calculate the full moduli dependent threshold corrections and confirm that they are supressed in the decompactification limit m_{3/2}\\to 0 as expected from the restauration of N=4 supersymmetry. This should be contrasted with the behavior of the standard N=2 groundstates where the coupling blow up linearly with the volume of the decompactifying manifold. This mechanism provides a solution to the decompactification problem for the gauge coupling constants. We also discuss how the mechanism can be implemented in ground states with lower supersymmetry.

  19. Neurogenetic Algorithm for Solving Combinatorial Engineering Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalali Varnamkhasti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the population in a genetic algorithm plays an important role in impeding premature convergence. This paper proposes an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system genetic algorithm based on sexual selection. In this technique, for choosing the female chromosome during sexual selection, a bilinear allocation lifetime approach is used to label the chromosomes based on their fitness value which will then be used to characterize the diversity of the population. The motivation of this algorithm is to maintain the population diversity throughout the search procedure. To promote diversity, the proposed algorithm combines the concept of gender and age of individuals and the fuzzy logic during the selection of parents. In order to appraise the performance of the techniques used in this study, one of the chemistry problems and some nonlinear functions available in literature is used.

  20. Analysing Student Written Solutions to Investigate if Problem-Solving Processes Are Evident Throughout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Regina; McLoughlin, Eilish; Finlayson, Odilla E.

    2016-01-01

    An interdisciplinary science course has been implemented at a university with the intention of providing students the opportunity to develop a range of key skills in relation to: real-world connections of science, problem-solving, information and communications technology use and team while linking subject knowledge in each of the science…

  1. An Example Emphasizing Mass-Volume Relationships for Problem Solving in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, J. L.; Vepraskas, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass-volume relationships are a useful tool emphasized for problem solving in many geo-science and engineering applications. These relationships also have useful applications in soil science. Developing soils students' ability to utilize mass-volume relationships through schematic diagrams of soil phases (i.e., air, water, and solid) can help to…

  2. Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.

  3. Anger in Middle School: The Solving Problems Together Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Owens, Rachel B.

    2009-01-01

    Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), with a small group of adolescent African American boys struggling with anger management. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…

  4. Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wenjin

    2005-01-01

    A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed

  5. A Problem-Solving Model for Literacy Coaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Cathy A.

    2017-01-01

    Literacy coaches are more effective when they have a clear plan for their collaborations with teachers. This article provides details of such a plan, which involves identifying a problem, understanding the problem, deciding what to do differently, and trying something different. For each phase of the problem-solving model, there are key tasks for…

  6. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However, ...

  7. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2009-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However, ...

  8. Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.

    1999-01-01

    A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.

  9. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

  10. Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…

  11. Solving potential field problems in composite media with complicated geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.

    1977-01-01

    Recently, Yeh developed a method of solving potential field problems for complicated geometries and theorems of piecewise continuous eigenfunctions which can be used to solve boundary-value problems in composite media by the separation of variables. This paper shows that by a proper arrangement of matching conditions and boundary conditions, this method and these theorems can be applied simultaneously so that the problems in composite media with complicated geometries can be solved. To illustrate this, a heat-conduction problem in a composite cylinder with an abrupt change in cross-section area is solved. Also presented in this paper are the method of handling the nonhomogeneous boundary conditions for composite media and the extension of one of the above-mentioned theorems to include imperfect contact on material boundaries

  12. Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Cognitive skills, thinking skills, problem solving, students' difficulties with cognitive skills. 1. Introduction ... storage of information in memory, and the retrieval and use of ..... 18 P. Eggen and D. Kauchak, Educational Psychology, Windows on.

  13. Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro

    CERN Document Server

    Yamin, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...

  14. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Ayllón

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.

  15. Examining Multiscale Movement Coordination in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Steffensen, Sune Vork

    2017-01-01

    During collaborative problem solving (CPS), coordination occurs at different spatial and temporal scales. This multiscale coordination should, at least on some scales, play a functional role in facilitating effective collaboration outcomes. To evaluate this, we conducted a study of computer...

