WorldWideScience

Sample records for science ocean currents

  1. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  2. Global Ocean Currents Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T.; Sun, L.

    2016-02-01

    The NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information has released an ocean currents database portal that aims 1) to integrate global ocean currents observations from a variety of instruments with different resolution, accuracy and response to spatial and temporal variability into a uniform network common data form (NetCDF) format and 2) to provide a dedicated online data discovery, access to NCEI-hosted and distributed data sources for ocean currents data. The portal provides a tailored web application that allows users to search for ocean currents data by platform types and spatial/temporal ranges of their interest. The dedicated web application is available at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/gocd/index.html. The NetCDF format supports widely-used data access protocols and catalog services such as OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services), which the GOCD users can use data files with their favorite analysis and visualization client software without downloading to their local machine. The potential users of the ocean currents database include, but are not limited to, 1) ocean modelers for their model skills assessments, 2) scientists and researchers for studying the impact of ocean circulations on the climate variability, 3) ocean shipping industry for safety navigation and finding optimal routes for ship fuel efficiency, 4) ocean resources managers while planning for the optimal sites for wastes and sewages dumping and for renewable hydro-kinematic energy, and 5) state and federal governments to provide historical (analyzed) ocean circulations as an aid for search and rescue

  3. Meeting report: Ocean 'omics science, technology and cyberinfrastructure: current challenges and future requirements (August 20-23, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jack A; Dick, Gregory J; Jenkins, Bethany; Heidelberg, John; Allen, Eric; Mackey, Katherine R M; DeLong, Edward F

    2014-06-15

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube End User Workshop was held at USC Wrigley Marine Science Center on Catalina Island, California in August 2013. The workshop was designed to explore and characterize the needs and tools available to the community that is focusing on microbial and physical oceanography research with a particular emphasis on 'omic research. The assembled researchers outlined the existing concerns regarding the vast data resources that are being generated, and how we will deal with these resources as their volume and diversity increases. Particular attention was focused on the tools for handling and analyzing the existing data, on the need for the construction and curation of diverse federated databases, as well as development of shared, interoperable, "big-data capable" analytical tools. The key outputs from this workshop include (i) critical scientific challenges and cyber infrastructure constraints, (ii) the current and future ocean 'omics science grand challenges and questions, and (iii) data management, analytical and associated and cyber-infrastructure capabilities required to meet critical current and future scientific challenges. The main thrust of the meeting and the outcome of this report is a definition of the 'omics tools, technologies and infrastructures that facilitate continued advance in ocean science biology, marine biogeochemistry, and biological oceanography.

  4. Current Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution

  5. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.

    2016-02-01

    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See http://www.coexploration.net/gose/index.html

  6. 1984 Ocean Sciences Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attendees at the 1984 Ocean Sciences Meeting found New Orleans to be a very hospitable, convenient, and delightful city to hold a conference, and the Fairmont Hotel to be an excellent meeting facility. There were 1100 attendees with a little over 700 papers presented. Changes to the program and additional, late, and revised abstracts are printed below.

  7. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  8. Ocean surface currents from satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Kathleen

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere drives entire ocean motions, and yet the exchange of momentum between the atmosphere and ocean occurs in the thin layer where they meet, involving the smallest scales of turbulence. The Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-time (OSCAR) project attempts to better understand this exchange using satellite observations with simplified physics to calculate global ocean currents. The goal is to continually improve the physics in OSCAR and more accurately model the currents. The theoretical study will help coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling efforts whereas the societal benefits of measuring ocean currents are broad, e.g., fish larval dispersion, heat transport, commercial shipping, and search and rescue.

