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Sample records for science olympics date

  1. The Introduction of the Antiochene Olympics: A Proposal for a New Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Remijsen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Malalas' account of games at Antioch, the confusions and doublets reflect his simplification of diverse festivals; the first Olympics there should be dated to A.D. 212 rather than earlier.

  2. In the Zone--Bringing Science to the Olympic Games for Students in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leah; Atkinson, Melissa; Schofield, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust is running a national engagement and education initiative inspired by the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. "In the Zone" involves sending practical science kits to every UK school and college. Here, we discuss the development of the school activities and how the feedback from pilot schools helped to shape the…

  3. Construction of the Cognitive Dimension of the Scientific Literacy in the Students through the Costa Rican Biological Sciences Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Camacho-Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research recognizes the cognitive contributions to the students participating in the Third Costa Rican Biological Sciences Olympics that will define the advancement and strengthening in the construction of its conceptual dimension in the scientific literacy.  This paper is based, mainly, on qualitative approach techniques (ethnographic design:  case study; however, some data are interpreted through quantitative methodologies (descriptive design with an explanatory and exploratory touch for the analysis of a sample of 54 high school students, finalists in the category A of the Olympics, through the use of tools such as a documentary study and a survey, in July 2009.  The information generated was analyzed using elements of inferential and descriptive statistics, figures and histograms.  It was proved that there is a better cognitive management in the topics assessed, an increase in the students’ academic performance as the tests are applied, a commitment for the academic update supported by the development of several tasks for previous preparation, curriculum contributions unprecedented based on our sample, a consent to optimize student’s knowledge about Biology, which will allow the application of scientific notions to diversify and renew the knowledge, according to what is established in the principles of scientific literacy.

  4. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  5. Where science meets practice: Olympic coaches' crafting of the tapering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Darren; Allen, Justine B; Kirkland, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Although there is research providing physiologically-based guidance for the content of the taper, this study was the first to examine how coaches actually implement the taper. The purpose of this study was to examine the taper planning and implementation processes of successful Olympic coaches leading up to major competitions and how they learned about tapering. Seven track and field coaches participated in semi-structured interviews exploring their tapering processes. To be considered for inclusion, coaches were required to have coached one or more athletes to an Olympic or Paralympic medal. Through a process of axial and open coding interview transcripts were analysed and lower and higher order themes developed describing the coaches' tapering processes. Our findings indicate that the strategies employed to achieve the desired physiological adaptions of the taper were consistent with research (e.g., reduction in volume whilst maintaining intensity and frequency). However, our findings also suggest that tapering is far from a straight forward "textbook" process. The taper was not restricted to physiological outcomes with coaches considering athletes' psychological as well as physical state. Coaches also involved the athlete in the process, adapted the taper to the athlete, continually monitored its progress, and adapted it further as required.

  6. Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10): a World Weather Research Programme Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, G. A.; Joe, P. I.; Mailhot, J.; Bailey, M.; Bélair, S.; Boudala, F. S.; Brugman, M.; Campos, E.; Carpenter, R. L.; Crawford, R. W.; Cober, S. G.; Denis, B.; Doyle, C.; Reeves, H. D.; Gultepe, I.; Haiden, T.; Heckman, I.; Huang, L. X.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Mo, R.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Smith, T.; Stewart, R. E.; Wang, D.; Wilson, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    A World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) project entitled the Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10) was developed to be associated with the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games conducted between 12 February and 21 March 2010. The SNOW-V10 international team augmented the instrumentation associated with the Winter Games and several new numerical weather forecasting and nowcasting models were added. Both the additional observational and model data were available to the forecasters in real time. This was an excellent opportunity to demonstrate existing capability in nowcasting and to develop better techniques for short term (0-6 h) nowcasts of winter weather in complex terrain. Better techniques to forecast visibility, low cloud, wind gusts, precipitation rate and type were evaluated. The weather during the games was exceptionally variable with many periods of low visibility, low ceilings and precipitation in the form of both snow and rain. The data collected should improve our understanding of many physical phenomena such as the diabatic effects due to melting snow, wind flow around and over terrain, diurnal flow reversal in valleys associated with daytime heating, and precipitation reductions and increases due to local terrain. Many studies related to these phenomena are described in the Special Issue on SNOW-V10 for which this paper was written. Numerical weather prediction and nowcast models have been evaluated against the unique observational data set now available. It is anticipated that the data set and the knowledge learned as a result of SNOW-V10 will become a resource for other World Meteorological Organization member states who are interested in improving forecasts of winter weather.

  7. Olympic Broadcast Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Žižka, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Title: Olympic Broadcast Rights Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to analyse the revenue derived from the sale of the broadcasting rights to the Olympics by Olympic Movement. In the thesis are analysed the total sum of revenue, selected territory and compared the proportion that belongs to the International Olympic Committee and the Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games. The secondary objective is to adapt and calculation of the conversion mechanism for the transfer of amou...

  8. LHC Olympics flex physicists' brains

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Physicists from around the world met at CERN to strengthen their data-deciphering skills at the second LHC Olympics workshop. Physicists gather for the second LHC Olympics workshop. Coinciding with the kick-off of the winter Olympics in Turin, more than 70 physicists gathered at CERN from across the globe for the second LHC Olympics workshop on 9-10 February. Their challenge, however, involved brains rather than brawn. As the switch-on date for the LHC draws near, scientists excited by the project want to test and improve their ability to decipher the unprecedented amount of data that the world's biggest and most powerful particle accelerator is expected to generate. The LHC Olympics is a coordinated effort to do just that, minus the gold, silver and bronze of the athletics competition. 'In some ways, the LHC is not a precision instrument. It gives you the information that something is there but it's hard to untangle and interpret what it is,' said University of Michigan physicist Gordy Kane, who organiz...

  9. Eclipses and the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2000-12-01

    Like returns of Halley's comet the Olympic games occur periodically, though not as regularly in antiquity. Dates were also imprecise due to the chaotic calendars in use. Reported sightings of comets and eclipses can be used with game dates to help fix ancient events. However some reported darkening of the sun, e.g., after Julius Caesar's murder in 44 BC, was due to volcanic eruptions. A red comet, visible in daylight, first appeared during the games that year. It was also seen from China and Korea (Pang, Sciences 31, 30). Phlegon's ``Olympiads" (2nd century) says that Christ's crucifixion was in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 29-33), when a total solar eclipse occurred in the 6th hour. Only the Nov. 24, AD 29 eclipse over Asia Minor can match that, and Joel's prophecy (Acts 2, 14-21) that ``the sun will be turned to darkness and moon to blood." However it conflicts with ``the first day of Passover," as recorded by Mathew, Mark and Luke, i.e., full moon in early spring. Humphreys and Waddington (Nature 306, 743) have suggested meteorological darkening and the April 3, AD 33 lunar eclipse instead. Schaefer has questioned the eclipse's visibility from Jerusalem (31.46N, 35.14E). The six computations he cited gave dissimilar answers due to the imprecise rates of the secular lunar acceleration, and lengthening of the day used (Q.Jl.R.astr.Soc. 31, 53). Lunar laser ranging has since fixed the former at -26"/cen2. Analysis of ancient Chinese solar eclipse records, e.g., the April 21, 899 BC and April 4, AD 368 ``double dawns" over Zheng, has given us a delta T (in sec) = 30t2, where t is centuries before 1800 (Pang, Yau and Chou, in ``Dynamics of Ice Age Earth: A Modern Perspective," 1998). Our computations show that the moon rose over Jerusalem, with 1/3 still in the umbra and the rest in penumbra. Holdover meteorological darkening with long absorption air mass could have help reddened the moon also. Finally the first ``eclipse season" (the Aug. 21 lunar, and

  10. Olympic territorialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Dansero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les méga-événements tels que les jeux olympiques attirent de plus en plusl’attention dans le débat relatif aux transformations urbaines. Leurs dimensions sont multiples ; leurs plus importants impacts sont sans doute ceux de nature spatiale. Ils sont l’occasion d’entreprendre une transformation urbaine extraordinaire en termes de structure interne, d’image et de compétitivité externe. À partir de l’expérience des Jeux de 2006 organisés à Turin, cet article propose une approche théorique pour l’étude de la territorialisation de méga-événements et du défi problématique leur legs.Mega-events, as the Olympic Games, receive an increasing attention in the debate about urban transformations. They have multiple dimensions but surely one of the most important impacts are the spatial ones. They are an occasion of extraordinary urban transformation, in its inside structure, in its image and in its external competitiveness. Moving from Torino 2006, this paper present a theoretical approach to study the territorialization of mega-events and the problematic challenge of the legacy.

  11. Regional Income and Employment Effects of the 1972 Munich Olympic Summer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Jasmand; Wolfgang Maennig

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Olympic Games may have impacts on income and employment in the host city, but no ex post study has been carried out for European Olympic host cities to date. The present study closes this gap using the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. The data period examined in this study allows for analysis of long-term effects. In addition, the methodology avoids overestimating the significance of the effects. Finally, we report results for all possible combinations of pre- and post-Olympic p...

  12. From Romance to Rocket Science: Speed Dating in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muurlink, Olav; Poyatos Matas, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This article is the first comprehensive review of speed dating in the tertiary sector. While speed dating has its origins as a networking technique to connect singles, it has only more recently made its way into the academy. Since 2005 universities world-wide have begun to adopt speed dating protocols as a tool for building research culture. An…

  13. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  14. Who wins olympic bids?

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Vierhaus, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of hosting the Olympic Games is attractive to many cities around the world. This article examines 147 variables’ potential to discriminate successful from unsuccessful Olympic bids. Our stepwise, rank-ordered logistic regression model includes 10 determinants supporting the contention that economic, political and sports/Olympic factors are important for winning the host city election. IOC members favor cities if more than 2/3 of the population support the bid, but disfavor biddin...

  15. Penguin Olympics!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how a second grade science unit on penguins became the ideal content to integrate with the physical education curriculum. The movement experiences reinforced the information students learned about penguins and helped students to gain a deeper understanding of penguin behaviors. Together, the physical education teacher and the…

  16. Post-Olympism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    been faced by crises that have threatened the spirit of Olympism and even the Games themselves. Given the many changes that have occurred in the Olympic Games during the past century it seems reasonable to ask if this global event has a future and, if so, what form it might take. Whit this larger issue...

  17. Air pollution, athletic health and performance at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were. The author had a medical role at five of the seven Olympic Games that will be examined and hence has personal experiences. Information was obtained from the readily accessible official reports of the Olympic Games, relevant published papers and books and the internet. For each of these seven Olympic Games, monitoring AQ was far below current acceptable standards and for the majority, minimal or no data on major pollutants was available. From what can be ascertained, at these Games, AQ varied but was less than optimal in most if not all. Nevertheless, there were few reported or known unfavorable effects on the health of Olympic athletes. To date, there have been few reported consequences of sub-optimal AQ at Olympic Games. The focus on AQ at Olympic Games has gradually increased over the past five decades and is expected to continue into the future.

  18. The Olympic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Rose; Mark M. Spiegel

    2009-01-01

    Economists are skeptical about the economic benefits of hosting "mega-events" such as the Olympic Games or the World Cup, since such activities have considerable cost and seem to yield few tangible benefits. These doubts are rarely shared by policy-makers and the population, who are typically quite enthusiastic about such spectacles. In this paper, we reconcile these positions by examining the economic impact of hosting mega-events like the Olympics; we focus on trade. Using a variety of trad...

  19. Olympic Education and Beyond: Olympism and Value Legacies from the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia

    2012-01-01

    This article starts with a discussion on the links between Olympism and education as presented in the early years of the modern Olympic Movement and the ideological vision of its founder, Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Questions about whether that vision can remain as an ideological platform for the Olympic and Paralympic Games are debated in the…

  20. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female) in a compl...... to yacht types, and reviews the existing knowledge on physical requirements in modern Olympic sailing. Finally, recommendations for future research in sailing are given.......Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female......) in a complete national Olympic delegation. The yachts have different requirements with respect to handling, and moreover, each sailor plays a specific role when sailing. Therefore physical demands remain heterogeneous for Olympic sailors. Previous studies have mainly examined sailors where 'hiking' (the task...

  1. Physics Problems Based on Up-to-Date Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folan, Lorcan M.; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir I.

    2007-03-01

    We observe a huge chasm between up-to-date science and undergraduate education. The result of this chasm is that current student interest in undergraduate science is low. Consequently, students who are graduating from college are often unable to take advantage of the many opportunities offered by science and technology. Cutting edge science and technology frequently use the methods learned in undergraduate courses, but up-to-date applications are not normally used as examples or for problems in undergraduate courses. There are many physics problems which contain information about the latest achievements in science and technology. But typically, the level of these problems is too advanced for undergraduates. We created physics problems for undergraduate science and engineering students, which are based on the latest achievements in science and technology. These problems have been successfully used in our courses at the Polytechnic University in New York. We believe that university faculty may suggest such problems in order to provide information about the frontiers of science and technological, demonstrate the importance of undergraduate physics in solving contemporary problems and raise the interest of talented students in science. From the other side, our approach may be considered an indirect way for advertising advanced technologies, which undergraduate students and, even more important, future college graduates could use in their working lives.

  2. Isaac Newton Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Presents the Isaac Newton Olympics in which students complete a hands-on activity at seven stations and evaluate what they have learned in the activity and how it is related to real life. Includes both student and teacher instructions for three of the activities. (YDS)

  3. Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Norman, Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This issue focuses on an economic understanding of the 1984 Olympiad, held in Los Angeles, California. The theme article provides a conceptual introduction focused on the role of scarcity in the giving of awards, allocation mechanisms, competition, consumption versus investment, and private and external benefits of the Olympics. Four instructional…

  4. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  5. Olympic Games Bids

    OpenAIRE

    Dichter, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Hosting international sport events, from world championships for a single sport to mega-events such as the Olympic Games or the FIFA World Cup, have become big business over the past few decades. These events have grown tremendously since their early incarnations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The popularity and appeal of sport make hosting sporting events desirable for both local politicians and national sport leaders who work together to convince the public and the i...

  6. 78 FR 10595 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Outreach for new RAC Replacement members. SUMMARY: Interested citizens are... information, please contact Donna Nemeth at 360-956-2274 or Bill Shelmerdine at 360-956- 2282. Dated: February...

  7. 77 FR 65359 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Outreach for new RAC members. SUMMARY: Interested citizens are invited to... information, please contact Donna Nemeth at 360-956-2274 or Bill Shelmerdine at 360-956- 2282. Dated: October...

  8. Constructivist Pedagogies for Olympism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpan, Ian; McBain, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Olympism as a philosophical concept has been highly contested and challenged for its relevancy in a contemporary world. Some scholars argue that Olympism is simply a relic of the modern age and has little educative and/or social legitimacy. Others argue that despite the criticism and its contested nature it remains one of the most coherent and…

  9. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  10. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  11. Science that connects the past and the future. Fifty years of 14C dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, M.

    2006-01-01

    Major contribution of radiochemistry in archaeological sciences is the dating which provides the most essential information in studies of prehistory. In particular the method of 14 C dating revolutionized the theory of civilization in the world. In this talk I will review 50 years of 14 C dating, techniques and applications, and then the possibilities in contemporary world. The technical developments are featured by ultra-sensitive method of accelerator mass spectrometry in 1977 and its developments, and an introduction of international calibration datasets for 14 C dates started in 1986. Both contributed greatly to improvements in versatility and precision for dating. As for the applications, several interesting topics are reviewed such as the origin of agriculture and its propagation in the western world, the oldest pottery production in Japanese archipelago and its relation to world climate, paddy-rice agriculture and its propagation in Japanese archipelago. Since 14 C studies in nature is also well known as key information on carbon dynamics in earth's surface, it may be said that 14 C play an extraordinary role in understanding our past, present and the future. (author)

  12. Smoke Rings: Towards a Comprehensive Tobacco Free Policy for the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel; Fang, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The tobacco industry has long sought affiliation with major sporting events, including the Olympic Games, for marketing, advertising and promotion purposes. Since 1988, each Olympic Games has adopted a tobacco-free policy. Limited study of the effectiveness of the smoke-free policy has been undertaken to date, with none examining the tobacco industry's involvement with the Olympics or use of the Olympic brand. A comparison of the contents of Olympic tobacco-free policies from 1988 to 2014 was carried out by searching the websites of the IOC and host NOCs. The specific tobacco control measures adopted for each Games were compiled and compared with measures recommended by the WHO Tobacco Free Sports Initiative and Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This was supported by semi-structured interviews of key informants involved with the adoption of tobacco-free policies for selected games. To understand the industry's interests in the Olympics, the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) was systematically searched between June 2013 and August 2014. Company websites, secondary sources and media reports were also searched to triangulate the above data sources. This paper finds that, while most direct associations between tobacco and the Olympics have been prohibited since 1988, a variety of indirect associations undermine the Olympic tobacco-free policy. This is due to variation in the scope of tobacco-free policies, limited jurisdiction and continued efforts by the industry to be associated with Olympic ideals. The paper concludes that, compatible with the IOC's commitment to promoting healthy lifestyles, a comprehensive tobacco-free policy with standardized and binding measures should be adopted by the International Olympic Committee and all national Olympic committees.

  13. What Does Olympic Games Bring to Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In 1984, Ubeross, a wizard in the U.S.business circle, creatively combined the Olympic Games with commerce,thus made the Los Angeles Olympic Games of that year become "the Olympic Games which makes money for the first time". Since then, the original Olympic Games which "sustain losses in the sports propaganda" has possessed an ultra ability that "makes the golden-rimmed paper turn into money" Thus, the concept "Olympic economy" appeared.

  14. Doping in olympic sport: crisis and ways to overcome it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platonov Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the modern history of the spread of doping in Olympic sports, the IOC’s fight against this negative phenomenon and activities of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA established in 1999 and designed to eradicate doping. It is shown that, despite the ever-increasing financial and human resources and legal capabilities, intensive propaganda efforts, increased volume of testing, severe sanctions, and support from reputable international organizations (UN, UNESCO, Council of Europe, the Agency's multi-year activities is not only brought Olympic sport closer to solving the problem, but also dramatically aggravated and made it dangerous for the credibility and the well-being of the Olympic movement. It is not only and not so much about the competition in elite sport that dramatically increased in recent years along with socio-political and commercial attractiveness of success at the Olympics, but about fundamentally misguided methodology underlying the WADA activities and based on the neglect of the achievements of biological, medical, and sports sciences and the realities of the modern high performance sport, and drawn up on the ideas of lawyers, economists, and «universal managers». The paper outlines in detail outcomes of the activities of the WADA and anti-doping laboratories accredited by the Agency, which manifested themselves in many crisis phenomena moved far beyond the limits of the Olympic sport. Furthermore, the prospects of coming out of the grave crisis developed in this area are delineated.

  15. Olympic Dam Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit in South Australia was discovered in 1975. The Mine is located 520 kilometres NNW of Adelaide, in South Australia. Following a six year period of intensive investigation and assessment of all the aspects required for the development of the deposit, the Joint Venturers decided in December, 1985, to proceed with the project. Milling of ore commenced in June 1988 and final products are cathode copper, uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake), and refined gold and silver. Anticipated production, from treating approximately 1.5 million tonnes of ore, in normal production years, is expected to be 45,000 tonnes of copper, 1,600 tonnes of yellow cake (1350 tonnes of Uranium), 25,000 ounces of gold and 500,000 ounces of silver. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Rehabilitation at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.; Middleton, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rehabilitation work on areas denuded of vegetation during the exploration phase of the Olympic Dam project was used to test various methods for regeneration of vegetation cover in the arid zone. The test work carried out on drill pads and access tracks has indicated that, with adequate site preparation, natural regeneration is the most economical and effective method to ensure post-operational stability of the affected land-forms. An on-going monitoring regime, utilising a computer data base, has been set up to allow year-to-year comparison of rehabilitation effectiveness. The database also provides a catalogue of initial colonising plants and a measure of variations in species diversity with time

  17. China Mobile's SWOT for the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ling

    2008-01-01

    @@ This is the first time the Olympic Games held in China. The Beijing Olympics are a golden opportunity for Chinese companies to promote their products around the world. On the other hand,it is also a great challenge. Take ChinaMobile, the mobilecommunication partner for the XXIX Olympics, as an example. His marketing performance in this Olympic feast could be analyzed by S.W.O.T.

  18. Scientific retreats with 'speed dating': networking to stimulate new interdisciplinary translational research collaborations and team science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranwala, Damayanthi; Alberg, Anthony J; Brady, Kathleen T; Obeid, Jihad S; Davis, Randal; Halushka, Perry V

    2017-02-01

    To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical and Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with 'speed dating' networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat begins with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations. After each session of presentations, there is a 30 min scientific 'speed dating' period during which the presenters meet with interested attendees to exchange ideas and discuss collaborations. Retreat attendees are eligible to compete for pilot project funds on the topic of the retreat theme. The 10 retreats held have had a total of 1004 participants, resulted in 61 pilot projects with new interdisciplinary teams, and 14 funded projects. The retreat format has been a successful mechanism to stimulate novel interdisciplinary research teams and innovative translational research projects. Future retreats will continue to target topics of cross-cutting importance to biomedical and public health research. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  19. American Women: Early Pursuit for Olympic Laurels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paula

    Women were not considered in preliminary discussions concerning the events, designation of participants, competitive attire, and problems relating to amateurism in the first Olympic games. Golf was the first sport in which women participated in the Olympics, and the first woman to achieve Olympic recognition for the United States did so by winning…

  20. Olympic participation and performance since 1896

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We analyze the decision to participate and Olympic performance at the country level. We use an unbalanced panel of 118 countries over 24 editions of the Olympic Summer Games. The main focus of the paper is on economic, geographic and demographic explanations of Olympic participation and

  1. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  2. Historical Development of the Olympic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Šiljak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Movement is a term that covers all areas related to the phenomenon of Olympism. From its creation, the Olympic Movement has had to follow and to respond to numerous challenges and changes of the 20th and 21st century. The successful work of the International Olympic Committee (IOC on the implementation of their projects related to world peace, the education of youth, equal inclusion of women in every aspect of the Movement, the establishment of the Women’s Commission, the Sport for All Commission, and the Sports and the Environment Commission are facts indicating that the IOC has a significant impact on the values of the Olympic Movement. In addition to equal participation of all athletes, today, the Olympic Movement provides Olympic solidarity, education and other programs. The basic method that was used in this study was the historical method, which includes heuristic, empirical and theoretical study of the origin and development of the IOC and its operation as part of the Olympic Movement. Research results indicate that the management of the IOCas a sporting organization that manages this Movement is directed at achieving the goal to contribute to building a more peaceful and better world by educating young people through sports, and in accordance with the Olympic values. With proper management, the IOChas improved sports and has grown into an organization that is at the head of the Olympic Movement.

  3. Olympic and world sport: making transnational society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Brownell, Susan

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces the special issue of the British Journal of Sociology on the subject of the transnational aspects of Olympic and world sport. The special issue is underpinned by the perspective that because sport provides a space for the forging of transnational connections and global consciousness, it is increasingly significant within contemporary processes of globalization and the making of transnational society. In this article, we examine in turn eight social scientific themes or problems that are prominent within the special issue: globalization, glocalization, neo-liberal ideologies and policies, transnational society, securitization, global civil society, transnational/global public sphere, and fantasy/imagination. We conclude by highlighting five 'circles' of future research inquiry within world sport that should be explored by social scientists. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  4. Olympic games in Sochi, comparison and forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Kudrina, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Title: Olympic Games in Sochi, comparison and prediction Goals: Based on a research of the Olympic Games in Sochi to create a forecast of future economic effects on the territorium Method: The prediction is based on the analogic situation in other countries that held the Olympic Games in the past. Induction method of representing the thought process, during which the individual facts formulate more general assertions and theories; deduction method, which are derived from the general conclusio...

  5. The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Robert A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McMurdie, Lynn A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama; Schwaller, Mathew R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Baccus, William [Olympic National Park, Port Angeles, Washington; Lundquist, Jessica D. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Mass, Clifford F. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Nijssen, Bart [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rutledge, Steven A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Hudak, David R. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, King City, Ontario, Canada; Tanelli, Simone [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; Mace, Gerald G. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Poellot, Michael R. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Zagrodnik, Joseph P. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rowe, Angela K. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; DeHart, Jennifer C. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Madaus, Luke E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Barnes, Hannah C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-10-01

    the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) took place during the 2015-2016 fall-winter season in the vicinity of the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The goals of OLYMPEX were to provide physical and hydrologic ground validation for the U.S./Japan Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and, more specifically, to study how precipitation in Pacific frontal systems is modified by passage over coastal mountains. Four transportable scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars of various wavelengths were installed. Surface stations were placed at various altitudes to measure precipitation rates, particle size distributions, and fall velocities. Autonomous recording cameras monitored and recorded snow accumulation. Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events. Numerous Pacific frontal systems were sampled, including several reaching "atmospheric river" status, warm and cold frontal systems, and postfrontal convection

  6. Environmental monitoring at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The environmental management and protection program at the Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project, Roxby Downs, South Australia, monitors eight major environmental parameters - meteorology, vegetation, mine site rehabilitation, fauna, terrain, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well fields. It came into effect with the approval of the South Australian Government in March 1987. The Great Artesian Basin, one of the world's greatest artesian basins, is the source of the water supply for the project

  7. The Olympic effect: A reply

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Richter, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Rose & Spiegel (2011) find that Olympic Games host countries experience significant positive and lasting effects on exports. They interpret their results as an indication that countries use the hosting of such an event as a signal of their (new) openness and competitiveness. We challenge these empirical findings on the grounds that the comparison of structurally different and non-matching groups might suffer from a selection bias. We demonstrate that with an appropriately applied matching and...

  8. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.

  9. The Special Olympics: Sporting or Social Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; McDonald, Meghan L.

    2008-01-01

    Storey (2008), in his eloquent and timely critique of the Special Olympics and his call to close it down, focuses on the failure of the Special Olympics to achieve the goal of social integration and sustained social interaction among people with intellectual disabilities and their peers without a disability label. The authors wholeheartedly agree…

  10. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Fritzdorf, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games.......To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games....

  11. People’s Olympics? (Beijing 2008)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, G.P.L.; de Kloet, J.; Zeng, G.; Bajc, V.

    2016-01-01

    Granted, the question mark was not included in this main slogan of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The Beijing Olympics generated heated debates worldwide on China’s authoritarian governance, environmental pollution, human rights situation, alleged indulgence of humanitarian disaster in Darfur in

  12. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  13. Olympic Dam - the first decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, A.W.; Wilson, M.A.; Harris, J.

    1988-01-01

    Most aspects of the pre-production phase of the Olympic Dam Project, from commencement of exploration in May 1975 through to commitment to development in December 1985 are documented here. The discovery by Western Mining Corporation Ltd of copper mineralisation on Roxby Downs Station in July 1975 has led to one of the more intensive base-metal exploration programmes undertaken in Australia. Comprehensive exploration, evaluation and feasibility studies between 1975 and 1985 have delineated a probable 450 million tonnes of higher grade ore containing 2.5% copper, 0.8 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 6.0 g/t silver. The total resource is estimated at 2 billion tonnes containing 1.6% copper, 0.6 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 3.5 g/t silver. At 31 December 1985, over 540 km of surface and underground drilling had been completed, comprising over 700 surface drillholes totalling 234 km of core and 218 km of open-hole drilling, and about 900 underground diamond-drillholes totalling 90 km. The Whenan Shaft had been sunk to 500 m and driving on three levels totalled almost 10 km. More than one million tonnes of ore and mullock were raised during development. A pilot treatment plant commissioned on site produced concentrates, matte and blister copper, and ammonium diuranate. Following a technical study of the Olympic Dam Project, completed in March 1985, and a subsequent economic feasibility study, it was announced on 11 June 1985 that the initial project was considered to be commercially viable. On 8 December 1985, the joint venturers, Western Mining Corporation Holdings Ltd (51%) and the BP Group (49%), announced their commitment to the Project. An appendix lists the important events that occurred between January 1986 and December 1987 in bringing Olympic Dam to the production state. 26 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs., ills

  14. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  15. System planning of Nagano Olympic Memorial Arena; Naganoshi Olympic kinen arena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, Y.; Nakamura, M. [Kume Sekkei Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hayakawa, M.; Kondo, J. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Daidan Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Yosoyama, Y. [Suga Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-05

    Nagano Olympic Memorial Arena, well known as hosting the Speed Skate Competition in 1998 Winter Olympic Game, is the first multi-purpose facility with 400 m long ice-skate rink in Japan. The superior system for saving energy and resources is the main concept of the arena. This system covers not only the Olympic Game but also multi-functional general usage. The world records and the variety of use are the proof of the accomplishment. (author)

  16. Strategies for improving performance during long duration Olympic events : the example of Olympic distance Triathlon

    OpenAIRE

    Hausswirth , Christophe; Brisswalter , Jeanick

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This review focuses on strategic aspects which may affect performance during a long duration Olympic event: the Olympic distance Triathlon. Given the variety of races during Olympic games, Strategic aspects include as well improving technological features as energetical factors affecting the overall triathlon performance.. During the last decade, a lot of studies have attempted to identify factors reducing the metabolic load associated or not with the development of fa...

  17. The dating mind: evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Nathan; Miklousic, Igor

    2012-12-20

    In the New York Times bestselling book The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists (2006), the world was granted its first exclusive introduction to the steadily growing dating coach and pick-up artist community. Many of its most prominent authorities claim to use insights and information gleaned both through first-hand experience as well as empirical research in evolutionary psychology. One of the industry's most well-respected authorities, the illusionist Erik von Markovik, promotes a three-phase model of human courtship: Attraction, building mutual Comfort and Trust, and Seduction. The following review argues that many of these claims are in fact grounded in solid empirical findings from social, physiological and evolutionary psychology. Two texts which represent much of this literature are critiqued and their implications discussed.

  18. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    ... in preparation for the international event. China anticipates that the 2008 Olympics will provide both short-term and long-term direct and indirect benefits to its economy, as well as enhance the nation's global image...

  19. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    China will host the 2008 Olympic Summer Games from August 8 to 24, 2008. Most of the events will be held in the vicinity of Beijing, with selected competitions held in Hong Kong, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin...

  20. Olympic participation and performance since 1896

    OpenAIRE

    Kuper, Gerard; Sterken, Elmer

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the decision to participate and performance at the Modern Olympic Summer Games at the country level. We use an unbalanced panel of 118 countries over all 24 editions of the Summer Games since 1896. The main focus of the paper is on economic, geographic and demographic determinants of Olympic participation and success. We estimate the impact of income per capita, population size, home advantage, and some fixed country factors on participation and success rates. We present separate r...

  1. IMPACTS OF OLYMPICS ON EXPORTS AND TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Wonho Song

    2010-01-01

    There have been debates on the effects of Olympics on economy. Previous studies estimated the direct benefits and costs of Olympic Games, and concluded that the net effects were positive or negative depending on specific assumptions used for evaluations. Recent studies turn attentions to indirect benefits. For example, signaling model by Rose and Spiegel (2010) argues that mega events are the signals of liberalization the country sends, and that the hosting of mega events spurs exports. This ...

  2. The legacy of the Olympics: economic burden or boon?

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Lowell R.; Wolla, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Competition, sportsmanship, and national pride are the foundations of the Olympics, but how much do the Olympics cost the host city and country? What are some of the economic benefits and costs? Is the investment in the Olympics worth it in the end? Read about previous host experiences with the economic side of the Olympics in this month's Page One Economics Newsletter “The Legacy of the Olympics: Economic Burden or Boon?” (see related graph: "Olympics-Related Temporary Increase in Employment...

  3. Blood doping at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kenneth D

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to review our knowledge of athletes who have, are believed to have or have attempted to engage in blood doping to enhance their performance at an Olympic Games. The paper focused on the Games from Munich 1972 to London 2012 and the author had a medical role at each of the Olympics that is discussed. The study revealed that Olympic athletes have benefitted from manipulating their blood by re-infusion of autologous or infusion of homologous blood and by administering erythropoiesis stimulating agents, notably the three generations of erythropoietins. Fifty seven athletes have been sanctioned with 12 athletes forfeiting 17 Olympic medals including 12 gold medals because of blood doping. Until 1986, the infusion of blood was not prohibited in sport but considered unethical. Erythropoietin was prohibited by the International Olympic Committee's Medical Commission in 1990. There has been a change as to how Olympic athletes have enhanced performance by blood doping, commencing with blood infusion and later administering erythropoiesis stimulating agents and significant advances have occurred in detecting such misuse. Currently, the hematological component of World Anti-Doping Agency's athlete biological passport is an important but not infallible mechanism to identify athletes who cheat by blood doping.

  4. Environmental pollution and risk of psychotic disorders: A review of the science to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Luigi; Bernardini, Francesco; Garinella, Raffaele; Compton, Michael T

    2017-03-01

    Environmental pollution is a global problem with diverse and substantial public health implications. Although many environmental (i.e., non-genetic) risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been identified, there has been comparatively little research on pollution as a possible risk factor. This is despite the fact that gene-by-environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized as likely facets of the etiology of schizophrenia, and the fact that pollution could potentially mediate the association between urban birth/upbringing and elevated risk. We conducted a review of the literature to date in order to summarize and synthesize work in this area. We identified 13 research reports and 16 review articles. Based on the extant knowledge in this area and what is known about the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, it is feasible that exposure to xenobiotic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium, constituents of air pollution such as particulate matter and nitrogen and sulfur oxides, organic solvents, and other constituents of environmental pollution could be component causes. Further research-from the cellular to epidemiological levels-is clearly needed. If causation is proven, enhancements of policy intended to reduce human exposure to environmental pollution could reduce the burden of schizophrenia and possibly other mental illnesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical progresses of the International Olympic Committee and World Anti-Doping Agency Olympic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Costas; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain; Robinson, Neil; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    The Summer Olympic Games constitute the biggest concentration of human sports and activities in a particular place and time since 776 BCE, when the written history of the Olympic Games in Olympia began. Summer and Winter Olympic anti-doping laboratories, accredited by the International Olympic Committee in the past and the World Anti-Doping Agency in the present times, acquire worldwide interest to apply all new analytical advancements in the fight against doping in sports, hoping that this major human event will not become dirty by association with this negative phenomenon. This article summarizes the new analytical progresses, technologies and knowledge used by the Olympic laboratories, which for the vast majority of them are, eventually, incorporated into routine anti-doping analysis.

  6. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    -meter(approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: View width 48.8 kilometers (30.2 miles), View distance 177 kilometers (110 miles) Location: 41 deg. North lat., 112.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: View North, 20 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 1990s (Landsat 5 image mosaic)

  7. Blazing the trail: Official Report : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The official report of the 1st Youth Olympic Games, “Blazing the trail: Official Report: Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games” consisted of one volume, published in French and English. The French version was published only in electronic form

  8. OUT Success Stories: Renewable Energy at the Olympics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    2000-01-01

    Many energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies were featured at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Most of the projects that contributed to the Olympics continue to provide a meaningful demonstration and learning experience for the people of Atlanta

  9. Systematic review of team Nigeria's performance in olympic games ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systematic review of team Nigeria's performance in olympic games: Causes, concerns, and remediation strategies. ... Participation and winning medals in Olympic Games have become a veritable avenue ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. AMS exposure dating : a case study from Himalaya and Tibet and its application potentials in earth science studies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has made possible low level (10 -6 atoms/gm) measurements of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 129 I isotopes in geological materials. Early studies investigated 10 Be atoms of cosmogenic nuclides produced mainly in the atmosphere (called garden variety), which subsequently admixed with the geological material from land surfaces get transported into the ocean waters and fixed in the ocean sediments. Subsequently, focus shifted to in-situ produced long-lived isotopes in quartz and their measurement in the terrestrial samples. This opened a new field of exposure dating and its potential applications in earth sciences and their role to study the time controlled processes resulting in diverse geomorphic landforms

  11. Lessons from the Olympics : participants' perceptions of the 2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of South African athletes at the Olympic Games and to identify the possible factors that could have affected their performances. A sample of 44 participants at the 2000 Olympic Games completed a post-Olympic questionnaire. Although most athletes believed that ...

  12. CPAFFC Holds Activities to Greet Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Olympic Games are com-ing and really coming! We have been looking forward to this day for 100 years. At last, the Beijing Olympic Games will begin tomorrow with the attention of the whole world. To celebrate the one-day countdown to the Beijing Olympic Games, on the morning

  13. The Didactic Engineering for the Math Olympics Teaching: Olympic Situations with Geogebra’s Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Alves Santos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we intend to present a partial cut of a master's research, in which we describe, in a specific way, two phases determined by Didactic Engineering - ED in the context of the Mathematical Olympiads. Thus, we have the stages of preliminary analyzes and the construction of Olympic situations/a priori analysis. We emphasize in an Olympic situation that is described/structured with the support of GeoGebra software. Intervention through the proper exploitation of software provides the learner with opportunities to overcome certain difficulties/obstacles to an understanding or even conceptual construction in geometry. In this sense, the mentioned Olympic situation was experienced by students of the ninth year of elementary education II, from a private school in the state of Ceara, Brazil. The Olympic situation described proposes the possibility of the construction of metric relations in the triangle rectangle, content referring to the area of plane geometry. The ED is presented in this research, as a vision of complementarity that uses the theory of didactic situations - TSD. In this way, the described Olympic situation represents an alternative to classes directed to the math Olympics, their indication and structure, describes elements related to didactic mediation during the teaching and learning process, which emphasize details that make it possible to control and predict the possible student’s actions, as well as, to provide the experience of more significant didactic situations for geometry study in the Olympic context.