  16. The Association of DRD2 with Insight Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2016-01-01

    Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene ( DRD2 ) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving. Both single SNP and haplotype analysis revealed several associations of DRD2 SNPs and haplotypes with insight problem solving. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in insight problem solving, future studies are necessary to validate these findings.

  17. Spreadsheet-Enhanced Problem Solving in Context as Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Abramovich

    2003-07-01

    development through situated mathematical problem solving. Modeling activities described in this paper support the epistemological position regarding the interplay that exists between the development of mathematical concepts and available methods of calculation. The spreadsheet used is Microsoft Excel 2001

  18. Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-08-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.

  19. The role of qualitative discussion in problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, V.

    1998-01-01

    The paper contributes to the methodology of problem solving in physics. We argue that the task of solving a problem does not end by obtaining the result. We claim that a question like 'Why the result came out as it did?' can be meaningfully posed and that deeper understanding of the subject comes out as a result of a discussion on possible answers to such a question (Author)

  20. Comparison of mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilewská, Eliška

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe the role of educational strategy especially in field of the teaching of mathematics and to compare the mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils which are taught by using different educational strategies. In the theoretical part, the main focus is on divergent educational strategies and their characteristics, next on factors affected teaching/learning process and finally on solving the problems. The empirical part of the disse...

  1. Using a genetic algorithm to solve fluid-flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are based on the mechanics of the natural selection and natural genetics processes. These algorithms are finding increasing application to a wide variety of engineering optimization and machine learning problems. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of a genetic algorithm to solve fluid flow problems. Specifically, the authors use the algorithm to solve the one-dimensional flow equations for a pipe

  2. Problem solving teaching practices: Observer and teacher's view

    OpenAIRE

    Felmer , Patricio; Perdomo-Díaz , Josefa; Giaconi , Valentina; Espinoza , Carmen ,

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this article, we report on an exploratory study on teaching practices related to problem solving of a group of 29 novel secondary mathematics teachers. For this purpose, two independent instruments were designed, the first one is based on lesson observations, and the second one is a questionnaire answered by teachers about their teaching practices while working on non-routine problem solving with their students. For each instrument, we perform a statistical analysis...

  3. Emotion Oriented Programming: Computational Abstractions for AI Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Darty , Kevin; Sabouret , Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a programming paradigm for AI problem solving based on computational concepts drawn from Affective Computing. It is believed that emotions participate in human adaptability and reactivity, in behaviour selection and in complex and dynamic environments. We propose to define a mechanism inspired from this observation for general AI problem solving. To this purpose, we synthesize emotions as programming abstractions that represent the perception ...

  4. DESIGN AND EXAMINATION OF ALGORITHMS FOR SOLVING THE KNAPSACK PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kantsedal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of methods of branches and boundaries as well as the methods of dynamic programming at solving the problem of «knapsack» is grounded. The main concepts are expounded. The methods and algorithms development for solving the above specified problem are described. Recommendations on practical application of constructed algorithms based on their experimental investigation and carrying out charactheristics comparison are presented.

  5. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J David Creswell

    Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

  6. Patterns of problem-solving in children's literacy and arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James

    2009-11-01

    Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years I and 2 on the arithmetic (addition and subtraction) than literacy-based tasks (reading and spelling). However, across all four tasks, the children showed a tendency to move from less sophisticated procedural-based strategies, which included phonological strategies for reading and spelling and counting-all and finger modellingfor addition and subtraction, to more efficient retrieval methods from Years I to 2. Distinct patterns in children's problem-solving skill were identified on the literacy and arithmetic tasks using two separate cluster analyses. There was a strong association between these two profiles showing that those children with more advanced problem-solving skills on the arithmetic tasks also showed more advanced profiles on the literacy tasks. The results highlight how different-aged children show flexibility in their use of problem-solving strategies across literacy and arithmetical contexts and reinforce the importance of studying variations in children's problem-solving skill across different educational contexts.