  9. The National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence Network: Building Bridges Between Ocean Scientists and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, G.; Hotaling, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2002 the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network, funded by the National Science Foundation with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has worked to increase the understanding of the ocean and its relevance to society. The Network is currently comprised of twelve Centers located throughout the United States and a Central Coordinating Office. COSEE focuses on innovative activities that transform and broaden participation in the ocean science education enterprise. A key player in the national ocean literacy movement, COSEE’s objectives are to develop partnerships between ocean scientists and educators and foster communication and coordination among ocean science education programs nationwide. COSEE has grown into the nation's most comprehensive ocean science and education network with over 200 partners, including universities and research institutions, community colleges, school districts, informal science education institutions, and state/federal agencies. Each Center is a consortium of one or more ocean science research institutions, informal science education organizations, and formal education entities. The mission of the National COSEE Network is to engage scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. Center activities include the development of catalytic partnerships among diverse institutions, the integration of ocean science research into high-quality educational materials, and the establishment of pathways that enable ocean scientists to interact with educators, students, and the public. In addition to the work and projects implemented locally and regionally by the Centers, Network-level efforts occur across Centers, such as the national promotion of Ocean Literacy Principals and encouragement of our nation’s youth to pursue ocean related areers. This presentation will offer several examples of how the National COSEE Network is playing an important and evolving role in

  10. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 1. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical Indian Ocean using in situ data. Rajesh Sikhakolli Rashmi Sharma Sujit Basu B S Gohil Abhijit Sarkar K V S R Prasad. Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 187-199 ...

  11. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  12. National Ocean Sciences Bowl in 2014: A National Competition for High School Ocean Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-31

    currently valid OMB control number PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 03/31/2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final... quality buzzer questions and 90 TCQs for use in the 2014 regionals and National Finals Competition. Question development and review is supported by...scientists who worked in environmental sciences, ocean sciences, engineering, NOAA, seafood safety, military, etc. "[The NOSBJ teaches [students

  13. Planetary science: Flow of an alien ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Liquid water may lurk beneath the frozen surfaces of Jupiter's moon Europa and other icy worlds. Extending ocean science beyond Earth, planetary oceanographers are linking Europa's ocean dynamics to its enigmatic surface geology.

  14. Building Ocean Learning Communities: A COSEE Science and Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.; Bullerdick, S.; Anderson, A.

    2007-12-01

    The core mission of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) is to promote partnerships between research scientists and educators through a national network of regional and thematic centers. In addition, the COSEEs also disseminate best practices in ocean sciences education, and promote ocean sciences as a charismatic interdisciplinary vehicle for creating a more scientifically literate workforce and citizenry. Although each center is mainly funded through a peer-reviewed grant process by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the centers form a national network that fosters collaborative efforts among the centers to design and implement initiatives for the benefit of the entire network and beyond. Among these initiatives the COSEE network has contributed to the definition, promotion, and dissemination of Ocean Literacy in formal and informal learning settings. Relevant to all research scientists, an Education and Public Outreach guide for scientists is now available at www.tos.org. This guide highlights strategies for engaging scientists in Ocean Sciences Education that are often applicable in other sciences. To address the challenging issue of ocean sciences education informed by scientific research, the COSEE approach supports centers that are partnerships between research institutions, formal and informal education venues, advocacy groups, industry, and others. The COSEE Ocean Learning Communities, is a partnership between the University of Washington College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences and College of Education, the Seattle Aquarium, and a not-for-profit educational organization. The main focus of the center is to foster and create Learning Communities that cultivate contributing, and ocean sciences-literate citizens aware of the ocean's impact on daily life. The center is currently working with volunteer groups around the Northwest region that are actively involved in projects in the marine environment and to empower these diverse groups