  14. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.……

  15. Strategies for improving performance in long duration events: Olympic distance triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on strategic aspects that may affect performance in a long-duration Olympic event, the Olympic distance triathlon. Given the variety of races during the Olympic Games triathlon, strategic aspects include improving technological features as well as energetics factors affecting overall triathlon performance. During the last decade, many studies have attempted to identify factors reducing the metabolic load associated (or not) with the development of fatigue process by analysing the relationship between metabolic and biomechanical factors with exercise duration. To date, a consensus exists about the benefit of adopting a drafting position during the swimming or the cycling part of the triathlon. Other potential strategic factors, such as the production of power output or the selection of cadence during the cycling or the running leg, are likely to affect the overall triathlon performance. Within this approach, pacing strategies are observed by elite athletes who swim or cycle in a sheltered position, inducing several changes of pace, intensity or stochastic shifts in the amplitude of the physiological responses. The analysis of these parameters appears to arouse some experimental and practical interest from researchers and coachers, especially for long-distance Olympic events.

  16. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of an Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Darren McHugh

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the net benefit to Canada of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Two particular classes of problems in Olympic CBA are studied in detail. The first is the unique nature of project dependency in an Olympic Games, and this is surmounted by the classification of Olympic-related costs and benefits as "Event-related" or "Infrastructure-related", with rules for handing each in the context of a CBA for an Olympic Games. The second is the estimation of net benefit...

  17. Sociodemographic profile of an Olympic team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D W

    2017-07-01

    To document the distribution of sociodemographic markers (race and relative access to wealth) in athletes participating at the summer and Winter Olympic Games (OGs). Cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study. Sociodemographic data were collected from publically available resources for all athletes representing four countries (Canada, United States of America, Great Britain and Australia) at the 2014 Sochi Winter OGs and 2016 Rio Summer OGs. The prevalence of white and privately educated athletes were identified for each sport, country, and team with consideration and comparison to the general population. Access indices (i.e. the combined race socio-economic access index [CAI]) were developed to describe the relative distribution of white and privately educated athletes representing each sport, country and team compared to the respective general population. A total of 568 winter and 1643 summer athletes were included in this study. Privately educated athletes constituted 30.3% and 32.7% of winter and summer athletes, respectively; while 94.9% of winter and 81.7% of summer athletes were white. The CAIs of the Canadian, American, British and Australian winter Olympic teams were 0.52, 0.42, 0.61 and 0.45, respectively. The CAIs, for the Canadian, American, British and Australian summer Olympic teams were 0.89, 1.13, 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. Summer and winter sports with the greatest and least racial and socio-economic biases were identified. Racial and socio-economic biases were identified in both summer and winter Olympic sports; predominantly favouring white and privately educated Olympic athletes. These findings prompt further inquiry into barriers for sport-specific participation and advancement, in addition to the practice of providing substantial public resources in support for Olympic sports and athletes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Official opening of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the text of an address given on November 5, 1988 to mark the commencement of production of copper, uranium, gold and silver from the first stage of the Olympic Dam project at Roxby Downs, South Australia. The huge deposit was discovered in 1975 and years of exploration, underground development, metallurgical testing, planning and establishing the infrastructure followed, at a cost of $750 million. 740 people are now employed at Olympic Dam. The first shipment of copper and uranium oxide left for Sweden at the end of November 1988. The deposit is able to support a much higher production rate as the market for the products, particularly uranium, improves

  19. Economic impact of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Peng

    2009-01-01

    It has been one year since Beijing successfully hosts the 2008 Olympic Games. It needs to stress the economic impacts of the city as the Olympic effect could boost economy of Beijing a long and lasting growth. In this paper, a large number of academic articles are reviewed given a general view of these impacts and put insights into the economic impacts of previous host cities. Both positive and negative effects are mentioned with rich discussions. Based on the statistical data, growth trend o...

  20. The Potential Role of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Programs in Reducing Teen Dating Violence and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Kearns, Megan C; Reidy, Dennis E

    2016-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are growing fields that provide job stability, financial security, and health prosperity for professionals in these fields. Unfortunately, females are underrepresented in STEM, which is potentially both a consequence and precipitant of gender inequity in the United States. In addition to the financial and health benefits, increasing the number of girls and women in STEM fields may also indirectly prevent and/or reduce teen dating violence and intimate partner violence by: (1) increasing women's financial independence, thereby reducing dependence on potentially abusive partners; (2) decreasing household poverty and financial stress, which may lead to reductions in relationship discord; and (3) increasing attitudes and beliefs about women as equals, thereby increasing gender equity. In this commentary, we discuss the potential role of primary and secondary school STEM programs in reducing violence against women. We review the literature on existing evaluations of STEM programs for educational outcomes, discuss the limitations of these evaluations, and offer suggestions for future research.

  1. S K Date

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S K Date. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 97-101 Magnetic Materials. Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems · P S Anil Kumar P A Joy S K Date · More Details Abstract ...

  2. Unification types of housing during Sochi Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Babaev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the statement of the unification problem of housing accommodation of participants, spectators, staff, committee during the Winter Olympics in Sochi. We give a mathematical formalization of the problem, where the unknown variables are theelements of the combination of types of accommodation sorted by the level of comfortand representation.

  3. Olympic - Eesti esimene maailmavallutaja? / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Olympic on väga tugeva juhiga, ambitsioonikas ettevõte, mille aktsia hind on kukkunud tasemele, mida võiks pikaajaline investor tasapisi hakata võtma kui head ostukohta. Vt. samas: Tugevad näitajad sisendavad kindlust. Diagramm: Olympicu aktsia

  4. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  5. Sports Medicine Concerns in Special Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Leslie J.; Sherrill, Claudine

    1988-01-01

    The article provides information on medical problems (including seizures, nutrition, atlantoaxia instability, and congenital heart disorders), and guidelines for training (including weight management, acclimation, heat related problems, and warm-up) for volunteers working with mentally retarded participants in Special Olympics. (DB)

  6. Olympic Values Education: Evolution of a Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by the twentieth century hermeneutic idea that application co-determines understanding, this paper explores the conversations between theory and application that evolved during the implementation of three Olympic-related curriculum projects. Each of these projects was informed by specific fields of then-current educational theory, and…

  7. Softball: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven instructional units on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents suggestions for coaching softball for mentally retarded persons. An overview section provides information on teaching suggestions, followed by a list of program goals, objectives, and benefits. Sports skill assessments measure athletes'…

  8. Realizing User-Relevant Conceptual Model for the Ski Jump Venue of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teakles, Andrew; Mo, Ruping; Dierking, Carl F.; Emond, Chris; Smith, Trevor; McLennan, Neil; Joe, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    As was the case for most other Olympic competitions, providing weather guidance for the ski jump and Nordic combined events involved its own set of unique challenges. The extent of these challenges was brought to light before the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics during a series of outflow wind events in the 2008/2009 winter season. The interactions with the race officials during the difficult race conditions brought on by the outflows provided a new perspective on the service delivery requirements for the upcoming Olympic Games. In particular, the turbulent nature of the winds and its impact on the ski jump practice events that season highlighted the need of race officials for nowcasting advice at very short time scales (from 2 min to 1 h) and forecast products tailored to their decision-making process. These realizations resulted in last minute modifications to the monitoring strategy leading up to the Olympic Games and required forecasters' conceptual models for flow within the Callaghan Valley to be downscaled further to reflect the evolution of turbulence at the ski jump site. The SNOW-V10 (Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010) team provided support for these efforts by supplying diagnostic case analyses of important events using numerical weather data and by enhancing the real-time monitoring capabilities at the ski jump venue.

  9. Explaining Match Outcome During The Men’s Basketball Tournament at The Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Anthony S.; Gómez, Miguel A.; Woods, Carl T.

    2017-01-01

    In preparation for the Olympics, there is a limited opportunity for coaches and athletes to interact regularly with team performance indicators providing important guidance to coaches for enhanced match success at the elite level. This study examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicators during men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games. Twelve team performance indicators were collated from all men’s teams and matches during the basketball tournament of the 2004-2016 Olympic Games (n = 156). Linear and non-linear analyses examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicator characteristics; namely, binary logistic regression and a conditional interference (CI) classification tree. The most parsimonious logistic regression model retained ‘assists’, ‘defensive rebounds’, ‘field-goal percentage’, ‘fouls’, ‘fouls against’, ‘steals’ and ‘turnovers’ (delta AIC winning (93.2%). Match outcome during the men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games was identified by a unique combination of performance indicators. Despite the average model accuracy being marginally higher for the logistic regression analysis, the CI classification tree offered a greater practical utility for coaches through its resolution of non-linear phenomena to guide team success. Key points A unique combination of team performance indicators explained 93.2% of winning observations in men’s basketball at the Olympics. Monitoring of these team performance indicators may provide coaches with the capability to devise multiple game plans or strategies to enhance their likelihood of winning. Incorporation of machine learning techniques with team performance indicators may provide a valuable and strategic approach to explain patterns within multivariate datasets in sport science. PMID:29238245

  10. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  11. Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Meghan R. Busse

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  12. Environmental impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Huijuan, Cao; Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Beijing organized the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, and the main goal of the Chinese government regarding this event was to hold a Green Olympics. A difference-in-differences approach was used to estimate the environmental impact the Olympic Games on air quality improvement in Beijing, compared to improvements in other areas in China. The results indicate that compared to other regions, air quality in Beijing improved for a short period of time. These improvements were largely due to the impleme...

  13. Host government directorate: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic emblem guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”), the London 2012 Paralympic Games Emblem (the “Paralympic Emblem”) and the Dual London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Emblems (“Dual Emblems”) by authorised Host Government Directorate only.

  14. A view of politics and boycotts in modern Olympic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Güven Karahan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to display and discuss the politics events and boycotts in modern Olympic Games. According to the literature, the events in the Olympic Games were discussed under the religious, racialist, ideological, politics and boycotts headlines. Methods: It was used historical research method in this study. Literature was reviewed and findings were discussed for this purpose. Results: Baron Pierre de Coubertin remanufactured the Ancient Greek Olympic games to modern. He didn’t approach the Olympic Games just international sport computations, he also purposed to educate the younger generations with spirit of friendship and comprehension by the Olympic Games. He had wanted to further to be sited more good and conciliatory world. Olympic Games is the biggest and the best social event in the world. Therefore, it was used by some countries for profits. These profits revelations variously like religious, racialist, ideological and politics events after a while. Conclusion: As a conclusion, it can be said that, It is necessary to rescue from politic events and sustain the games depending on Olympic philosophy. For this purpose, national and international Olympic committees must be necessary to be a sensitive and conscientious. Separately, countries education systems must be teach the olympism philosophy.

  15. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  16. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  17. Travelling to china for the beijing 2008 olympic and paralympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marc T M; Leggat, Peter A; Borwein, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    The 29th modern Olympic Summer Games, conducted once every 4 years since 1896, will be held in Beijing, China, from 8 to 24 August 2008. There will be approximately 28 major and 302 minor events in 37 venues in the prominent cities of Beijing, Hong Kong and Shanghai, and also in Qingdao (a coastal town in Shandong Province), Qinhuangdao (northeast of Beijing), Shanghai, Shenyang (an industrial city in Liaoning Province) and in Tianjin (on the coast near Beijing). Following the Olympic Games, the Paralympic Games will be conducted from 6 to 17 September 2008 in Beijing and 20 Paralympic Sports will be represented. This paper focuses on health and safety issues for travellers to China in general, although it makes specific references to advice for visiting Olympic and Paralympic athletes and team staff, who will be travelling to the games. It must be remembered that travel health advice can change, and that travellers should be advised to seek up-to-date travel health advice for China closer to their departure.

  18. Traveling to Australia for the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M; Leggat, P A

    2000-01-01

    The modern Olympic Games, conducted only once every 4 years since 1900, will be held in Sydney, Australia, from September 15 to October 1, 2000. There will be approximately 35 competition venues, 5 villages, 100 training venues, a media center, and sponsor hospitality areas.1 There will be about 300 events for 28 sports, involving 10,300 athletes from 200 countries, 5,100 team officials, 50,000 volunteers, 15,000 media, a world wide audience of around 3.5 billion viewers and listeners, and up to several hundred-thousand spectators at any one time.1 The Paralympic Games will also be held in Sydney, after the Olympic Games, from October 18 to 29, 2000, with more than 4,000 athletes competing.1 This paper focuses on health and safety issues for travelers to Australia in general, although it makes specific references to advice for visiting Olympic and Paralympic athletes and team staff, who will be traveling to the games. It must be remembered that travel health advice can change, and that travelers should be advised to seek up-to-date travel health advice for Australia closer to their departure.

  19. Delivering the International Olympic Committee's mandate on Youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is currently planning the historic Youth Olympic Games (YOG), an international mul ti-sport event that will be inaugurated in Singapore in 2010. On the 6t h of July 2007, the establishment of the YOG was approved and will feature 14 to 18 year-old athletes. The purpose of the YOG ...

  20. Art Casting of China and 2008 Beijing Olympic Sculptures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, a major international multi-sport event, took place in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. It has well shown the Chinese people's dream and passion about the Games. Hosting an Olympic Games has been a century-old dream for the Chinese nation.

  1. Go for the Gold by Utilizing the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests ways to incorporate legal issues related to the Olympic Games into a business law or legal environment course. As demonstrated in previous issues of this journal and elsewhere, material related to sports law can serve as an engaging supplement to traditional legal subjects. Topics that can be related to the Olympics include…

  2. Changing Roles of Women: Participation in Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyonov, Moshe

    1981-01-01

    Investigates whether a country's socioeconomic characteristics influence female participation in the Olympics and other athletics. The author reviews data on women's participation in Olympic teams and in the labor forces worldwide. Economic development and industrialization support women's rising economic status as well as their participation in…

  3. International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on Geochronology recommendation for the standardization of fission track dating calibration and data reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurford, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the difficulties of calibration in fission track (FT) dating over the last 20 yr, including uncertainty of the absolute λ f value, complexities of neutron dosimetry, complexities of neutron irradiation, correction factors necessary in some methodological procedures, and personal factors in track counting, the Working Group elected at the Cambridge ICOG meeting in 1986 recommended to FT workers meeting at the 6th International Fission Track Dating Workshop in Besancon on 9 September 1988, a uniform approach to system calibration, sample irradiation, calculation of FT age, and presentation of data. After discussion and modification, the recommendation was accepted. This modified recommendation is presented. (author)

  4. Tribulations and achievements: the early history of Olympism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C R

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century, modern sport had enchanted the people of Argentina. At that time the nation enjoyed a remarkable degree of economic prosperity and embarked on increasing political democratization. These circumstances, along with the fact that the nation was represented from the beginning, in 1894, on the International Olympic Committee seemed to favour Argentina as the spearhead of the diffusion of Olympism throughout South America. However, the country only enjoyed its first official Olympic participation in the Paris Games of 1924 - a few months after the establishment of the Argentine Olympic Committee. This essay explores the reception and diffusion of Olympism in Argentina. It reveals a process of gradual adoption including conflicting views on the relationship between the state and sport, several attempts at institutionalization, international misunderstandings and the role of politics and class.

  5. Dietary supplementation patterns of Korean olympic athletes participating in the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kang, Seung-ki; Jung, Han-sang; Chun, Yoon-suck; Trilk, Jennifer; Jung, Seung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Athletes report frequent use of various dietary supplements (DSs). However, no study has examined DS use and antidoping knowledge in Korean Olympians. The objectives of this study were to obtain information about Korean Olympians' DS use during the training period for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games and immediately before their Olympic events, to obtain DS-intake reasons and DS providers, and to obtain information on athletes' doping education, knowledge, and educators. Korean Olympians completed 2 questionnaires 1 wk before the opening and within 1 wk after the closing of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Results showed that 79% of male and 82% of female Olympians take more than 1 DS during the training period and that vitamins and Oriental supplements are the 2 top-ranked DSs. Reasons for DS use were to improve recovery ability (66%) and muscle performance (22%), and sources of obtaining DSs were parents (36%) and coaches (35%). Furthermore, 79% of Korean Olympians reported receiving regular education on antidoping regulations from Olympic-sponsored education classes (64%) and coaches (15%). In conclusion, this study was the first to examine DS use and antidoping-related information in Korean Olympians. Because some herbal products contain substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, athletes should be cautious in using mixed Oriental supplements.

  6. The Promotion and Perception of the Youth Olympic Games: A Korean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Lee, Don; Surber, Karin; Bellar, David; Petersen, Jeffrey; Ivan, Emese; Kim, Hyeon Jung

    2013-01-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) was launched in part to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of increasingly overweight and inactive adolescents. But since the initial announcement of the YOG by the International Olympic Committee in 2007, this new third addition to the Olympic family of events has provoked response from…

  7. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  8. A PROFILE OF OLYMPIC TAEKWONDO COMPETITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Kazemi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the profile of the Olympic champions and the other competitors who were involved in the Games. The information on each of the athletes was obtained from the "Official Site of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, www.olympics.com/eng/sports/TK" and included weight category, weight, height, age, points obtained, warnings, deduction point, defensive/offensive kicks and punches. One hundred and two athletes competed (54 males and 48 females in the Games. The mean average age and BMI (Body Mass Index of 16 male winners was 24.4 ± 3.3 years and 21.9 ± 2.4 respectively compared to 25.2 ± 4.3 years and 22.8 ± 3.3 for the 38 male non-winners. The mean average age and BMI of the 16 female winners was 23.1 ± 3.9 years and 20.8 ± 2.3 respectively compared to 24.9 ± 4.7 years and 21.3 ± 2.7 for the 32 female non-winners. For all four types of athletes, offensive kicks accounted for at least 52% of the techniques to score a point. Ninety-eight percent of all techniques used to score were kicks. Although not statistically significant, winners overall tended to be younger in age and taller with slightly lower BMI than their weight category average. Taking into account the literature cited in this article, future studies should be designed to examine the relationship between performance and functional variables such as muscle power, muscle endurance, reaction time and aerobic capacity.

  9. Environmental design of the Olympic Dam operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental Design of The Olympic Dam Operations has been required to take into account the Environmental Management Programme as approved by the South Australian Government and radiological protection standards as determined by the Commonwealth of Australia's Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores 1987. The article describes the natural environment, project assessment and infrastructure relating to the environmental design. The radiological standards refer to the control of exposure to radiation above naturally occurring background levels both for employees and for members of the public. 2 tabs., maps

  10. The environment of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project at Roxby Downs, South Australia, has a harsh environment with high summer temperatures, low rainfall and poor quality soils. There are no natural water courses. The vegetation is dominated by annual grasses in summer and wildflowers in winter. Red kangaroos are the most commonly sighted native mammals. The Fat-tailed Dunnart a nocturnal carniverous marsupial, is found. Eighty three bird species have been recorded. Reptiles are numerous and one amphibian occurs. A vermin eradication program aimed at rabbit control is conducted. ills

  11. Social networking and the Olympic Movement: social media analysis, opportunities and trends : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Peña, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Table of contents : 1: Introduction. - 2 : Sociodemographic data of social networking sites. - 3 : The Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games on Facebook, Twitter and Orkut. - 4 : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games communication strategies on Facebook and Twitter. - 5 : Sport organizations social networking strategies : case study analysis. - 6 : Olympic athletes and social media use during a non olympic-period. - 7. The Olympic Games, NBA and FC Barcelona on Facebook : content and fan participa...

  12. Online Matchmaking: It's Not Just for Dating Sites Anymore! Connecting the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network to Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Kristin; Herrin, Sara; Schmidt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Scientists play an integral role in the development of climate literacy skills - for both teachers and students alike. By partnering with local scientists, teachers can gain valuable insights into the science practices highlighted by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), as well as a deeper understanding of cutting-edge scientific discoveries and local impacts of climate change. For students, connecting to local scientists can provide a relevant connection to climate science and STEM skills. Over the past two years, the Climate Voices Science Speakers Network (climatevoices.org) has grown to a robust network of nearly 400 climate science speakers across the United States. Formal and informal educators, K-12 students, and community groups connect with our speakers through our interactive map-based website and invite them to meet through face-to-face and virtual presentations, such as webinars and podcasts. But creating a common language between scientists and educators requires coaching on both sides. In this presentation, we will present the "nitty-gritty" of setting up scientist-educator collaborations, as well as the challenges and opportunities that arise from these partnerships. We will share the impact of these collaborations through case studies, including anecdotal feedback and metrics.

  13. Russia and the olympic movement : a study of Russian national identity as described in the newspaper Sovetskij Sport during the winter olympic games of 1988, 1992, 1994, and in the future winter olympic games of 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The topic of the thesis deals with Russia and the Olympic Movement, studying Russian national identity as it is described in the newspaper Sovetskij Sport during three past Winter Olympic Games (1988, 1992, 1994) and the upcoming Winter Olympic Games that take place in Sochi 2014 in the framework of international politics. The research task is to analyze, what kinds of discourses do the writings of Russian Olympic Committee’s leading sports journal Sovetskij Sport use in times of the above me...

  14. Cardiovascular screening of Olympic athletes reported by chief medical officers of the Rio 2016 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresdahl, Brett G; Asif, Irfan M; Rodeo, Scott A; Ling, Daphne I; Chang, Cindy J

    2018-05-24

    The IOC recommends periodic cardiovascular screening of athletes, but the adoption of these recommendations is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate and compare cardiovascular screening practices of countries participating in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. A list of chief medical officers (CMOs) was compiled by the IOC during the 2016 Olympic Games. CMOs were requested to complete an online survey about cardiovascular screening of their countries' Olympic athletes. Comparisons of screening practices were made by categorising countries by continent, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and size of athlete delegation. CMOs for 117/207 (56.5%) countries participating in the 2016 Olympic Games were identified. 94/117 countries (80.3%) completed the survey, representing 45.4% of all countries and 8805/11 358 (77.5%) of all 2016 Olympic athletes. Most of the countries surveyed (70.2%) perform annual cardiovascular screening. Among the survey respondents, all or most athletes from each country were screened at least once with the following components: personal history (86.2% of countries), family history (85.1%), physical examination (87.2%), resting ECG (74.5%), echocardiogram (31.9%) and stress test (30.8%). Athletes were more likely to be screened with ECG in countries with relatively larger athlete delegation (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.80, p=0.023) and with higher GDP per capita (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.57, p=0.014). Most of the responding countries perform annual cardiovascular screening of Olympic athletes, but there are differences in the components used. Athletes from countries with larger athlete delegations and higher GDP per capita were more likely to be screened with ECG. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. What can Bilfinger teach Olympic sponsors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dodds

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilfinger SE (Bilfinger is a leading international engineering and services group (Bilfinger.com, 2015, and was a local sponsor of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The company is accused of paying bribes through its subsidiary company, Mauell, (dw. com, 2015 to public officials in Brazil for contracts related to the 2014 World Cup (Cassin, 2015. The corruption allegations relate to orders to equip security command centers at twelve host cities during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil (dw.com, 2015. Because Brazil hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup and will host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, companies need to consider the risks of many international anti-corruption laws, such as Brazil’s anti-corruption law commonly referred as The Clean Companies Act and other applicable anticorruption law like the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (Rogers, et. al, 2014. This paper will analyze the Bilfinger case involving corruption activity at the 2014 FIFA World Cup and offer insights for sponsors of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

  16. Estimating the economic impact of the Sydney Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, John; Crowe, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    This paper employs a multiregional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to examine the effects on the New South Wales and Australian economies of the 2000 Olympics. The Olympics are modelled over a 12-year period from 1994 to 2005, divided into three phases: (i) the Pre-Event phase, 1994 to 1999; (ii) the Event Year, 2000; and (iii) the Post-Event phase, 2001-2005. Construction of the Olympics venues and associated infrastructure is modelled as occurring in the first phase, while the op...

  17. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2008-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  19. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2012-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  1. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2013-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Perception of special olympics coaches on safety in their training of their special olympics athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Kum Loy

    2009-01-01

    A sport coach, besides providing training to improve an athlete's performance in his/her chosen sport, is also tasked for ensuring that the training and/or competition take place in a safe environment. This ability to factor safe practices is a challenge to any sport coach, especially when the people being coached have intellectual disability (ID). This study aims to explore the perceptions of Special Olympics (SO) sport coaches towards risk factors for injuries and safety issues when they co...

  3. 2013-2014 USGS Lidar: Olympic Peninsula (WA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS Olympic Peninsula Washington LIDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD00849...

  4. Some Case Studies on How Media Constructs Olympic Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lennartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During the entire history of the modern Olympic Games, from their renaissance in 1896, when the firsth edition had been heldin Athens and until the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936, the present paper makes an analyse of the real facts and of thelegends created around them. The sports journal and the other publications are important factors in the distorsion of the realityand keeping the legend. From the athletes heros like Spiridon Louis, the first winner of the marathon and the myth buildaround the way of winning this race , to the story of the 100m won by Jesse Owens at 36 Olympic Games who have been heldin Berlin and the fact that Hitler refused to shake the hand of the Olympic champion, the purpose of this paper is to combat themyths developed since. The facts are substantiated by using the chronological datas, using the notes and minutes of meetings,as well using photographic means.

  5. prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games. ... This article examines the opportunities and challenges that a South African city willing to bid for and host the Games is likely to face. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Strategic prospects of non-Olympic sports in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Leonov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify strategic prospects for the development of non-Olympic sports in Ukraine. Materials and Methods: the analysis of literary sources and documents, systems analysis, organizational analysis, marketing tools, SWOT – analysis, organizational modeling, methods of mathematical statistics. 57 representatives of the regional federations of non-Olympic sports participated in the survey. Results: the model of sustainable development of non-Olympic sports is proposed. Objective necessity of the implementation of the results obtained in the practice to the state, branch and regional management in the sphere of physical culture and sports is proven. Conclusions: the livelihoods and development of non-Olympic sport involves the development and application of organizational projects, management of technology, "integrators" of local resources, the study of internal resource of sport movement, the development program funding.

  7. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  8. Quaternary dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaney, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  9. Data cultures of mobile dating and hook-up apps: Emerging issues for critical social science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kath Albury

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethical and social implications of data mining, algorithmic curation and automation in the context of social media have been of heightened concern for a range of researchers with interests in digital media in recent years, with particular concerns about privacy arising in the context of mobile and locative media. Despite their wide adoption and economic importance, mobile dating apps have received little scholarly attention from this perspective – but they are intense sites of data generation, algorithmic processing, and cross-platform data-sharing; bound up with competing cultures of production, exploitation and use. In this paper, we describe the ways various forms of data are incorporated into, and emerge from, hook-up apps’ business logics, socio-technical arrangements, and cultures of use to produce multiple and intersecting data cultures . We propose a multi-layered research agenda for critical and empirical inquiry into this field, and suggest appropriate conceptual and methodological frameworks for exploring the social and political challenges of data cultures.

  10. Asthma in United States olympic athletes who participated in the 1998 olympic winter games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, J M; Ryan, E J

    2000-08-01

    About one of every 5 athletes who participated in the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta had a past history of asthma, had symptoms that suggested asthma, or took asthma medications. No previous study has determined the prevalence of asthma in all US athletes who participated in an Olympic Winter Games. We sought to determine how many US athletes who participated in the 1998 Olympic Winter Games had a past history of asthma, had symptoms that suggested asthma, or indicated taking a medication used to treat asthma. We evaluated responses to questions that asked about allergic and respiratory diseases in the United States Olympic Committee Medical History Questionnaire that was completed by all 196 athletes who represented the United States at the 1998 Olympic Winter Games in Nagano, Japan. Forty-three (21.9%) of the 196 athletes had a previous diagnosis of asthma, and 36 (18. 4%) recorded use of an asthma medication at some time in the past. Forty-four (22.4%) reported use of an asthma medication, a diagnosis of asthma, or both (our basis for the diagnosis of asthma). Thirty-four (17.4%) of the athletes were currently taking an asthma medication at the time that they completed the questionnaire or indicated that they took these medications on a permanent or semipermanent basis and were considered to have active asthma. Athletes who participated in Nordic combined, cross-country, and short track events had the highest prevalence of having been told that they had asthma or had taken an asthma medication in the past (60.7%) in contrast with only one (2.8%) of the 36 athletes who participated in bobsled, biathlon, luge, and ski jumping. Eighteen (24%) of 75 athletes who participated in alpine, long track, figure skating, snow boarding, and curling had a previous diagnosis of asthma or recorded use of an asthma medication. We conclude that asthma appeared to have been more common in athletes who participated in the 1998 Winter Games than in athletes who participated in

  11. Olympic Dam project: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Olympic Dam deposit, South Australia, is estimated to contain at least 2,000 million tonnes of mineralized material, with an average grade of about 1.6% copper, 0.6 Kg/t of uranium oxide and 0.6 g/t of gold. The objective of the project is to extract and process the ore for the production and sale of copper, uranium oxide and the associated gold and silver. Facilities required are an underground mine, an on-site processing plant, associated facilities including a tailings retention system, a town to accommodate up to 9,000 people and other infrastructure. Chapters in the draft E.I.S. contain information on the environment, land use, aboriginal environment, geology, tailings retention system, radiation assessment, project infrastructure, social effects and economic effects

  12. The physical demands of Olympic yacht racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, H; Sanders, R; Legg, S

    1999-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the up wards forces of the feet on the hiking strap and the forces in the mainsheet of four Olympic classes of racing dinghies (Europe, Laser. Finn and 470) during realistic on-water sailing in varying wind conditions. The secondary aim of the study was to measure the joint angles adopted by the sailors and boat heel angles. The tertiary aim was to identify events and sailing conditions associated with large or patterned force production. Forces in the hiking strap and mainsheet of four classes of Olympic sailing dinghies were measured on eleven New Zealand sailors during simulated on-water racing in a range of wind conditions. Up-wind hiking strap forces reached an average of 73-87% of predicted maximal voluntary contraction (pred MVC), with peak forces exceeding 100% pred MVC. Mainsheet forces reached 25-35% pred MVC, with peak forces reaching 40-50% pred MVC. Off-wind hiking strap and mainsheet forces were considerably lower than up-wind forces. Ankle and hip joint angles increased and knee joint angles decreased with increasing wind speed during up-wind sailing. Large forces occurred in the hiking strap and mainsheet when boats reached the tops of wave during up-wind sailing in high wind speeds and when a gust of wind hit the boat. During off-wind sailing large forces were observed in the mainsheet when surfing down waves. It is recommended that the intensities and joint angles found in this study be used as a basis for the development of class specific off-water physical conditioning programmes.

  13. Unsteady Sail Dynamics in Olympic Class Sailboats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Charles; Schutt, Riley

    2016-11-01

    Unsteady sailing techniques have evolved in competitive sailboat fleets, in cases where the relative weight of the sailor is sufficient to impart unsteady motions to the boat and sails. We will discuss three types of motion that are used by athletes to propel their boats on an Olympic race course faster than using the wind alone. In all of our cases, body weight movements induce unsteady sail motion, increasing driving force and speed through the water. In this research, we explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and a 6-GoPro camera array. We shall briefly discuss "sail flicking", whereby the helmsman periodically rolls the sail into the apparent wind, at an angle which is distinct from classical heave (in our case, the oscillations are not normal to the apparent flow). We also demonstrate "roll tacking", where there are considerable advantages to rolling the boat during such a maneuver, especially in light wind. In both of the above examples from on-the-water studies, corresponding experiments using a towing tank exhibit increases in the driving force, associated with the formation of strong vortex pairs into the flow. Finally, we focus on a technique known as "S-curving" in the case where the boat sails downwind. In contrast to the previous cases, it is drag force rather than lift force that the sailor is trying to maximise as the boat follows a zig-zag trajectory. The augmented apparent wind strength due to the oscillatory sail motion, and the growth of strong synchronised low-pressure wake vortices on the low-pressure side of the sail, contribute to the increase in driving force, and velocity-made-good downwind.

  14. The Olympic Mountains Experiment for GPM (OLYMPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houze, R.; McMurdie, L. A.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.

    2016-12-01

    The GPM satellite has made it possible to observe the amount and nature of precipitation in remote areas of midlatitudes, including oceans and mountain ranges. OLYMPEX conducted over the Olympic Mountains on the northwest coast of Washington State was designed to provide the means for evaluating the physical basis of the algorithms used to convert GPM satellite measurements to determine the amount and nature of precipitation in midlatitude extratropical cyclones. Microphysical processes producing precipitation are highly sensitive to the vertical profile of temperature. In the tropics, the domain of the TRMM satellite, the temperature profile varies only slightly. GPM algorithms, however, must account for the strong horizontal variation of temperature profiles in baroclinic storms systems of midlatitudes and for the variations of precipitation mechanisms caused by passage of these storms over mountains. The OLYMPEX scientific strategy was: 1) collect a statistically robust set of measurements in midlatitude cyclones upstream of, over, and downstream of a midlatitude mountain range that can be used to improve GPM satellite algorithms; 2) determine how the physics and dynamics of the mechanisms affecting precipitation formation in relation to storm structure and terrain. To accomplish these goals 3 aircraft, 4 scanning dual polarization Doppler radars, supplemental soundings, and sophisticated surface instruments were deployed on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, where Pacific frontal systems produce seasonal precipitation of 2000-4000 mm. 13 storms were observed. 3 of these were atmospheric rivers. The NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft overflew the storms with instruments similar to those on GPM. The U. North Dakota Citation sampled hydrometeors in situ. Preliminary analysis indicates that one of the primary modes of orographic enhancement is low-level moist flow rising over the lower windward slopes and producing many very small drops. Ice-phase processes producing

  15. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob F; Fritzdorf, Stephen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (three gold and two bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games. From the age of 19 to 40 yr, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), peak HR, blood lactate, and rowing ergometer performance were assessed annually. During the first years of his elite career (from age 19 to 24), VO2 max increased from 5.5 to approximately 5.9 L · min(-1) (78 mL · min(-1) · kg(-1)) and his average power during 6-min maximal rowing increased from 420 to approximately 460 W. Although his HRmax declined by approximately 20 bpm during the 20-yr period, maximal aerobic power, evaluated both as VO2 max and 6-min test performance, was maintained until the age of 40. Furthermore, peak lactate levels remained unchanged and average power outputs during 10-s, 60-s, and 60-min ergometer tests were all maintained at approximately 800 W, approximately 700 W, and approximately 350 W, respectively, indicating that he was able to preserve both aerobic and anaerobic exercise performances. Echocardiographic analyses revealed a left ventricular mass of 198 g and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter of 5.8 cm. This longitudinal case indicates that until the age of 40 yr, a steady increase in the oxygen pulse may have compensated for the significant decline in the maximal heart frequency. Furthermore, the maintenance of aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities allowed this Olympic athlete to compete at the highest level for almost two decades.

  16. Comparative analysis of prestart condition of students girls in Olympic and non-Olympic kinds of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Ivaskiene

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It was studied prestart condition of students girls in Olympic and non-Olympic martial arts. With the help of SAN test and Spielberg-Chanin scale during the Championship in Lithuania among students of year 2011 was conducted 54 judo and 48 sambo athletes students girls (n = 102 aged 20.8 + 2.4 years, their sporting career 5.2 + 1.7 years. The hypothesis is not proved that before competition state of representatives of Olympic (judo and non-Olympic (sambo kinds of sport. Getting indexes shown that emotional state of the most of sambo and judo athletes students girls have high level of feeling of well-being, activity and mood. The most of the athletes (72.2% of judo and 64.0% sambo athletes have very low level of situational anxiety.

  17. Do the Youth Olympic Games promote Olympism? Analysing a mission (im)possible from a local youth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Martin; Walde, Janette; Scheiber, Sabrina; Nagiller, Roman; Tappeiner, Gottfried

    2018-04-23

    On the basis of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), we assess if and how the youth in the communities of the YOG host cities have been influenced concerning their perception of the Olympic values (OV) and the Olympic movement (OM). Special attention of the study is paid to the analysis of intervention mechanisms which the local youth underwent (e.g. attending the YOG on-site, participating in school programmes). Our study was conducted among 1004 adolescents living in the host region three years after the Innsbruck 2012 YOG had been staged. Our analyses extend the corresponding literature by (1) showing that the YOG and the involvement of the local youth in such an event have the power of creating an interest in the OM and its events, but do not have the power to influence the young citizens' perception of the OV significantly; (2) illustrating that the perception adolescents have of the OV depend mainly on their socio-demographic background, their a priori interest in sports events, social capital (norms, institutional trust) and the extent to which the youngsters follow the event in the different media; and (3) corroborating the hypothesis that intervention programmes (e.g. school programmes) for promoting (Olympic) values and ideals should not be single, obligatory and isolated activities. We conclude that it is not surprising that the International Olympic Committee has reformulated the goals for the YOG in the Olympic Agenda 2020, as some goals relating to the promotion of the OV might have been a mission impossible.