  7. Teaching effective problem solving skills to radiation protection students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto

  8. A problem-solving routine for improving hospital operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Manimay; Sobek Ii, Durward K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically why a systematic problem-solving routine can play an important role in the process improvement efforts of hospitals. Data on 18 process improvement cases were collected through semi-structured interviews, reports and other documents, and artifacts associated with the cases. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Adherence to all the steps of the problem-solving routine correlated to greater degrees of improvement across the sample. Analysis resulted in two models. The first partially explains why hospital workers tended to enact short-term solutions when faced with process-related problems; and tended not seek longer-term solutions that prevent problems from recurring. The second model highlights a set of self-reinforcing behaviors that are more likely to address problem recurrence and result in sustained process improvement. The study was conducted in one hospital setting. Hospital managers can improve patient care and increase operational efficiency by adopting and diffusing problem-solving routines that embody three key characteristics. This paper offers new insights on why caregivers adopt short-term approaches to problem solving. Three characteristics of an effective problem-solving routine in a healthcare setting are proposed.

  9. Solving Large Clustering Problems with Meta-Heuristic Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Andersen, Kim Allan; Bang-Jensen, Jørgen

    In Clustering Problems, groups of similar subjects are to be retrieved from data sets. In this paper, Clustering Problems with the frequently used Minimum Sum-of-Squares Criterion are solved using meta-heuristic search. Tabu search has proved to be a successful methodology for solving optimization...... problems, but applications to large clustering problems are rare. The simulated annealing heuristic has mainly been applied to relatively small instances. In this paper, we implement tabu search and simulated annealing approaches and compare them to the commonly used k-means approach. We find that the meta-heuristic...

  10. Does Solving Insight-Based Problems Differ from Solving Learning-Based Problems? Some Evidence from an ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Roza; Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We asked: "What are the similarities and differences in mathematical processing associated with solving learning-based and insight-based problems?" To answer this question, the ERP research procedure was employed with 69 male adolescent subjects who solved specially designed insight-based and learning-based tests. Solutions of…

  11. The Interactions between Problem Solving and Conceptual Change: System Dynamic Modelling as a Platform for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chwee Beng

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the interactions between problem solving and conceptual change in an elementary science class where students build system dynamic models as a form of problem representations. Through mostly qualitative findings, we illustrate the interplay of three emerging intervening conditions (epistemological belief, structural knowledge…

  12. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın KANBAY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and

  13. Scaffolding for solving problem in static fluid: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes-H, Supriyono; Muhardjito, Wijaya, Charisma P.

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is one of the basic abilities that should be developed from learning physics. However, students still face difficulties in the process of non-routine problem-solving. Efforts are necessary to be taken in order to identify such difficulties and the solutions to solve them. An effort in the form of a diagnosis of students' performance in problem solving can be taken to identify their difficulties, and various instructional scaffolding supports can be utilized to eliminate the difficulties. This case study aimed to describe the students' difficulties in solving static fluid problems and the effort to overcome such difficulties through different scaffolding supports. The research subjects consisted of four 10-grade students of (Public Senior High School) SMAN 4 Malang selected by purposive sampling technique. The data of students' difficulties were collected via think-aloud protocol implemented on students' performance in solving non-routine static fluid problems. Subsequently, combined scaffolding supports were given to the students based on their particular difficulties. The research findings pointed out that there were several conceptual difficulties discovered from the students when solving static fluid problems, i.e. the use of buoyancy force formula, determination of all forces acting on a plane in a fluid, the resultant force on a plane in a fluid, and determination of a plane depth in a fluid. An effort that can be taken to overcome such conceptual difficulties is providing a combination of some appropriate scaffolding supports, namely question prompts with specific domains, simulation, and parallel modeling. The combination can solve students' lack of knowledge and improve their conceptual understanding, as well as help them to find solutions by linking the problems with their prior knowledge. According to the findings, teachers are suggested to diagnose the students' difficulties so that they can provide an appropriate combination of

  14. [Methods for teaching problem-solving in medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E

    1984-01-01

    The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter

  15. Psychosocial dimensions of solving an indoor air problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Marjaana; Huuhtanen, Pekka; Kähkönen, Erkki; Reijula, Kari