  15. Ocean FEST and TECH: Inspiring Hawaii's Students to Pursue Ocean, Earth and Environmental Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Wren, J. L.; Ayau, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean TECH (Technology Expands Career Horizons) is a new initiative funded by NSF/GeoEd to stimulate interest in ocean, earth and environmental science careers - and the college majors that lead to such careers - among Hawaii's underrepresented students in grades 6-14. The Ocean TECH project features hands-on ocean science and technology and interactions with career professionals. Ocean TECH builds upon Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together), a previous NSF/OEDG project aimed at teaching fun hands-on science in culturally and locally relevant ways to Hawaii's elementary school students and their families. Ocean FEST was rigorously evaluated (including cognitive pre-testing developed in partnership with external evaluators) and shown to be successful both in teaching science content and changing attitudes toward ocean, earth and environmental science careers. Over the course of the four-year grant, Ocean FEST reached 20,99 students and adults, including 636 classroom teachers and other volunteers who assisted with program delivery, most of whom were from underrepresented groups. For more info on Ocean FEST: http://oceanfest.soest.hawaii.edu/ Ocean TECH events have various formats, but common themes include: (1) Using technology as a hook to engage students in ocean, earth and environmental science. (2) Bringing middle school through community college students to college campuses, where they engage in hands-on science activities and learn about college majors. (3) Drawing direct links between the students' hands-on science activities and the research currently occurring at the UH Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), such as C-MORE and HOT research. (4) Respecting and valuing students' local knowledge and experiences. (5) Explicitly showing, through concrete examples, how becoming an ocean, earth or environmental scientist addresses would beneit Hawaii (6) Having graduate students from diverse backgrounds serve as instructors and

  16. Ocean FEST: Families Exploring Science Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Barbara C.; Wiener, Carlie; Kimura, Arthur; Kimura, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This project engages elementary school students, parents, teachers, and administrators in ocean-themed family science nights based on a proven model. Our key goals are to: (1) educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their communities; and (2) inspire more underrepresented students, including Native Hawaiians,…

  17. Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) (NCEI Accession 0093183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) is a collection of quality controlled ocean current measurements such as observed current direction and speed obtained from...

  18. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science (WIOJMS) provides an avenue for the wide dissemination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, ...

  19. Ocean Sciences and Remote Sensing Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: A 52,000 ft 2 state-of-the-art buildig designed to house NRL's Oceanography Division, part of the Ocean and Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate....

  20. Ocean Sciences as a Foundation for Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmenkulova, I.; Gorshkalev, S.; Odriozola, A.; Dominguez, A.; Greely, T.; Pyrtle, A.; Keiper, T.; Watkins, J.

    2005-05-01

    The GK-12 OCEANS program is an initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF). This program provides marine science graduate students within the College of Marine Science, USF, weekly interactions with K-12 teachers and students in Pinellas County schools with the overall purpose of enhancing the quality and effectiveness of science teaching. The GK-12 OCEANS program provides hands-on and minds-on ocean science learning inquiries. Campbell Park Elementary is a Marine Science attractor school designed to provide a child-centered approach to learning that integrates marine science activities into the daily curriculum while meeting the required state education standards. In 2003-04 a GK-12 Fellow helped third and fourth grade teachers design new teaching curricula that integrated ocean sciences. The current 2004-04 Fellow and teachers are implementing the new curriculum, assessing feasibility and impact on students' learning. One characteristic of the new curriculum includes several field trips to local natural settings during which students have the opportunity to collect data the way scientists do, and use real scientific instruments and approaches. The information collected is then used in different activities within the classroom. These activities encourage the students to use inquiry as the basis of their learning experience, in which the application of scientific thinking and methods are keys. This process also requires the students to apply skills from other disciplines such as writing, reading, and math. Towards the end of the school year the students have the opportunity to highlight their accomplishments through two projects, 1) a hall display of different ocean zones, which includes habitat characteristics and species adaptations, and 2) a marine science experiment presented at the school science fair. The results and accomplishments from the implementation of these new curricula will be presented at the conference.

  1. Women in ocean sciences: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M. Grant

    Science has long been dominated by men, but women are now entering the sciences [Widnall, 1988[, including ocean sciences, in large numbers. Indeed, women constitute 64% of the entering work force [Task Force, 1988]—white women 42%, nonwhite women 13%, and immigrant women 9%. Thus, meeting oceanography's human resource needs requires that it attract and retain women.This paper addresses the question, How are we doing? I hope also to stimulate discussion on these issues, leading to identification of activites appropriate for research-funding agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, to undertake.

  2. Intraseasonal meridional current variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ogata, T.; Sasaki, H.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Masumoto, Y.

    Intraseasonal variability in meridional current in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean is investigated by use of results from a high-resolution ocean general circulation model. Both the simulated and observed meridional current variability...