  18. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth. During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. and the archaeologists to record the facts of history of several important events like dinosaur era, Iceman, the Shroud in Turin and many other ancient artefacts. In the development of dating methods, varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over 100 billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. (author)

  19. Remarks about the Bill of 23 March 2017 of the “Directive of the Minister of Science and Higher Education, Republic of Poland, dated ………… 2017”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kokowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discuses the Bill of 23 March 2017 of the “Directive of the Minister of Science and Higher Education, Republic of Poland, dated ………… 2017”. It indicates serious flaws of this Bill regarding legislation and the science of science (including bibliometrics, and proposes significant amendments to the content of the provisions of this Directive.

  20. Mapping the Discipline of the Olympic Games An Author- Cocitation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Warning; Ching Ju Mae Rosie; Kristine Toohey

    2008-01-01

    When most people think about the Olympic Games it is usually in terms of athletic performance. Clearly they are more than that (see Toohey & Veal, 1990). Even the mass media does not confine itself to covering only the sporting angle. For example, symbolism, economic factors, nationalism and politics routinely appear in mass media articles relating to the Olympic Games. There are scholarly journals that are devoted exclusively to the Olympic Games, such as Olympika and the Journal of Olympic ...

  1. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education

    OpenAIRE

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  2. The economic impact of Olympic tourism: When, who and how much?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    No Olympics could do without exact measuring. In the 100 m sprint race, milliseconds separate winners from losers. But when it comes to measuring the economic benefits of Olympic tourism, figures vary by several billion. How can we get a grip on the economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympics?

  3. Determination of Career Planning Profiles of Turkish Athletes Who Are Ranked in the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulya, Bingol; Cemal, Gundogdu; Sukru, Bingol

    2012-01-01

    This study researched in the level of career planning of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics during the time they were active in sports and after they retired. This study which aimed to determine the career planning efficiency of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics based on the viewpoints of the athletes holding Olympic degree is scanning…

  4. Radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazos R, L.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the radiocarbon dating in archaeology has not served only to solve problems related with the establishment of chronologies, but also in the development of archaeological methods of excavation and interpretation. This has been possible because the dating method by radiocarbon provides a common temporary scale that transcends the cultural and regional frontiers. It is even spoken of the revolution that has meant the fact that the application of this method has allowed to the archaeologist to pass from the construction of chronologies until the evaluation and dynamic interpretation of the archaeological data to build theories. This work explains and compares methods for the detection of 14 C, as the gas counting, the liquid scintillation counting and the mass spectrometry with accelerators. (Author)

  5. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  6. Personal best times in an Olympic distance triathlon and in a marathon predict Ironman race time in recreational male triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst1, Beat Knechtle1,2, Patrizia Knechtle2, Thomas Rosemann1, Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U887, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Dijon, FranceBackground: The purpose of this study was to define predictor variables for recreational male Ironman triathletes, using age and basic measurements of anthropometry, training, and previous performance to establish an equation for the prediction of an Ironman race time for future recreational male Ironman triathletes.Methods: Age and anthropometry, training, and previous experience variables were related to Ironman race time using bivariate and multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 184 recreational male triathletes, of mean age 40.9 ± 8.4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.06 m, and weight 76.3 ± 8.4 kg completed the Ironman within 691 ± 83 minutes. They spent 13.9 ± 5.0 hours per week in training, covering 6.3 ± 3.1 km of swimming, 194.4 ± 76.6 km of cycling, and 45.0 ± 15.9 km of running. In total, 149 triathletes had completed at least one marathon, and 150 athletes had finished at least one Olympic distance triathlon. They had a personal best time of 130.4 ± 44.2 minutes in an Olympic distance triathlon and of 193.9 ± 31.9 minutes in marathon running. In total, 126 finishers had completed both an Olympic distance triathlon and a marathon. After multivariate analysis, both a personal best time in a marathon (P < 0.0001 and in an Olympic distance triathlon (P < 0.0001 were the best variables related to Ironman race time. Ironman race time (minutes might be partially predicted by the following equation: (r2 = 0.65, standard error of estimate = 56.8 = 152.1 + 1.332 × (personal best time in a marathon, minutes + 1.964 × (personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon, minutes.Conclusion: These results suggest

  7. Olympic Dam operations - environmental management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This is the 3rd Annual Report pertaining to the Olympic Dam Operations Environmental Management Programme and covers the period 1st March, 1989 to 28th February, 1990. The monitoring programe has provided detailed assessment of meteorological data, vegetation, fauna, soil stability, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well-fields both inside and outside the operations area. Mine site rehabilitation is considered to be progressing satisfactorily. Out of the 851 drill pad sites 72% have been rehabilitated to the stage where natural soil stability and plant cover has been achieved. Drill pad sites that have received good rainfall within one year of being ripped have rehabilitated very succesfully. Sites that receive no significant rainfall for more than two years, particularly on dune slopes may require re-ripping before successful regeneration can occur. To improve the drill pad site rehabilitation monitoring programme it is recommended that 200 drill sites be analysed each year. Air emission and solid waste data are also presented. This program is considered to be particularly successful in relation to SO 2 assessment. 90 tabs., 63 figs., ills

  8. Olympic education in all Greek schools: adoption and abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Mountakis

    2016-12-01

    Their main activity was in producing a programme of teaching materials, and the centralized nature of the educational system enabled the programme to be introduced in a very short time. The programme continued to be implemented in schools after the Olympic Games in the primary sector, and also as an option at the secondary level, under the name of ‘Kallipatira’. The programme lasted after the Olympic Games and up to the 2007–2008 school year. During the 2008–2009 school year, however, it was removed from the curriculum. This paper presents an account of the way in which the programme was introduced into schools, which may be used as a model or guide for any other country organizing the Olympic Games.

  9. Mortality and causes of death among Croatian male Olympic medalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonić, Vedran; Kozmar, Damir; Počanić, Darko; Jerkić, Helena; Bohaček, Ivan; Letilović, Tomislav

    2017-08-31

    To compare the overall and disease-specific mortality of Croatian male athletes who won one or more Olympic medals representing Yugoslavia from 1948 to 1988 or Croatia from 1992 to 2016, and the general Croatian male population standardized by age and time period. All 233 Croatian male Olympic medalists were included in the study. Information on life duration and cause of death for the Olympic medalists who died before January 1, 2017, was acquired from their families and acquaintances. We asked the families and acquaintances to present medical documentation for the deceased. Data about the overall and disease-specific mortality of the Croatian male population standardized by age and time period were obtained from the Croatian Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Overall and disease-specific standard mortality ratios (SMR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare the mortality rates of athletes and general population. Among 233 Olympic medalists, 57 died before the study endpoint. The main causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (33.3%), neoplasms (26.3%), and external causes (17.6%). The overall mortality of the Olympic medalists was significantly lower than that of general population (SMR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.94, P=0.013). Regarding specific causes of death, athletes' mortality from cardiovascular diseases was significantly reduced (SMR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38-0.93, P=0.021). Croatian male Olympic medalists benefit from lower overall and cardiovascular mortality rates in comparison to the general Croatian male population.

  10. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  11. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  12. Creating Brand Awareness Through Event Marketing : The Off-Field Competition of Sportswear Companies in the Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Marmbrandt, Malin; Dolge, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Date: May 30, 2012  University: Mälardalen University, Sweden  Program: MIMA- International Marketing  Course Name: Master Thesis (EFO705)  Title: Creating Brand Awareness Through Event Marketing  The Off-Field Competition of Sportswear Companies in the Olympics  Authors: Laura Dolge and Malin Marmbrandt  Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to research how companies are promoting themselves efficiently to increase brand awareness through advertisement in major sporting events, through viral...

  13. Polities and Olympics: Marking the Milestones and Clarifying the Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak HERGUNER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical overview of how dominant polities have fundamentally shaped the social functions of Olympic Games since the ancient times. Dominant polities’ role in identifying social roles of the Games is explored in light of four polity types. The paper is a historical process research, and findings are reported in a case - oriented historical narrative format based on secondary sources. The paper concludes that different meanings and roles attributed to the same event – ie. Olympics in the study – compliant with the dominant polity type of the era are the evidence for the social construction of the reality.

  14. Television and the construction of identity : Barcelona, Olympic host

    OpenAIRE

    Moragas Spà, Miquel de,

    1995-01-01

    This document, originally published as part of the book The Keys of success: the social, sporting, economic and communications impact of Barcelona’92, comes from a larger study that looked at all aspects of television in the Olympics and can be found in its original version, in Miquel de Moragas Spà, Nancy K. Rivenburgh and James F. Larson (1996). Television in the Olympics. London: John Libbey. Aquest document, originalment publicat com a part del llibre Les claus de l'èxit: impactes s...

  15. The IOC's Midas Touch: Summer Olympics and City Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Nitsch; Nicolai Wendland

    2013-01-01

    Hosting a mega-event is a costly activity of short duration. Still, cities frequently compete to become host of all types of events. This paper examines the effect of staging the largest and most important sporting event in the world, the Summer Olympic Games, on the host city. Applying a difference-in-differences methodology, we analyze the rates of population growth of Olympic cities, candidate cities and other large cities in host and candidate countries over the period from 1860 to 2010. ...

  16. OLYMPIC AND SPORTS MOVEMENT IN POLAND (1918–1939)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilchkovski, Eduard; Pasichnyk, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    After gaining Poland’s independence in 1918 the government of the country began an active work on the establishment of a national system of physical education for children and youth. Among important aspects of reforming this area was the implementation of an important task – the development of mass sports in the country. In 1919 the Polish Olympic Committee was set up whose task was to popularize the Olympic movement in the country, the representation of Polish sports in Europe and the word, ...

  17. Value of nuclear energy echoes with Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Australia's newest uranium mine, Olympic Dam contains 450 million tonnes of economic ore. It has the capacity to annually produce 45,000 tonnes of uranium oxide, 27,000 ounces of gold and 555,000 ounces of silver. The orebody composition and the deposit-wide mineral zonation pattern represents the end product of a complex evolution of a large breccia pipe system. A brief account is given of the mining and metallurgical operations, along with a list of the long term contracts which cover about 50% of Olympic Dam's initial uranium production. 1 tab., ills

  18. Olympic dam expansion - a clear future for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.

    2008-01-01

    After BHP Billiton's acquisition of Olympic Dam in northern South Australia in 2005, an important early decision was to undertake a major drilling campaign to better define the resource. Between 2005 and 2007, the drilling almost doubled the resource. BHP Billiton's 2007 annual report indicated the Olympic Dam mineral resource estimate is 7.855 B dry metric tonnes at metal grades of 0.86% Copper, 0.29 kg per tonne Uranium Oxide, 0.3 g/t Gold and 1.6 g/t Silver.

  19. Importance of the First and the Second Russian Olympic Games for development of sports and Olympic movement in the Russian Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Лях-Породько, Олексій

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals and analyses external and internal (nation-wide and regional) factors which have affected the holding of the First Russian Olympic Games of 1913 in Kiev and the Second Russian Olympic Games of 1914 in Riga are analyzed. It was determined that sports activity in the state was considerably stirred up during 1913–1914 years. It was found that the first Russian Olympic Games directly affected development of governmental-public structure of physical training and sports, creatio...

  20. date extended

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SIG ada . 8005. i.d. TIHA Hào, đJIGE - 580 080,. INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. | P.B No. 8005, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bengaluru -560 080,. Phone No. 080-2266 1224/91-080-22661200 / 22661203 Fax: 080-2361 6094. Website: www.ias.ac.in E-mail: office@ias.ernet.in, execsec@ias.ernet.in. Section: Purchase.

  1. The Olympic Games broadcasted as Interactive Television - New Media new Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    or delayed video coverage of the Olympic Games. The Torino Olympic Broadcasting was the first to be filmed entirely in High Definition Television. In the future the use of digital video processing, computer vision, 3D-visualisation and animation techniques allow viewers to watch sports events almost......The Olympic Games is the world´s largest media event and television is the engine that has driven the growth of the Olympic Movement. Increases in broadcast revenue over the past two decades have provided the Olympic Movement with a huge financial base. More networks than ever before broadcast...... the Olympic Games to more countries and territories, with a record number of hours, a significant rise in the total viewing hours, and dramatic increases in live and prime-time coverage. Over 300 channels transmitted 35.000 hours of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. The future of television is digital, which...

  2. Development of CA-ID-TIMS zircon U–Pb dating technique at Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Pretreatment protocols for zircon analysis, and community-wide innovations spurred on by EARTHTIME tends to be at the leading edge of technological development. Also, more and more Chinese researchers perform lots of laboratory work in improving the technique in China. Here we present the running condition, procedural blanks and zircon standards measurement results in the clean laboratory of the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (GIGCAS. The results show the total procedural blanks (Pbc are below ∼1 pg mostly, suitable for the sample pretreatment and operation. The 206Pb/238U dates of R33 and 500 Ma solution are 419.88 ± 0.94 Ma (n = 7; MSWD = 6.8 and 500.50 ± 0.19 Ma (n = 9; MSWD = 0.84, respectively. These results demonstrate that the CA-ID-TIMS procedure is well established at GIGCAS. Our efforts are beneficial to the development of EARTHTIME-CN program. In particular, when this technique is combined with the SIMS technique, it provides an efficient way to solve a number of geochronological problems encountered in China and worldwide.

  3. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  4. Radiocarbon dating for contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the radiocarbon facility at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, and is written for potential contributors, current users, and for those who advise others. The report briefly outlines the principles and practices of C-14 dating; with emphasis on factors that enable contributors to judge whether C-14 work is appropriate, and to assist them with the procedures to be followed in order to get the best results. Age determinations, being the main requirements by contributors, have been discussed in detail

  5. Olympic seljatas oodatud käibe / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Olympic Entertainment Groupi 2007. aasta neljanda kvartali käive oli 799 miljonit krooni. Tänu tugevale aasta lõpule edestas ettevõte nii enda korrigeeritud aastaprognoosi kui ka analüütikute ootusi. Diagramm: Käive. Kommenteerib Indrek Kuivallik

  6. Preparing for the Olympic Games: Training adaptation in endurance sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, G.J.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the

  7. Legacy, resource mobilisation and the olympic movement | Girginov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a growing interest in legacies of the Olympic Games focusing on external tangible outcomes, such as the number of sport competitions, participants and jobs created. Little is still known about the equally valuable internal benefits to individuals and organisational capacities of national sport systems.

  8. Volunteer Motivations at a National Special Olympics Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Selina; Engelhorn, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28…

  9. The Phenomenon of the Olympic Games. Women in the Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen M., Ed.; Fritz, Harry, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of articles is offered that examines the history and current status of women in the Olympic Games. Included is a brief historical account of women's participation, criteria for adding sports, examination of women's status, and an explanation of rhythmic gymnastics which was recently added for women. (DF)

  10. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN, WORLD, AND OLYMPIC BMX CYCLING RACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo-March

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were 1 to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E, world championship competitions tracks (W, and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O; and 2 to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48 during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years. A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times. The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p < 0.001, pedaling cycles predominate in E vs. W and O by 11.85 and 24.23% respectively (p < 0.05, and effort times predominate in O vs. W and E by 6.50 and 12.94% respectively (p < 0.01. In conclusion, O and W tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in

  11. Sustainability as an Input for the Design of Olympic Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu DORALP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, hosting the Olympic Games has been seen as an opportunity to create urban development. The post-Games use of sport venues, the fulfillment of a city’s housing needs by using Olympic Village buildings and the renewal of transport and other infrastructure that accompanies hosting of the Games may be considered indicators for the success of the International Olympic Games. But the city and its citizen do not benefit from these investments in the design of new structures if that design is not carried out in the light of wellplanned urban development projecting. Local and international studies on sustainability, particularly since the 1980s, have shown that sustainable urbanization is only achievable with sustainable development planning. Therefore economic, social and environmental development needs to be provided. If the last Olympic cities are examined in relation to this aspect, it will be seen that an understanding of such factors is reflected in their development. Throughout the history of the modern Games host cities have considered them as an opportunity for development, but cities are now heading towards the implementation of more sensitive actions for the future generation, social and environmental values with the improvement in the approach of sustainable development.

  12. Ice Skating: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven booklets on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents teaching suggestions for ice skating coaches working with mentally retarded persons. An overview section introduces the sport and considers ideas for effective teaching. Goals, objectives, and benefits are considered along with information on…

  13. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating…

  14. Dental data of the Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vougiouklakis, G; Tzoutzas, J; Farmakis, E-T; Farmakis, E-E; Antoniadou, M; Mitsea, A

    2008-11-01

    The Athens University, School of Dentistry, accepted the challenge to organize the Dental Health Services in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games in order to provide the best quality of oral health services to the athletes, coaches, escort members and Olympic Village personnel. Data from the whole activity protocol of the Athens 2004 Games Dental Health Services - the reception, admission and treatment protocols, the facilities and the infrastructure, the number of cases treated per specialty and the experience gained - were recorded. During the Olympic Games, there were more than 1400 dental cases in more than 650 patients, elite athletes, escort members, coaches and staff of the Olympic Village. Among them 313 fillings, 100 root canal therapies, 57 mouthguards and 9 dental trauma cases were treated. During the Paralympic Games, there were more than 240 dental cases in more than 220 patients. Among them 73 fillings, 12 root canal therapies, 21 extractions and 3 dental trauma cases were treated. In such events, highly trained dentists are needed and if possible, specialized in operative dentistry or endodontics. The role of team dentist seems to be of great importance.

  15. The Olympic movement and the sport of peacemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.

    2014-01-01

    Sport and peacemaking have evolved. It is no longer the case that the Olympic Games and war games exist in isolation from each other. Increasingly, policymakers, peacekeepers, athletes, development workers, presidents of nations and others combine forces in an "integrated" approach towards peace.

  16. Trends in Student's Opinions about the Olympics (B. LIVING SCIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    日比野, 朔郎; SAKURO, HIBINO; Department of Health and Physical Education, Faculty of Living Science, Kyoto Prefectural University

    1985-01-01

    オリンピック大会参加競技者でない人達とくに大学生のこれらオリンピックに対する態度の傾向からオリンピックについて考察をした。巨大化につれて宜伝の良き場となり, 経済的機能が拡大された, さらに宜伝機能は政治の舞台ともしてしまった。競技する者の側から全く離れて一大イベントに変ってしまったのである。I.O.Cも競技者も, さらにオリンピックを見る側も, すべての人々がオリンピックについて考え直す時であろう。...

  17. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan

    2015-07-01

    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of fisher restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2013 Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia J. Happe; Kurt J. Jenkins; Michael K. Schwartz; Jeffrey C. Lewis; Keith B. Aubry

    2014-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers [Pekania pennanti (formerly Martes pennanti)] from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008-2010, the National Park Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to...

  19. Genitals to genes: the history and biology of gender verification in the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, James L

    2011-01-01

    From 1968 to 1998, female Olympic athletes were expected to prove their "femininity," ostensibly to stop male "ringers" from passing themselves off as female competitors. Rumours that men were competing in drag had been around since at least the 1936 games. The sex tests started out as simple anatomical examinations--the "nude parade," but rapidly progressed to cellular-based tests (the presence of a Barr body), and eventually to molecular-based tests (the absence of the SRY gene). Women went from being defined by genitalia to cellular characteristics, and finally, by genotype but ironically, as the tests become more sophisticated, both sensitivity and specificity suffered. This paper reviews the science underlying the sex tests, their history, and the controversy that accompanied them.

  20. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  1. Development approaches the formation of management development olympic sports in the region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonets V.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered and grounded priority directions of perfection of control the system by modern olympic sport. Expert estimations are resulted on the problems of management the olympic types of sport and his influence on a modern economy. Practice of introduction of foreign experience is investigational in a management olympic sport. Problems, impedimental development of olympic sport in a region, are exposed. It is set that the basic obstacles of eleemosynary activity in Ukraine it is been absence of economic stimuli for encouragement of sponsors and sportsmen. Also absence of standards of eleemosynary and sponsor activity. The necessity of effective support of olympic sport is grounded from the side of local-authority. It is set that the most essential directions of development of olympic motion in a region is development: economic basis, sporting infrastructure, transport infrastructure. Also medical service of sportsmen.

  2. The origins of the Olympic Village: Los Angeles 1932 and Berlin 1936.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bortolotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the transformations produced by the housing projects for the Olympic Games, the construction and following reuse of the Olympic Villages is an interesting studying matter. During the hundred-year-old history of the modern Olympics the realization of the Olympic Village, which finds reference in the de Coubertin’s writings, and the town planning transformations, to this correlated, have revealed in different ways. The essay mainly concerns the origins of the Olympic Village and the first settlements which characterized the Games in the thirties: Los Angeles 1932 and Berlin 1936. In these two cities, even though with different motivations, politico-economical stimulus and different images, the prototypes of the modern Olympic sport facilities, which find in the village an in the stadium the symbol of the event, were born.

  3. The impact of the 2004 Olympic Games on the Greek economy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Staging the 2004 Olympic Games in Greece, the birthplace of the Olympics, and earning global acclaim for successfully carrying out the event, were significant achievements for the country. The efforts of the management and the employees of the Organising Committee of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games were crucial for this success, as were the efforts of the officers and staff of the Civil Service and of the private sector companies involved in building the supporting infrastructure, along with th...

  4. The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko Ol'ga Gennadievna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A. Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games.

  5. The itinerary of a non-medal olympic athlete: Willy Seewald (*1900 +1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Zarpellon Mazo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the Willy Seewald Olympic sports journey, since the time he started playing sports, through their participation in the Olympic Games in 1924, until the end of his sporting career in the late 1920s. The sources used in this study were interviews, newspapers, magazines, official documents and Seewald family personnel collection. The information extracted and interpreted by document analysis, revealed that Willy Seewald, in addition to practicing a wide range of sports, achieved high performance in Olympic sport Javelin Throw and has shown by his conduct that the Olympic values were incorporated in its habitus.

  6. The level of Olympic knowledge's of schoolboys and young sportsmen of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiev A.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of Olympic knowledge of young sportsmen of Crimea is explored and it is set that it does not differ from the levels of schoolboys, which do not go in for sports. In experiment took part 642 schoolchildren from 20 educational establishments of Crimea. Creation of the separate system of Olympic education, which would provide the high level of knowledge about Olympic movement, motivation, fixing of types, standards, models of conduct of young sportsmen's, in accordance with Olympic ideals is recommended.

  7. Going the distance: Service delivery for the Danish National swimming team during the Olympics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    In this presentation I will outline the service delivery for the Danish National swimming team and provide an example of my work based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with an individual swimmer during the Olympics. Being part of the Olympics involves a range of stressors...... and distractions such as a tight packed swimming schedule (up to 12 starts across seven days), a lot of media attention, social media, others and own expectations. In my service delivery during the Olympics I tried to create an awareness of these stressors and distractions. On a normal day at the Olympics I had...

  8. Contribution of Sport Policy to Sport Legacy Development : Case of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of hosting the Olympic Games on a host city/nation are significant, and therefore how to minimize the negative effects and maximize the positive effect has been an issue for the event owner, the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC aims to leave so-called ‘legacy,’ which are to be long-term positive effects, in host cities and nations. The legacy issues captured Olympic stakeholders and researchers, after the IOC Olympic Study Centre and Autonomous University of Barcelon...

  9. Russia and Its International Image: From Sochi Olympic Games to Annexing Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the change of the Russian Federation’s international image in the light of two significant events: the Olympic Winter Games in 2014 in Sochi and the annexation of Crimea. According to the first hypothesis, one of the main aims for hosting the Olympic Games was to improve the international prestige of Russia. Shortly after the Olympics Russia increased its activity in Eastern Ukraine, which resulted in the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula. Therefore the article is also aimed to investigate whether by annexing Crimea Russia squandered the possible positive effects of hosting the Olympics in terms of its international image.

  10. LHC Olympics Workshop and String Phenomenology 2006 Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gross

    2006-10-01

    This is the final report of the organizers of the String Phenomenolgy program of which the LHC Olympics and the String Phenomenolgy conference were a part. In addition, it includes the list of talks from our website which comprise the online proceedings. The KITP no longer publishes conferences proceedings but rather makes recordings and visuals of all talks available on its website at www.kitp.ucsb.edu Program talks are available at http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/strings06/ Conference talks are are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/strings_c06/ and LHC Olympics talks are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/lhco_c06/. These talks constitute the proceedings of these meetings.

  11. Olympic Dam project: assessment of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    The assessment report on the Environmental Impact Statement produced for the Olympic Dam project is intended to provide the South Australian Government with a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impact of the proposal and to make recommendations concerning the project to be negotiated with the Joint Venturers prior to approval of the EIS. The project involves the mining, processing and sale of products from the copper-uranium ore body at Olympic Dam on the Roxby Downs Station, South Australia. The report includes a description of the proposal, a description of the environment likely to be affected, a discussion of the potential impacts on that environment, a discussion of the adequacy of information presented in the EIS and a discussion of the acceptability of the environmental impacts. The Department has concluded that the pre-design proposal is acceptable on environmental grounds

  12. Injuries and medical issues in synchronized Olympic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Margo

    2009-01-01

    Spectators of the Olympic Games can enjoy a wide variety of sports, including strength, team, timed, endurance, and artistic sports. In the Olympic program, there are two synchronized events: synchronized diving and synchronized swimming. The precision of the synchronization of the athlete's movements and skills is an added feature of entertainment. Synchronized athletes have additional training requirements to perfect the synchronization of their skills. The physical demands on the athlete from the repetition of training required for the perfection of synchronization result in injuries unique to these sports. Although both traumatic and overuse injuries occur, overuse injuries are more common. As these disciplines are artistic, judged sports, these athletes also are susceptible to eating disorders and the female athlete triad. This article reviews the training regimen of these athletes and outlines the injuries and health concerns that are common in the synchronized sports.

  13. Management of environmental and radiation data - the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.

    1987-01-01

    In terms of data management the Olympic Dam Project is in a process of transition from investigative studies to operational monitoring. The data management requirements for investigative studies are quite different requirements and indicates the progress taken in this transition, as well as the directions being taken to complete this transition. The environmental and radiation management programs for the Olympic Dam Project have already stored 70 megabytes of data on computer. With the comprehensive monitoring requirements which have been, or are in the process of being established for production operations, the volume of data is increasing. There are six main areas involving environmental and radiation data management: project area environmental monitoring; monitoring of the impact pathway from groundwater extraction for water supply to possible effects on mound springs; radiation levels in the environment; radiation exposures to designated employees; other occupational exposures in the mine; medical records relevant to occupational health

  14. Does Love Influence Athletic Performance? The Perspectives of Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Hosseini, Cheyenne; Myers, Kelly; Calub, Nina

    2016-06-01

    In this brief report, we provide an initial account of the association between love and athletic performance from the perspective of Olympic athletes. We posit that Romantic Passionate Love (RPL) and athletic performance may both involve the reward-motivation system of the brain. Based on this premise, we explored whether activation in one domain (love) might influence the other (sport). Our investigation was framed using Sternberg's triangular theory of love. Twenty Olympic athletes representing different sports were interviewed at the Games. Most athletes (n = 15) reported that their performance was better while in love; however, qualitative responses suggested that the benefits were correlated with rather than resulting from RPL. Although the athletes were provided with a definition of RPL and affirmed that their relationship met the criteria, interview responses reflected companionate rather than passionate love, suggesting that RPL may be differentially conceptualized across cultures. The study provides preliminary data that may be used to inform and refine future work on this topic.

  15. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  16. RESULTING EFFICACY OF MID-TRACK RACE IN MODERN OLYMPISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosta Goranović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research problem was analysis of resulting efficacy of mid-track race in 1500m discipline, males, in the time period belonging to modern olympism. Analysis of trend results was compared to changes in approach to sport preparation and training in certain time series. The aim of the research was to assume potential influences of novelties in sports preparation on sports achievements in the analyzed athletic discipline. Results of this speculative research indicated that in different time series different trend of improving resulting efficacy in the period of modern olympism is present. Quantitative values of results’ growth are higher in the first part of the period, quite lower at the beginning of the second half and they experience plateau at the end of the second half. It is possible to assume that improvement of resulting efficacy, except of individual potentials, is also influenced by factors related to modification of training technology

  17. Talent identification and promotion programmes of Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, Roel; Güllich, Arne; Warr, Chelsea R; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2009-11-01

    The start of a new Olympic cycle offers a fresh chance for individuals and nations to excel at the highest level in sport. Most countries attempt to develop systematic structures to identify gifted athletes and to promote their development in a certain sport. However, forecasting years in advance the next generation of sporting experts and stimulating their development remains problematic. In this article, we discuss issues related to the identification and preparation of Olympic athletes. We provide field-based data suggesting that an earlier onset and a higher volume of discipline-specific training and competition, and an extended involvement in institutional talent promotion programmes, during adolescence need not necessarily be associated with greater success in senior international elite sport. Next, we consider some of the promising methods that have been (recently) presented in the literature and applied in the field. Finally, implications for talent identification and promotion and directions for future research are highlighted.

  18. Vertical structure and microphysical characteristics of precipitation on the high terrain and lee side of the Olympic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodnik, J. P.; McMurdie, L. A.; Houze, R.

    2017-12-01

    As mid-latitude cyclones pass over coastal mountain ranges, the processes producing their clouds and precipitation are modified when they encounter complex terrain, leading to a maximum in precipitation fallout on the windward slopes and a minimum on the lee side. The precipitation that does reach the high terrain and lee side of a mountain range can be theoretically determined by a complex interaction between the dynamics of air lifting over the terrain, the thermodynamics of moist air, and the microphysical time required to grow particles large enough to fall out. To date, there have been few observational studies that have focused on the nonlinear microphysical processes contributing to the variability of precipitation that is received on the lee side slopes of a mountain range such as the Olympic Mountains. The 2015-16 Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) collected unprecedented observations on the high terrain and lee side of the Olympic Mountains including frequent soundings on Vancouver Island, dual-polarization Doppler radar, multi-frequency airborne radar, and ground-based particle size and crystal habit observations at the higher elevation Hurricane Ridge site. We utilize these observations to examine the evolution of the vertical structure and microphysical precipitation characteristics over the high terrain and leeside within the context of large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic conditions that evolve during the passage of cold season mid-latitude cyclones. The primary goal is to determine the degree to which the observed variability in lee side precipitation amount and microphysical properties are controlled by variations in temperature, flow speed and direction, shear, and stability associated with characteristic synoptic storm sectors and frontal passages.

  19. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  20. Mortality in former Olympic athletes: retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, R; Zantvoord, F W A; van Bodegom, D; van der Ouderaa, F J G; Westendorp, R G J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the mortality risk in subsequent years (adjusted for year of birth, nationality, and sex) of former Olympic athletes from disciplines with different levels of exercise intensity. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Former Olympic athletes. Participants 9889 athletes (with a known age at death) who participated in the Olympic Games between 1896 and 1936, representing 43 types of disciplines with different levels of cardiovascular, static, and dynamic intensity exercise; high or low risk of bodily collision; and different levels of physical contact. Main outcome measure All cause mortality. Results Hazard ratios for mortality among athletes from disciplines with moderate cardiovascular intensity (1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.07) or high cardiovascular intensity (0.98, 0.92 to 1.04) were similar to those in athletes from disciplines with low cardiovascular intensity. The underlying static and dynamic components in exercise intensity showed similar non-significant results. Increased mortality was seen among athletes from disciplines with a high risk of bodily collision (hazard ratio 1.11, 1.06 to 1.15) and with high levels of physical contact (1.16, 1.11 to 1.22). In a multivariate analysis, the effect of high cardiovascular intensity remained similar (hazard ratio 1.05, 0.89 to 1.25); the increased mortality associated with high physical contact persisted (hazard ratio 1.13, 1.06 to 1.21), but that for bodily collision became non-significant (1.03, 0.98 to 1.09) as a consequence of its close relation with physical contact. Conclusions Among former Olympic athletes, engagement in disciplines with high intensity exercise did not bring a survival benefit compared with disciplines with low intensity exercise. Those who engaged in disciplines with high levels of physical contact had higher mortality than other Olympians later in life. PMID:23241269

  1. Sports injuries during the Summer Olympic Games 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo L; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Renström, Per A F H; Aubry, Mark John; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-11-01

    Standardized assessment of sports injuries provides important epidemiological information and also directions for injury prevention. To analyze the frequency, characteristics, and causes of injuries incurred during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Descriptive epidemiology study. The chief physicians and/or chief medical officers of the national teams were asked to report daily all injuries newly incurred during the Olympic Games on a standardized injury report form. In addition, injuries were reported daily by the physicians at the medical stations at the different Olympic venues and at the polyclinic in the Olympic Village. Physicians and/or therapists of 92 national teams covering 88% of the 10,977 registered athletes took part in the study. In total, 1055 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 96.1 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Half of the injuries (49.6%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. The most prevalent diagnoses were ankle sprains and thigh strains. The majority (72.5%) of injuries were incurred in competition. One third of the injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by overuse (22%) and noncontact incidences (20%). Injuries were reported from all sports, but their incidence and characteristics varied substantially. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in soccer, taekwondo, hockey, handball, weightlifting, and boxing (all >or=15% of the athletes) and lowest for sailing, canoeing/kayaking, rowing, synchronized swimming, diving, fencing, and swimming. The data indicate that the injury surveillance system covered almost all of the participating athletes, and the results highlight areas of high risk for sport injury such as the in-competition period, the ankle and thigh, and specific sports. The identification of these factors should stimulate future research and subsequent policy change to prevent injury in

  2. Exports and olympic games: Is there a signal effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Richter, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Rose & Spiegel (2011) find that Olympic Games host countries experience significant positive, lasting effects on exports. They interpret their results as an indication that countries use the hosting of such events to signal openness and competitiveness. We challenge these empirical findings on the grounds that a comparison of structurally different and non-matching groups of countries might suffer from a selection bias. We demonstrate that with an appropriate matching and treatment methodolog...

  3. Chinese response to allergy and asthma in Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Lu, Y; Huang, K; Wang, C; Lu, J; Zhang, C; Zhong, N

    2008-08-01

    China is going to host the Games of the XXIX Olympiad from 8-24 August 2008 in Beijing. The number of athletes and accompanying individuals expected to arrive at China for the Beijing Olympics is estimated at over 10 000 and among them at least 2 000 (20%) are suspected to suffer from respiratory allergies. It is important to monitor the pollen counts and improve air quality in Beijing because Olympic athletes would be exposed to airborne allergens and pollutants during competitions which could hinder peak performance. The main pollen and spore families in Beijing are Artemisia, Ambrosia, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae. They can reach around 307 000 grains of pollen/1000 m(3) of air in August. Economic development in China is usually linked with worsening of air quality. Due to the adoption of various control measures, the ambient air quality in a number of areas in Beijing has actually improved. The ambient air TSP and SO(2) levels in Beijing have been decreasing in the last decade. However, ambient air NO(x) level has been increasing due to the increased number of motor vehicles. Nevertheless, dedicated medical facilities in Beijing will provide medical services to athletes and delegations from all over the world during the Beijing Olympic Games.

  4. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  5. Life in the shadow of the 2012 olympics: an ethnography of the host borough of the London games

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Iain

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. On 6th July 2005 the London Olympic bidding committee won the right to host the 2012 Olympic Games. Some seven years later London’s Olympic venues were built on time, Team GB accumulated an unprecedented medal haul and no significant security incidents occurred. These outcomes facilitated an understandable positive evaluation of the 2012 Games. It would be churlish not to be positive; Olympic...

  6. Global sport mega-events and the politics of mobility: the case of the London 2012 Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Armstrong, Gary; Hales, Gavin; Hobbs, Dick

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the politics of mobility which surrounded the London 2012 Olympics. We provide a critical discussion of the mobility conflicts, problems and criticisms which emerged from our research with local people in the Stratford and wider Newham areas of London, where most Olympic events were located. The paper is divided into four broad parts. First, we identify and discuss the relevant components of the 'mobilities paradigm' in social science which underpin our analysis. Second, we briefly outline our research methods, centring particularly on fieldwork and interviews with different social groups. Third, we examine in detail the six main themes of mobility politics which were evident at London 2012, relating to social context, event construction, event mobility systems, commercial mobilities, the mobile politics of exclusion, and contested modes of mobility. In doing so, we seek to extend the mobilities paradigm by introducing various concepts and keywords - notably on the three-speed city, entryability, mobility panics, instrumental mobility, and corporate kettling - which may be utilized by social scientists to examine mobility systems in other social contexts. We conclude by reaffirming the significance of mobility-focused research at sport and other mega-events, and by indicating future lines of inquiry for social scientists. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  7. Experimental High-Resolution Land Surface Prediction System for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, S.; Bernier, N.; Tong, L.; Mailhot, J.