    2002-03-01

    This investigation focuses on the psychological and social dimensions of managing and solving indoor air problems. The data were collected in nine workplaces by interviews (n = 85) and questionnaires (n = 375). Indoor air problems in office environments have traditionally utilized industrial hygiene or technical expertise. However, indoor air problems at workplaces are often more complex issues to solve. Technical questions are inter-related with the dynamics of the work community, and the cooperation and interaction skills of the parties involved in the solving process are also put to the test. In the present study, the interviewees were very critical of the process of solving the indoor air problem. The responsibility for coordinating the problem-managing process was generally considered vague, as were the roles and functions of the various parties. Communication problems occurred and rumors about the indoor air problem circulated widely. Conflicts were common, complicating the process in several ways. The research focused on examining different ways of managing and resolving an indoor air problem. In addition, reference material on the causal factors of the indoor air problem was also acquired. The study supported the hypothesis that psychosocial factors play a significant role in indoor air problems.

  16. Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

  17. Solving Multiple Timetabling Problems at Danish High Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Simon

    name; Elective Course Student Sectioning. The problem is solved using ALNS and solutions are proven to be close to optimum. The algorithm has been implemented and made available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. The second Student Sectioning problem presented is the sectioning of each...... high schools. Two types of consultations are presented; the Parental Consultation Timetabling Problem (PCTP) and the Supervisor Consultation Timetabling Problem (SCTP). One mathematical model containing both consultation types has been created and solved using an ALNS approach. The received solutions...... problems as mathematical models and solve them using operational research techniques. Two of the models and the suggested solution methods have resulted in implementations in an actual decision support software, and are hence available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. These implementations...

  18. A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-08-01

    The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.

  19. Problem solving: How can we help students overcome cognitive difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberato Cardellini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to teach problem solving usually consists in showing students the solutions of some example-problems and then in asking students to practice individually on solving a certain number of related problems. This approach does not ensure that students learn to solve problems and above all to think about the solution process in a consistent manner. Topics such as atoms, molecules, and the mole concept are fundamental in chemistry and instructors may think that, for our students, should be easy to learn these concepts and to use them in solving problems, but it is not always so. If teachers do not put emphasis on the logical process during solving problems, students are at risk to become more proficient at applying the formulas rather than to reason. This disappointing result is clear from the outcomes of questionnaires meant to measure the ability to calculate the mass of a sample from the number of atoms and vice versa. A suggestion from the cognitive load theory has proved a useful way to improve students’ skills for this type of problems: the use of worked out examples. The repetition after two weeks of the Friedel-Maloney test after the use of worked examples shows that students' skills significantly improve. Successful students in all questions jumped from 2 to 64%.

  20. Development and validation of the diabetes adolescent problem solving questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Jaser, Sarah S; Rothman, Russell L; Russell, William E; Pittel, Eric J; Lybarger, Cindy; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2014-10-01

    Problem solving is a critical diabetes self-management skill. Because of a lack of clinically feasible measures, our aim was to develop and validate a self-report self-management problem solving questionnaire for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A multidisciplinary team of diabetes experts generated questionnaire items that addressed diabetes self-management problem solving. Iterative feedback from parents and adolescents resulted in 27 items. Adolescents from two studies (N=156) aged 13-17 were recruited through a pediatric diabetes clinic and completed measures through an online survey. Glycemic control was measured by HbA1c recorded in the medical record. Empirical elimination of items using principal components analyses resulted in a 13-item unidimensional measure, the diabetes adolescent problem solving questionnaire (DAPSQ) that explained 56% of the variance. The DAPSQ demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.92) and was correlated with diabetes self-management (r=0.53, pproblem solving in youth with T1D and is associated with better self-management behaviors and glycemic control. The DAPSQ is a clinically feasible self-report measure that can provide valuable information regarding level of self-management problem solving and guide patient education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioinformatics education dissemination with an evolutionary problem solving perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungck, John R; Donovan, Samuel S; Weisstein, Anton E; Khiripet, Noppadon; Everse, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Bioinformatics is central to biology education in the 21st century. With the generation of terabytes of data per day, the application of computer-based tools to stored and distributed data is fundamentally changing research and its application to problems in medicine, agriculture, conservation and forensics. In light of this 'information revolution,' undergraduate biology curricula must be redesigned to prepare the next generation of informed citizens as well as those who will pursue careers in the life sciences. The BEDROCK initiative (Bioinformatics Education Dissemination: Reaching Out, Connecting and Knitting together) has fostered an international community of bioinformatics educators. The initiative's goals are to: (i) Identify and support faculty who can take leadership roles in bioinformatics education; (ii) Highlight and distribute innovative approaches to incorporating evolutionary bioinformatics data and techniques throughout undergraduate education; (iii) Establish mechanisms for the broad dissemination of bioinformatics resource materials and teaching models; (iv) Emphasize phylogenetic thinking and problem solving; and (v) Develop and publish new software tools to help students develop and test evolutionary hypotheses. Since 2002, BEDROCK has offered more than 50 faculty workshops around the world, published many resources and supported an environment for developing and sharing bioinformatics education approaches. The BEDROCK initiative builds on the established pedagogical philosophy and academic community of the BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium to assemble the diverse intellectual and human resources required to sustain an international reform effort in undergraduate bioinformatics education.