  3. Wave measurement in severe ocean currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.

    The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...

  4. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: About this journal. Journal Home > Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Energy Generation Potential of West African Ocean Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the West African ocean current energy generating potential is carried out. The peculiarity of the West African ocean characteristic is discussed and the challenges noted. Based on this review, it is found that ocean current represents an alternative source of renewable energy in West Africa in a streamed regular ...

  7. Informatics for multi-disciplinary ocean sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Delory, Eric; Pissierssens, Peter; Raymond, Lisa; Simpson, Pauline; Waldmann, Christoph; Williams 3rd, Albert; Yoder, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions at the time and space scales that are relevant to our state of the art research needs. This presentation will address three areas of the informatics of the end-to-end process: sensors and information extraction in the sensing environment; using diverse data for understanding selected ocean processes; and supporting open data initiatives. A National Science Foundation funded Ocean Observations Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing these areas from the perspective of improving interdisciplinary research. The work includes an assessment of Open Data Access with a paper in preparation. Interoperability and sensors is a new activity that couples with European projects, COOPEUS and NeXOS, in looking at sensors and related information systems for a new generation of measurement capability. A working group on synergies of in-situ and satellite remote sensing is analyzing approaches for more effective use of these measurements. This presentation will examine the steps forward for data exchange and for addressing gaps in communication and informatics.

  8. Grass Roots Design for the Ocean Science of Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jul, S.; Peach, C. L.; Kilb, D. L.; Schofield, O.; Fisher, C.; Quintana, C.; Keen, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    Current technologies offer the opportunity for ocean science to expand its traditional expeditionary base by embracing e-science methods of continuous interactive real-time research. The Ocean Observatories Initiative Cyberinfrastructure (OOI CI) is an NSF-funded effort to develop a national cyberinfrastructure that will allow researchers, educators and others to share in this new type of oceanography. The OOI is an environmental observatory spanning coastal waters to the deep ocean, enabled by the CI to offer scientists continuous interactive access to instruments in the ocean, and allow them to search, subscribe to and access real-time or archival data streams. It will also supply interactive analysis and visualization tools, and a virtual social environment for discovering and realizing collaborative opportunities. Most importantly, it provides an extensible open-access cyberinfrastructure that supports integration of new technologies and observatories, and which will allow adoption of its tools elsewhere, such as by the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). The eventual success of such a large and flexible system requires the input of a large number of people, and user-centered design has been a driving philosophy of the OOI CI from its beginning. Support for users’ real needs cannot be designed as an add-on or casual afterthought, but must be deeply embedded in all aspects of a project, from inception through architecture, implementation, and deployment. The OOI CI strategy is to employ the skills and knowledge of a small number of user experience professionals to channel and guide a very large collective effort to deliver tools, interfaces and interactions that are intellectually stimulating, scientifically productive, and conducive to innovation. Participation from all parts of the user community early in the design process is vital to meeting these goals. The OOI user experience team will be on hand to meet members of the Earth and ocean sciences

  9. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Johnson et al. 2007). The OSCAR product is, however, a global product. Thus there is a pressing need to validate this product in the other basins of the world ocean, e.g., in the Indian Ocean. The present study is motivated by this need. In the present study, monthly climatology of OSCAR ocean surface currents in the TIO ...