    2008-05-01

    The 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will take place in Vancouver, Canada, from 12 to 28 February 2010 and from 12 to 21 March 2010, respectively. In order to provide the best possible guidance achievable with current state-of-the-art science and technology, Environment Canada is currently setting up an experimental numerical prediction system for these special events. This system consists of a 1-km limited-area atmospheric model that will be integrated for 16h, twice a day, with improved microphysics compared with the system currently operational at the Canadian Meteorological Centre. In addition, several new and original tools will be used to adapt and refine predictions near and at the surface. Very high-resolution two-dimensional surface systems, with 100-m and 20-m grid size, will cover the Vancouver Olympic area. Using adaptation methods to improve the forcing from the lower-resolution atmospheric models, these 2D surface models better represent surface processes, and thus lead to better predictions of snow conditions and near-surface air temperature. Based on a similar strategy, a single-point model will be implemented to better predict surface characteristics at each station of an observing network especially installed for the 2010 events. The main advantage of this single-point system is that surface observations are used as forcing for the land surface models, and can even be assimilated (although this is not expected in the first version of this new tool) to improve initial conditions of surface variables such as snow depth and surface temperatures. Another adaptation tool, based on 2D stationnary solutions of a simple dynamical system, will be used to produce near-surface winds on the 100-m grid, coherent with the high- resolution orography. The configuration of the experimental numerical prediction system will be presented at the conference, together with preliminary results for winter 2007-2008.

  8. Nowcasting in the FROST-2014 Sochi Olympic project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Benedikt; Wang, Yong; Joe, Paul; Isaac, George; Kiktev, Dmitry; Bocharnikov, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    FROST (Forecast and Research: the Olympic Sochi Testbed) 2014 is a WMO WWRP international project aimed at development, implementation, and demonstration of capabilities of short-range numerical weather prediction and nowcasting technologies for mountainous terrain in winter season. Sharp weather contrasts and high spatial and temporal variability are typical for the region of the Sochi-2014 Olympics. Steep mountainous terrain and an intricate mixture of maritime sub-tropical and Alpine environments make weather forecasting in this region extremely challenging. Goals of the FROST-2014 project: • To develop a comprehensive information resource of Alpine winter weather observations; • To improve and exploit: o Nowcasting systems of high impact weather phenomena (precipitation type and intensity, snow levels, visibility, wind speed, direction and gusts) in complex terrain; o High-resolution deterministic and ensemble mesoscale forecasts in winter complex terrain environment; • To improve the understanding of physics of high impact weather phenomena in the region; • To deliver forecasts (Nowcasts) to Olympic weather forecasters and decision makers and assess benefits of forecast improvement. 46 Automatic Meteorological Stations (AMS) were installed in the Olympic region by Roshydromet, by owners of sport venues and by the Megafon corporation, provider of mobile communication services. The time resolution of AMS observations does not exceed 10 minutes. For a subset of the stations it is even equal to 1 min. Data flow from the new dual polarization Doppler weather radar WRM200 in Sochi was organized at the end of 2012. Temperature/humidity and wind profilers and two Micro Rain Radars (MRR) will supplement the network. Nowcasting potential of NWP models participating in the project (COSMO, GEM, WRF, AROME, HARMONIE) is to be assessed for direct and post-processed (e.g. Kalman filter, 1-D model, MOS) model forecasts. Besides the meso-scale models, the specialized

  9. Health risks and precautions for visitors to the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sachiko; Wada, Koji; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Smith, Derek R

    2018-02-02

    In 2020, Japan will host the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2020 (Tokyo 2020) which will involve a large population influx from various countries to Tokyo, the most populated city in Japan. We summarize the potential health risks for visitors to Tokyo 2020, related to communicable disease risks and other health threats, based on recent national and local surveillance reports. We reviewed up-to-date surveillance reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Tokyo Metropolitan Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. Communicable disease risks for vaccine-preventable illnesses such as measles and rubella, as well as food and waterborne diseases represent the most likely risks. The risk of acquiring vector-borne diseases is considered low in Japan. On the other hand, however, heat-related illness represents a potential risk, as Tokyo 2020 is scheduled during the hottest season in Japan, with temperatures generally expected to exceed 30 °C. Maintaining an up-to-date routine vaccination schedule is highly recommended for visitors attending the Tokyo 2020 and appropriate hygiene measures for food and waterborne diseases as well as health promotion for heat-related illness. It may also be useful to increase the number of multilingual triage clinicians whom can be placed within emergency departments during the Tokyo 2020 to provide first contact services and coordination of emergency care among non-Japanese speaking visitors to Tokyo. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Setting a date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Glenis.

    1987-01-01

    Dating techniques are discussed and explained. The age range and sensitivity of different techniques are given. Potassium/argon dating, amino-acid dating, radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence and geomagnetic field dating are all mentioned. Each technique is explained and a brief history given. The techniques and equipment used by the British Museum, and some examples of archaeological articles dated are mentioned. (UK)

  11. Olympic Casino - meelelahutustööstus, kus kehtib sõjaväekord / Tiina Drui ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drui, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    Olympic Casino personalijuht Tiina Drui ettevõtte personalipoliitikast, töötajate värbamisest ja koolitamisest. Lisad: Olympic Casino põhimõtted; Küsimused, mille abil mõõta töökoha kvaliteeti. Vt. samas: Olympic Casino - 10 aastat täis

  12. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  13. Tests for the Assessment of Sport-Specific Performance in Olympic Combat Sports: A Systematic Review With Practical Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Capranica, Laura; Franchini, Emerson; Prieske, Olaf; Hbacha, Hamdi; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    The regular monitoring of physical fitness and sport-specific performance is important in elite sports to increase the likelihood of success in competition. This study aimed to systematically review and to critically appraise the methodological quality, validation data, and feasibility of the sport-specific performance assessment in Olympic combat sports like amateur boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct up to October 2017. Studies in combat sports were included that reported validation data (e.g., reliability, validity, sensitivity) of sport-specific tests. Overall, 39 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The majority of studies (74%) contained sample sizes sport-specific tests (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-1.00). Content validity was addressed in all included studies, criterion validity (only the concurrent aspect of it) in approximately half of the studies with correlation coefficients ranging from r = -0.41 to 0.90. Construct validity was reported in 31% of the included studies and predictive validity in only one. Test sensitivity was addressed in 13% of the included studies. The majority of studies (64%) ignored and/or provided incomplete information on test feasibility and methodological limitations of the sport-specific test. In 28% of the included studies, insufficient information or a complete lack of information was provided in the respective field of the test application. Several methodological gaps exist in studies that used sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports. Additional research should adopt more rigorous validation procedures in the application and description of sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports.

  14. Olympic tõotab jätkuvat tõusu / Armin Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Armin, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Olympic Casino suuromanik Armin Karu vastab aripaev.ee lugejate küsimustele. Vt. samas: Raivo Sormunen. Olympicust võib saada kalleim börsifirma. Diagramm: Olympic liigub turuväärtuselt juba Tallinna börsi kalliduselt teise firma kannul

  15. The Olympic 500-m speed skating; the inner-outer lane difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    In 1998, the International Skating Union and the International Olympic Committee decided to skate the 500-m twice during World Single Distances Championships, Olympic Games, and World Cups. The decision was based on a study by the Norwegian statistician N. L. Hjort, who showed that in the period

  16. Aligning Olympic Education with the Liberal Arts: A Curriculum Blueprint from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Hong Leo; Kohe, Geoffery Zain

    2015-01-01

    Background: For some time the Olympics have enjoyed a relatively cosy, and quite unsurprising, relationship with Physical Education and its practitioners. Yet, as academics continue their critiques of all matters Olympic, this seemingly symbiotic partnership is being placed under much closer scrutiny. The debates are typically orientated around…

  17. 76 FR 68429 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... applications for the following vacant seats on the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council... in the area affected by the sanctuary. Applicants who are chosen as members should expect to serve...

  18. 77 FR 16813 - Availability of Seat for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... applications for the following vacant seat on the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council... resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected by the sanctuary. Applicants who are...

  19. 75 FR 66064 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... applications for the following vacant seats on the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council... in the area affected by the sanctuary. Applicants who are chosen as members should expect to serve...

  20. The Olympic 500-m speed skating; the inner-outer lane difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard

    In 1998, the International Skating Union and the International Olympic Committee decided to skate the 500-m twice during World Single Distances Championships, Olympic Games, and World Cups. The decision was based on a study by the Norwegian statistician N. L. Hjort, who showed that in the period

  1. London 2012 and beyond: concluding reflections on peacemaking, sport and the Olympic movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games have reinvigorated the debate on Olympic legacies for peace and development. Addressing this debate and building on the articles in this collection, this epilogue argues that the theoretical-conceptual understanding of peace and peacemaking remains poorly

  2. Human Integration through Olympism Education: A Pragmatic Engagement of Youths in a War-Torn Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This paper delineates the findings of a mixed methods study that investigated how Olympism education could strengthen competencies of human integration through delivery of physical, social, and critical literacy and conflict resolution literacy. The study introduced a curriculum model integrating Olympism values and conflict resolution strategies…

  3. Have the Olympic Games become more migratory? : A comparative historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jansen (Joost); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIt is often believed that the Olympic Games have become more migratory. The number of Olympic athletes representing countries in which they weren’t born is thought to be on the rise. It should, however, be noted that migration in the context of sports is hardly a new phenomenon. In

  4. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... and inductively content analyzed. Trustworthiness was reached through credibility activities (i.e., member checking and peer debriefing). The participants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges Before...... the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport...

  5. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content...... analyzed. The results show that consultants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges before the Olympics (e.g. negotiating your role) and Challenges during the Olympics (e.g. dealing with the media......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...

  6. Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2009-07-01

    The 21st Winter Olympic Games will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from February 12 to 28, 2010. Following the Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games will be held from March 12 to 21, 2010. There will be 86 winter sporting events hosted in Vancouver with 5500 athletes staying in two Olympic Villages. Another 2800 members of the media, 25,000 volunteers, and 1 million spectators are expected in attendance. This paper reviews health and safety issues for all travelers to Canada for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games with a specific focus on pre-travel planning, road and transportation safety in British Columbia, natural and environmental hazards, Olympic medical facilities, safety and security, and infectious disease.

  7. Political influence on sportsmen’s training system in olympic sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Yessentayev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the place of Olympic sports in modern world; to analyze dynamic of its political, economic and social significance progress. Material: publications on the topic of this article were used as sources of information. Results: we characterized influence of Olympic sports on transformation of views and practical functioning in sphere of elite sportsmen’s training. Main stages of modern Olympic sports’ formation have been regarded. Strategy of elite sports’ development in historical aspect has been presented. Changes in attitude of political leaders, state figures and general population to Olympic Games have been shown. Directions of development and perfection of elite sportsmen’s training national systems have been outlined. Conclusions: recent years, potential of Olympic sports have being reflected in foreign and home policy of many countries. It resulted in drastic changes in spheres of organization, management, financing, material technical and personnel provisioning of sportsmen’s training.

  8. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  9. Into the Curriculum. Reading/Language Arts: Hans Christian Andersen [and] Science: Bat Research [and] Science: The Library Media Center Rocks! An Introduction to Rocks, Minerals, and Gemstones [and] Social Studies: Ticket to the Olympics: Exploring Sydney and the 2000 Summer Games [and] Social Studies/Music: Sounds of the Election: Presidential Campaign Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Claudia; Mayo, Jeanne B.; Hart, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in reading and language arts, science, social studies, and music. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)

  10. Career performance trajectories of Olympic swimmers: benchmarks for talent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sian V; Vandenbogaerde, Tom J; Hopkins, William G

    2014-01-01

    The age-related progression of elite athletes to their career-best performances can provide benchmarks for talent development. The purpose of this study was to model career performance trajectories of Olympic swimmers to develop these benchmarks. We searched the Web for annual best times of swimmers who were top 16 in pool events at the 2008 or 2012 Olympics, from each swimmer's earliest available competitive performance through to 2012. There were 6959 times in the 13 events for each sex, for 683 swimmers, with 10 ± 3 performances per swimmer (mean ± s). Progression to peak performance was tracked with individual quadratic trajectories derived using a mixed linear model that included adjustments for better performance in Olympic years and for the use of full-body polyurethane swimsuits in 2009. Analysis of residuals revealed appropriate fit of quadratic trends to the data. The trajectories provided estimates of age of peak performance and the duration of the age window of trivial improvement and decline around the peak. Men achieved peak performance later than women (24.2 ± 2.1 vs. 22.5 ± 2.4 years), while peak performance occurred at later ages for the shorter distances for both sexes (∼1.5-2.0 years between sprint and distance-event groups). Men and women had a similar duration in the peak-performance window (2.6 ± 1.5 years) and similar progressions to peak performance over four years (2.4 ± 1.2%) and eight years (9.5 ± 4.8%). These data provide performance targets for swimmers aiming to achieve elite-level performance.

  11. The economic impact of the Olympic Dam development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.H.; Trengove, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    The copper-uranium-gold deposit at Olympic Dam on the Roxby Downs Station, South Australia, was discovered in July 1975. Production technology, safety during mining and processing and the nature and extent of government involvement are discussed. Factors influencing the optimal scale of the project are considered and indicative calculations are made of project costs under a range of assumptions. Social issues raised by the project include lease allocation, taxation, infrastructure and the use of indenture agreements. An analysis is undertaken of the project's expected employment and production effects in South Australia using input/output modelling techniques

  12. Evidence of Aerosol's Influence on Climate from Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Fu, Q.; Huang, J.; Ge, J.; Su, J.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution is a difficult problem during the process of industrialization in most developing countries. In China, the main air pollutants are inhaled aerosol particles. Because of the extremely high loading and rapid development, Beijing became a heavily polluted city, with a population of more than 16 million. The 2008 Olympic Summer Games provided a unique opportunity for the study of climate effects of aerosols due to many measurements taken to fight pollution caused by industrialization and economic growth.Surface temperature is the most intuitive meteorological factor and easy to get. Therefore, aerosol’s radiative effects on regional climate can be known by studying the relationship between aerosols and surface temperature in Beijing city in August 2008. However, many factors can affect the surface temperature and cloud is considered as a very important meteorological element in radiation balance. In order to remove the impact of clouds on surface temperature, here the ground temperature in clear sky days (when cloud cover is less than 2) are selected. Aerosol data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua shows that aerosol concentration decreased significantly in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008. Meanwhile, the ground-based observation data shows the surface temperature during the day (14LT) and night (02LT) in August 2008 is higher and lower than the mean temperature in August from 2002 to 2008, respectively. It is discovered that the distribution of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical Depth (AOD) in the whole area of Beijing in August of 2003 and 2004 is similar to that in 2008. We chosen four meteorological stations to analyze surface temperature and found that the diurnal changes of surface temperature are consistent with that in August of 2003, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, the decrease of AOD in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008 leads to the increase of precipitation

  13. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2002-01-01

    A recent $2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200 000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850 000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction, and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  14. Kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Betancourt, Hamlet; León, Sofia; Deturnel, Yanel; Martínez, Miriam; Echevarría, Ivis; Castillo, María Eugenia; Serviat, Noemí

    2012-04-01

    Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using pvolleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly taller (187.1±2.5 cm) than players in other positions. Centers' percent adipose tissue mass (28.9±2.7%) was significantly higher than that of setters (24.3±2.7%), who were leanest of all positions. The

  15. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2000-01-01

    A recent $A2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200,000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4,500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850,000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  16. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14 C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14 C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  17. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  18. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  19. Communication dated 10 September 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of Egypt to the Agency concerning the High Level Policy Review Seminar of African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Egypt enclosing the documents of the High Level Policy Review Seminar of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) held in Aswan, Egypt on 28-29 November 2007. The communication, and as requested therein, the enclosures containing the Declaration of Aswan, the Aswan Action Plan and the Profile of the Regional Strategic Cooperative Framework (2008-2013) are circulated herewith for information

  20. Evolution of food provision to athletes at the summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona E; O'Connor, Helen T; Denyer, Gareth S; Caterson, Ian D

    2011-06-01

    The history of food provision at the summer Olympic Games (OG) over the past century (1896-2008) provides insight into the evolution of sports nutrition research and the dietary strategies of athletes. Early research favoring protein as the main fuel for exercise was reflected in OG menus from 1932 to 1968. Despite conclusive research from the 1960s demonstrating the clear benefit of carbohydrate on exercise performance, a specific emphasis on carbohydrate-rich foods was not noted until the 1970s. Athlete food preferences and catering complexity evolved rapidly between 1970 and 2000, driven predominantly by a dramatic expansion of the OG and the emergence of systematic sports nutrition research. Nutritional advice by experts and sponsorship by food companies became increasingly important beginning with the 1984 Los Angeles OG. More recent developments include nutritional labeling of menu items and provision of a nutrition information desk (Barcelona 1992), demand for a "high-starch, low-fat menu" (Atlanta 1996), the addition of a dedicated menu website and the systematic gathering of information on athletes' apparent consumption (Sydney 2000), and appointment of the first international dietetic review committee (Beijing 2008). The history of catering at the OG tracks the evolution of sports nutrition practice from anecdotes and myth towards an established specialty in nutrition and dietetics grounded in evidence-based science. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Sports injury and illness epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. An Olympic Legacy? Did the Urban Regeneration Associated With the London 2012 Olympic Games Influence Adolescent Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Smuk, Melanie; Cummins, Steven; Eldridge, Sandra; Fahy, Amanda; Lewis, Daniel; Moore, Derek G; Smith, Neil; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    Public expenditure on large events such as the London 2012 Olympic Games is often justified by the potential legacy of urban regeneration and its associated health and well-being benefits for local communities. In the Olympic Regeneration in East London Study, we examined whether there was an association between urban regeneration related to the 2012 Games and improved mental health in young people. Adolescents aged 11-12 years attending schools in the Olympic host borough of Newham in London or in 3 adjacent comparison London boroughs completed a survey before the 2012 Games and 6 and 18 months after the Games (in 2013 and 2014, respectively). Changes in depressive symptoms and well-being between baseline and each follow-up were examined. A total of 2,254 adolescents from 25 randomly selected schools participated. Adolescents from Newham were more likely to have remained depressed between baseline and the 6- and 18-month follow-up surveys (for 6-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.83; for 18-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 3.70) than adolescents from the comparison boroughs. No differences in well-being were observed. There was little evidence that urban regeneration had any positive influence on adolescent mental health and some suggestion that regeneration may have been associated with maintenance of depressive symptoms. Such programs may have limited short-term impact on the mental health of adolescents.

  3. Gender differences in the relative age effect among US olympic development program youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John; Glamser, Francis D

    2006-04-01

    A large body of research has shown that a disproportionate number of elite youth male soccer players competing in age-segmented competition are born early in the selection year. The advantage of being born early in a cohort has been termed the "relative age effect". Although there has been an exponential growth in women's soccer, few studies have examined the relative age effect in female youth soccer. This study compared the relative age effect of 1,344 female and male youth soccer players considered by the US Olympic Development Program (ODP), in 2001, to be the most talented soccer players born in 1984. The birth dates were taken from the women's state and regional ODP, and national team rosters, and were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Results revealed only a marginal relative age effect for female ODP regional and national team players and no relative age effect for female ODP state team players. In comparison, a strong relative age effect was found in male state, regional and national team players. The results suggest that there are gender differences in the relative age effect of 17-year-old elite female and male soccer players. The gender differences may be explained by a complex interaction of biological and maturational differences with socialization influences.

  4. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez-Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling.  Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.

  5. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez-Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling. Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.

  6. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Black

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. METHODS: We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. FINDINGS: We identified five key themes: (1 Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2 Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3 Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4 Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5 Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. INTERPRETATION: Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  7. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  8. Healthcare Planning for the Olympics in London: A Qualitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. Methods We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. Findings We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Interpretation Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential. PMID:24647613

  9. Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit was discovered in July 1975. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide on Roxby Downs Station in South Australia. The first diamond drill hole, RD1, intersected 38 m of 1.05% copper. A further eight holes were drilled with only marginal encouragement to November 1976, when RD10 cored 170 m of 2.12% copper and 0.06% of uranium oxide, thus confirming an economic discovery. The discovery of Olympic Dam is an excellent example applying broad-scale, scientifically based conceptual studies to area selection. Exploration management supported its exploration scientists in testing their ideas with stratigraphic drilling. Geologic modeling, supported by geophysical interpretations and tectonic studies, was used to site the first hole. The discovery also illustrates the persistence required in mineral exploration. The deposit appears to be a new type of stratabound sediment-hosted ore. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. It is estimated to contain more than 2000 million MT of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6% copper, 0.06% uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/MT gold. The deposit occurs in middle Proterozoic basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat upper Proterozoic sediments. The sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias controlled by a northwest-trending graben

  10. Global Initiative of the Special Olympics Movement for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myśliwiec Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33 of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include:

  11. The Impact of Staging Olympic Games on Real Estate Price in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Xuebing; Yao Yongling

    2012-01-01

    The price of the real estate in many cities of China has been rising up rapidly since a couple of years ago. Particularly, the increasing period is coinciding with the period of economic rising in Beijing. Therefore, many people thank that the higher price is mostly made by holding Olympic Game in 2008. In order to separate Olympic factor and non-Olympic factors, which were supposed to impact the price of real estate in Beijing, Differences-in-Differences (DD) method will be adopted in this p...

  12. Progress in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, R.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The article concerns radiocarbon dating, the most important method for dating in archaeology. The principles and practice of the dating method are described. Recent developments in radiocarbon dating due to technical advances, are discussed, and include radiometric counting of small samples and accelerator mass spectrometry. Carbon isotopes and the environment are also discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Battelle Nuclear Science Facility, West Jefferson, Ohio, date of survey: May 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1979-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the United States Department of Energy's Battelle Nuclear Science Facility located in West Jefferson, Ohio. Gamma ray data were collected over a 5.5 km 2 area centered on the facility by flying east-west lines spaced 61 m apart. Processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was primarily due to radionuclides currently being processed due to the hot lab operations. Off-site data showed the radioactivity to be due to naturally occurring background radiation consistent with variations due to geologic base terrain and land use of similar areas

  14. Kristjan Lepik : Olympic puhul on käive olulisem kui kasum / Enn Tosso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tosso, Enn, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Kasiinoketi Olympic Entertainment Group esimese poolaasta kasum oli 97,4 miljonit krooni, mis on 48,4 protsenti vähem kui mullu samal perioodil. Käive kasvas aastaga rohkem kui kolmandiku. Lisa: Tulemused

  15. Importance of ice for the «White Olympics»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Renkel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organization of any winter Olympic game, often called as «White Olympics», requires interfacing between sports, technology and glaciology. History of the Olympic winter games and the Norwegian figure skater Sonia Henie, first and the only three-time Olympic champion (1928, 1932, 1936 in ladies figure skating, is presented in the article. Leaving the amateurish sport, Henie became a Hollywood star of the ballet on ice. She was introduced to the inventor Frank Zamboni, who created the ice re-surfacer (the ice-cleaning combine to restore the ice on skating rinks. Using the combine by Henie during her tours in the United States served to advertise this machine, and the name Zamboni had become a trademark for machines «Zamboni».

  16. The Temperament of a City: A Postscript to Post-Olympic Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.

  17. Olympic Casino trügib pokkeriga jõuliselt turismiturule / Eric Katskowski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katskowski, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Olympic Casino rahvusvahelisel pokkeriturniiril oli osalejate hulk varasemast märgatavalt suurem. Hasartmängude korraldajate liidu tegevdirektori Tõnis Rüütli hinnangul on tekkinud uus turisminishsh, mida võib nimetada pokkeriturismiks. Diagrammid

  18. Geoethnopolitical Aspect of the Caucasus Development in terms of Sochi Preparation for Winter Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Petrova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with geopolitical problems within the Caucasus Region in terms of modern regional processes, indicates major features of the region and their impact on Sochi preparation for Winter Olympic Games.

  19. Legal Regulation of Trade Activity during Sochi Preparation of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ivneva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topical issues of legal regulation of social trade relations in the Russian Federation during Sochi preparation and hosting of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games.

  20. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  1. Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez #, Carla; Kaschke, Imke; Perlman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. Material and Methods A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 athletes from annual Special Olympics events held in 49 countries, from Europe and Eurasia between 2007 and 2012. The data was analysed descriptively, with One-Way ANOVA test and Chi-Square test. Results The level of significance was predetermined at a p value disability, Special Olympics. PMID:26241452

  2. Olympic opening ceremony was a vibrant feast of fun and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Linda

    2012-08-08

    If director Danny Boyle's intention at the Olympic opening ceremony was to provide a snapshot of Britain today, he succeeded. It was an inspired feast of energy, colour and vibrancy - as well as being great fun.

  3. Application software GeoniCS when designing the olympic ski runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin N. Makarov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GeoniCS implementation for Olympic mountain skiing routes designing is considered an international standard. This program allows optimizing plan and profiling development. Besides, the author adapted the program for lines engineering protection with special metal mesh.

  4. Olympics in Berlin in 1936 thougth the eyes of czech and german newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Nevšímalová, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis aims to introduce the reader to the difference between Czech and German journalism and the manner of informing about sport events during the eleventh Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936. These Olympic Games were the first games in their modern history used for the purposes of propaganda. The thesis compares three significant Czech periodicals (Lidové noviny, České slovo and Venkov), with the German ones - Fehrbelliner Zeitung, Schwedter Tageblatt, Prager Tagblatt, and Deutsch-...

  5. Superpowers on the olympic basketball court: The United States versus China through four nationalistic lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Billings, Andrew C.; MacArthur, Paul J.; Wu, Dan; Ličen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Media renderings of the Olympics continue to offer opportunities for hypernationalism. This study analyzes the same basketball game (U.S. vs. Chinain men's basketball at the 2008 Summer Olympics) through the lens of 4 different telecasts in the United States, China, Slovenia, and Canada. Results illuminate us/them and collectivist/individualist dichotomies, differing themes of redemption and expectation, and stark contrasts in network style and content in game coverage. Ramifications for theo...

  6. Journalists and Olympic athletes: a Norwegian case study of ambivalent relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Elsa; Hanstad, Dag Vidar

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 Human Kinetics This case study explores the relationship between media and sport. More specifically, it examines the association (i.e., the contact and communication) between Norwegian journalists and athletes during the 2010 Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. Ten athletes and three journalists were interviewed about their relationship. To regulate and improve the journalist–athlete relationship during special events like the Olympics, media rules have been formulated. In re...

  7. The athlete as a problem in the olympic movement and the approaches to solve it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voropay Sergej Nikolaevich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic problems which pursue a sportsman in olympic sport are considered. Over 30 informative sources of domestic and foreign authors are analysed. The analysis of modern scientific, scientifically-methodical literature and informative information allowed to outline basic problems which appear before modern an olympian: social, psychological, economic, moral, technological. Basic directions and measures of overcoming problems are offered as within the limits of international olympic motion so at regional and national levels.

  8. MEMBERSHIP PROCESS OF ISTANBUL IN 2020 OLYMPIC GAMES AND ECONOMIC INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    MUSTAFA YILDIZ

    2014-01-01

    The Olympic Game is an expensive and costly sport organization with the participation of athletes, journalists, broadcasters and sportsmen and audiences. This cost can be born only by developed countries and this enables introduction of home countries, increase of tourism activities and acquisition of sports facilities. Membership of Istanbul for 2020 Olympic Games is the first sport organization membership officially announced by prime minister of Turkish government. Therefore the support wa...

  9. Public support for hosting the Olympic Summer Games in Germany: The CVM approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Wicker; John C. Whitehead; Daniel S. Mason; Bruce K. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Cities throughout the world continue to weigh the merits of hosting major sport events, including the Olympic Games. These events are considered desirable due to a range of benefits, including economic and/or tourism development. In addition, previous research has shown that hosting the Olympics may confer intangible benefits for cities and their residents. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation method estimate of the monetary value of intangible benefits to Germans of host...

  10. Sex Trafficking and State Intervention: Conflicts and Contradictions during the 2012 London Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Jelbert, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the British human trafficking prevention policies adopted for the 2012 London Olympics using mixed methods including participation-observation, qualitative interviews, theoretical analysis and policy evaluation. I was invited to observe the Human Trafficking Network and London 2012, the Mayor of London’s official response to the claim that human trafficking would increase at the London Olympics. My presence enabled me to witness first-hand the key policy debates su...

  11. For an Olive Wreath? Olympic Games and Anticipation Effects in Macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Brückner, Markus; Pappa, Evi

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects that hosting and bidding for the Olympic Games has on macroeconomic outcomes in a panel of 184 countries spanning the period 1950-2006. Actual hosting of the Games generates positive investment, consumption, and output responses before, during, and after hosting. We detect anticipation effects: (i) bidding for the Olympic Games generates positive investment, consumption, and output responses at the time of the bidding; (ii) bidding for the Games has a transitory level e...

  12. Which countries bid for the Olympic Games? Economic, political, and social factors and chances of winning

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Vierhaus, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyzes 132 factors on their potential to discriminate countries bidding for hosting the Olympic Games from non-bidding countries. Our binary, clustered model using generalized estimating equations (GEE) shows that countries recording long-term economic growth and pursuing a liberalization and globalization policy will consider an Olympic bid. In addition, countries with an urban population above 10 million, with stable election results and an improvement in health standard...

  13. News shocks in the data: Olympic Games and their macroeconomic effects - Reply

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Viktoria C. E.; Maennig, Wolfgang; Richter, Felix J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent analyses relate increases in the growth rate of countries to anticipation effects caused by bidding for the Olympic Games, so called news shocks. We argue that these findings should be interpreted cautiously. First, these analyses may suffer from an omitted variable bias because they neglect key determinants of economic growth. Second, these analyses compare the bidders for the Olympic Games to all other countries in the world, which constitutes a comparison between groups that show la...

  14. developing of antique olympic plays in a roman period at board of different emperors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko O.G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Researched the questions of development the Ancient Olympic Games, after the capture Greece territory by the Roman army. This condition and development in future fully depended on the social and political phenomena in Roman society preferring more aggressive types of «spectacles». The direction of quickly changing emperors was represented on status of the competitions. Positive relation authorities to competitions brought to achievement the second «bloom» of the Olympic Games in the Roman period.

  15. Migration effects of Olympic siting: A pooled time series cross-sectional analysis of host regions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn D. Thilmany; Travis J. Lybbert

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable opposition to the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in the Salt Lake City metro area. This opposition stems primarily from fears of increased population growth due to the international attention. Proponents maintain that the Games will enhance the quality and quantity of jobs in the local economy, mitigating any undesirable impacts. This paper analyzes the experiences of past North American Olympic host regions, rather than the single case of Salt Lake City, to dete...

  16. Olympic athletes’ job market entry strategies. A typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vilanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish a typology of job market entry strategies among Olympic athletes. Guided by rational choice theory and social reproduction theory, we conducted a telephone survey among 94 athletes (68 men and 26 women. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct groups, which we called parallel life strategists, freelance strategists, lifetime athletes, and non-strategists: it’s a job. The results show that athletes from families with greater economic and cultural capital implement career transition strategies further in advance and achieve greater career success and satisfaction. These findings can be used to develop support programs tailored to the needs of athletes according to their profile.

  17. Personal dose estimations for Olympic Dam's first year of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonter, M.; Hondros, J.

    1989-01-01

    Underground development activities have been underway at Olympic Dam since 1983; commercial ore extraction commenced in early 1988; and the metallurgical treatment plant commenced operation in mid 1988. Detailed and extensive radiation monitoring programs have been in place since commencement of activities and have enabled detailed individual assessment of personal doses. Results are shown, in histogram form, of doses to full and part-time underground mine workers pre-1988 and for calendar 1988; and projected annual doses to treatment plant workers for the period July 1988 to July 1989. Comments are included on the dose calculation assumptions applying in mine and mill and on the degree of conservatism of these assumptions. The doses presented show compliance with the limits quoted in the Australian code of practice; they compare well with other underground uranium mines, and they indicate effective pursuit of the 'alara' principle. 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  19. Preparation and accreditation of anti-doping laboratories for the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrè, Francesco; Wu, Moutian; Boghosian, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    This article outlines the process of preparation of an anti-doping laboratory in view of the activities to be performed on the occasion of the Olympic Games, focusing in particular on the accreditation requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and ISO/IEC 17025, as well as on the additional obligations required by the International Olympic Committee, which is the testing authority responsible for the anti-doping activities at the Olympics. Due to the elevated workload expected on the occasion of the Olympic Games, the designated anti-doping laboratory needs to increase its analytical capacity (samples processed/time) and capability by increasing the laboratory's resources in terms of space, instrumentation and personnel. Two representative cases, one related to the Winter Olympic Games (Torino 2006) and one related to the Summer Olympic Games (Beijing 2008), are presented in detail, in order to discuss the main aspects of compliance with both the WADA and ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation requirements.

  20. Resident Perceptions of the 2006 Torino Olympic Games, 2002-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO CHITO GUALA,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous Olympic Games research has been primarily on economic impacts, tourists, and destination image with most being one-off assessments of the Summer Games. Other than Ritchie's landmark study of the Calgary Winter Olympic Games, relatively few research studies on the Winter Olympic Games have been published, and fewer still concerning resident attitudes throughout the full lifecycle of the event, from bidding, preparation, operation, and legacy stages. Residents are in a unique position to evaluate an event's legacy as taxpayers, daily consumers of infrastructure, and as possible leisure consumers of Olympic sport venues. The purpose of this study was to examine Torino residents' perceptions of their city as host of the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games from 2002-2007. Results from telephone interviews with Torino residents (n = 900 interviews per year; N = 5,400 are presented to reflect the attitudes of the population toward the 2006 Winter Olympic Games over time. Residents experienced a "rollercoaster" of emotions during the event lifecycle ranging from euphoria once the Games were awarded, to concern over escalating production costs, irritation with inconveniences due to construction, and ultimately pride immediately following the Games. Implications of study findings for event and destination managers are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2014 annual progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kay, Thomas J.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2015-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers (Pekania pennanti) from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008–2010, the National Park Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to determine the current status of fishers on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula 3–5 years after the releases and evaluate the short-term success of the restoration program. Objectives of the study are to determine the current distribution of fishers and proportion of the recovery area that is currently occupied by fishers, determine several genetic characteristics of the reintroduced population, and determine reproductive success of the founding animals through genetic studies. During 2014, we continued working with a broad coalition of cooperating agencies, tribes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to collect data on fisher distribution and genetics using noninvasive sampling methods. The primary sampling frame consisted of 157 24-square-kilometer hexagons (hexes) distributed across all major land ownerships within the Olympic Peninsula target survey area. In 2014 we expanded the study by adding 58 more hexes to an expanded study area in response to incidental fisher observations outside of the target area obtained in 2013; 49 hexes were added south and 9 to the east of the target area. During 2014, federal, state, tribal and NGO biologists and volunteers established three baited motion-sensing camera stations, paired with hair snaring devices, in 80 hexes; 69 in the targeted area 11 in the expansion areas. Each paired camera/hair station was left in place for approximately 6 weeks, with three checks on 2-week intervals. We documented fisher presence in 5 of the 80 hexagons, and identified 5 different fishers through a combination of microsatellite DNA analyses and camera detections. All fisher detections were in the target area

  2. Evaluation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2015 final annual progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kay, Thomas J.; Pilgrim, Kristie; Schwartz, Michael K; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers (Pekania pennanti) from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008–2010, the National Park Service (NPS) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to determine the current status of fishers on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula 3–8 years after the releases and evaluate the short-term success of the restoration program. Objectives of the study are to determine the current distribution of fishers and proportion of the recovery area that is currently occupied by fishers, determine several genetic characteristics of the reintroduced population, and determine reproductive success of the founding animals through genetic studies. During 2015, we continued working with a broad coalition of cooperating agencies, tribes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to collect data on fisher distribution and genetics using noninvasive sampling methods. The primary sampling frame consisted of 157 24-km2 hexagons (hexes) distributed across all major land ownerships within the Olympic Peninsula target survey area. In 2014 we expanded the study by adding 58 more hexes to an expanded study area in response to incidental fisher observations outside of the target area obtained in 2013; 49 hexes were added south and 9 to the east of the target area. During 2015, Federal, State, Tribal and NGO biologists and volunteers established three Distributioned motion-sensing camera stations, paired with hair snaring devices, in 87 hexes; 75 in the targeted area and 12 in the expansion areas. Each paired camera/hair station was left in place for approximately 6 weeks, with three checks on 2-week intervals. We documented fisher presence in 7 of the 87 hexagons. Four fishers were identified through microsatellite DNA analyses. The 4 identified fishers included 1 of the original founding population of 90

  3. Injuries in team sport tournaments during the 2004 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri

    2006-04-01

    Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.