  2. Students’ mathematical representations on secondary school in solving trigonometric problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istadi; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Sujadi, I.

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed to analyse students’ mathematical representations on secondary school in solving trigonometric problems. This research used qualitative method. The participants were 4 students who had high competence of knowledge taken from 20 students of 12th natural-science grade SMAN-1 Kota Besi, Central Kalimantan. Data validation was carried out using time triangulation. Data analysis used Huberman and Miles stages. The results showed that their answers were not only based on the given figure, but also used the definition of trigonometric ratio on verbal representations. On the other hand, they were able to determine the object positions to be observed. However, they failed to determine the position of the angle of depression at the sketches made on visual representations. Failure in determining the position of the angle of depression to cause an error in using the mathematical equation. Finally, they were unsuccessful to use the mathematical equation properly on symbolic representations. From this research, we could recommend the importance of translations between mathematical problems and mathematical representations as well as translations among mathematical representaions (verbal, visual, and symbolic) in learning mathematics in the classroom.

  3. Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Muhammad Asif Zahoor

    2014-01-01

    In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Design and Application of Interactive Simulations in Problem-Solving in University-Level Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceberio, Mikel; Almudí, José Manuel; Franco, Ángel

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, interactive computer simulations have been progressively integrated in the teaching of the sciences and have contributed significant improvements in the teaching-learning process. Practicing problem-solving is a key factor in science and engineering education. The aim of this study was to design simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and assess their effectiveness in improving students' ability to solve problems in university-level physics. Firstly, we analyze the effect of using simulation-based materials in the development of students' skills in employing procedures that are typically used in the scientific method of problem-solving. We found that a significant percentage of the experimental students used expert-type scientific procedures such as qualitative analysis of the problem, making hypotheses, and analysis of results. At the end of the course, only a minority of the students persisted with habits based solely on mathematical equations. Secondly, we compare the effectiveness in terms of problem-solving of the experimental group students with the students who are taught conventionally. We found that the implementation of the problem-solving strategy improved experimental students' results regarding obtaining a correct solution from the academic point of view, in standard textbook problems. Thirdly, we explore students' satisfaction with simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and we found that the majority appear to be satisfied with the methodology proposed and took on a favorable attitude to learning problem-solving. The research was carried out among first-year Engineering Degree students.

  5. Self-directed questions to improve students' ability in solving chemical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Rahmat Eko; Muna, Khairiatul; Suharto, Bambang; Syahmani

    2017-12-01

    Students' ability in solving chemical problems is seen from their ability to solve chemicals' non-routine problems. It is due to learning faced directly on non-routine problems will generate a meaningful learning for students. Observations in Banjarmasin Public High School 1 (SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin) showed that students did not give the expected results when they were given the non-routine problems. Learning activities by emphasizing problem solving was implemented based on the existence of knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. Both of these elements are components of metacognition. The self-directed question is a strategy that involves metacognition in solving chemical problems. This research was carried out using classroom action research design in two cycles. Each cycle consists of four stages: planning, action, observation and reflection. The subjects were 34 students of grade XI-4 at majoring science (IPA) of SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin. The data were collected using tests of the students' ability in problem solving and non-tests instrument to know the process of implementation of the actions. Data were analyzed with descriptivequantitativeand qualitative analysis. The ability of students in solving chemical problems has increased from an average of 37.96 in cycle I became 61.83 in cycle II. Students' ability to solve chemical problems is viewed based on their ability to answer self-directed questions. Students' ability in comprehension questions increased from 73.04 in the cycle I became 96.32 in cycle II. Connection and strategic questions increased from 54.17 and 16.50 on cycle I became 63.73 and 55.23 on cycle II respectively. In cycle I, reflection questions were 26.96 and elevated into 36.27 in cycle II. The self-directed questions have the ability to help students to solve chemical problems through metacognition questions. Those questions guide students to find solutions in solving chemical problems.