  10. Innovations in Ocean Sciences Education at the University of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.

    2003-12-01

    A new wave of education collaborations began when the national science education reform documents (AAAS Project 2061 and National Science Education Standards) recommended that scientific researchers become engaged stakeholders in science education. Collaborations between research institutions, universities, nonprofits, corporations, parent groups, and school districts can provide scientists original avenues to contribute to education for all. The University of Washington strongly responded to the national call by promoting partnerships between the university research community, the K-12 community and the general public. The College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences and the School of Oceanography spearheaded the creation of several innovative programs in ocean sciences to contribute to the improvement of Earth science education. Two of these programs are the REVEL Project and the Marine Science Student Mobility (MSSM) program that share the philosophy of involving school districts, K-12 science teachers, their students and undergraduate students in current, international, cutting-edge oceanographic research. The REVEL Project (Research and Education: Volcanoes, Exploration and Life) is an NSF-funded, professional development program for middle and high school science teachers that are determined to use deep-sea research and seafloor exploration as tools to implement inquiry-based science in their classrooms, schools, and districts, and to share their experiences with their communities. Initiated in 1996 as a regional program for Northwest science educators, REVEL evolved into a multi-institutional program inviting teachers to practice doing research on sea-going research expeditions. Today, in its 7th year, the project offers teachers throughout the U. S. an opportunity to participate and contribute to international, multidisciplinary, deep-sea research in the Northeast Pacific ocean to study the relationship between geological processes such as earthquakes and

  11. Dynamic reusable workflows for ocean science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard; Fernandez, Filipe; Wilcox, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Digital catalogs of ocean data have been available for decades, but advances in standardized services and software for catalog search and data access make it now possible to create catalog-driven workflows that automate — end-to-end — data search, analysis and visualization of data from multiple distributed sources. Further, these workflows may be shared, reused and adapted with ease. Here we describe a workflow developed within the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) which automates the skill-assessment of water temperature forecasts from multiple ocean forecast models, allowing improved forecast products to be delivered for an open water swim event. A series of Jupyter Notebooks are used to capture and document the end-to-end workflow using a collection of Python tools that facilitate working with standardized catalog and data services. The workflow first searches a catalog of metadata using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalog Service for the Web (CSW), then accesses data service endpoints found in the metadata records using the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for in situ sensor data and OPeNDAP services for remotely-sensed and model data. Skill metrics are computed and time series comparisons of forecast model and observed data are displayed interactively, leveraging the capabilities of modern web browsers. The resulting workflow not only solves a challenging specific problem, but highlights the benefits of dynamic, reusable workflows in general. These workflows adapt as new data enters the data system, facilitate reproducible science, provide templates from which new scientific workflows can be developed, and encourage data providers to use standardized services. As applied to the ocean swim event, the workflow exposed problems with two of the ocean forecast products which led to improved regional forecasts once errors were corrected. While the example is specific, the approach is general, and we hope to see increased use of dynamic

  12. Dynamic Reusable Workflows for Ocean Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Signell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital catalogs of ocean data have been available for decades, but advances in standardized services and software for catalog searches and data access now make it possible to create catalog-driven workflows that automate—end-to-end—data search, analysis, and visualization of data from multiple distributed sources. Further, these workflows may be shared, reused, and adapted with ease. Here we describe a workflow developed within the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS which automates the skill assessment of water temperature forecasts from multiple ocean forecast models, allowing improved forecast products to be delivered for an open water swim event. A series of Jupyter Notebooks are used to capture and document the end-to-end workflow using a collection of Python tools that facilitate working with standardized catalog and data services. The workflow first searches a catalog of metadata using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW, then accesses data service endpoints found in the metadata records using the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS for in situ sensor data and OPeNDAP services for remotely-sensed and model data. Skill metrics are computed and time series comparisons of forecast model and observed data are displayed interactively, leveraging the capabilities of modern web browsers. The resulting workflow not only solves a challenging specific problem, but highlights the benefits of dynamic, reusable workflows in general. These workflows adapt as new data enter the data system, facilitate reproducible science, provide templates from which new scientific workflows can be developed, and encourage data providers to use standardized services. As applied to the ocean swim event, the workflow exposed problems with two of the ocean forecast products which led to improved regional forecasts once errors were corrected. While the example is specific, the approach is general, and we hope to see increased

  13. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic (OCS-South Atlantic) project from 26 August 1980- 01 March 1981 (NODC Accession 8100540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from August 26, 1980 to March 1, 1980. Data were submitted by Science...

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic (OCS-South Atlantic) project from 15 March 1981- 01 October 1981 (NODC Accession 8100718)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from March 15, 1981 to October 1, 1981. Data were submitted by Science...