  4. Gymnastics injury incidence during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games: analysis of prospectively collected surveillance data from 963 registered gymnasts during Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Steffen, Kathrin; Junge, Astrid; Leglise, Michel; Soligard, Torbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-04-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of injuries in female and male gymnastics disciplines (artistic, rhythmic and trampoline) during three Olympic Games with a view to ultimately improving injury prevention. The National Olympic Committee's head physicians and the medical teams of the Local Organising Committee of the Olympic Games reported daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries in artistic, rhythmic and trampoline gymnastics on a standardised report form during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympic Games. During the three Olympic Games, 81 injuries were reported in a total of 963 registered gymnasts, corresponding to an incidence of 84 injuries (95% CI 67 to 102) per 1000 registered gymnasts, with no difference in injury incidence between female and male gymnasts. Thirty-eight per cent of injuries led to time-loss from sport. The most frequent injury location and injury type were the ankle (22%) and sprain (35%), respectively. The most common diagnosis was ankle sprain (14% of all injuries and 23% of time-loss injuries). The injury incidence was highest in female (107±35) and male artistic gymnastics (83±32), followed by female rhythmic gymnastics (73±30), and lower in male (63±69) and female (43±43) trampoline gymnastics. Research should focus on preventing injuries in artistic gymnastics and of the condition of ankle sprain. Injury surveillance studies should be continued during major championships and throughout the entire competitive season as the Olympic Games provides only a snapshot (although an important one). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

  6. Is Hosting the Games Enough to Win? A predictive economic model of medal wins at 2014 Winter Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2012-01-01

    An econometric model which has first been estimated on medal wins at Summer Olympics and has predicted 88% of medal distribution at Beijing Games 2008, is revisited for Winter Olympics. After changing some variables to take into account the winter sports specificity, the model is estimated again on all Winter Games since 1964.Then it is used to predict (forecast) the medal distribution per country at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.

  7. Motion and landscape : Otl Aicher, Günther Grzimek and the graphic and garden designs of the 1972 Munich Olympics.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller, Kay; Young, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Otl Aicher's design and Günther Grzimek's garden architecture for the 1972 Munich Olympics. We argue that the functionalist aesthetics of the Munich Olympic site should be interpreted as a translation into graphic and landscape design of 1960s progressivism in West German society and democracy. In the process Aicher and Grzimek somewhat paradoxically drew on the tradition of the Olympic Gesamtkunstwerk inaugurated in Berlin in 1936.

  8. Slippery Slope? Assessing the Economic Impact of the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Baade; Robert Baumann; Victor Matheson

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical examination of the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. Our analysis of taxable sales in the counties in which Olympic events took place finds that some sectors such as hotels and restaurants prospered while other retailers such as general merchandisers and department stores suffered. Overall the gains in the hospitality industry are lower than the losses experienced by other sectors in the economy. Given the experience of Utah, potential Olympic...

  9. Methodological aspects of a GIS-based environmental health inspection program used in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kolonia, Virginia; Falagas, Matthew E; Pantelopoulos, Efstathios; Panagakos, Georgios; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Kremastinou, Jeni

    2005-09-02

    The use of geographical information system (GIS) technologies in public health surveillance is gradually gaining momentum around the world and many applications have already been reported in the literature. In this study, GIS technology was used to help county departments of Public Health to implement environmental health surveillance for the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. In order to assess the workload in each Olympic county, 19 registry forms and 17 standardized inspection forms were developed to register and inspect environmental health items requiring inspection (Hotels, restaurants, swimming pools, water supply system etc), respectively. Furthermore, related databases were created using Epi Info 2002 and a geographical information system (GIS) were used to implement an integrated Environmental Health inspection program. The project was conducted in Athens by the Olympic Planning Unit (OPU) of the National School of Public Health, in close cooperation with the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity and the corresponding departments of Public Health in all municipalities that were scheduled to host events during the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games. A total of 44,741 premises of environmental health interest were geocoded into GIS databases and several electronic maps were developed. Using such maps in association with specific criteria, we first identified the maximum workload required to execute environmental health inspections in all premises within the eleven Olympic County Departments of Public Health. Six different scenarios were created for each county, based on devised algorithms in order to design the most effective and realistic inspection program using the available inspectors from each municipality. Furthermore, GIS applications were used to organize the daily inspection program for the Olympic games, provide coloured displays of the inspection results and link those results with the public health surveillance of specific

  10. Methodological aspects of a GIS-based environmental health inspection program used in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelopoulos Efstathios

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of geographical information system (GIS technologies in public health surveillance is gradually gaining momentum around the world and many applications have already been reported in the literature. In this study, GIS technology was used to help county departments of Public Health to implement environmental health surveillance for the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. Methods In order to assess the workload in each Olympic county, 19 registry forms and 17 standardized inspection forms were developed to register and inspect environmental health items requiring inspection (Hotels, restaurants, swimming pools, water supply system etc, respectively. Furthermore, related databases were created using Epi Info 2002 and a geographical information system (GIS were used to implement an integrated Environmental Health inspection program. The project was conducted in Athens by the Olympic Planning Unit (OPU of the National School of Public Health, in close cooperation with the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity and the corresponding departments of Public Health in all municipalities that were scheduled to host events during the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games. Results A total of 44,741 premises of environmental health interest were geocoded into GIS databases and several electronic maps were developed. Using such maps in association with specific criteria, we first identified the maximum workload required to execute environmental health inspections in all premises within the eleven Olympic County Departments of Public Health. Six different scenarios were created for each county, based on devised algorithms in order to design the most effective and realistic inspection program using the available inspectors from each municipality. Furthermore, GIS applications were used to organize the daily inspection program for the Olympic games, provide coloured displays of the inspection results and link those

  11. International sports organization in governance and development of Olympic sports [Mezhdunarodnye sportivnye organizacii v upravlenii i razvitii olimpijskikh vidov sporta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonets V.I.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of development of physical culture and Olympic types of sport are considered from positions of approach of the systems. The structure of the socio-economic system is presented: global, international, national level of administrative mechanism. The basic going is investigational near management. The role of international organizations is certain in a management development of Olympic types of sport. The role of the National Olympic committees which regulate the processes of management development of physical culture and sport a sphere at state level is exposed. The tendencies of bringing in of off-budget facilities Olympic organizations of the separate European countries are marked.

  12. Tests for the Assessment of Sport-Specific Performance in Olympic Combat Sports: A Systematic Review With Practical Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Chaabene

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The regular monitoring of physical fitness and sport-specific performance is important in elite sports to increase the likelihood of success in competition. This study aimed to systematically review and to critically appraise the methodological quality, validation data, and feasibility of the sport-specific performance assessment in Olympic combat sports like amateur boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct up to October 2017. Studies in combat sports were included that reported validation data (e.g., reliability, validity, sensitivity of sport-specific tests. Overall, 39 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The majority of studies (74% contained sample sizes <30 subjects. Nearly, 1/3 of the reviewed studies lacked a sufficient description (e.g., anthropometrics, age, expertise level of the included participants. Seventy-two percent of studies did not sufficiently report inclusion/exclusion criteria of their participants. In 62% of the included studies, the description and/or inclusion of a familiarization session (s was either incomplete or not existent. Sixty-percent of studies did not report any details about the stability of testing conditions. Approximately half of the studies examined reliability measures of the included sport-specific tests (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43–1.00. Content validity was addressed in all included studies, criterion validity (only the concurrent aspect of it in approximately half of the studies with correlation coefficients ranging from r = −0.41 to 0.90. Construct validity was reported in 31% of the included studies and predictive validity in only one. Test sensitivity was addressed in 13% of the included studies. The majority of studies (64% ignored and/or provided incomplete information on test feasibility and methodological limitations of the sport

  13. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  14. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  15. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  16. History and meaning of the Accounting Olympics. First Accounting Olympics held by the Accounting department of the University of Economics - Varna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamena Nedyalkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show the significance of the accounting Olympics for high school students. They can be use not only to test the level in which the students have mastered the accounting knowledge but as well to ensure they’re much more smooth transition from the high school to the university.

  17. Carbon 14 dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document gives a first introduction to 14 C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14 C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14 C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  18. Irradiation of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Al-Charchafchy, F.; Al-Shaikhaly, M.H.; Mirjan, J.; Auda, H.

    1974-01-01

    Testing of the technical feasibility of radurization of fresh dates was attempted. In addition preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the applicability of gamma rays to date syrup manufacture. The varieties Zahdi, Lelwi and Tabarzel were studied at different stages of ripening. The eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation even with doses of 270 and 540 krad. The duration of the softening process, after-ripening, of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10-30 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. The time period of after-ripening was reduced with 270 krad, as well as with 540 krad as a result of shortening of the induction period, i.e. the time after which the date begins to soften. The microbial spoilage of khalaal Lelwi dates was considerably reduced by irradiation with doses above 90 krad. The dibis yield of fully rutab dates was highly increased by the radiation doses of 375 to 2000 krad. The darkness and viable cell count of dibis pressed from irradiated dates were significantly lower than that of untreated dates. (F.J.)

  19. Sudden temperature changes in the Sydney Basin: climatology and case studies during the Olympic months of September and October

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Bruce W.; Leslie, Lance M.

    2000-03-01

    The accurate prediction of sudden large changes in the maximum temperature from one day to the next remains one of the major challenges for operational forecasters. It is probably the meteorological parameter most commonly verified and used as a measure of the skill of a meteorological service and one that is immediately evident to the general public. Marked temperature changes over a short period of time have widespread social, economic, health and safety effects on the community. The first part of this paper describes a 40-year climatology for Sydney, Australia, of sudden temperature rises and falls, defined as maximum temperature changes of 5°C or more from one day to the next, for the months of September and October. The nature of the forecasting challenge during the period of the Olympic and Paralympic Games to be held in Sydney in the year 2000 will be described as a special application. The international importance of the accurate prediction of all types of significant weather phenomena during this period has been recognized by the World Meteorological Organisation's Commission for Atmospheric Science. The first World Weather Research Program forecast demonstration project is to be established in the Sydney Office of the Bureau of Meteorology over this period in order to test the ability of existing systems to predict such phenomena. The second part of this study investigates two case studies from the Olympic months in which there were both abrupt temperature rises and falls over a 4-day interval. Currently available high resolution numerical weather prediction systems are found to have significant skill several days ahead in predicting a large amount of the detail of these events, provided they are run at an appropriate resolution. The limitations of these systems are also discussed, with areas requiring further development being identified if the desired levels of accuracy of predictions are to be reliably delivered. Differences between the predictability

  20. Nuclear security at the summer 2004 Olympic Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today announced an unprecedented joint action plan to help ensure a high level of nuclear security at the 2004 Olympic Games. Cooperation between the IAEA, the Greek Atomic Energy Commission and the Greek Olympics Games Security Division to provide expert advice and technical assistance followed a request for assistance from the two Greek authorities to the IAEA last summer. The action plan is designed to protect facilities and materials, to detect illicit trafficking and malicious use of radioactive materials, and to ensure that emergency response forces are effective and efficient. Much of the work in Greece has been undertaken in co-operation with some IAEA Member States - with substantial support provided by the United States and France in the fields of equipment, training and technical advice. The physical protection of the Demokritos nuclear research reactor, in a suburb of Athens, has been upgraded and the security of radioactive sources used at medical and industrial facilities in six Greek cities has been tightened. Radiation detection equipment has been installed at borders and other entry points into Greece, and mobile detection equipment will be deployed elsewhere. Hand-held radiation monitors are being distributed amongst the thousands of security personnel and customs officials who are involved in the security for the Games. The equipment is being deployed to detect radioactive materials that might be used as a weapon by terrorists in a radiological dispersal device, a so-called 'dirty bomb'. Detailed information on the steps that have been taken cannot be disclosed for reasons of security. 'There has been good cooperation with the Greek Atomic Energy Commission and with the other international partners in developing and implementing this work' said Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'We are collectively striving for a high measure of security and the work being undertaken should

  1. Impacts of pollution controls on air quality in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianlin; Tang, Aohan; Liu, Xuejun; Kopsch, Jenny; Fangmeier, Andreas; Goulding, Keith; Zhang, Fusuo

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has become one of the main environmental concerns in China since the 1980s due to China's rapid economic growth and resultant pollution. However, it is difficult to directly evaluate the anthropogenic contribution to air pollution in China. The 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing provided a unique opportunity for testing the contribution of anthropogenic pollution because of the clean-up controls on air quality in Beijing enforced over the period of the Games. In this case study, we monitored the concentrations of major air pollutants before, during, and after the Olympics at a suburban site in Beijing. Atmospheric concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NH3, NO2, SO2, and the particulate ions NH4+, NO3-, SO4(2-) Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ all decreased during the Olympic period because of strict emission controls, compared with the same period from 2005 to 2007. For example, the average PM10 concentration (61 microg m(-3)) during the Olympics was only 37% of that (166 microg m(-3)) in the same month (August) from 2005 to 2007. However, just 1 mo and 1 yr after the Games had ended, mean concentrations of these pollutants had increased significantly again. This rapid "recovery' of air pollutant concentrations after the Olympics suggests that China needs to implement long-lasting decreases in its air pollution in Beijing and other major cities.

  2. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jisong; Zhang Yongjie

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO 2 emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO 2 using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy

  3. Preventing heat illness in the anticipated hot climate of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R; Endo, Shota; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-19

    Amid the effects of global warming, Tokyo has become an increasingly hot city, especially during the summertime. To prepare for the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo, all participants, including the athletes, staff, and spectators, will need to familiarize themselves with Tokyo's hot and humid summer conditions. This paper uses the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which estimates the risk of heat illness, to compare climate conditions of sports events in Tokyo with the conditions of the past three Summer Olympics (held in Rio de Janeiro, London, and Beijing) and to subsequently detail the need for establishing appropriate countermeasures. We compared WBGT results from the past three Summer Olympics with the same time periods in Tokyo during 2016. There was almost no time zone where a low risk of heat illness could be expected during the time frame of the upcoming 2020 Tokyo Olympics. We also found that Tokyo had a higher WBGT than any of those previous host cities and is poorly suited for outdoor sporting events. Combined efforts by the official organizers, government, various related organizations, and the participants will be necessary to deal with these challenging conditions and to allow athletes to perform their best, as well as to prevent heat illnesses among staff and spectators. The sporting committees, as well as the Olympic organizing committee, should consider WBGT measurements in determining the venues and timing of the events to better avoid heat illness and facilitate maximum athletic performance.

  4. Doping in olympic sport: signs of the crisis and ways to overcome it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Platonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of modern history of the spread of doping in Olympic sport, the IOC’s fight against this negative phenomenon and activities of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA established in 1999 and designed to eradicate doping. It is shown that, despite ever-increasing financial and human resources along with expanded legal capabilities, intensive propaganda efforts, increased volume of testing, severe sanctions, support from reputable international organizations (UN, UNESCO, Council of Europe, the Agency's multi-year activities is not only brought the Olympic sport closer to solving the problem, but also dramatically aggravated and made it dangerous for the credibility and the well-being of the Olympic movement. It is not only and not so much about the competition in elite sport, which has dramatically increased recent years, and socio-political and commercial attractiveness of success at the Olympics, but about fundamentally misguided methodology underlying WADA’s activities, based on neglect of biological, medical and sports sciences’ achievements, and realities of modern elite sports, and drawn up on the ideas of lawyers, economists and “universal managers". The paper outlines in detail outcomes of WADA activities and anti-doping laboratories accredited by the Agency, which manifested themselves in many crisis phenomena moved far beyond the limits of the Olympic sport. Furthermore, the prospects of coming out of the grave crisis developed in this area are delineated.

  5. RADIATION CONTROL DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OLYMPIC FACILITIES IN SOCHI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on the organization and results of the provision of the radiation safety in the period of preparation for the Winter Olympic and Paralympic games in Sochi, 2014. The following topics are overviewed in the paper: allocation of land plots for construction of the Olympic facilities; organization of the sanitary surveillance of the imported equipment, construction materials and designs for the construction of the Olympic facilities; putting the Olympic venues into operation. Dose rate of gamma radiation at all land plots, which were allocated for the construction of the Olympic facilities, conformed to the requirements of sanitary regulations. The average dose rate of gamma radiation was 0.11 μSv h-1 in the Coastal cluster and 0.14 μSv h-1 in the Mountain cluster. The radon fluence rate from the ground surface exceeded the prescribed limit of 80 mBq m-2 s-1 only at the land plot allocated for construction of the «House of receiving official delegations «Achipse» and the «House of receiving official delegations «Psekhako» in the Mountain cluster. The maximal value of 188 mBq m-2 s -1 was registered here. The buildings projects for this area included using radon protection measures, which were implemented during the construction.

  6. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

  7. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

  8. Team Performance Indicators Explain Outcome during Women’s Basketball Matches at the Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Leicht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games is the pinnacle international sporting competition with team sport coaches interested in key performance indicators to assist the development of match strategies for success. This study examined the relationship between team performance indicators and match outcome during the women’s basketball tournament at the Olympic Games. Team performance indicators were collated from all women’s basketball matches during the 2004–2016 Olympic Games (n = 156 and analyzed via linear (binary logistic regression and non-linear (conditional interference (CI classification tree statistical techniques. The most parsimonious linear model retained “defensive rebounds”, “field-goal percentage”, “offensive rebounds”, “fouls”, “steals”, and “turnovers” with a classification accuracy of 85.6%. The CI classification tree retained four performance indicators with a classification accuracy of 86.2%. The combination of “field-goal percentage”, “defensive rebounds”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of winning (91.1%, while a combination of “field-goal percentage”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of losing (96.7%. Shooting proficiency and defensive actions were identified as key team performance indicators for Olympic female basketball success. The development of key defensive strategies and/or the selection of athletes highly proficient in defensive actions may strengthen Olympic match success. Incorporation of non-linear analyses may provide teams with superior/practical approaches for elite sporting success.

  9. A reappraisal of success factors for Olympic cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    Cross-country (XC) skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Due to more effective training and tremendous improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of Olympic XC-ski races has increased more than that of any other Olympic endurance sport. Moreover, pursuit, mass-start, and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, 10 of the 12 current Olympic competitions in XC skiing involve mass starts, in which tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided in the final sprint. Accordingly, reappraisal of the success factors for performance in this context is required. The very high aerobic capacity (VO2max) of many of today's world-class skiers is similar that of their predecessors. At the same time, the new events provide more opportunities to profit from anaerobic capacity, upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and "tactical flexibility." The wide range of speeds and slopes involved in XC skiing requires skiers to continuously alternate between and adapt different subtechniques during a race. This technical complexity places a premium on efficiency. The relative amounts of endurance training performed at different levels of intensity have remained essentially constant during the past 4 decades. However, in preparation for the Sochi Olympics in 2014, XC skiers are performing more endurance training on roller skis on competition-specific terrain, placing greater focus on upper-body power and more systematically performing strength training and skiing at high speeds than previously.

  10. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  11. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  12. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  13. The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Dall; Christiansen, Ask Vest; Henriksen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the ―most important competition of their athletic careers‖ and ―the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.‖ This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes....

  14. Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2001-02-01

    We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance.

  15. Energy diagnosis in industry: case of SAP Olympic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandouidi, Ziwendtaore Frederic

    2007-01-01

    The control of the energy consumption became a crucial problem in the production facilities in Burkina Faso. Energy efficiency is a fact that cannot be ignored in the industrial sector because of the rise unceasingly in the prices of the petroleum. Current reality makes it possible to note the extent of the cost of electricity in our country. The economic pressures in all the sectors of the economic activity, unrestrained competitiveness, the removal of the tariff barriers in the UEMAO member countries caused many difficulties for several companies. SAP Olympic, potential consumer of electrical energy, has difficulties in control and optimize its energy consumption. The importance of this consumption of energy is the subject of great debates at this African Company of Tire. The performances of the old installations of energy are often distant from those obtained with the new installations. If it is relatively easy to carry out new powerful installations, the improvement of the energy consumption of the existing installations requires a study on a case-by-case basis, and it is not always possible to find a solution ensuring the same performances as a new installation. It is necessary to set up rigorous methods of follow-up of the calorific and electric consumption of the equipment in order to have a sufficiently precise energy assessment. The energy diagnosis indeed carries out the most relevant choices for our actions of energy saving [fr

  16. Ground reaction forces of Olympic and World Championship race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    Race walking is an Olympic event where no visible loss of contact should occur and the knee must be straightened until midstance. The purpose of this study was to analyse ground reaction forces of world-class race walkers and associate them with key spatiotemporal variables. Nineteen athletes race walked along an indoor track and made contact with two force plates (1000 Hz) while being filmed using high-speed videography (100 Hz). Race walking speed was correlated with flight time (r = .46, p = .049) and flight distance (r = .69, p = .001). The knee's movement from hyperextension to flexion during late stance meant the vertical push-off force that followed midstance was smaller than the earlier loading peak (p push-off forces (r = .60, p = .011). Lower fluctuations in speed during stance were associated with higher stride frequencies (r = .69, p = .001), and highlighted the importance of avoiding too much braking in early stance. The flattened trajectory and consequential decrease in vertical propulsion might help the race walker avoid visible loss of contact (although non-visible flight times were useful in increasing stride length), while a narrow stride width was important in reducing peak forces in all three directions and could improve movement efficiency.

  17. Emergency department visits during an Olympic gold medal television broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2011-01-01

    Practice pattern variations are often attributed to physician decision-making with no accounting for patient preferences. To test whether a mass media television broadcast unrelated to health was associated with changes in the rate and characteristics of visits for acute emergency care. Time-series analysis of emergency department visits for any reason. Population-based sample of all patients seeking emergency care in Ontario, Canada. The broadcast day was defined as the Olympic men's gold medal ice hockey game final. The control days were defined as the 6 Sundays before and after the broadcast day. A total of 99 447 visits occurred over the 7 Sundays, of which 13 990 occurred on the broadcast day. Comparing the broadcast day with control days, we found no significant difference in the hourly rate of visits before the broadcast (544 vs 537, p = 0.41) or after the broadcast (647 vs 639, p = 0.55). In contrast, we observed a significant reduction in hourly rate of visits during the broadcast (647 vs 783, p television broadcasts can influence patient preferences and thereby lead to a decrease in emergency department visits.

  18. Introduction into the Virtual Olympic Games Framework for online communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the design of the Virtual Olympic Games Framework (VOGF), a computer application designated for athletics, health care, general well-being, nutrition and fitness, which offers multiple benefits for its participants. A special interest in starting the design of the framework was in exploring how people can connect and participate together using existing computer technologies (i.e. gaming consoles, exercise equipment with computer interfaces, devices of measuring health, speed, force and distance and Web 2.0 applications). A stationary bike set-up offering information to users about their individual health and athletic performances has been considered as a starting model. While this model is in the design stage, some preliminary findings are encouraging, suggesting the potential for various fields: sports, medicine, theories of learning, technologies and cybercultural studies. First, this framework would allow participants to perform a variety of sports and improve their health. Second, this would involve creating an online environment able to store health information and sport performances correlated with accessing multi-media data and research about performing sports. Third, participants could share experiences with other athletes, coaches and researchers. Fourth, this framework also provides support for the research community in their future investigations.

  19. Weather Support for the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Sailing Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Sailing Competitions (referred to as OPSC hereafter were held at Qingdao during August 9–23 and September 7–13 2008, respectively. The Qingdao Meteorological Bureau was the official provider of weather support for the OPSC. Three-dimensional real-time information with high spatial-temporal resolution was obtained by the comprehensive observation system during the OPSC, which included weather radars, wind profile radars, buoys, automated weather stations, and other conventional observations. The refined forecasting system based on MM5, WRF, and statistical modules provided point-specific hourly wind forecasts for the five venues, and the severe weather monitoring and forecasting system was used in short-term forecasts and nowcasts for rainstorms, gales, and hailstones. Moreover, latest forecasting products, warnings, and weather information were communicated conveniently and timely through a synthetic, speedy, and digitalized network system to different customers. Daily weather information briefings, notice boards, websites, and community short messages were the main approaches for regatta organizers, athletes, and coaches to receive weather service products at 8:00 PM of each day and whenever new updates were available. During the period of OPSC, almost one hundred people were involved in the weather service with innovative service concept, and the weather support was found to be successful and helpful to the OPSC.

  20. FCJ-163 Olympic Trolls: Mainstream Memes and Digital Discord?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tama Leaver

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the mainstream press have often used the accusation of trolling to cover almost any form of online abuse, the term itself has a long and changing history. In scholarly work, trolling has morphed from a description of newsgroup and discussion board commentators who appeared genuine but were actually just provocateurs, through to contemporary analyses which focus on the anonymity, memes and abusive comments most clearly represented by users of the iconic online image board 4chan, and, at times, the related Anonymous political movement. To explore more mainstream examples of what might appear to be trolling at first glance, this paper analyses the Channel Nine Fail (Ch9Fail Facebook group which formed in protest against the quality of the publicly broadcast Olympic Games coverage in Australia in 2012. While utilising many tools of trolling, such as the use of memes, deliberately provocative humour and language, targeting celebrities, and attempting to provoke media attention, this paper argues that the Ch9Fail group actually demonstrates the increasingly mainstream nature of many online communication strategies once associated with trolls. The mainstreaming of certain activities which have typified trolling highlight these techniques as part of a more banal everyday digital discourse; despite mainstream media presenting trolls are extremist provocateurs, many who partake in trolling techniques are simply ordinary citizens expressing themselves online.

  1. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintle, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450 o C, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  2. Olympic Diplomacy and the Emerging States: Striving for Influence in the Multipolar World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luša Đana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The world of sports is a reflection of the world of politics. It is becoming increasingly multipolar with the emerging states hosting mega sporting events. Firstly, the article problematizes the concept of multipolarity and, secondly, globalisation by questioning whether the Olympic Games reinforce national identities and promote national interests by using Olympic diplomacy as a soft power tool. In doing so, the article explores the correlation between the changes in international affairs and the hosting of and participation at the Olympic Games by emerging states such as Brazil, China and Russia. The analysis distinguishes globalisation from the role of the nation-state, by highlighting the evident differences between emerging states in terms of hosting the Games, but also takes into consideration geopolitical and geo-economic parameters.

  3. Promoting a skills-based agenda in Olympic sports: the role of skill-acquisition specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2009-11-01

    We highlight the importance of promoting a skills-based agenda in the development and preparation of Olympic athletes. The role that specialists with a background in skill acquisition can play is illustrated and the need to move towards a culture where evidence-based practice permeates all aspects of this process reiterated. We provide examples from contemporary research to illustrate how skill-acquisition theory and practice can help inform and guide practitioners, coaches, and administrators in their quest to develop Olympic athletes. Although the acquisition and refinement of skills are essential to performance in most Olympic sports, paradoxically the area of skill acquisition has not impacted in a concerted and meaningful way on this agenda. Skill-acquisition specialists need to be more proactive in forging links with elite sport, whereas practitioners, coaches, and administrators need to appreciate the important role that sports scientists with a background in this area can play in helping to develop future generations of podium athletes.

  4. Very-short range forecasting system for 2018 Pyeonchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ji-Eun; Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Minyou; Kim, Changhwan; Joo, Sangwon

    2016-04-01

    The 23rd Olympic Winter and the 13th Paralympic Winter Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea respectively from 9 to 25 February 2018 and from 9 to 18 February 2018. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the National Institute for Meteorological Science (NIMS) have the responsibility to provide weather information for the management of the Games and the safety of the public. NIMS will carry out a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) and a Research and Development Project (RDP) which will be called ICE-POP 2018. These projects will focus on intensive observation campaigns to understand severe winter weathers over the Pyeongchang region, and the research results from the RDP will be used to improve the accuracy of nowcasting and very short-range forecast systems during the Games. To support these projects, NIMS developed Very-short range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS), which is run in real time with 1 hour cycling interval and up to 12 hour forecasts. The domain is covering Korean Peninsular and surrounding seas with 1.5km horizontal resolution. AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, and radar radial winds are assimilated by 3DVAR on 3km resolution inner domain. The rain rate is converted into latent heat and initialized via nudging. The visibility data are also assimilated with the addition of aerosol control variable. The experiments results show the improvement in rainfall over south sea of Korean peninsula. In order to reduce excessive rainfalls during first 2 hours due to the reduced cycling interval, the data assimilation algorithm is optimized.

  5. Holocene earthquakes of magnitude 7 during westward escape of the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen; Wells, Ray; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Buck, Jason; Reitman, Nadine G.

    2017-01-01

    The Lake Creek–Boundary Creek fault, previously mapped in Miocene bedrock as an oblique thrust on the north flank of the Olympic Mountains, poses a significant earthquake hazard. Mapping using 2015 light detection and ranging (lidar) confirms 2004 lidar mapping of postglacial (≥14  km along a splay fault, the Sadie Creek fault, west of Lake Crescent. Scarp morphology suggests repeated earthquake ruptures along the eastern section of the Lake Creek–Boundary Creek fault and the Sadie Creek fault since ∼13  ka">∼13  ka. Right‐lateral (∼11–28  m">∼11–28  m) and vertical (1–2 m) cumulative fault offsets suggest slip rates of ∼1–2  mm/yr">∼1–2  mm/yr Stratigraphic and age‐model data from five trenches perpendicular to scarps at four sites on the eastern section of the fault show evidence of 3–5 surface‐rupturing earthquakes. Near‐vertical fault dips and upward‐branching fault patterns in trenches, abrupt changes in the thickness of stratigraphic units across faults, and variations in vertical displacement of successive stratigraphic units along fault traces also suggest a large lateral component of slip. Age models suggest two earthquakes date from 1.3±0.8">1.3±0.8 and 2.9±0.6  ka">2.9±0.6  ka; evidence and ages for 2–3 earlier earthquakes are less certain. Assuming 3–5 postglacial earthquakes, lateral and vertical cumulative fault offsets yield average slip per earthquake of ∼4.6  m">∼4.6  m, a lateral‐to‐vertical slip ratio of ∼10:1">∼10:1, and a recurrence interval of 3.5±1.0  ka">3.5±1.0  ka. Empirical relations yield moment magnitude estimates of M 7.2–7.5 (slip per earthquake) and 7.1–7.3 (56 km maximum rupture length). An apparent left‐lateral Miocene to right‐lateral Holocene slip reversal on the faults is probably related to overprinting of east‐directed, accretion‐dominated deformation in the eastern core of the Olympic

  6. Impact of the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games on physical activity of rheumatology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müther, Michael; Williamson, Marie; Williamson, Lyn

    2014-10-01

    Lack of physical activity in the general population is one of the biggest health challenges we face. For rheumatology patients, and other patients with chronic disease, exercise is an essential part of disease management. However, very few patients exercise effectively.One of the aspirations of the London 2012 Olympic/Paralympic Games was to catalyze people into long-term physical activity. We surveyed our rheumatology patients at 3 high-profile times in the year after the Olympics. Two hundred fifty-three patients were enrolled within the study; the largest diagnosis subgroup being rheumatoid arthritis (36%). Ninety-five percent of our patients regard exercise as beneficial; 36% still think it does harm. Most common barriers to exercise were pain (53%), tiredness (44%), and lack of time (36%). Forty-five percent exercise daily, mostly just walking. Twnety-seven patients (16%) were motivated by the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games toward physical activity. They were mostly motivated by athletics' individual stories (67%), taking part in a big sports festival (11%) and demonstration of top sporting levels (4%). Eighteen patients in total (7%) increased their amount of exercise in response to the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. There was no difference between patient diagnostic groups. Only a small minority of patients increased their amount of exercise in response to the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The message about the importance of physical exercise to health needs to be clear, unambiguous, and consistent, because a significant number of patients still think that physical activity does harm. Big sporting events such as the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games can be used as an opportunity to remind patients that physical activity does good and is not harmful. Athletes' individual stories could be used in future as part of a strategy to encourage exercise for all patients.

  7. Maximizing the use of Special Olympics International's Healthy Athletes database: A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; Foley, John T; Temple, Viviene A

    2018-02-01

    There is a critical need for high-quality population-level data related to the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. For more than 15 years Special Olympics International has been conducting free Healthy Athletes screenings at local, national and international events. The Healthy Athletes database is the largest known international database specifically on the health of people with intellectual disabilities; however, it is relatively under-utilized by the research community. A consensus meeting with two dozen North American researchers, stakeholders, clinicians and policymakers took place in Toronto, Canada. The purpose of the meeting was to: 1) establish the perceived utility of the database, and 2) to identify and prioritize 3-5 specific priorities related to using the Healthy Athletes database to promote the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. There was unanimous agreement from the meeting participants that this database represents an immense opportunity both from the data already collected, and data that will be collected in the future. The 3 top priorities for the database were deemed to be: 1) establish the representativeness of data collected on Special Olympics athletes compared to the general population with intellectual disabilities, 2) create a scientific advisory group for Special Olympics International, and 3) use the data to improve Special Olympics programs around the world. The Special Olympics Healthy Athletes database includes data not found in any other source and should be used, in partnership with Special Olympics International, by researchers to significantly increase our knowledge and understanding of the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  9. Methods of dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatty, B

    1986-04-01

    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.

  10. Radiometric dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, B.

    2003-01-01

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  11. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  12. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  13. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  14. NAIP 2013 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2013 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  15. NAIP 2011 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2011 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  16. The Financing of the London Olympics 2012 and its economic effects on the U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Mohak

    2010-01-01

    The Olympics are being seen as an event that can turn an ordinary city into a world city. The past has shown that hosting the games can make a country have enormous profits or, on the other hand, go into deep losses, and the enormous amounts of money invested in them are evidence of this. This paper aims to examine The United Kingdom’s preparations for the 2012 Olympic Games by focussing on the various costs that are incurred, in particular on the plans for a positive economic legacy, and fin...

  17. Medical services at the first Winter Youth Olympic Games 2012 in Innsbruck/Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Cornelia; Schamasch, Patrick; Engebretsen, Lars; Haslinger, Simon; Ruedl, Gerhard; Fink, Christian; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) are a new format designed by the International Olympic Committee. So far no reference data are available regarding the organisation or implementation of the medical services that were needed for the Winter Youth Olympic Games that took place for the first time in Innsbruck 9-24 January 2012. (1) To provide insight into what is needed to prepare for such a complex high level sporting event from a medical perspective, (2) to provide data on medical services for future organising committees and (3) to provide information on different National Olympic Committee (NOC) delegation structures and the consequences of registering a National Olympic Committee Team Physician. A medical information system in the form of a patient data-management system was developed with all involved parties to standardise data collection. All medical encounters occurring at any IYOGOC medical service centre (including physiotherapy and psychology facilities) were tracked and collected in daily reports. Data evaluation was prepared based on different interest groups (Athletes, National Olympic Committees, Workforce, International Olympic Committee and Media) and analysed. 327 medical encounters (42.8% athletes; out of these, 57.9% were accounted to athletes with own NOC team physician) were seen during the YOG 2012. The total number of hospital transports was 27.3%, of which 8.9% were hospitalised with an average length of 1.9 nights. Physiotherapy usage was low with only 19 medical encounters resulting in a referral to physiotherapy accounting for 67 treatments during the entire YOG. Psychological care service was not used at all. The main reason for illnesses was disorders of the respiratory system (28.8%), injuries mostly affected upper extremities (49.6%) and were mostly diagnosed with lacerations and contusions (26.2%). Injury (70.7%) and illness (29.3%) incidences in athletes were slightly lower than previous studies showed. 40.0% of NOC delegations

  18. Revisiting the Salt Lake City Olympic scandal: Would the outcome be different today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dodds

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many international sport organizations face bribery scandals resulting from its event bidding process. The International Olympic Committee (IOC faced this type of scandal with the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Two members of the Salt Lake City Organizing Committee (SLOC faced 15 criminal charges from providing more than US$1.2 million in cash and gifts to entice IOC members to support its bid. Ultimately both SLOC members were acquitted of all charges. Can a new interpretation of the United States’ anti-bribery law, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA, be effective in preventing similar sport scandals?

  19. Reductions of NO2 detected from space during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Boersma, K. F.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Smedt, I.; Kelder, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    During the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Beijing (from 8 August to 17 September), local authorities enforced strong measures to reduce air pollution during the events. To evaluate the direct effect of these measures, we use the tropospheric NO2 column observations from the satellite instruments GOME-2 and OMI. We interpret these data against simulations from the regional chemistry transport model CHIMERE, based on a 2006 emission inventory, and find a reduction of NO2 concentrations of approximately 60% above Beijing during the Olympic period. The air quality measures were especially effective in the Beijing area, but also noticeable in surrounding cities of Tianjin (30% reduction) and Shijiazhuang (20% reduction).