  6. Inquiry, play, and problem solving in a process learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaits, Anne Y.

    United States. This dissertation presents an account of the history of the institution and the continuing legacy of the early Exploratorium and its founder, Frank Oppenheimer. I argue that the institution is an early example of a constructivist learning museum. I then describe how art encourages learning in the museum. It provides means of presenting information that engage all of the senses and encourage emotional involvement. It reframes familiar sights so that viewers look more closely in search of recognition, and it presents intangible or dematerialized things in a tangible way. It facilitates play, with its many benefits. It brings fresh perspectives and processes to problem solving and the acquisition of new knowledge. This project is the study of an institution where art and science have always coexisted with equal importance, setting it apart from more traditional museums where art was added as a secondary focus to the original disciplinary concentration of the institution. Many of the exhibits were created by artists, but the real value the visual arts bring to the museum is in its contributions to processes such as inquiry, play, problem-solving, and innovation.

  7. Problem-based learning for technical students on the base TRIZ (theory of inventive problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis of modern educational technology in teaching is problem-based learning through the use of educational technologies Powerful Thinking - Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ, including a systematic approach to the complex organization of independent work of search and research character. Developed by systemic administration of the physical features workshops on the basis TRIZ in the cycle of the natural sciences with the implementation of all aspects of the educational activities - substantive, procedural and motivational. A new model of the physical design of the workshop and its form of organization, which is based on problem-based learning with the use of TRIZ Interactive form of organization of the workshop allows you to get high-quality substantive and personality of the students who have a significant role in the formation of professional competencies and affect the quality of produce practice-oriented specialists.

  8. Investigation of Problem Solving Skills among 12th Grade Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shanta, Susheela

    2017-01-01

    US competitiveness in the 21st century global economy depends on a workforce that is science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) literate, and has knowledge and skills to tackle complex technological problems. In response to the need for a STEM literate workforce equipped with 21st century skills there is a push for K-12 educational reform. STEM literacy is the ability to use content knowledge and skills in science, technology, engineering and math in solving human problems in a c...

  9. Training hydrologists to be ecohydrologists and play a leading role in environmental problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, M. E.; Chicharo, L.; Fohrer, N.; Gaviño Novillo, Marcelo; Windhorst, W.; Zalewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ecohydrology is a relatively new and rapidly growing subject area in the hydrology curriculum. It is a trans-disciplinary science derived from the larger earth systems science movement and examining mutual interactions of the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. It is also an applied science focused on problem solving and providing sound guidance to catchment-scale integrated land and water resources management. The principle spheres of ecohydrology include (i) climate-soil-vegetation-groundwat...

  10. Personality and problem-solving in common mynas (Acridotheres tristis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lermite, Françoise; Peneaux, Chloé; Griffin, Andrea S

    2017-01-01

    Animals show consistent individual differences in behaviour across time and/or contexts. Recently, it has been suggested that proactive personality types might also exhibit fast cognitive styles. The speed with which individuals sample environmental cues is one way in which correlations between personality and cognition might arise. Here, we measured a collection of behavioural traits (competitiveness, neophobia, neophilia, task-directed motivation and exploration) in common mynas (Acridotheres tristis) and measured their relationship with problem solving. We predicted that fast solving mynas would interact with (i.e. sample) the problem solving task at higher rates, but also be more competitive, less neophobic, more neophilic, and more exploratory. Mynas that were faster to solve a novel foraging problem were no more competitive around food and no more inclined to take risks. Unexpectedly, these fast-solving mynas had higher rates of interactions with the task, but also displayed lower levels of exploration. It is possible that a negative relation between problem solving and spatial exploration arose as a consequence of how inter-individual variation in exploration was quantified. We discuss the need for greater consensus on how to measure exploratory behaviour before we can advance our understanding of relationships between cognition and personality more effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Conocimientos y procesos cognitivos en la resolución de problemas de ciencias: consecuencias para la enseñanza (Knowledge Base and Cognitive Processes in Science Problem Solving: Consequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Josep Solaz Portolés