  15. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What…

  16. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science (WIOJMS) is the research publication of the Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA). It publishes original research papers or other relevant information in all aspects of marine science and coastal management as original articles, review articles, ...

  17. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas C; Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D

    2015-11-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe.

  18. On the Ocean, Communicating Science Through Radio Broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, M.; Campbell, L.

    2016-02-01

    The outcomes of oceanic research are of critical importance to the general public. Communicating these results in a relatable and efficient manner however, is no simple task. To further the cause of scientific outreach done for the benefit of society, a weekly radio show was created at Texas A&M University, taking cutting edge research and translating it into applicable, interesting radio segments. The show, named "On the Ocean", was created by the Department of Oceanography to inform and entertain listeners of the general public on marine issues affecting their lives. On the Ocean is an effort to present high-level research without sacrificing the complexity of the science conducted. On the Ocean is a uniquely designed module with a systematic approach in teaching a new oceanographic concept each month. On the Ocean has a format of monthly topics with a two minute show each week. The first monthly installment is general, introducing the topic and its relevancy. The second and third shows are cause or effect, or possibly something very interesting the public would not already know. The fourth installment highlights how researchers study the topic, with the contributing professor's specific research methods emphasized. All shows are co-created with, and inspected for validity, by Texas A&M University professors, and edited for radio adaption by graduate students. In addition to airing on public broadcast radio to the College Station/Bryan TX area, the show also includes a globally accessible interactive website with podcasts, additional figures, and links to better elaborate on the material presented, as well as credit the contributing professors. The website also allows these professors the opportunity to present their research visually and link to their current work. Overall, On the Ocean is a new tool to deliver applicable science.

  19. Ocean Current Power Generator. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G. A.

    2002-07-26

    The Ocean Power Generator is both technically and economically suitable for deployment in the Gulf Stream from the US Navy facility in Dania, Florida. Yet to be completed is the calibration test in the Chesapeake Bay with the prototype dual hydroturbine Underwater Electric Kite. For the production units a revised design includes two ballast tanks mounted as pontoons to provide buoyancy and depth control. The power rating of the Ocean Power Generator has been doubled to 200 kW ready for insertion into the utility grid. The projected cost for a 10 MW installation is $3.38 per watt, a cost that is consistent with wind power pricing when it was in its deployment infancy, and a cost that is far better than photovoltaics after 25 years of research and development. The Gulf Stream flows 24 hours per day, and water flow is both environmentally and ecologically perfect as a renewable energy source. No real estate purchases are necessary, and you cannot see, hear, smell, or touch an Ocean Power Generator.

  20. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students’ Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563

  1. Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alex [Dehlsen Associates, LLC, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-09-16

    The Aquantis 2.5 MW Ocean Current Generation Device technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) is a derivation of wind power generating technology (a means of harnessing a slow moving fluid) adapted to the ocean environment. The Aquantis Project provides an opportunity for accelerated technological development and early commercialization, since it involves the joining of two mature disciplines: ocean engineering and wind turbine design. The Aquantis Current Plane (C-Plane) technology is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from a current flow. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced, continuous, base-load, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  2. Scientists and Educators: Joining Forces to Enhance Ocean Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener-Chavis, P.

    2004-12-01

    The need for scientists to work with educators to enhance the general public's understanding of science has been addressed for years in reports like Science for All Americans (1990), NSF in a Changing World (1995), Turning to the Sea: America's Ocean Future (1999), Discovering the Earth's Final Frontier, A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration (2000), and most recently, the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Report (2004). As reported in The National Science Foundation's Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) Workshop Report (2000), "The Ocean Sciences community did not answer (this) call, even though their discovery that the ocean was a more critical driving force in the natural environment than previously thought possessed great educational significance." It has been further acknowledged that "rapid and extensive improvement of science education is unlikely to occur until it becomes clear to scientists that they have an obligation to become involved in elementary- and secondary-level science (The Role of Scientists in the Professional Development of Science Teachers, National Research Council, 1996.) This presentation will focus on teachers' perceptions of how scientists conduct research, scientists' perceptions of how teachers should teach, and some misconceptions between the two groups. Criteria for high-quality professional development for teachers working with scientists will also be presented, along with a brief overview of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Ocean Exploration program efforts to bring teachers and ocean scientists together to further ocean science literacy at the national level through recommendations put forth in the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Report (2004).