  20. Economic Cost of an Algae Bloom Cleanup in China's 2008 Olympic Sailing Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Li, L.; Bao, X.; Zhao, L. D.

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 2008, an algae bloom struck the coast of Qingdao, China, where the 2008 Olympic sailing events were to be held. The bloom was caused by the drift and proliferation of the green algae Enteromorpha (see http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2352/version/1). It lasted for more than 1 month and covered nearly the entire sailing venue. The Enteromorpha bloom was so intense that national and local governments invested a tremendous amount of labor and resources in a cleanup effort in order to achieve Olympic Games standards [Hu and He, 2008].

  1. Sochi the winner in the battle for the Olympic Games 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Barabanova, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Games provide a powerful impetus to the economic and socio-cultural development of the country, but also contribute to its standing in the international arena. For ENGsia, the Olympics will not only become a milestone in terms of image, but also will greatly increase the status of the city of Sochi and the country, will have a powerful impact on the development of the Krasnodar region and the economy as a whole, attract a lot of sponsors to collaborate, both domestic and foreign. ...

  2. Social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games: a lecturers' and students' perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantaki, Maria; Faculty of Business at Akdeniz University; School of Sport, Leisure and Travel at Buckinghamshire New University

    2009-01-01

    Hosting the Olympic Games is often viewed as a means of raising a nation’s sporting profile as well as a tool for economic development, social regeneration and cultural integration. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of lecturers and students in higher education on the social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games. A purposive sample of one hundred respondents (lecturers, n=30; students, n=70) was used. 73.5 per cent of respondents were male and 32.5 per ce...

  3. STEM Projects: Should We Add the "TEM" to Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Angela

    2012-01-01

    A recent curriculum development from the Nuffield Foundation rose to the challenge of producing a set of resources to establish STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) as a curriculum focus. The result is two STEM cross-curricular projects: "Games," inspired by the London Olympics, and "Futures," a novel…

  4. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B.; Torrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO 2 nH 2 0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  5. Psychosocial impact of involvement in the Special Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Clare; Burns, Jan; Fernie, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that people with intellectual disabilities are vulnerable to low self-esteem leading to additional psychosocial issues such as social exclusion and stress. Previous research into the involvement of Special Olympics (SO) of people with intellectual disabilities has indicted positive psychosocial outcomes. Involvement in sport is known generally to have psychological and social benefits. This study aimed to compare the psychosocial impact of involvement in sport through the SO to no or limited sports involvement, for a sample of people with intellectual disabilities. A cross sectional design was employed comparing three groups, SO, Mencap Sports, and Mencap No Sports on the variables: Self-esteem, quality of life, stress levels and social networks. One hundred and one participants were recruited either through the SO or Mencap. Data were collected through the completion of validated questionnaires by one to one interviews with the participants. Analysis revealed that self-esteem, quality of life, and stress were all significantly associated with SO involvement. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether scores on these variables were able to predict group membership. Self-esteem was found to be a significant predictor of group membership, those in the SO having the highest self-esteem. The findings provide further evidence of a positive association between sport involvement and increased psychological wellbeing, especially for those involved in the SO. The implications of these findings for practice and future research into the relationship between sport and psychological wellbeing within the learning disabled population are considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Weight Management Practices of Australian Olympic Combat Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-09-05

    Combat sport athletes undertake chronic and rapid weight loss (RWL) practices to qualify for weight divisions lower than their training weight. Variation between sports in the prevalence, methods, and magnitude of weight loss as well as recovery practices may be influenced by factors including competition level and culture. Differences in methodologies of previous research in combat sports make direct comparisons difficult, thus this study aimed to examine weight loss practices among all Olympic combat sports in Australia, using standardised methodology. High calibre competitors in wrestling, boxing, judo and taekwondo (n=260) at Australian competitions were surveyed using a validated tool which provides quantification of how extreme an athlete's weight loss practices are; the RWL score (RWLS). Additional qualitative and quantitative survey data were also collected. Neither sport, sex or weight division group had an effect on RWLS however a significant effect of athlete calibre was detected [F (2,215) = 4.953, MSE = 4.757, p = 0.00792]. Differences between sports were also evident for: most weight ever lost in order to compete [H = 19.92, p = 0.0002), age at which weight cutting began (H = 16.34, p = 0.001) and selected methods/patterns of RWL (p < 0.001). Weight cycling between competitions was common among all sports as were influences on athlete's behaviours. While many similarities in weight loss practices and experiences exist between combat sports, specific differences were evident. Nuanced, context/culturally specific guidelines should be devised to assist fighters' in optimising performance while minimising health implications.

  7. Performance evaluation and ranking of participation Asian countries in 2012 London Olympic Games through Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shirouyehzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games ranking is done through lexicographic multi criteria method in each period. According to this method, the country receiving the most gold medals will have the highest score, and in case of having equal silver medals, comparison will be done according to bronze ones. The problem of this method is to pay the most attention merely to gold medals. Using data envelopment analysis, some studies have recently suggested various ranking for the Olympic Games. The present research uses DEA to rank the participating Asian countries in London Olympic that have at least won one medal. As an output-oriented BCC model, this one considers the number of male and female athletes, received medals in two previous Olympic as well as the number of their presence in the Olympic games as the inputs. Gold, silver and bronze medals are the only output of the model. This model is solved in two forms of female and male athlete combination and their separation. Solving this model makes this opportunity to present a new rankings model for participating Asian countries in the Olympic Games that can be compared with the ranking used by Olympic committee.

  8. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  9. History of radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, W F [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1967-08-15

    The development is traced of radiocarbon dating from its birth in curiosity regarding the effects of cosmic radiation on Earth. Discussed in historical perspective are: the significance of the initial measurements in determining the course of developments; the advent of the low-level counting technique; attempts to avoid low-level counting by the use of isotopic enrichment; the gradual appearance of the environmental effect due to the combustion of fossil fuel (Suess effect); recognition of the atmosphere ocean barrier for carbon dioxide exchange; detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism from the study of fallout radiocarbon; determination of the new half-life; indexing and the assimilation problem for the massive accumulation of dates; and the proliferation of measurement techniques and the impact of archaeological insight on the validity of radiocarbon dates. (author)

  10. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games Olympic—Intelligence Centre: Lessons Learned from Working with the Olympic Sponsors and the Private Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wilkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflective discussion that critically describes the role of the Olympic Intelligence Centre (OIC played in the delivery of a safe and secure London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. In particular, it examines how the OIC worked with the Olympic Sponsors and the wider private sector to provide them with the classified intelligence and information they needed to play their role in the safety and security operation effectively. Issues discussed include the cultural, statutory and systemic challenges that had to be overcome; how relationships were built to allay concerns and build trust and confidence; and the process that was put into place to allow the exchange of classified intelligence that supported the Sponsors and private sector in their operation. It details how the OIC worked with Sponsors to allow them in turn to exchange intelligence they held in their systems with the OIC, thus completing the intelligence cycle, enhancing the security operation. The article concludes with an outline of the lessons learned that were deduced through a reflective process and are offered to practitioners for consideration in future intelligence work involving the private sector.

  11. Confidence, Concentration, and Competitive Performance of Elite Athletes: A Natural Experiment in Olympic Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Burke D.; Taylor, Patricia A.; Weiner, Jay

    2002-01-01

    During the women's all-around gymnastics final at the 2000 Olympics, the vault was inadvertently set 5 cm too low for a random half of the gymnasts. The error was widely viewed as undermining their confidence and subsequent performance. However, data from pretest and posttest scores on the vault, bars, beam, and floor indicated that the vault…

  12. Decision-making on olympic urban development - multi-actor decision support tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    Subject of study is the possible organisation of the Olympic Games of 2028 in the Netherlands, as seen from an urban development viewpoint. The project focuses on the decision-making process in the initiative phase. Aim of the project is the development of a decision support tool for the complex,

  13. Chinese Attitudes towards Varieties of English: A Pre-Olympic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Yu; Case, Rod E.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on findings of an investigation into Chinese students' attitudes towards varieties of English before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. One hundred and eight college students in mainland China evaluated six English speeches by two American English speakers, two British English speakers, and two Chinese English speakers for social…

  14. Change of Landscape Structure before and after Winter Olympic Games in Nagano City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshio; Takeda, Toshiharu

    Recently it is desirable to realize the conservation of biodiversity and to create the city with symbiosis with nature even in local city. In this study, we chose Nagano City which was the site of the Winter Olympic Games as the subject of study, investigated the change of land cover by using Landsat TM data of the year 1985 and 1999 which were before and after the Winter Olympic Games, and grasped the change of landscape structure quantitatively by using landscape indices. As a result, we obtained the following conclusions. The expansion of urban area proceeded rapidly before and after the Winter Olympic Games. The area of artificial land cover in the city planning area has increased by 57%. In the meantime the areas of upland field and paddy field have decreased by 45% and 50% respectively. Therefore, agricultural land changed into urban area remarkably. It was found that the shape of paches of paddy field and upland field especially became small and the inequality of the paches decreased before and after the Winter Olympic Games. It became clear that the fragmentation has occurred in agricultural land such as paddy field, upland field and orchard.

  15. Residents' Perceived Social-Economic Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mark; Chen, Li; Lei, Ouyang; Malone, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether the Olympic Games was a catalyst for changes to Beijing residents' quality of life based on social-economic perspectives and how these changes affected their continuous support for the Games. Residents who lived in Beijing 18 months or longer were invited to participate in this survey research (N = 412)…

  16. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  17. Individualization in swimming and a way of preparation for Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Kopchikova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the high-end training swimmers who specialize in complex navigation. Material : Ukraine national team members from different years of training, swimmers high class of 50 people. A review of questionnaires and coaches of the national team of Ukraine to the XXVIII Olympic Games in Athens. Results found that athletes training and competitive activities differ in structure and content compared to previous preparation for the Olympic Games. In the 2004 Olympic champion set, the largest amount of work is 2520 km with the largest number of events in that year. It is indicated that the athlete in the first 4 years of preparation for his first Olympics gradually increasing annual volume and intensity of training loads. Over the next 4 years - the number of competitions, including commercial. An important factor in this stage is moral and strong-willed and psychological preparation. Conclusions : preparing athletes for major competitions at the stage of conservation achievements is narrowly focused specialized nature, depending on the age of the athlete, his specialization, gender, duration of phase conservation achievements.

  18. News Magazine and Network Television News Coverage of the Munich Olympic Crisis, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    cafes on the Leopoldstrasse a spirit of happy-go-lucky internationalism permeated the tables. As part of the conscious exercise to expiate thoughts...in view of the fact that "because of its exclusive Olympic franchise , ABC had its rivals badly outgunned. To counter the well equipped ABC forces, CBS

  19. Understanding Special Olympics Experiences from the Athlete Perspectives Using Photo-Elicitation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Burnham Riosa, Priscilla; Robinson, Suzanne; Ryan, Stephanie; Tint, Ami; Viecili, Michelle; MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Shine, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities experience challenges to participating in organized sport, despite its known benefits. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of participating in sport (Special Olympics) from the perspectives of athletes with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Five…

  20. Retention at Olympic College: A Statistical Report, Fall 1986-Winter 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaker, Jolene

    A study was conducted at Olympic College (OC) in the State of Washington, to investigate the personal and academic characteristics of student dropouts and their reasons for leaving the college. Questionnaires were sent to 500 fall 1986 students who completely withdrew from OC during the term or received all F's, W's, or other unproductive grades…

  1. Italian Women's Television Coverage and Audience during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Cortis, Cristina; Casella, Rita; Camilleri, Enrica; Pesce, Caterina

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the amount of Italian television coverage dedicated to men's and women's sport and the number of male and female viewers during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games. AUDITEL-AGB Nielsen Media Research Italia provided the TV airtime data for the sport events broadcast, which were classified into three categories: men-only,…

  2. Newspaper Coverage of Women's Sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-01-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly under-reported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French,…

  3. The Beijing Olympics and the art of nation-state maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.; Pak Lei Chong, G.; Liu, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article maps out how different actors are involved in the promotion and mediation of the Olympics. It looks at the roles of, first, the nation-state, through an analysis of the promotional materials; second, the art world and global companies, through an analysis of the touring exhibition

  4. Lessons from 2012: What the NHS Can Learn from Britain's Olympic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Edward J; Blake, Alastair M

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games were widely regarded as an organisational and sporting success for the United Kingdom. Therefore, it is prudent to consider what other large, public endeavours might learn from the Games' success. Team GB worked to develop a positive team culture based around shared values. This is something the National Health Service (NHS) could learn from, as an organisation which can appear to lack this culture. The NHS should also work harder to adopt evidence-based practices, and to adopt them quickly, as is often the case in sport. Sport is the ultimate example of transparent results reporting, and the NHS ought to consider systematic reporting of risk-adjusted performance data, which may drive improved performance. The NHS should pay attention to the experiences of successful Olympic sports with centralised centres of excellence, and to medical data which suggests that better outcomes result from centres of excellence. The NHS and wider government should look to Olympic athletes and place more emphasis on prevention of disease by encouraging positive lifestyle choices. Finally, the NHS should develop private sector partnerships carefully. We must look to gather knowledge and ideas from every area of life in pursuit of excellence in the NHS. Experience of the Olympics offers a number of instructive lessons.

  5. Cracking the code for maintaining quality training in Olympic distance triathlon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Hansen, Tobias; Holm Beck, Anders

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High-quality training is a key determinant of performance in the Olympic distance triathlon and is potentially influenced by a unique array of context-specific biopsychosocial factors. Our objective was to explore and describe these factors among squad members of a university-based, el...

  6. Abundance and population characteristics of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Erran Seaman

    1997-01-01

    We monitored the threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park from 1992 through 1996. We used a stratified random sampling scheme to survey 35 plots totaling 236 km?, approximately 10 percent of the forested area of the park.

  7. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart O of... - Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates A Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. O, App. A Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 922...

  8. Inner-Outer Lane Advantage in Olympic 1000 Meter Speed Skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard; Talsma, Bertus G.

    During the Olympic Games and the World Championships Single Distances the 1000m is skated by every skater only one time. However, there may be a difference in skating a 1000m race with a start in the inner and the outer lane that introduces an externality that introduces unfairness. We show that

  9. An Experimental High-Resolution Forecast System During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, J.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Giguère, A.; McTaggart-Cowan, R.; Erfani, A.; Denis, B.; Glazer, A.; Vallée, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environment Canada ran an experimental numerical weather prediction (NWP) system during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, consisting of nested high-resolution (down to 1-km horizontal grid-spacing) configurations of the GEM-LAM model, with improved geophysical fields, cloud microphysics and radiative transfer schemes, and several new diagnostic products such as density of falling snow, visibility, and peak wind gust strength. The performance of this experimental NWP system has been evaluated in these winter conditions over complex terrain using the enhanced mesoscale observing network in place during the Olympics. As compared to the forecasts from the operational regional 15-km GEM model, objective verification generally indicated significant added value of the higher-resolution models for near-surface meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) with the 1-km model providing the best forecast accuracy. Appreciable errors were noted in all models for the forecasts of wind direction and humidity near the surface. Subjective assessment of several cases also indicated that the experimental Olympic system was skillful at forecasting meteorological phenomena at high-resolution, both spatially and temporally, and provided enhanced guidance to the Olympic forecasters in terms of better timing of precipitation phase change, squall line passage, wind flow channeling, and visibility reduction due to fog and snow.

  10. Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games event study, 1996. Final report, July 1996--August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodei, R.; Bard, E.; Brong, B.; Cahoon, F.; Jasper, K.

    1998-11-01

    The Atlanta metropolitan region was the location of one of the most ambitious Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployments in the United States. This deployment included several individual projects--a Central Transportation Management Center (TMC), six Traffic Control Centers (TCCs), one Transit Information Center (TIC), The Travel Information Showcase (TIS), and the extension of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Rail network and the new high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-85 and I-75. The 1996 Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games created a focus for these projects. All of these systems were to be brought on-line in time for the Olympic Games. This report presents the findings of the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games Events Study--a compilation of findings of system performance, the benefits realized, and the lessons learned during their operations over the event period. The study assessed the performance of the various Travel Demand Management (TDM) plans employed for Olympic Games traffic management.

  11. Disease distribution and medical resources during the Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Ya; Lan, Ling; Chen, Wei-Na; Zhang, Ai-Ping; Lü, Chao-Ying; Lü, Yan-Wei; Dai, Jian-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Appropriate planning and staffing for medical services at large-scale athletic events is essential to provide for a safe and successful competition. There are few well-documented accounts describing the demand for such services. The present study provided the data from the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics, with a view to provide the guidance for planning future events. A total of 22 029 and 8046 patients, who received medical care from a physician at an Olympic or Paralympic medical station, were included. The patient proportion among different personnel, various disease proportions at different kinds of venues, and the disease spectrum at specified venues at the Olympics and Paralympics were analyzed. At both games, the patient proportion varied by accreditation status. The staff accounted for the largest number of visits at the Olympics (44.83%) and Paralympics (36.95%), with respiratory diseases the most common. Various disease spectrums were discovered at the different kinds of venues. Surgical diseases were the most frequently listed reason for visits, both at competition and non-competition venues, especially during the Paralympics. The sport-related injuries accounted for a majority of the surgical cases during both games. At training venues, ear nose and throat diseases accounted for the greatest number of visits during both games. During both games, people contracted different diseases at different venues. Adequate surgeons should be designated to offer assistance mostly in trauma situations. Appropriate numbers of physicians in respiratory diseases and otorhinolaryngology is of great importance.

  12. Sonography in the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen; Xiang, Dong-ying; Dai, Jian-ping

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of sonography at the polyclinic of the Olympic/Paralympic village during the Olympic/Paralympic Games. We retrospectively reviewed 759 consecutive patients who underwent sonography at the ultrasound division of the polyclinic in the Olympic/Paralympic village from July 20, 2008, to September 20, 2008. Prevalence of emergency sonography after sports injury and non-sports-related urgent conditions during the games was analyzed. The benefit of sonographic services in large sporting events was discussed. There were 759 patients (484 athletes, 101 coaches, 88 team officials, and 86 volunteers; 462 men and 297 women) in the ultrasound division at the polyclinic. The indications for sonography included abdominal pain (315 cases, 41.50%), muskuloskeletal disorders (228 cases, 30.04%), gynecology related (104 cases, 13.70%), cardiac conditions (49 cases, 6.46%), small parts (29 cases, 3.82%), and vascular problems (34 cases, 4.48%). The rates of positive findings on sonography were 46.03% in the abdomen, 70.17% in musculoskeleton, 41.34% in gynecology, 10.20% in the heart, 75.86% in small parts, and 38.24% in vessels, respectively. Sonography plays an important role in the medical services at the polyclinic in the Olympic/Paralympic village. The benefits of sonography in such large sporting events are accuracy, fast result, portability, and noninvasiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  14. Exercise Tiger: assessing the BCM impact of the 2012 Olympics on Canary Wharf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, collective corporate resilience is studied to see how a culture of sharing information and planning may assist other business communities to prepare for future events. The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games will see huge opportunity for businesses in London, and across Europe, but not without cost. Canary Wharf lies in the heart of London's Docklands and less than three miles from the Olympic Park at Stratford. Purpose-built as a business district, it accommodates a working population of 95,000 people, is home to some of the world's leading brands and has a vibrant retail complex of over 200 shops, bars and restaurants. This business community is preparing for every aspect of the Olympics and, in particular, the disruption the Games will bring. As a private estate, the community resilience approach fostered here is both better defined and finite in terms of those it includes as a result. Preparing together with joint exercises, forums and open communications in a network of trusted partners is yielding collective benefits and lending a stronger voice in the call for more information from official agencies. This paper outlines the benefits of collective planning and reports on the success of Canary Wharf's annual estate-wide business continuity exercise - the first major collective Olympics planning exercise in London.

  15. Mapping human environment connections on the Olympic Peninsula: an atlas of landscape values

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McLain; L. Cerveny; Paul M. Montesano; André Beaudoin; Guoqing Sun; Hans-Erik Andersen; Michael A. Wulder; S. Rohdy

    2015-01-01

    The advent of computerized mapping has greatly expanded the ability of land managers to map many aspects of ecological systems, such as tree species, soil types, wildlife habitat, air quality, and water conditions. Mapping the social and cultural aspects of ecological systems, however, has proved much more challenging. This atlas uses the Olympic Peninsula in western...

  16. Government Documents Relating to the 1980 Olympic Games Boycott. A Contents Analysis and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ray L.

    This study gives a brief history of the United States' 1980 boycott of the Summer Olympic Games in Moscow, but focuses mainly on the government publications that grew out of that event. Section 1 provides a short history of the boycott, while section 2 centers on President Jimmy Carter and his role in the boycott, citing information gathered from…

  17. Pacing in Olympic track races: competitive tactics versus best performance strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Christian; Foster, Carl; Banzer, Winfried; De Koning, Jos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe pacing strategies in the 800 to 10,000-m Olympic finals. We asked 1) if Olympic finals differed from World Records, 2) how variable the pace was, 3) whether runners faced catastrophic events, and 4) for the winning strategy. Publically available data from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games gathered by four transponder antennae under the 400-m track were analysed to extract descriptors of pacing strategies. Individual pacing patterns of 133 finalists were visualised using speed by distance plots. Six of eight plots differed from the patterns reported for World Records. The coefficient of running speed variation was 3.6-11.4%. In the long distance finals, runners varied their pace every 100 m by a mean 1.6-2.7%. Runners who were 'dropped' from the field achieved a stable running speed and displayed an endspurt. Top contenders used variable pacing strategies to separate themselves from the field. All races were decided during the final lap. Olympic track finalists employ pacing strategies which are different from World Record patterns. The observed micro- and macro-variations of pace may have implications for training programmes. Dropping off the pace of the leading group is an active step, and the result of interactive psychophysiological decision making.

  18. Obsidian dating prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Developments in the nuclear industry have shown that some of the problems related to the glassification of waste for long term storage are centred on the rate of glass weathering in various repositories. Long term weathering of artificial glasses is paralleled by the archaeological problem of determining hydration rates in obsidian artefacts as a means of dating their manufacture. Figures available for sites in Papua New Guinea indicate that the weathering rate is sufficiently fast to render conventional hydration measurement completely unreliable. This follows from the range of calculated surface reduction rates which range between .0002μ to .004μ per year depending on the site's location and the obsidian source. Hydration rates for key Papua New Guinea obsidians have been determined from long term experimental laboratory exposure and these are used to evaluate the age of obsidians from selected archaeological sites. By adopting a strategy of measuring hydration in concealed fissures both the weathering rate and the dating of the Papua New Guinea obsidians have been successfully achieved. The dissolution rates of natural obsidians could be useful in considering weathering rates for artificial glasses. An improved system for calculating the annual effective hydration temperature is presented which gives a better control of micro-environmental temperature in its crucial rate determining role. The combined result of these developments gives obsidian hydration dating an enhanced capacity to be a useful and independent dating system

  19. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  20. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  1. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashimura, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoneta.

    1978-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D 0 , measuring its luminescence I 0 , and eliminating k through these two equations, because i 0 = kD 0 . Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14 C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Sport Tourism and its History and Contribution of Olympic Games to Touristic Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Y I L D I Z

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism sector is one of the sectors that gain momentum and importance with the globalization. One of the important sub branches of the tourism that attracts attention with 1 - 1 - 5 billion people and approximately 2 trillion world incomes is sport tourism. The first tourism movement is the start of Olympics in Ancient Greek and movement of people who want to watch these games. Due to the fact that this tourism type that emerges thanks to the sports activities, contributes the economic and social structure of that region, states carry out significant lobbying activities to host Olympics. The mass of the number of the sportsmen to attend to the sport activity and audience that come to watch these games and more importantly live s treams from the place of the games contribute significantly to the promotion of that region. While eating and drinking, traveling, souvenirs expenses are direct incomes; it significantly contributes to the transportation and carriage sector. The appearance of before and after of the Olympic regions show great difference. One of the most important examples is the province of Mersin that hosts the latest Mediterranean games. While infrastructure and supra structure investments made for the preparation of city to the games in a brief time change the appearance of the city, national and international promotions significantly change the province. Olympic causes important development beyond measure. The objective of this study is to specify social and economic con tributions of tourism type emerged by the sport activities on the region and raise awareness for its contribution to country promotion. The study bases significantly on the literature review. The study will have a solid structure by making use of the dome stic and international statistical data. The scope of the study is Olympics in general and Mediterranean games in Mersin Province in particular.

  3. SOCHI 2014 OLYMPICS LEGACY: SOCIAL STEREOTYPES WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Tumanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a part of the results of the overall study which took place in 2009–2015 and was devoted to the examination of the public attitudes towards 2014 Sochi Olympics and Olympism on the whole. In the course of the monitoring conducted throughout the whole period of Sochi Olympics project implementation there have been formed sets of statistical evaluation results of the “Olympic region” most important daily living activities spheres conditions and development, with a system of key indicators being used. The original data structured in the united time series give a possibility of a variable comparison of the results attained on a great number of indicators and finally enable to evaluate the degree of implementation of the tasks defined by the IOC. The research program was based on methodological and procedural approaches widely introduced in the works of contemporary Russian and foreign scholars. A benchmarking analysis of the current values system and the region residents’ behavior within the framework of sustainable development is presented in different topic blocks. Empirical data collected through a six-year period show dynamics in Sochi and Krasnodar region population commitment to a healthy lifestyle, vicious habits proliferation and environment friendly daily living activities. Certain communities monitoring results prove a principal thesis which states that lifestyle is a result of the internal and external factors longstanding interaction where the internal ones are determining. It is they that provide such quality characteristics of a lifestyle as continuity and stability. Being a large-scale event Olympic games can boost some particular positive changes in the lifestyle of the dwellers of the city which became the event capital but the games are not able to provide the changes’ sustainment. To prevent reversibility of the positive changes the local authorities and civil society institutions in the city should

  4. Torino 2006. XX Olympic and IX Paralympic Winter Games: the ENT experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, G; Crosetti, E; Mattiazzo, A; Riontino, E; Massazza, G

    2008-06-01

    A total of 27 competition days, more than 3000 athletes, over 10,000 components of the Olympic family, 3,500 workers, 2,500 volunteers, an overall business of more than 2 billion Euros. These, in a nutshell, are just a few of the data concerning the XX Olympic and the IX Paralympic Winter Games, Torino, Italy, 2006. Such a huge event, obviously required a meticulously organized medical service to cope with the healthcare of the athletes, official workers and the Olympic family, distributed over a geographic area of approximately 80 km in diameter. An ENT service was organized within the medical service, which was divided between 3 Polyclinics, in which 12 ENT Specialists were on duty. The present report gives an account of the final data concerning the service involved, together with a description of the approach used in the actual organization, with a view to providing useful information for colleagues who will be called upon, for a similar service, in future Olympic Winter Games. The ENT healthcare offered was confirmed to be proportional to the requirements, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. All the ENT specialists involved, reported having gained an immense store of human experience from having lived the Olympic atmosphere as a volunteer exerting one's own profession. The facilities available in the Polyclinics, which were at a considerable distance from the Hospital, were found to be more than adequate with respect to the pathological conditions and service requested, particularly in 17% of the cases which would otherwise have been sent to a Hospital Outpatient Unit at least 80 km away.

  5. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London—Olympic Park cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Participants Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Findings to date Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. Future plans The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a ‘natural experiment’, provided by the building and rapid occupation of East

  6. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  7. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N J; Somers, J M [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  8. Dating fractures in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, K.E.; Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M.; Hawkes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  9. Thermoluminescence dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, A.

    2004-01-01

    A crystal that is submitted to radiation stores energy and releases this energy under the form of light whenever it is heated. These 2 properties: the ability to store energy and the ability to reset the energy stored are the pillars on which time dating methods like thermoluminescence are based. A typical accuracy of the thermoluminescence method is between 5 to 7% but an accuracy of 3% can be reached with a sufficient number of measurement. This article describes the application of thermoluminescence to the dating of a series of old terra-cotta statues. This time measurement is absolute and does not require any calibration, it represents the time elapsed since the last heating of the artifact. (A.C.)

  10. science poster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    SRN ADARSH COLLEGE. Cordially invites ... in. Science. " " Date : 11-03-2014 Time : 9:30 am ... SITADEVI RATANCHAND NAHAR ADARSH PU COLLEGE ? ... ADARSH INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ?

  11. Olympic citizenship and the (un)specialness of the national vest: rethinking the links between sport and citizenship law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostakopoulou, D.; Schrauwen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing mobility of athletes prompts a reconsideration of the presumed connection between allegiance, identity and nationality. Olympic citizenship challenges traditional understandings of community membership by calling into question the privileged status of birthright citizenship and by

  12. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204a - Survey footprint for area 110_0204a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2002, approximately 42 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  13. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204c - Survey footprint of area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2003, approximately 49 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  14. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204b - Survey footprint of area 110_0204b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2003, approximately 49 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  15. Coverage hab108_0201 -- Habitat polygons for HMPR-108-2002-01 survey in Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary (OCNMS).ROV, towed camera sled, bathymetry data, sedimentary...

  16. An Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Based Model Output Statistics (MOS) During the 2002 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hart, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The skill of a mesoscale model based Model Output Statistics (MOS) system that provided hourly forecasts for 18 sites over northern Utah during the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games is evaluated...

  17. Quick-Reaction Report on DoD Support for the 1996 Paralympics and Centennial Olympic Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1996-01-01

    This audit report is the first in a series of reports that will be issued in response to a request from the Director, Office of Special Events regarding DoD support of the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games...

  18. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204c - Habitat polygons for survey area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  19. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab122_0702 - Habitat polygons for HMPR-122-2007-02 survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected side scan sonar, multibeam...

  20. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204b - Habitat polygons for survey area 0204b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  1. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204a - Habitat polygons for area 110_0204a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  2. Sediment dating in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper will comment on a few issues of particular relevance to Australasia. Thermoluminescent (TL) methods applied to open sites have been demonstrated to be effective. A particularly good example of this is to be found in the South East of South Australia, where a sequence of low ranges runs roughly parallel with the coast. They represent relict sand dunes left behind, on a slowly rising land surface by successive interglacial incursions of the sea at roughly 120 ka intervals. Comparison with ages established on independent geological grounds allows a test of quartz TL and IRSL ages that is believable back to 500 ka. Older than this, we do not yet understand the physics of the quartz well enough to go unequivocally forward (backward?). Similar results are emerging elsewhere. With dating limits being pushed ever further back, the time variation of the environmental radiation giving rise to the stored luminescent energy needs to be addressed. Particularly at wet sites, radioactive disequilibrium must be considered. In any case, a time profile of the radiation dose rate needs to be determined.In dating a given site or sites the value of ages obtained by any dating method,including C-14, is enhanced by parallel measurements with an different method

  3. Sponzorský projekt McDonald's Olympic Hopefuls na podporu mladých sportovců.

    OpenAIRE

    Adamec, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the McDonald's Olympic Hopefuls sponsorship project. The first two parts include theoretical essentials for elaboration and the terms concerning marketing. Explanation of terms related to marketing communication and commercial communications is also included in this section. The third part is focused on sponsorship, its types and evaluation of sponsorship projects. The application part describes the history of the McDonald's Olympic Hopefuls project. Evaluation of th...

  4. Psychological issues of the russian sport (towards the 31st Summer Olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Morozov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the psychological issues of the Russian sport in general (including internal and external, objective and subjective ones. The attitudes of the most authoritative sports experts are analyzed. Various media discuss the performance of Russians in the Olympics of the third Millennium, the role and importance of psychology in modern sport and also in preparation of elite sport athletes for such important tournaments as the Olympic Games. The paper discusses fundamental differences of psychological preparation of the Russian and foreign athletes, comparative analysis of national team performances of Russia in the summer Olympics and Paralympic Games over the past 20 years, i.e. in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. The paper analyses the strongest team performances on the global level in the latest Summer Olympic games and the probabilistic prediction of the performance results in the Summer Olympics in Brazil in reference with November doping scandal in the Russian Athletics Federation associated with charges of the Russian athletes in the mass doping followed by a loud dismissal of a number of sports officials and coaches, with two Russian athletes to be disqualified and stripped of their medals of London Olympics-2012, and also a RAF member in the IAAF to be suspended, which puts into question the possibility of Russian national athletics team participating in the next Olympics. The paper outlines current problematic issues the solution of which is urgent for the 21st Summer Olympics 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and should contribute to a fundamental change in the psychological, spiritual, moral atmosphere not only of an individual athlete, but for all Russian sport in general.

  5. The influence of the program of Olympic education on the level of somatic health and physical training of secondary schools scholars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navtykov A.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the program of Olympic education on the level of Olympic knowledge, somatic health and motive preparedness of schoolboys of middle ages was studied. In research 70 students took part 7 classes. The program of course of Olympic education was computer-integrated in extracurricular work of schoolboys. The program is counted on 26 hours. It contained the leadthrough of lectures (12 hours, seminar employments (4 hours, video of lessons (4 hours, спортивно-массовых measures on Olympic subject (3 hours, visit of sporting competitions and meeting with prominent sportsmen. It is set that introduction in the educational process of the program of Olympic education allows considerably to promote the level of knowledge, motivation and practical skills to operate in accordance with ideals and values of olympism. It results in the substantial improvement of physical health and motive preparedness of children.

  6. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  7. Flirting in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2017-01-01

    Various fields have examined the activity of flirting, predominantly based on experimental and reported data; the interactional workings are therefore often overlooked. Based on emails and chats from two Danish online dating sites, this article investigates how users negotiate romantic connections...... through the flirting strategy of ‘imagined togetherness’, linguistically constructing imagery of a shared future. Using the notion of the chronotope, turn-by-turn analysis demonstrates how users, embedded in the activity of getting to know each other, tenuously communicate romantic interest by alluding...

  8. Updating dating down under

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP), Australia's only microprobe and its applications for geochronology. SHRIMP has the ability to analyse tiny areas (less than 30μm across) within crystals directly, the only sample preparation required being polishing of the crystal surface. Most analyses so far have been done on separated crystals prepared as grain mounts, although an increasing number of analyses are now being made of crystals in rock thin sections where their textural associations can be established. Important features of SHRIMP are its double-focusing mass spectrometer and great physical size, more than 8 meters long, employing a magnet weighing six tons. This enables the machine to distinguish ions with atomic masses differing by less than one part in ten thousand while at the same time having a very great sensitivity. SHRIMP was used for dating crustal zircons from southern African Kimberlites. Although low U and Pb abundances presents problems in peak selection and focusing on SHRIMP its was found that kimberlitic zircons could be dated successfully

  9. Fitzhenry and Whiteside book of Canadian facts and dates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    ... of its kind in the market today. More than 25 researchers, editors and contributors were assigned to research and validate important events and dates in the areas of women's issues, human rights, science and technology...

  10. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.

  11. The design of a dynamic security system at the XXIII Summer Olympics at Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The security requirements of the XXIII Summer Olympic Games at Los Angeles provided a challenge unparalleled in the history of the modern games. This paper discusses the dynamics involved and suggests that the principles used are applicable to many of today's security environments. The success of the Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) employed at each of the three Olympic villages and at the Piper Technical Center is a known fact. How it was accomplished is addressed in a straightforward, systematic way. The paper also recognizes the contributions made by the security community, law enforcement agencies, the government, military, the security industry and RandD organizations. It was a team effort that reflected the spirit of the games and the American ''can-do'' attitude

  12. Temporal specificity of training: intra-day effects on biochemical responses and Olympic-Weightlifting performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Achraf; Chtourou, Hamdi; Trabelsi, Khaled; Padulo, Johnny; Turki, Mouna; El Abed, Kais; Hoekelmann, Anitta; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Olympic-Weightlifting session training at three times of the day on the performance related to biochemical responses. Nine weightlifters (21 ± 0.5 years) performed, in randomised order, on three Olympic-Weightlifting training (snatch, clean and jerk) sessions (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p. m., 06:00 p. m.). Blood samples were collected: before, 3 min and 48 h after each training session. Haematological parameters and markers of muscle injury were assessed. Resting oral temperature and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also assessed during each session. ANOVA showed that the performance was better (P weightlifters. Therefore, coaches and weightlifters should be advised to schedule their training session in the afternoon hour.

  13. Ideologies in the Thematic Slogans of the 1984 – 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cuihua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper spotlights the twelve slogans of the Olympic Games in order to critically analyze the ideologies underlying the discourse. By taking the principles of critical discourse analysis (CDA and Halliday’s (1994 systemic-functional grammar (SFG as analytical tools, the paper endeavours to reveal the ideology that predominates in the ruling class and that may impinge on the ways in which the slogans are constructed and elucidated. Furthermore, the images of the host countries manifested in the slogans and their attitude towards and enthusiasm for the Olympic Games are construed. Last but not least, with the rapid development of political and economic globalization, the enhanced call for friendliness and harmony is clearly shown in the linguistic structures of these slogans by analyzing them diachronically.