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo presenta una visión en conjunto de las investigaciones sobre la base de conocimientos y los procesos cognitivos implicados en la resolución de problemas, y cómo éstos afectan el desempeño de los estudiantes cuando resuelven los problemas. En la base de conocimientos se discute el conocimiento declarativo, el procedimental, el estratégico, el situacional y el esquemático. Entre los procesos cognitivos se habla del razonamiento formal, construcción de modelos mentales, transferencia de conocimientos y metacognición. A partir de todo ello, se sugiere una serie de medidas instruccionales que pueden tener aplicación en el aula de ciencias.AbstractThis article presents a joint vision with studies about knowledge bases and cognitive processes implied in problem solving, and how these affect students’ performance as they solve problems. The knowledge base discusses declarative, procedural, strategic, situational, and schematic knowledge. Within cognitive processes, formal reasoning, mental model construction, knowledge transference, and meta-cognition are discussed. From all this, a series of institutional measures that can be applied in the science classroom are recommended.ResumoO artigo apresenta uma visão compartilhada com as pesquisas sobre a base de conhecimentos e os processos cognitivos implicados na resolução de problemas, e como esses afeitam o desempenho dos estudantes quando resolvem problemas. Na base de conhecimentos discute-se o conhecimento declarativo, procedimental, estratégico, situacional, e esquemático. Entre os processos cognitivos, se fala do razoamento formal, construção de modelos mentais, transferência de conhecimentos e meta-cognição. A partir de tudo isto, sugere-se uma série de medidas instrucionais que podem ter aplicação na aula de ciências.

  12. Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…

  13. The Importance of Monitoring Skills in Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Marlina; Talib, Corrienna-Abd; Hasniza Ibrahim, Nor; Surif, Johari; Halim Abdullah, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how important "monitoring" is as metacognitive skills in solving physics problems in the field mechanics. Based on test scores, twenty one students were divided into two groups: more successful (MS) and less successful (LS) problem solvers. Students were allowed to think-aloud while they worked on…

  14. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  15. Can Students Identify the Relevant Information to Solve a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan; Yu, Shengquan; Li, Baoping; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Solving non-routine problems is one of the most important skills for the 21st century. Traditional paper-pencil tests cannot assess this type of skill well because of their lack of interactivity and inability to capture procedural data. Tools such as MicroDYN and MicroFIN have proved to be trustworthy in assessing complex problem-solving…

  16. Effects of cooperative and problem-solving learning strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning is internalised faster and better when students are given opportunity to interact with one another in small groups; when topics are structured to solve real life problems, studying becomes fun and learning is facilitated and internalised; students learn better when a problem is used as a starting point for new ...

  17. Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes

  18. An ontological framework for model-based problem-solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multidisciplinary projects to solve real world problems of increasing complexity are more and more plagued by obstacles such as miscommunication between modellers with different disciplinary backgrounds and bad modelling practices. To tackle these difficulties, a body of knowledge on problems, on

  19. Students' errors in solving linear equation word problems: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined errors students make in solving linear equation word problems with a view to expose the nature of these errors and to make suggestions for classroom teaching. A diagnostic test comprising 10 linear equation word problems, was administered to a sample (n=130) of senior high school first year Home ...

  20. A Unified Model of Attention and Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    paradigma deocribed boro. In confliot condition. In a facolitation condition GREEN Stroup sitnations signls are preented simultaneously o would be plinted In...and perforlao. paradigma similar to theae studied .. . .. ’ Attention and Problem solInS Page 65 Attention and Problem Solving Page 66 her.. Mis