  14. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  15. Developing a new syndromic surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, S E; Fletcher, J; Loveridge, P; Bains, A; Morbey, R; Yeates, A; McCloskey, B; Smyth, B; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2012-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  16. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  17. Air Quality Measurements from Satellites during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Gleason, J.; Krotkov, N.; Gille, J.; Pickering, K.; Livesey, N.

    2009-05-01

    In preparation for the Olympic and Paralympic games in August and September 2008 in Beijing, China, the Chinese government imposed strict controls on industrial emissions and motor vehicle traffic in and around the city and vicinity before and during the events to improve the air quality for the competitors and visitors. To test the efficacy of these measures, we used satellite data from NASA's Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra/Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) over Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic and Paralympic period. The satellite instruments recorded significant reductions in nitrogen dioxide of up to 50%, up to 10% in tropospheric column ozone, 20-40% in boundary layer sulfur dioxide, and 10-20% reductions in carbon monoxide concentrations below 700 hPa.

  18. Driving and sustaining culture change in Olympic sport performance teams: a first exploration and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.

  19. The development of an ore reserve methodology for the Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    At the Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit in South Australia, evolution in the understanding of the controls on mineralisation coupled with the changing demands of the project have led to changes in the approach to reserve estimation. The project has moved into a phase where detailed stope mining reserves are now required as distinct from global ore reserves. To enable the selective manipulation of geological and assay information and its characterisation, a relational database has been developed. For reserve calculations themselves, initial computations were based on a system derived from that used for the Kambalda nickel orebodies. The Olympic Dam system differed mainly in the use of statistical analyses in the estimation of grade instead of the previous polygonal area of influence weighting method. Three dimensional weighting techniques are now being used for local reserve estimates

  20. The patellar tendon in junior elite volleyball players and an Olympic elite weightlifter

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslén, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The principal aim of the present thesis was to prospectively follow (clinical status and ultrasound + Doppler findings) the patellar tendons in the young elite volleyball players at the Swedish National Centre for high school volleyball in Falköping. In an Olympic weightlifter with chronic painful jumper´s knee, the effects of treatment with sclerosing injections followed by early instituted very heavy weightlifting training, was also evaluated. First, in a prevalence study, we demonstrated t...

  1. Evaluation of spine MRIs in athletes participating in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael S; Guermazi, Ali; Jarraya, Mohamed; Engbretsen, Lars; AbdelKader, Mohamad; Roemer, Frank W; Hayashi, Daichi; Crema, Michel D; Mian, Asim Z

    2018-01-01

    In high-level Olympic athletes, many spinal pathologies arise from overuse, while others are the result of acute injury. Our aim is to analyse the epidemiology of spinal pathologies detected on MRI in athletes participating in the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Summer Olympics. In this retrospective study, all spine MRIs performed during the 2016 Rio Games were analysed. Descriptive data from the MRIs were tabulated and analysed for disc degeneration, spinal canal and/or neural foraminal narrowing, and acute/chronic fractures. Data were analysed by sport, continent of origin, age and sex. Of 11 274 athletes participating in the Olympic games, 100 received spine MRI. Fifty-two of the 100 (52%) athletes who received cervical, thoracic and/or lumbar spine MRI showed moderate to severe spinal disease. The highest sport-specific incidence of moderate to severe spine disease was seen in aquatic diving athletes (67%, 3 per 100 divers). Weightlifting had the second highest sport-specific incidence of spine disease (67%, 1.5 per 100 weightlifters). Athletics used the most spine MRIs (31 of 107 MRIs, 29%). European athletes had more spine MRIs than all other continents combined (55 of 107 MRIs, 51%). Athletes over 30 years old had the highest rate of moderate to severe spine disease on MRI (24 of 37 athletes >30 years old, 65%). A high number of the world's premier athletes demonstrated moderate to severe spine disease on MRI during the 2016 Summer Olympics, including moderate/severe degenerative disc changes with varying degrees of disc bulges and herniations.

  2. IAEA to Cooperate with Japan on Nuclear Security at 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Government of Japan signed an agreement today aimed at enhancing nuclear security measures for the summer Olympic Games and Paralympic Games in Tokyo in 2020. The agreement follows previous IAEA support to major public events, including the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the 2012 European soccer championship in Poland and Ukraine. IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano and Japanese Foreign Minister Taro Kono presided over the signing ceremony at the Agency’s headquarters in Vienna. Practical Arrangements outlining the planned cooperation were signed by IAEA Deputy Director General Juan Carlos Lentijo, head of the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, and H.E. Mitsuru Kitano, Japan’s Ambassador to the International Organizations in Vienna. “The IAEA has extensive experience in supporting Member States on nuclear security for major public events,” Amano said at the ceremony. “The Agency welcomes the cooperation to support the Olympic and Paralympic Games in Tokyo, and is already cooperating with Japan by sharing the experiences of Member States which previously hosted the Olympics.” The details of the cooperation will be decided in due course, but the possible areas of cooperation include the IAEA offering Japanese authorities training courses, workshops, technical visits and exercises related to nuclear security, hosting preparatory technical meetings and lending supplementary radiation detection equipment. The IAEA and Japan may also exchange information related to nuclear security events as appropriate and through the cooperation, the IAEA will also benefit from Japan’s good practices on nuclear security.

  3. Balding goes trolling? Cross-media amplification of controversy at the 2012 Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Billur; Dennis, James William; O'Loughlin, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Victory by Chinese swimmer Ye Shiwen in the 400 metre individual medley at the London Olympic Games provoked instant and controversial reactions. BBC presenter Clare Balding immediately linked Shiwen to doping. If ‘trolling’ online is the deliberate upsetting of audiences to trigger debate and reflection, was Balding trolling? Her comments triggered trajectories of affective engagement across social and mainstream media, in Britain and internationally, which fed back into BBC coverage. We tra...

  4. Explaining Match Outcome During The Men’s Basketball Tournament at The Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Leicht, Miguel A. Gómez, Carl T. Woods

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for the Olympics, there is a limited opportunity for coaches and athletes to interact regularly with team performance indicators providing important guidance to coaches for enhanced match success at the elite level. This study examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicators during men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games. Twelve team performance indicators were collated from all men’s teams and matches during the basketball tournament of the 2004-2016 Olympic Games (n = 156. Linear and non-linear analyses examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicator characteristics; namely, binary logistic regression and a conditional interference (CI classification tree. The most parsimonious logistic regression model retained ‘assists’, ‘defensive rebounds’, ‘field-goal percentage’, ‘fouls’, ‘fouls against’, ‘steals’ and ‘turnovers’ (delta AIC <0.01; Akaike weight = 0.28 with a classification accuracy of 85.5%. Conversely, four performance indicators were retained with the CI classification tree with an average classification accuracy of 81.4%. However, it was the combination of ‘field-goal percentage’ and ‘defensive rebounds’ that provided the greatest probability of winning (93.2%. Match outcome during the men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games was identified by a unique combination of performance indicators. Despite the average model accuracy being marginally higher for the logistic regression analysis, the CI classification tree offered a greater practical utility for coaches through its resolution of non-linear phenomena to guide team success.

  5. DoD Physical Security Technical Support at the 1980 Winter Olympics Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-02

    support were provided to the 1980 Winter Olympic Games were: (1) Physical Security, (2) Communications- Electronics , and (3) Medical via the New York Army...vibration-based Fence Pro- tection System (FPS), manufactured by General Telephone and Electronics (GT& E ) and installed for the Federal Bureau of Prisons...CM (Mr. Woomert) DRSXY-GB (Mr. R. E . Cam) Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 Commander US Army Communications and Electronics Material Readiness

  6. To the Slimmer Go the Spoils: Heterogeneous Responses to Bodyweight Incentives in Olympic Weightlifting Tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew W Nutting

    2008-01-01

    When competitive weightlifters tie — a fairly frequent occurrence at the international level — the higher final rank is awarded to the lifter with the lower official bodyweight. Since winning a tiebreaker is more beneficial at higher ordinal ranks, tournament theory suggests a negative relationship between ability and bodyweight. Analysis from 58 Olympic tournaments shows evidence of a significantly negative relationship between ability and bodyweight except in heavier weight-classes. Cross-c...

  7. Air quality in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games observed by satellites and ground monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Liu, Y.; He, K.; Chen, L.; Wang, Z.; Koutrakis, P.; Christiani, D.

    2008-12-01

    Beijing's severe air pollution has been a major concern for hosting the 29th Olympic Games and Special Olympic Games from August 8 to August 24, 2008. It was generally expected that its air quality in 2008, at least around the period of Olympic Games, would be significantly improved through aggressive government control measures However, it is also expected that the improvement of air quality will not be sustainable due to high economic costs. Thus, the massive temporary improvement of air quality in Beijing metropolitan area induced by direct government intervention will serve as an extremely rare "natural experiment", generating a great contrast in air pollution levels in a short period of time. A ground measurement campaign was conducted to evaluate the variation of airborne particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) levels in Beijing from late July to early September of 2008. Satellite aerosol remote sensing data from MISR, MODIS, and OMI during this period were also analyzed to evaluate the spatial distribution of particles in Beijing and surrounding areas. Preliminary analysis indicated that city-wide ground PM10 level in August was 30% lower than that in 2007. During the Olympic Games, PM10 level was nearly 50% lower than the same period in 2007. There are a total of 14 days with daily PM10 concentrations below 50 micrograms per cubic meter, longest since the ground monitoring network was established in 2001. PM2.5 concentrations measured from three research sites showed a similar reduction. Satellite remote sensing data are limited during the Games due to extensive cloud cover. However, existing data in August and September show a substantial regional reduction of aerosol optical depth. In conclusion, the pollution control measures effectively improved the air quality in Beijing and provided insight on how the Chinese government may mitigate air pollution in many of its large cities.

  8. Three new Psammothidium species from lakes of Olympic and Cascade Mountains in Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Mihaela D.; Potapova, Marina; Sheibley, Rich; Moran, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Populations of several Psammothidium species were found in core sediments from nine remote, high elevation, ultraoligotrophic and oligotrophic, Olympic and Cascade Mountain lakes. Three of these species, P. lacustre, P. alpinum, and P. nivale, are described here as new. The morphology of the silica frustules of these species was documented using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the similarities and differences with previously described Psammothidium species.

  9. The Labor Market Effects of the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Baumann; Bryan Engelhardt; Victor Matheson

    2010-01-01

    The local, state, and federal governments, along with the Salt Lake City Organizing Committee, spent roughly $1.9 billion in direct costs related to planning and hosting the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. In this paper, we investigate whether these expenditures increased employment. At the state level, we find strong evidence it increased employment in leisure related industries in the short run and potentially in the long run. However, the results indicate it had no long term impact on employmen...

  10. Special Olympics un medio para la justicia social en la India rural

    OpenAIRE

    Pans Sancho, Miquel Àngel; Romaguera, Enric; Diaz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    El siguiente Poster muestra el trabajo realizado por la Fundación Vicente Ferrer en su proyecto de deporte y discapacidad, en el Estado de Andhra Pradesh (India), donde las personas con diversidad funcional están totalmente estigmatizadas socialmente. Este programa desarrollado desde 2010 de Special Olympics (SO) ha contribuido a promover la igualdad de condiciones, derechos y oportunidades de las personas con discapacidad intelectual. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar y confir...

  11. Sports medicine and drug control programs of the U.S. Olympic Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K S

    1984-05-01

    The Amateur Sports Act of 1978 reconstituted the U.S. Olympic Committee ( USOC ), giving it new responsibilities and opportunities as a unifying force in amateur sports, including sports medicine. Sports medicine is the sum of attentions that promote and protect the health of the active person. Olympic sports medicine includes attention to the needs of both the elite athlete and the developing athlete. In some instances the attentions are the same; in others they are not. Those in Olympic sports medicine must thereby reduce the increasing array of general concepts and issues to the applicable specifics of the respective occasion, sport, and individual. The USOC Sports Medicine Program is guided by a 15-person volunteer Sports Medicine Council and implemented by a core Sports Medicine Division staff. Services are provided at the Olympic training centers in Colorado Springs and Lake Placid and extended through a budding network of colleagues in the field to clusters of athletes across the nations. Organizationally , the Division is composed of departments of biomechanics, sports physiology, clinical services, and educational services. Special projects are developed as warranted to provide focal attention to sports psychology, nutrition, chronobiology, vision enhancement, and drug control. The USOC Drug Control Program was born at the 1983 Pan American Games in Caracas after a long gestation period. Drug education in sports has been a frequent activity for the past 20 yr. sometimes focusing on illicit drugs (e.g., marijuana and cocaine) and sometimes on sports performance drugs (e.g., amphetamines and anabolic steroids).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Radiocarbon dates XXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, J.A.; Blake, W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This list includes 105 radiocarbon age determinations on 104 geological samples made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. They are on samples from various areas as follows: Labrador Shelf (2); Newfoundland (12); Nova Scotia (2); New Brunswick (1); Quebec (3); Ontario (1); Manitoba (1); Alberta (2); British Columbia (15); Yukon Territory (35); Northwest Territories, Mainland (10); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (21). Details of background and standard for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from November 4, 1980 to October 31, 1981 are summarized in Tables 1 and 2; Table 3 gives the number of counts used to determine the average background and standard counting rates; and Table 4 lists the number of different background and standard gas preparations used for counting

  13. Strength and Conditioning Training by the Danish National Handball Team Before an Olympic Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvorning, Thue; Hansen, Mikkel R B; Jensen, Kurt

    2017-07-01

    Kvorning, T, Hansen, MRB, and Jensen, K. Strength and conditioning training by the Danish national handball team before an Olympic tournament. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1759-1765, 2017-The physical demands imposed on national team handball teams during the Olympics imply significant physical preparation to improve performance and reduce incidence of injuries. The purpose of this case report was to describe and analyze the strength and conditioning (S&C) training performed by the Danish national handball team before the Beijing Olympic Games. Eight weeks of S&C was divided into 5 weeks emphasizing muscle hypertrophy and long-interval running followed by 3 weeks emphasizing strength, power, and short-interval running. Body mass increased by 1.6% (p 0.05). Agility performance was evaluated by a T-test and improved by 2.5% (p handball teams preparing for competition. Detailed and periodized S&C training programs for 8 weeks are provided and can be used by teams ranging from moderately to highly trained.

  14. Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Taikjin; Lee, Hyuk-jae

    2014-01-01

    There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics

  15. Can Cold Water Immersion Enhance Recovery in Elite Olympic Weightlifters? An Individualized Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpchen, Jan; Wagner, Maximilian; Ferrauti, Alexander; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Meyer, Tim

    2017-06-01

    We investigated whether cold water immersion (CWI) after intensive training sessions can enhance recovery in elite Olympic weightlifters, taking into account each athlete's individual response pattern. The entire German male Olympic weightlifting national team participated in the study (n = 7), ensuring collection of data from elite athletes only. Using a randomized cross-over design, the athletes went through 2 high-intensity training microcycles consisting of 5 training sessions that were either followed by a CWI or passive recovery. Barbell speed in a snatch pull movement, blood parameters, and subjective ratings of general fatigue and recovery were assessed throughout the study. Physical performance at 2 snatch pull intensities (85% one repetition maximum [1RM]: -0.15% vs. -0.22%, p = 0.94; 90% 1RM: -0.7% vs. +1.23%, p = 0.25) did not differ significantly (condition × time). Although questionnaires revealed a significant decline in the ratings of overall recovery (p creatine kinase: p = 0.53; urea: p = 0.43; cortisol: p = 0.59; testosterone: p = 0.53; testosterone:cortisol ratio: p = 0.69). In general, CWI did not prove to be an effective tool to enhance recovery in elite Olympic weightlifters over a 3-day intensive training period. However, even though the group was rather homogeneous with regard to performance, there were considerable intersubject differences in their response to CWI. It seems that athletes are best advised on a case-by-case basis.

  16. Security for Show? The Militarisation of Public Space in Light of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica F. Azzi

    Full Text Available Abstract This article aims to analyse the increasing militarisation of public space in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, particularly on the eve of the 2016 Olympics. To this end, I briefly discuss how the concept of militarisation has been historically approached in the International Relations literature, namely within the security field. In the first section, I address the nature of the domestic security challenges Brazil faces as a developing country. In the second section, I show that the public security challenge of organised crime in Rio was securitised and confronted by increasing militarisation over the years as a result of a specific model of neo-liberal social control carried out by the country. I then analyse Brazil’s Olympics security scheme carried out in order to portray Rio as a safe city to the world. In the last section, I highlight the contradictions between accounts on the collapse in domestic security vis-à-vis official government statements to the international media to assure that ‘nothing would go wrong’ during the mega sports event. The idea is to show how the militarisation of public security, rather than mere governmental efforts to signal stability to the international community during the Olympics, is a trend likely to outlast the event that implies not only, but mainly, the perpetuation of insecurity.

  17. Global initiative of the special olympics movement for people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Damentko, Mariusz

    2015-03-29

    The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33) of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include: Coaching excellence and the coaching modelPartnerships with international (regional) sports federationsSports Resources Teams (SRT)Extended quota for high level athletesAthletes Leadership Program (ALPS)Young Athletes ProgramYouth volunteer initiativesUnified Sports ProgramMotor Activity Training ProgramHealthy Athletes Program These initiatives fulfill and expand the existing program, which was launched in 1968 and is the largest sports organization for people with disabilities worldwide, with very important new social, marketing, and developmental aspects of life, going far beyond activities met in other sports organizations.

  18. CSF-biomarkers in Olympic boxing: diagnosis and effects of repetitive head trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Neselius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sports-related head trauma is common but still there is no established laboratory test used in the diagnostics of minimal or mild traumatic brain injuries. Further the effects of recurrent head trauma on brain injury markers are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Olympic (amateur boxing and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF brain injury biomarkers. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Thirty Olympic boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in the study. CSF samples were collected by lumbar puncture 1-6 days after a bout and after a rest period for at least 14 days. The controls were tested once. Biomarkers for acute and chronic brain injury were analysed. RESULTS: NFL (mean ± SD, 532±553 vs 135±51 ng/L p = 0.001, GFAP (496±238 vs 247±147 ng/L p80% of the boxers demonstrate that both the acute and the cumulative effect of head trauma in Olympic boxing may induce CSF biomarker changes that suggest minor central nervous injuries. The lack of normalization of NFL and GFAP after the rest period in a subgroup of boxers may indicate ongoing degeneration. The recurrent head trauma in boxing may be associated with increased risk of chronic traumatic brain injury.

  19. Vancouver Olympic rings powered by fuel cell and IESO records winning goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The fuel cell system that provided power to the 30-foot tall floating Olympic Rings in Vancouver's harbour during the 2010 Winter Olympic Games was developed and manufactured by IdaTech in Bend, Oregon. The power source altered between a biodiesel generator and IdaTech's ElectraGen H2 zero emission hydrogen fuel cell system. The technology was chosen as a source of reliable, clean energy for applications in remote locations. The ElectraGen H2 is a hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system that emits only water vapour and heat, without any greenhouse gases. These solid state electric generators combine the best features of generators and batteries. IdaTech has sold over 400 of these fuel cell units to India and Asia to provide backup power to telecommunications networks. The 2010 Winter Olympic Games also provided an opportunity for Ontario's Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) to track electricity consumption as people turned on their televisions to watch the Men's hockey final between Canada and the United States. An increase in electricity use of 300 MW occurred just before the game started and a similar increase occurred during the intermissions as viewers prepared snacks. Electricity consumption dropped considerably after overtime began and then climbed in the final stages of the game after the winning goal was scored. 2 figs.

  20. Global Initiative of the Special Olympics Movement for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Damentko, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33) of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include: Coaching excellence and the coaching modelPartnerships with international (regional) sports federationsSports Resources Teams (SRT)Extended quota for high level athletesAthletes Leadership Program (ALPS)Young Athletes ProgramYouth volunteer initiativesUnified Sports ProgramMotor Activity Training ProgramHealthy Athletes Program These initiatives fulfill and expand the existing program, which was launched in 1968 and is the largest sports organization for people with disabilities worldwide, with very important new social, marketing, and developmental aspects of life, going far beyond activities met in other sports organizations. PMID:25964828

  1. Quality of life, coach behaviour and competitive anxiety in Winter Youth Olympic Games participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledochowski, Larissa; Unterrainer, Christine; Ruedl, Gerhard; Schnitzer, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2012-12-01

    To ensure the highest technical performance, speed, safety, excellent control and to improve competitive performance, a successful regulation of competitive anxiety is necessary. Therefore, it seems crucial to identify factors influencing competitive anxiety of adolescent athletes. Research suggests that people reporting high quality of life are more capable to cope with stressful and challenging situations than others. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of quality of life, the involvement of parents in sports career and coach's leadership behaviour on competitive anxiety in Winter Youth Olympic Games participants. During the first Winter Youth Olympic Games 2012 in Innsbruck/Austria, 662 (316 women) participants completed questionnaires and single items to assess quality of life, coach's leadership behaviour, parental involvement in sports career and competitive anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed positive influences of high quality of life and useful coach instruction on competitive anxiety. The relationship between quality of life, coach behaviour and competitive anxiety in young elite athletes competing at the first Winter Youth Olympic Games should be considered in long-term programmes for reducing competitive stress.

  2. Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Luc; Fernandez, Carla; Kaschke, Imke; Perlman, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 athletes from annual Special Olympics events held in 49 countries, from Europe and Eurasia between 2007 and 2012. The data was analysed descriptively, with One-Way ANOVA test and Chi-Square test. The level of significance was predetermined at a p value < 0.05. A total of 7,754 athletes presented with gingival signs (48.64%). There were no significant differences (p= 0,095) in mean gingival signs between age groups, however the association between mouth cleaning and age, was statistically significant. The data suggests that there is a high prevalence of gingival signs among individuals with special needs; over 50% in more than 20 countries. Therefore, there is a serious need for education and preventive programs for the patients, their parents and caregivers.

  3. Anti-doping analyses at the Sochi Olympic and Paralympic Games 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevsky, Tim; Krotov, Grigory; Dikunets, Marina; Nikitina, Maria; Mochalova, Elena; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory anti-doping services during XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic games in Sochi in 2014 were provided by a satellite laboratory facility located within the strictly secured Olympic Park. This laboratory, established and operated by the personnel of Antidoping Center, Moscow, has been authorized by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to conduct doping control analyses. The 4-floor building accommodated the most advanced analytical instrumentation and became a place of attraction for more than 50 Russian specialists and 25 foreign experts, including independent observers. In total, 2134 urine and 479 blood samples were delivered to the laboratory and analyzed during the Olympic Games (OG), and 403 urine and 108 blood samples - during the Paralympic Games (PG). The number of erythropoietin tests requested in urine was 946 and 166 at the OG and PG, respectively. Though included in the test distribution plan, a growth hormone analysis was cancelled by the Organizing Committee just before the Games. Several adverse analytical findings have been reported including pseudoephedrine (1 case), methylhexaneamine (4 cases), trimetazidine (1 case), dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (1 case), clostebol (1 case), and a designer stimulant N-ethyl-1-phenylbutan-2-amine (1 case). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Doping control analysis at the Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto; Sardela, Vinicius Figueiredo; Padilha, Monica Costa; Mirotti, Luciana; Casilli, Alessandro; de Oliveira, Fabio Azamor; de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Lucas Martins Lisandro; de Araujo, Amanda Lessa Dutra; Levy, Rachel Santos; Teixeira, Pedro Antonio Castelo; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Duarte, Ana Carolina Giordani; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Dudenhoeffer; Evaristo, Joseph Albert Medeiros; Dos Santos, Gustavo Ramalho Cardoso; da Costa, Giovanni Carlo Verissimo; de Lima Castro, Fernando; Nogueira, Fabio Cesar Sousa; Scalco, Fernanda Bertão; Pizzatti, Luciana; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2017-11-01

    This paper summarises the results obtained from the doping control analyses performed during the Summer XXXI Olympic Games (August 3-21, 2016) and the XV Paralympic Games (September 7-18, 2016). The analyses of all doping control samples were performed at the Brazilian Doping Control Laboratory (LBCD), a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited laboratory located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A new facility at Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ) was built and fully operated by over 700 professionals, including Brazilian and international scientists, administrative staff, and volunteers. For the Olympic Games, 4913 samples were analysed. In 29 specimens, the presence of a prohibited substance was confirmed, resulting in adverse analytical findings (AAFs). For the Paralympic Games, 1687 samples were analysed, 12 of which were reported as AAFs. For both events, 82.8% of the samples were urine, and 17.2% were blood samples. In total, more than 31 000 analytical procedures were conducted. New WADA technical documents were fully implemented; consequently, state-of-the-art analytical toxicology instrumentation and strategies were applied during the Games, including different types of mass spectrometry (MS) analysers, peptide, and protein detection strategies, endogenous steroid profile measurements, and blood analysis. This enormous investment yielded one of the largest Olympic legacies in Brazil and South America. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Motivation and satisfaction among polyclinic volunteers at the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J; Berg, R; Rhea, D; Willick, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Olympic and Paralympic Games rely heavily on volunteers to provide many essential services, including medical care of athletes. Objective: This preliminary investigation sought to characterise the motivational influences and factors responsible for the satisfaction of Olympic and Paralympic healthcare volunteers. Methods: The 2002 Winter Games polyclinic healthcare volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to elicit information about their motives for volunteering and the factors that contributed to their satisfaction with their volunteer experience. Results: There was no significant difference in the motivation or satisfaction summary scores based on event worked. There was a strong positive correlation between motivation and satisfaction. Physician respondents had a lower mean motivation score than did non-physician volunteers. Conclusions: There were no significant motivational differences between Olympic and Paralympic volunteers, but there were several differences noted between physician and non-physician volunteers. The 2002 polyclinic volunteers appear to have been motivated by a complex process best described as "enlightened self interest," and all were generally well satisfied with their experience. These results may assist organisers of future Games in selecting appropriately motivated volunteer personnel and creating rewarding work environments for them. PMID:15793078

  6. Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

    2014-03-01

    There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

  7. Olympic boxing is associated with elevated levels of the neuronal protein tau in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neselius, Sanna; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Randall, Jeffrey; Wilson, David; Marcusson, Jan; Brisby, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if olympic (amateur) boxing is associated with elevation of brain injury biomarkers in peripheral blood compared to controls. Thirty olympic boxers competing in at least 47 bouts were compared to 25 controls. Blood was collected from the controls at one occasion and from the boxers within 1-6 days after a bout and after a rest period of at least 14 days. Tau concentration in plasma was determined using a novel single molecule ELISA assay and S-100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and amyloid β 1-42 were determined using standard immunoassays. None of the boxers had been knocked-out during the bout. Plasma-tau was significantly increased in the boxers after a bout compared to controls (mean ± SD, 2.46 ± 5.10 vs. 0.79 ± 0.961 ng L(-1), p = 0.038). The other brain injury markers did not differ between the groups. Plasma-tau decreased significantly in the boxers after a resting period compared to after a bout (p = 0.030). Olympic boxing is associated with elevation of tau in plasma. The repetitive minimal head injury in boxing may lead to axonal injuries that can be diagnosed with a blood test.

  8. Dates fruits classification using SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Reem; Anushya, A.; Hamed, Ebtisam; Al Sha'ar, Eng. Abdelnour; Vincy, B. S. Angela

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we used SVM in classifying various types of dates using their images. Dates have interesting different characteristics that can be valuable to distinguish and determine a particular date type. These characteristics include shape, texture, and color. A system that achieves 100% accuracy was built to classify the dates which can be eatable and cannot be eatable. The built system helps the food industry and customer in classifying dates depending on specific quality measures giving best performance with specific type of dates.

  9. U.S. National forests adapt to climate change through science-management partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Littell; David L. Peterson; Constance I. Millar; Kathy A. O' Halloran

    2011-01-01

    Developing appropriate management options for adapting to climate change is a new challenge for land managers, and integration of climate change concepts into operational management and planning on United States national forests is just starting. We established science-management partnerships on the Olympic National Forest (Washington) and Tahoe National Forest (...

  10. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London-Olympic Park cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-10-28

    The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a 'natural experiment', provided by the building and rapid occupation of East Village. Findings from the study will be generalisable to

  11. Health and safety issues for travelers attending the World Cup and Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil, 2014 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Joanna; Sotir, Mark J; Cunningham, Timothy J; Harvey, Kira A; Lee, C Virginia; Stoney, Rhett J; Gershman, Mark D; Brunette, Gary W; Kozarsky, Phyllis E

    2014-08-01

    Travelers from around the globe will attend the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup and the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil. Travelers to these mass gathering events may be exposed to a range of health risks, including a variety of infectious diseases. Most travelers who become ill will present to their primary care physicians, and thus it is important that clinicians are aware of the risks their patients encountered. To highlight health and safety concerns for people traveling to these events in Brazil so that health care practitioners can better prepare travelers before they travel and more effectively diagnose and treat travelers after they return. We reviewed both peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify health outcomes associated with travel to Brazil and mass gatherings. Thirteen specific infectious diseases are described in terms of signs, symptoms, and treatment. Relevant safety and security concerns are also discussed. Travelers to Brazil for mass gathering events face unique health risks associated with their travel. Travelers should consult a health care practitioner 4 to 6 weeks before travel to Brazil and seek up-to-date information regarding their specific itineraries. For the most up-to-date information, health care practitioners can visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Travelers' Health website (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel) or review CDC's Yellow Book online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/yellowbook-home-2014).

  12. Dating technique tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

  13. Tangible and Intangible Legacy of the 19th Century Zappas Olympics and their Implications for Contemporary Sport Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaritis George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As has been shown in the article, the Zappas Olympics generously contributed to the revival of the Olympic Games in the nineteenth century. The course of these competitions has been described, and a brief summary of Zappas’s work, which does not often attract a lot of attention in, for example, Polish academics, has also been made. The fact that the Zappas Olympics mainly enhanced the national identity of the Greeks following Turkish captivity has also been highlighted. The Zappas Olympics allowed the Greeks to become more familiar with sports and fair play. The knowledge that the Greeks acquired from the organization of this event was useful for the organization of the first modern Olympic Games in Athens. These days, material remains of this event serve touristic and cultural functions. The significance of such facilities as the Zappeion and the Panathenaic Stadium have also been underlined. For example, the Zappeion and the Panathenaic Stadium host cultural events and welcome tourists interested in sports history or Greek culture. These are the authorities responsible for touristic policy in Greece and they may decide whether such historic sites and sporting facilities will be included in thematic routes for tourists. According to the authors of the present paper, these sites may effectively compete with mass and recreational attractions in Greece.

  14. Swimming performance changes during the final 3 weeks of training leading to the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, I; Padilla, S; Pyne, D

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of the swimming performance change during the final 3 weeks of training (F3T) leading to the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Olympic swimmers who took part in the same event or events at the Telstra 2000 Grand Prix Series in Melbourne, Australia, (26 - 27 August 2000), and 21 - 28 d later at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games (16 - 23 September 2000) were included in this analysis. A total of 99 performances (50 male, 49 female) were analysed. The overall performance improvement between pre- and post-F3T conditions for all swimmers was 2.18 +/- 1.50 % (p pre-Olympic F3T elicited a significant performance improvement of 2.57 % for male and 1.78 % for female swimmers at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. The magnitude was similar for all competition events, and was achieved by swimmers from different countries and performance levels. These data provide a quantitative framework for coaches and swimmers to set realistic performance goals based on individual performance levels before the final training phase leading to important competitions.

  15. The Interference of Politics in the Olympic Games, and How the U.S. Media Contribute to It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Moretti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2014, Russia will host the Olympic Games for only the second time in its history. Once again, the Olympic spirit—as defined and espoused by the International Olympic Committee—will clash with the political interests that overshadow the Games. This paper examines the political undertones of the 1980 Summer Olympics, hosted by Moscow and which took place during an ice-cold period of the Cold War, and asks whether similar undertones will be on display next year. The 1980 Games were a phenomenal success for Soviet athletes and their Eastern European colleagues. However, in the absence of the United States and more than 50 other nations, the political frame from a Western context was that of athletes from a corrupt system competing alongside their comrades. The boycott of these Games demonstrated the power of the White House and the often lapdog quality of the American media. Now as the Games return to Russia, the issue of whether a Cold War-like mentality will influence U.S. media reporting of the 2014 Sochi Olympics must be asked. The conflicting images in Western news media discourse of Russian president Vladimir Putin and his “Communist past” combined with a tepid diplomatic relationship between his government and the Obama administration provide evidence that a negative portrayal of Russia and therefore its athletes will be displayed in February 2014. And yet there is no impetus for a boycott next year. This paper explores why.

  16. “Bring It under the Legacy Umbrella”: Olympic Host Cities and the Changing Fortunes of the Sustainability Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Gold

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A concern for enduring urban outcomes lies at the heart of the Olympic Games in a way that no other sporting or cultural event can match, but each age has recast the ways in which such outcomes have been framed in light of its own values and needs. Seen against that background, this paper examines the evolution of the Olympic movement’s sustainability agenda. It first considers how the environment emerged as an issue within the Winter Games through concerns over environmental protection, discusses measures introduced to embed sustainability into official Olympic practice, and explores the evolution of the dynamic relationship between sustainability and the overlapping but, to some extent, rival concept of “legacy”. The latter part of the paper illustrates these ideas with regard to the London 2012 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games. It analyses the “One Planet Games” concept, how this was developed for the bid, and how it was subsequently put into practice, commenting particularly on the carbon footprint, creation of the Olympic Park (as sustainable legacy and the promotion of sustainable living. The conclusion comments on the continuing challenges encountered in implementing sustainability plans and addressing long-term legacy.

  17. [Operation and interaction peculiarities of diagnostic laboratories involved in providing protection from infectious diseases during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Bragina, I V; Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhova, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Kulichenko, A N; Efremenko, D B; Manin, E A; Kuznetsova, I V; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Rafeenko, G K; Shcherbina, L I; Zavora, D L; Briukhanov, A F; Eldinova, V E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Derliatko, S K; Komarov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The experience of the organization and functioning of the laboratory network during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is considered. Efforts to establish an effective system of laboratory support, the order of work and interaction of diagnostic laboratories involved in diseases control of population during the Olympic Games are analyzed.

  18. Seed storage protein electrophoretic profiles in some Iranian date ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... 2International Center for Science, High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Accepted 31 October, 2011 ... Mesopotamia, date palm is cultivated for fruit production and all parts of the tree are used for many ...... assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, 227(5259): 680-. 685.

  19. "General Fundamentals of Non-Olympic Sport" as a normative discipline for training of specialists in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolbysheva N.G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the direction of knowledge formation in non-Olympic sport on educational competence levels 'Master' and 'Specialist' in specialty 'Sport' (according to kinds of sport. The article also exposes the structure and content of the educational subject 'Оrganizational and legal fundamentals of non-Olympic sports'. The article presents perspectives of the subject 'General Fundamentals of Non-Olympic Sport' introduction which is included in normative part of educational and professional program in amount 72 hours (2 blocks of content modules, every of which consists of two modules. Educational programme supposes 20 hours of lectures, 16 hours of seminars, 4 hours for passing modules, 32 hours for independent work. Final test is implemented in form of a credit. The subject gives the possibility to form an intelligent, theoretically competent and practically adapted to modern activity in this sphere of sport expert according to professional competences.

  20. Case Study: Body Composition Periodization in an Olympic-Level Female Middle-Distance Runner Over a 9-Year Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent

    2018-05-25

    This case study features an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner implementing a science-based approach to body composition periodization. Data are emerging to suggest that it is not sustainable from a health and/or performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Anthropometric (n = 44), hematological, other health measures, and 1,500-m race performances (n = 83) were periodically assessed throughout a 9-year career. General preparation phase (September to April) featured the athlete at ∼2-4% over ideal competition phase body weight (BW) and body fat (%), with optimal energy availability being prioritized. The competition body composition optimization phase (May to August) included creating an individualized time frame and caloric deficit with various feedback metrics (BW, performance, and hunger) to guide the process. There were significant seasonal fluctuations in anthropometric outcomes between phases (47.3 ± 0.8 vs. 48.3 ± 0.9 kg BW; 53.6 ± 7.8 vs. 61.6 ± 9.7 mm International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry sum of 8 [So8] skinfolds; p career (r = -.838; p = .018). The range of body composition during the competition period was 46.0-48.0 kg BW and a So8 range was 42.0-55.9 mm. There were also significant positive correlations between slower 1,500-m race times and increasing So8 (r = .437; p career injuries. This case study demonstrates a body composition periodization approach that allowed for targeted peak yearly performances, which improved throughout her career, while maximizing training adaptation and long-term athlete health through optimal energy availability.

  1. Atmospheric concentrations, sources and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs in Beijing after the 29th Olympic Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wanli [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Sun Dezhi [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen Weiguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang Meng [IJRC-PTS, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian (China); Qi Hong; Liu Liyan; Shen Jimin [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Li Yifan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario M3H5T4 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    A comprehensive sampling campaign was carried out to study atmospheric concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Beijing and to evaluate the effectiveness of source control strategies in reducing PAHs pollution after the 29th Olympic Games. The sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o})-based model and octanol-air partition coefficient (K{sub oa})-based model were applied based on each seasonal dateset. Regression analysis among log K{sub P}, logP{sub L}{sup o} and log K{sub oa} exhibited high significant correlations for four seasons. Source factors were identified by principle component analysis and contributions were further estimated by multiple linear regression. Pyrogenic sources and coke oven emission were identified as major sources for both the non-heating and heating seasons. As compared with literatures, the mean PAH concentrations before and after the 29th Olympic Games were reduced by more than 60%, indicating that the source control measures were effective for reducing PAHs pollution in Beijing. - Highlights: > This is the first comprehensive study of PAHs in atmosphere after the 29th Olympics in Beijing, China. > The air quality before and after 29th Olympics has attracted much attention worldwide. > The study was helpful for other countries to understand how the Olympics affected PAHs emissions. > The study would act as a case study to know the effects that big events can impose on the host cities. - The source control measures implemented before and during the 29th Olympic Games were effective for reducing the emissions of air pollutants in Beijing.

  2. Population Muscle Strength Predicts Olympic Medal Tallies: Evidence from 20 Countries in the PURE Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl P Leong

    Full Text Available National sporting achievement at the Olympic Games is important for national pride and prestige, and to promote participation in sport. Summer Olympic Games medal tallies have been associated with national wealth, and also social development and healthcare expenditure. It is uncertain however, how these socioeconomic factors translate into Olympic success. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between population muscle strength and Olympic medal tallies.This study of handgrip strength represents a cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE study, which is an ongoing population cohort study of individuals from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Within participating countries, households from both urban and rural communities were invited to participate using a sampling strategy intended to yield a sample that was representative of the community. Households were eligible if at least one member was aged 35-70 years and if they intended living at the same address for a further four years. A total of 152,610 participants from these households, located in 21 countries, were included in this analysis. Handgrip strength was measured using a Jamar dynanometer. Olympic medal tallies were made over the five most recent Summer Games. There was a significant positive association between national population grip strength (GS and medal tally that persisted after adjustment for sex, age, height, average daily caloric intake and GDP (total and per capita. For every 1kg increase in population GS, the medal tally increased by 36% (95% CI 13-65%, p = 0.001 after adjustment. Among countries that won at least one medal over the four most recent Summer Olympic Games, there was a close linear relationship between adjusted GS and the natural logarithm of the per capita medal tally (adjusted r = 0.74, p = 0.002.Population muscle strength may be an important determinant of Summer Olympic Games medal

  3. Peak career in world-ranked swimmers: Age’s analysis of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games participants

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago M. Barbosa; Mário J. Costa; Erik Mejias; Daniel A. Marinho; Hugo Louro; António J. Silva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to: (i) describe the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games swimmer’s ages and; (ii) compare ages according to swimmer’s gender. It was analyzed 1101 inscriptions (588 men and 513 women) for all swimming events held at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: 50 meters freestyle (L50), 100 meters freestyle (L100), 200 meters freestyle (L200), 400 meters freestyle (L400), 800 meters freestyle (L800, only women) 1500 meters freestyle (L1500, only men), 100 meters backstroke (C100), 200 met...

  4. Modulation of Precipitation in the Olympic Mountains by Trapped Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Tian, L.; Grecu, M.; McLinden, M.; Li, L.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation over the Olympic Mountains was studied intensely with multiple aircraft and ground-based measurements during the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) during the fall-winter season 2015-2016 as part of validation for the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) (Houze et al. 2017) and the Radar Definition Experiment (RADEX) supported by the Aerosol Chemistry, Ecosystem (ACE) NASA Decadal Mission. This presentation focuses on observations of a broad frontal cloud system with strong flow over the mountains on 5 December 2015. Unique observations of trapped waves were obtained with in the three Goddard Space Flight Center nadir-looking, X- through W-band, Doppler radars on the NASA high-altitude ER-2: the High-altitude Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) at Ku and Ka-band, the W-band Cloud Radar System (CRS), and the ER-2 X-band Radar (EXRAD). Analysis of the aircraft measurements showed the presence of deep, trapped gravity waves on a scale ranging from 10-25 km in the nadir-looking Doppler and reflectivity observations. These waves cause localized vertical up/down motions on the order of 1-2 ms-1 and they are superimposed on the widespread south-southwest flow over the Olympic Mountains. While much of this widespread flow over the mountains produces copious amounts of snowfall, the gravity waves play an important role in modulating this precipitation indirectly through microphysical processes in the ice region. We will describe analyses of the interactions between the air motions and precipitation structure for this case and other cases we observed similar waves. We will present preliminary results from precipitation retrievals based on optimal estimation (Grecu et al. 2011).

  5. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, Roxby Downs, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.E.; Hudson, G.R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit appears to be a new type of strata-bound sediment-hosted ore deposit. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide in South Australia and was discovered in 1975. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. The deposit is estimated to contain in excess of 2,000 million metric tons of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6 percent copper, 0.06 percent uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/metric ton gold. The deposit occurs in the basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat-lying Adelaidean (late Proterozoic) to Cambrian sediments in the Stuart shelf region of South Australia. The host rocks of the deposit are unmetamorphosed and are probably younger than 1,580 m.y. The deposit is spatially related to coincident gravity and magnetic anomalies and the intersection of west-northwest- and north-northwest-trending lineaments. The Proterozoic sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias ranging from matrix-poor granite breccias to matrix-rich polymict breccias containing clasts of a variety of rock types. This sequence is over 1 km thick and has been divided into two main units--the Olympic Dam Formation and the Greenfield Formation. The Olympic Dam Formation has five members, three of which are matrix rich. The Greenfield Formation has three members, the lower two being very hematite rich while the upper has a significant volcanic component. Pervasive hematite, chlorite, and sericite alteration of varying intensity affects all the basement sequence

  6. Sports injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Schnitzer, M; Kirschner, W; Spiegel, R; Platzgummer, H; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Pocecco, E

    2016-05-01

    The prevention of injury and illness remains an important issue among young elite athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses during multi-sport events might provide a valuable basis to develop preventive measures, focusing especially on adequate information for youth athletes. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival (W-EYOF). All National Olympic Committees were asked to report daily the occurrence or non-occurrence of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. Among the 899 registered athletes (37% female) with a mean age of 17.1±0.8 years, a total of 38 injuries and 34 illnesses during the 5 competition days of the W-EYOF were reported, resulting in an incidence of 42.3 injuries and 37.8 illnesses per 1000 athletes, respectively. Injury frequency was highest in snowboard cross (11%), Nordic combined (9%), alpine skiing (6%), and ice hockey (6%), taking into account the respective number of registered athletes. In snowboard cross, females showed a significant higher injury frequency compared to males (22% vs 4%, p=0.033). The lower back (16%), the pelvis (13%), the knee (11%), and the face (11%) were the most common injury locations. About 58% of injuries occurred in competition and about 42% in training. In total, 42% of injuries resulted in an absence of training or competition. The prevalence of illness was highest in figure skating (10%) and Nordic combined (9%), and the respiratory system was affected most often (53%). Four per cent of the athletes suffered from an injury and 4% from illnesses during the 2015 W-EYOF, which is about twofold lower compared to the first Winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Sports injuries and illnesses in the Lillehammer 2016 Youth Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kathrin; Moseid, Christine Holm; Engebretsen, Lars; Søberg, Pia K; Amundsen, Olav; Holm, Kristian; Moger, Thomas; Soligard, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Injury and illness surveillance during high-level youth sports events is an important first step in health prevention and caretaking of the young elite athletes. To analyse injuries and illnesses that occurred during the 10 days 2nd Youth Olympic Winter Games (YOG), held in Lillehammer 2016. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses through the reporting of (1) all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) the polyclinic and medical venues by the Lillehammer Organising Committee (LYOCOG) medical staff. In total, 1083 athletes (48 double-starters), 46% (n=502) of them females, from 70 NOCs were registered in the study. NOCs and LYOCOG reported 108 injuries and 81 illnesses, equalling to 9.5 injuries and 7.2 illnesses per 100 athletes. The percentage of injured athletes was highest in the snowboard and ski slopestyle and cross disciplines, alpine skiing and skeleton, and lowest in the Nordic skiing disciplines. Approximately, two-thirds of the injuries (n=71, 65.7%) prevented the athlete from training or competition, while 10 injuries (9.3%) were registered with an estimated absence from sport for >7 days. The rate of illness was highest in curling and the Nordic skiing disciplines with most of them being respiratory tract infections (81.5%). Overall, 9% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 7% an illness, which is similar to the first YOG in Innsbruck 2012 and slightly lower compared with previous Winter Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Sports injuries and illnesses in the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Aubry, Mark; Grant, Marie-Elaine; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the XXII Olympic Winter Games, held in Sochi in 2014. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Sochi 2014 medical staff. NOC and Sochi 2014 medical staff reported 391 injuries and 249 illnesses among 2780 athletes from 88 NOCs, equalling incidences of 14 injuries and 8.9 illnesses per 100 athletes over an 18-day period of time. Altogether, 12% and 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The percentage of athletes injured was highest in aerial skiing, snowboard slopestyle, snowboard cross, slopestyle skiing, halfpipe skiing, moguls skiing, alpine skiing, and snowboard halfpipe. Thirty-nine per cent of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. Women suffered 50% more illnesses than men. The rate of illness was highest in skeleton, short track, curling, cross-country skiing, figure skating, bobsleigh and aerial skiing. A total of 159 illnesses (64%) affected the respiratory system, and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=145, 58%). Overall, 12% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 8% an illness, which is similar to prior Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Row for Your Life: A Century of Mortality Follow-Up of French Olympic Rowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Desgorces, François Deni; Dor, Frédéric; Sedeaud, Adrien; Haïda, Amal; LeVan, Philippe; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Strenuous endurance training required to participate in the highest sports level has been associated with deleterious effects on elite athletes' health and cardiac abnormalities. We aimed to describe overall mortality and main causes of deaths of male French rowers participating in at least one Olympic Game (OG) from 1912 to 2012 in comparison with the French general population. Methods Identity information and vital status of French Olympic rowers were validated by National sources from 1912 to 2013 (study's endpoint) among 203 rowers; 52 out of 255 (20.3%) were excluded because their vital statuses could not be confirmed. Main causes of deaths were obtained from the National registry from 1968 up to 2012. Overall and disease-specific mortalities were calculated through standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) with its 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall mortality was calculated for the whole rowers' cohort (PT) and for two periods apart: (P1) including rowers from 1912 to 1936 OG, a cohort in which all rowers have deceased and (P2) considering rowers from 1948 to 2012 OG. Results Among the 203 rowers analysed, 46 died before the study's endpoint, mainly from neoplasms (33%), cardiovascular diseases (21%) and external causes (18%). PT demonstrates a significant 42% lower overall mortality (SMR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.43–0.78, pOlympic rowers benefit of lower overall mortality compared with the French general population. Among rowers' main causes of death, cardiovascular diseases are reduced in relation to their compatriots. Analytical studies with larger samples are needed to understand the reasons for such reductions. PMID:25402483

  10. Sports injuries and illnesses during the London Summer Olympic Games 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A

    2013-05-01

    The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the

  11. Verification of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Satellite by the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdie, L. A.; Houze, R.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of global precipitation are critical for monitoring Earth's water resources and hydrological processes, including flooding and snowpack accumulation. As such, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission `Core' satellite detects precipitation ranging from light snow to heavy downpours in a wide range locations including remote mountainous regions. The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) during the 2015-2016 fall-winter season in the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State provide physical and hydrological validation for GPM precipitation algorithms and insight into the modification of midlatitude storms by passage over mountains. The instrumentation included ground-based dual-polarization Doppler radars on the windward and leeward sides of the Olympic Mountains, surface stations that measured precipitation rates, particle size distributions and fall velocities at various altitudes, research aircraft equipped with cloud microphysics probes, radars, lidar, and passive radiometers, supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes, and autonomous recording cameras that monitored snowpack accumulation. Results based on dropsize distributions (DSDs) and cross-sections of radar reflectivity over the ocean and windward slopes have revealed important considerations for GPM algorithm development. During periods of great precipitation accumulation and enhancement by the mountains on windward slopes, both warm rain and ice-phase processes are present, implying that it is important for GPM retrievals be sensitive to both types of precipitation mechanisms and to represent accurately the concentration of precipitation at the lowest possible altitudes. OLYMPEX data revealed that a given rain rate could be associated with a variety of DSDs, which presents a challenge for GPM precipitation retrievals in extratropical cyclones passing over mountains. Some of the DSD regimes measured during OLYMPEX stratiform periods have the same characteristics found in prior

  12. Preparedness of general practitioners in Australia for the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Seelan, S Thava

    2002-01-01

    The modern Olympic Games have been conducted only once every 4 years since 1900. They were held in Sydney, Australia, from September 15 to October 1, 2000, with approximately 35 competition venues, 5 villages, 100 training venues, a media center, and sponsor hospitality areas. Roughly 300 events for 28 sports involved 10,300 athletes from 200 countries, 5,100 team officials, 50,000 volunteers, 15,000 media, a worldwide audience of around 3.5 billion viewers and listeners, and up to several hundred thousand spectators at any one time. The Paralympic Games were also held in Sydney after the Olympic Games, from October 18 to October 29, 2000, with more than 4,000 athletes competing. A report detailing possible health advice and requirements for travelers attending the games has been published previously. Good systems of public and private health care operate in Australia, but health care is not free. Australian taxpayers contribute to a national public health system, Medicare, and even this does not necessarily cover all the costs of treatment. Section 3.5 of the Medicare Benefit Scheme refers to "Reciprocal Health Care Agreements," which exist for immediately necessary medical care ("emergency care"). Agreements with Australia cover New Zealand, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Italy, Malta, and Ireland. Benefits for Italy and Malta may only be available for the first 6 months of a stay. The Australian government covered much of the costs of medical treatment for most team members competing or involved in the Olympic and Paralympic Games, when the Games Village was open. This did not however extend to other visitors, and public hospitals in Australia are not generally geared and staffed to provide timely general practice services.

  13. Preparedness for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games: hospital treatment capacity in georeferenced areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Figueiredo Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Recently, Brazil has hosted mass events with recognized international relevance. The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in 12 Brazilian state capitals and health sector preparedness drew on the history of other World Cups and Brazil's own experience with the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. The current article aims to analyze the treatment capacity of hospital facilities in georeferenced areas for sports events in the 2016 Olympic Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on a model built drawing on references from the literature. Source of data were Brazilian health databases and the Rio 2016 website. Sports venues for the Olympic Games and surrounding hospitals in a 10km radius were located by geoprocessing and designated a "health area" referring to the probable inflow of persons to be treated in case of hospital referral. Six different factors were used to calculate needs for surge and one was used to calculate needs in case of disasters (20/1,000. Hospital treatment capacity is defined by the coincidence of beds and life support equipment, namely the number of cardiac monitors (electrocardiographs and ventilators in each hospital unit. Maracanã followed by the Olympic Stadium (Engenhão and the Sambódromo would have the highest single demand for hospitalizations (1,572, 1,200 and 600, respectively. Hospital treatment capacity proved capable of accommodating surges, but insufficient in cases of mass casualties. In mass events most treatments involve easy clinical management, it is expected that the current capacity will not have negative consequences for participants.

  14. Precipitation, landsliding, and erosion across the Olympic Mountains, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen G.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2018-01-01

    In the Olympic Mountains of Washington State, landsliding is the primary surface process by which bedrock and hillslope regolith are delivered to river networks. However, the relative importance of large earthquakes versus high magnitude precipitation events to the total volume of landslide material transported to valley bottoms remains unknown in part due to the absence of large historical earthquakes. To test the hypothesis that erosion is linked to precipitation, approximately 1000 landslides were mapped from Google Earth imagery between 1990 and 2015 along a 15 km-wide × 85 km-long (1250 km2) swath across the range. The volume of hillslope material moved by each slide was calculated using previously published area-volume scaling relationships, and the spatial distribution of landslide volume was compared to mean annual precipitation data acquired from the PRISM climate group for the period 1981-2010. Statistical analysis reveals a significant correlation (r = 0.55; p landslide volume and mean annual precipitation, with 98% of landslide volume occurring along the windward, high-precipitation side of the range during the 25-year interval. Normalized to area, this volume yields a basin-wide erosion rate of 0.28 ± 0.11 mm yr- 1, which is similar to previous time-variable estimates of erosion throughout the Olympic Mountains, including those from river sediment yield, cosmogenic 10Be, fluvial terrace incision, and thermochronometry. The lack of large historic earthquakes makes it difficult to assess the relative contributions of precipitation and seismic shaking to total erosion, but our results suggest that climate, and more specifically a sharp precipitation gradient, plays an important role in controlling erosion and landscape evolution over both short and long timescales across the Olympic Mountains.

  15. CSF-biomarkers in Olympic boxing: diagnosis and effects of repetitive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neselius, Sanna; Brisby, Helena; Theodorsson, Annette; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Marcusson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Sports-related head trauma is common but still there is no established laboratory test used in the diagnostics of minimal or mild traumatic brain injuries. Further the effects of recurrent head trauma on brain injury markers are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Olympic (amateur) boxing and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) brain injury biomarkers. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Thirty Olympic boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in the study. CSF samples were collected by lumbar puncture 1-6 days after a bout and after a rest period for at least 14 days. The controls were tested once. Biomarkers for acute and chronic brain injury were analysed. NFL (mean ± SD, 532±553 vs 135±51 ng/L p = 0.001), GFAP (496±238 vs 247±147 ng/L pboxing compared to controls. NFL (402±434 ng/L p = 0.004) and GFAP (369±113 ng/L p = 0.001) concentrations remained elevated after the rest period. Increased CSF levels of T-tau, NFL, GFAP, and S-100B in >80% of the boxers demonstrate that both the acute and the cumulative effect of head trauma in Olympic boxing may induce CSF biomarker changes that suggest minor central nervous injuries. The lack of normalization of NFL and GFAP after the rest period in a subgroup of boxers may indicate ongoing degeneration. The recurrent head trauma in boxing may be associated with increased risk of chronic traumatic brain injury.

  16. Application of Mindfulness and Acceptance Approaches before and during the Olympics: A Scandinavian Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    to prepare for in specific details) and often evoke new and difficult feelings and thoughts. The present symposium describes four different sport psychology interventions in Olympic level based on third-wave cognitive therapy methods such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and mindfulness (Gardner...... delivery of the Danish elite sport institute (Team Denmark) and in-depth describe mindfulness training, functional behavioral analyses, accept strategies, formulation of personal values, and collaboration with coaches to develop game plans for the specific sailing courses in the bay of Rio during...

  17. Planning for a major expansion of the olympic dam copper/uranium resource in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The polymetallic Olympic Dam deposit in northern South Australia contains the world's largest known economic uranium resource. The current resource estimate is 3,970 million tones at 0.4 kg/t U308. Uranium is a co-product of an existing operation that also produces copper, gold and silver. Production began in 1998. Ore mined in 2006 is expected to be close to 10 million tones to produce 4,500 tonnes of uranium oxide and 220,000 tonnes of copper cathode. BHP Billiton is undertaking a pre-feasibility study into expanding annual production capacity to about 15,000 tonnes of uranium and 500,000 tonnes copper. Subject to successful completion of the pre-feasibility study and a final feasibility study, construction of the expansion could begin by early 2009, with the expanded production capacity being commissioned in 2013. The resource estimate has been significantly increased by drilling of the so-far undeveloped southern section of the orebody. Current planning indicates that this section could be mined by open pit. Ore is at depth and extends from 350 metres to about 1000 metres below surface. The existing operations facilities at Olympic Dam comprise an underground mine, and a mineral processing plant and associated infrastructure which would be expanded to support expanded mining. Major items of infrastructure could include a new powerline, water pipeline and associated coastal desalination plant, a rail link to Olympic Dam from the existing national network and further development of the Roxby Downs township (current population 4,000). The operation is regulated by an Indenture Agreement with the South Australian Government. To enable the expansion to proceed, the Indenture Agreement will be renegotiated. The operation is also regulated by the Federal Government. An Environmental Impact Statement is being developed to secure the necessary State and Federal approvals. A land access agreement is being negotiated with indigenous groups. Plans for

  18. Characteristics of event tourism marketing. Case study: the European youth Olympic festival, Brasov 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herţanu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Event tourism is a very important branch of tourism, not only from the economic point of view, but also as the cultural and social development of a tourism destination. Organizing sporting events is considered, by the managers of tourism destinations, as an improvement strategy regarding the destination image, and as a competitive advantage. This article brings forward the features of event tourism concerning the marketing mix policies and the importance of events in the development of an area. The chosen study case is Brasov County area, which will host, in 201,3 the winter edition of the European Youth Olympic Festival.

  19. Social responsibility and global health: lessons from the Rio Olympics Zika controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Fernando; Rohde, Luzilena de Souza Prudêncio; Verdi, Marta; Garrafa, Volnei; Manchola-Castillo, Camilo

    2018-03-30

    The outbreak of Zika virus infection in the Americas and its possible association with microcephaly raised several concerns among global health authorities regarding the organisation of the Olympic and Paralympic Games scheduled for August and September 2016, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It generated an international controversy over the continuation of the Games with debates on the ethical principle of social responsibility. Based on the principles of social responsibility and health in the Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights, the present comment ponders on the application of such principles in the context of mega-events and global health.

  20. Variations and sources of ambient formaldehyde for the 2008 Beijing Olympic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-07-01

    As the host city of the 2008 Olympic games, Beijing implemented a series of air pollution control measures before and during the Olympic games. Ambient formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were measured using a fluorometric instrument based on a diffusion scrubber and the Hantzsch reaction; hydrocarbons were simultaneously measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Meteorological parameters, CO, O 3, and NO 2 concentrations were measured by standard commercial instrumentation. In four separate periods: (a) before the vehicle plate number control (3-19 July); (b) during the Olympic Games (8-24 August); (c) during the Paralympic Games (6-17 September) and (d) after the vehicle control was ceased (21-28 September), the average HCHO mixing ratios were 7.31 ± 2.67 ppbv, 5.54 ± 2.41 ppbv, 8.72 ± 2.48 ppbv, and 6.42 ± 2.79 ppbv, while the total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) measured were 30.41 ± 18.08 ppbv, 18.12 ± 9.38 ppbv, 30.50 ± 13.37 ppbv, and 33.33 ± 15.85 ppbv, respectively. Both HCHO and NMHC levels were the lowest during the Olympic games, and increased again during the Paralympic games even with the same vehicle control measures operative. Similar diurnal HCHO and O 3 patterns indicated that photo-oxidation of NMHCs may be the major source of HCHO. The diurnal profile of total NMHCs was very similar to that of NO 2 and CO: morning and evening peaks appeared in rush hours, indicating even after strict vehicle control, automobile emission may still be the dominant source of the HCHO precursors. The contributions of HCHO, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics to OH loss rates were also calculated. HCHO contributed 22 ± 3% to the total VOCs and 24 ± 1% to the total OH loss rate. HCHO was not only important in term of abundance, but also important in chemical reactivity in the air.

  1. Strength and Conditioning Training by the Danish National Handball Team Before an Olympic Tournament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Hansen, Mikkel R B; Jensen, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    preparation to improve performance and reduce incidence of injuries. The purpose of this case report was to describe and analyze the strength and conditioning (S&C) training performed by the Danish national handball team before the Beijing Olympic Games. Eight weeks of S&C was divided into 5 weeks emphasizing...... muscle hypertrophy and long-interval running followed by 3 weeks emphasizing strength, power, and short-interval running. Body mass increased by 1.6% (p 0.05). Agility...... performance was evaluated by a T-test and improved by 2.5% (p Running performance was tested by the Yo-Yo intermittent...

  2. Should Budapest Bid for the Olympics? - Measuring the Economic Impacts of Larger Sporting Events

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce L. Jaffee

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with both the general economic impact of large sporting events and the likely economic impact of having the Olympics held in Budapest. The author describes the general economic theory of economic impact and the spending patterns at major sporting events. He finds that a considerable part of the money spent in a community at the time of such an event cannot be viewed as “new money”that will stimulate the local economy. A large economic impact of such an event requires that it...

  3. Pacing, packing and sex-based differences in Olympic and IAAF World Championship marathons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe pacing profiles and packing behaviours of athletes in Olympic and World Championship marathons. Finishing and split times were collated for 673 men and 549 women across nine competitions. The mean speeds for each intermediate 5 km and end 2.2 km segments were calculated. Medallists of both sexes maintained even-paced running from 10 km onwards whereas slower finishers dropped off the lead pack at approximately half-distance. Athletes who ran with the same opponents throughout slowed the least in the second half (P tactics adopted and design training programmes accordingly.

  4. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age of the sedi......Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... indicating that the mercury mainly originates from atmospheric washout. But the large variability indicates that other processes also influence the mercury flux to Arctic marine sediments. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for

  6. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  7. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  8. The isotopic dating of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.; Cheilletz, A.

    1995-01-01

    The first part of this work deals with the answer to the question : why are the crystals dated ? Then, some isotopic dating methods are described : U-Th-Pb, K-Ar, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, fission traces, carbon 14 methods. Examples concerning emeralds and diamonds are given. (O.L.). 12 refs., 2 figs

  9. The comparison of absolute dating (Radiocarbon dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, W; Arumbinang, H; Taftazani, A; Widayati, S; Sumiyatno; Suhardi

    1996-01-01

    The absolute dating (radiocarbon, 14 C dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples in Temanggung regency (district) of Central Java Province have been carried out. The field sampling was done especially with the purpose to obtain vertical data, so that excavation method was adopted in the case. The main data were the ecofacts of organic habitation such as bones, woods, charcoals, shells, and paper artefacts. The artefacts data were used as a comparison. The comparative data analysis were conducted at Yogyakarta archaeological Department Laboratory, thus included dating of artefacts which were performed according to archaeological analysis procedures, generally based on the attributes attached to the artefacts, whereas the absolute dating of charcoal samples were performed in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre. Based on the relative dating of epigraphy content on the andesit rock from Gondosuli Temple which showed the year of 754 Saka or 832 AD, the Pringapus Temple was estimated to be built in the 850 AD. According to the absolute dating (Radiocarbon Dating with delta 13 C and tree ring corrections) the age for Gondosuli temple based on GDS/LU-2/Spit-7 samples is (384 -602) AD and from GDS/LU-2/Spit-8 = (452 - 652) AD. With these significant differences in the results obtained, it can be concluded that culture environment where the sample were collected already existed before the temple was built. Further investigation is still required

  10. Game Analysis of Olympic, World and European Championships in Men's Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Murat

    2012-12-01

    The development of men's handball was analyzed using data from the Olympic, World and European Championships held within the last eight years. The most obvious change, especially within these last nine tournaments, was that men's handball was played more dynamically and rapidly, both in attack and defense, especially by European teams. The first aim of this study was to conduct a technical analysis of current handball and to determine factors related to success in this sport discipline. The second aim was to compare the data of European Championships with other tournaments, considering the success of European teams in Men's World Handball. The technical variables used to compare the tournaments included: the average number of attacks, the efficiency of attacks, the efficiency of goal throws, fast break goals per game, the efficiency of fast breaks, the efficiency of the goalkeeper, saves by the goalkeeper per game, number of turnovers per game, and the efficiency of position throws (wing, pivot, back court, break-through, fast break, and 7-meter). This technical analysis used cumulative statistics from the European Handball Federation and International Handball Federation. ANOVA revealed significant differences between the first eight teams in the European Championships and their counterparts in the other two tournaments (Olympics and World Championships) in terms of several technical variables. The results showed that the efficiency of fast break, pivot position and back court players affected the ranking in favor of the European teams in significant international tournaments.

  11. The Effect of Special Olympics Programs on Down Syndrome People\\'s Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Momeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Literature survey has shown that participation in social programs can promote the mental and social health among intellectually disabled individuals. One of these programs is the Special Olympics (SO and the programs related to it. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SO programs on self-efficacy among Iranian Special Olympians with Down Syndrome (DS. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental research, forty DS members of Iran's SO national team were selected as the intervention group and 37 DS non-athletes were selected as the control group. The SO group participated in 9 months of SO specific sport programs. The “Wheeler and Ladd's Children’s Self-Efficacy for Peer Interactions Scale” was used to collect data from the two groups before and after the 9-month long athletic programs. Data were analyzed by kolmogroff-Smirnoff, paired T and independent T tests. Results: The results showed that SO programs had significant effects on the self- efficacy of the experimental group. The SO athletes were significantly (P&le0.001 better than the control group in all sub-scales of self-efficacy. Conclusion: It seems that participation in social-sport aspects of the Special Olympics programs can promote self-efficacy among this population. Generalizing such programs for DS people can help them show their abilities and provide them with self-efficacy which is necessary for living independently.

  12. Catering for the athletes village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: the role of sports dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona; O'Connor, Helen; Denyer, Gareth; Caterson, Ian

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the development, analysis, and implementation of the menu available to athletes and patrons in the main dining hall of the Athletes Village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the significant role of sports dietitians in this process. Menu design and development was informed by focus groups, literature reviews, and food-preference surveys of athletes. The final menu was also assessed by an expert panel of Australian sports dietitians. A custom-designed database (Foodweb) was developed to enable dietary analysis of food-production data and creation of point-of-choice nutrition labels. Dietitians assisted with quality assurance testing and training of catering staff. Athletes surveyed in the main dining hall (N=414) agreed that the menu contained sufficient variety and adequate meat, pasta/rice, vegetable/salad, fruit, and snack items. Sports dietitians played a significant role in ensuring that the menu met the needs of athletes from a range of differing cultural and sporting backgrounds. Dining-hall patrons provided positive feedback and few complaints about the overall dining experience. The information presented in this report can help future caterers and dietitians with the planning and provision of suitable food for athletic performance at an Olympic Games.

  13. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n=30. Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35. Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers’ motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  14. Association of poverty and social exclusion with body mass index among Special Olympics athletes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Pauli; Temple, Viviene A; Lloyd, Meghann; Faro, Chris; Foley, John T

    2017-11-01

    To examine the association of a risk of poverty and social exclusion (AROPE), age, and gender with the body mass index (BMI) status of European Special Olympics athletes. BMI records were available for 1905 children and youth and 5517 adults from the Special Olympics International (SOI) Health Promotion database. AROPE was extracted from EU Eurostat statistics. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict BMI status. For children/youth and adults, respectively, 9.4 and 6.3% were underweight and 25.3 and 44.6% were overweight/obese. Being underweight was significantly associated with higher AROPE rates. Being female and lower AROPE rates were significantly associated with overweight/obesity for both children/youth (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.07-1.50 and OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96-0.98) and adults (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.39-1.72 and OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.95-0.98). The Europe 2020 "platform against poverty" strategy aims to ensure that those experiencing poverty and social exclusion share the benefits of economic growth. These findings suggest that SOI health promotion efforts to foster healthy BMI are needed and should be tailored to specific social and economic circumstances in Europe.

  15. Vision Profile and Ocular Characteristics of Special Olympics Athletes: Report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Sumalini, Rebecca; Narasaiah, Asa; Panda, Soumya

    2017-08-01

    Previous reports, albeit isolated, of vision and ocular screening of athletes with intellectual disability participating in the Special Olympics, UK, indicated high rates of refractive error and ocular morbidity; however, there have been no reports of similar sports events for this population from India. This study set out to evaluate the vision profile and ocular characteristics of athletes with intellectual disability attending the Special Olympics Lions Club International Opening Eyes (SOLCIOE) event in 2012 in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted, where a protocol-based ophthalmological assessment was performed by trained optometrists at a tertiary eye care center. Overall, 172 athletes (mean age 18.6 years, 70% male) with intellectual disability participated, and 138 (80%) were able to cooperate for complete or nearly complete vision and ocular assessment. A total of 56 (32%) had never had a previous vision or ocular health status examination. A total of 46 (32%) presented with low vision (World Health Organization definition <6/18 to 3/60 in the better eye), 21% needed a first or updated spectacle prescription, and 28% had significant ocular pathology as the cause of visual loss. The proportions of refractive errors and ocular disorders in athletes with intellectual disability attending the SOLCIOE program in South India are similar to those reported for able-bodied school-aged children in urban and rural India. Like that of their able-bodied peers, the visual needs of children with intellectual disability are also not adequately being met.

  16. Going for gold: blood planning for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Rackham, R; Doughty, H

    2014-06-01

    The Olympics is one of the largest sporting events in the world. Major events may be complicated by disruption of normal activity and major incidents. Health care and transfusion planners should be prepared for both. Previously, transfusion contingency planning has focused on seasonal blood shortages and pandemic influenzas. This article is the first published account of transfusion contingency planning for a major event. We describe the issues encountered and the lessons identified during transfusion planning for the London 2012 Olympics. Planning was started 18 months in advance and was led by a project team reporting to the Executive. Planning was based on three periods of Gamestime. The requirements were planned with key stakeholders using normal processes enhanced by service developments. Demand planning was based on literature review together with computer modelling. The aim was blood-stock sufficiency complimented by a high readiness donor panel to minimise waste. Plans were widely communicated and table-top exercised. Full transfusion services were maintained during both Games with all demands met. The new service improvements and high readiness donors worked well. Emergency command and control have been upgraded. Red cell concentrate (RCC) stock aged but wastage was not significantly increased. The key to success was: early planning, stakeholder engagement, service developments, integration of transfusion service planning within the wider health care community and conduct within an assurance framework. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  17. National and ethnic identification, intergroup attitudes, and sport participation in the context of the London Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Virginia L; Corson, Eliza-Jane

    2013-11-01

    In the run-up to the 2012 London Olympics, the sense of national identity was salient. We tested children (N = 401) aged 5-15 years living near the Olympic site on national (British) and ethnic identification, national ingroup and outgroup attitudes, and sport participation. It was found that the strength of British identification peaked at age 9 years, but the strength of ethnic identification remained stable with age. Both liking for, and stereotyping of, different national groups diverged from age 9 years, but whilst stereotyping remained diverged liking converged by 15 years. The in group was one of the most liked, but one of the least positively stereotyped groups. Sport participation declined with age and was higher among boys, whilst the lowest socio-economic group showed the greatest discrepancy between normal and recent reported participation. The strength of British identification was associated with liking for, and stereotyping of, the British as well as sport participation, but the degree of associations varied between different groups of children. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Individual flight styles in ski jumping: results obtained during Olympic Games competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmölzer, B; Müller, W

    2005-05-01

    From the physics point of view, the jump length in ski jumping depends on: the in-run velocity v(0), the velocity perpendicular to the ramp v(p0) due to the athlete's jumping force, the lift and drag forces acting during take-off and during the flight, and the weight of the athlete and his equipment. The aerodynamic forces are a function of the flight position and of the equipment features. They are a predominant performance factor and can largely be influenced by the athlete. The field study conducted during the Olympic Games competitions 2002 at Park City (elevation: 2000 m) showed an impressive ability of the Olympic medallists to reproduce their flight style and remarkable differences between different athletes have been found. The aerodynamic forces are proportional to the air density. Elite athletes are able to adapt their flight style to thin air conditions in order to maximise jump length and to keep the flight stable. The effects of flight position variations on the performance have been analysed by means of a computer model which is based on the equations of motion and on wind tunnel data corresponding to the flight positions found in the field. Athletes have to solve extremely difficult optimisation problems within fractions of a second. The computer simulation can be used as a reliable starting point for the improvement of training methods and gives an insight into the "implicit" knowledge of physics that the ski jumping athlete must have available for a good performance.

  19. Special aspects of para-olympic athletes’ sport activity in the process of self-education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Shuba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine and substantiate influence of self-education components of para-Olympic athletes’ sport activity. Material: in the research 46 para-Olympic athletes form three teams of game kinds of sports participated: combined football, basketball and volleyball teams of Ukraine. The program of self-education process’s organization was designed for 9 months and consisted of three stages. Pedagogic program consisted of 9 classes. Optimal time of one training session was 45 minutes a day (in total - 9 days. Results: we determined the need in consideration of athletes’ individual-personality features in organization the self-education process. We also substantiated and experimentally tested correlations, which facilitate: adequate organization of athletes’ self-education process; mastering of sport knowledge and skills of behavior in different extreme situations; realization of own potentials in sport and social life. Conclusions: the structure of athletes’ self -education is presented by combination of interconnected components: motivation-personal (motives, demands, settings, moral-will qualities and individual personal features; cognitive (system of knowledge about oneself and sport functioning; activity (formation of skills in self cognition, self-organization and self-control.

  20. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.