  3. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Interim Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark; Phillips, Michelle; Smith, Anita; Castori, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project consisting of seven long-term three-way partnerships between the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and an informal science education institution (ISEI) partnered with an institution of higher education (IHE). Together, educators from the…

  4. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  5. What can Citizen Science do for Ocean Science and Ocean Scientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Mangin, A.; Oggioni, A.; Orcutt, J. A.; Parrish, J.; Pearlman, J.; Piera, J.; Tagliolato, P.

    2016-12-01

    The ocean represents over 70% of our planet's surface area, over 90% of the living space. Humans are not marine creatures, we therefore have fundamentally not built up knowledge of the ocean in the same way we have on land. The more we learn about the ocean, the more we understand it is the regulatory engine of our planet…How do we catch up? Answers to this question will need to come from many quarters; A powerful and strategic option to complement existing observation programs and infrastructure is Citizen Science. There has been significant and relevant discussion of the importance of Citizen Science to citizens and stakeholders. The missing effective question is sometimes what is the potential of citizen science for scientists? The answers for both scientists and society are: spatial coverage, remote locations, temporal coverage, event response, early detection of harmful processes, sufficient data volume for statistical analysis and identification of outliers, integrating local knowledge, data access in exchange for analysis (e.g. with industry) and cost-effective monitoring systems. Citizens can be involved in: instrument manufacture and maintenance, instrument deployment/sample collection, data collection and transmission, data analysis, data validation/verification, and proposals of new topics of research. Such opportunities are balanced by concern on the part of scientists about the quality, the consistency and the reliability of citizen observations and analyses. Experience working with citizen science groups continues to suggest that with proper training and mentoring, these issues can be addressed, understanding both benefits and limitations. How to do it- implementation and maintenance of citizen science: How to recruit, engage, train, and maintain Citizen Scientists. Data systems for acquisition, assessment, access, analysis, and visualisation of distributed data sources. Tools/methods for acquiring observations: Simple instruments, Smartphone Apps

  6. Western Gulf of Mexico November 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Nov_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  7. Western Gulf of Mexico May 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_May_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  8. Western Gulf of Mexico April 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Apr_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  9. Eastern Gulf of Mexico November 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Nov_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  10. Western Gulf of Mexico October 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999)[ocean_currents_wgom_Oct_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  11. Eastern Gulf of Mexico August 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Aug_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  12. Eastern Gulf of Mexico January 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Jan_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  13. Western Gulf of Mexico September 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Sep_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  14. Eastern Gulf of Mexico December 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Dec_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  15. Western Gulf of Mexico August 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Aug_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  16. Western Gulf of Mexico February 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Feb_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  17. Western Gulf of Mexico July 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Jul_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  18. Eastern Gulf of Mexico February 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Feb_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  19. Eastern Gulf of Mexico April 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Apr_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  20. Western Gulf of Mexico January 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Jan_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  1. Eastern Gulf of Mexico July 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Jul_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  2. Eastern Gulf of Mexico June 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Jun_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  3. Eastern Gulf of Mexico September 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Sep_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  4. Eastern Gulf of Mexico May 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_May_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  5. Western Gulf of Mexico December 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Dec_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  6. Eastern Gulf of Mexico March 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Mar_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  7. Western Gulf of Mexico June 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Jun_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  8. Western Gulf of Mexico March 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Mar_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  9. Eastern Gulf of Mexico October 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Oct_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  10. Drift in ocean currents impacts intergenerational microbial exposure to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doblin, Martina A.; Van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are the foundation of marine ecosystems [Falkowski PG, Fenchel T, Delong EF (2008) Science 320(5879):1034-1039]. Until now, the analytical framework for understanding the implications of ocean warming on microbes has not considered thermal exposure during transport in dynamic seascapes,

  11. Airborne Optical Remote Sensing of Ocean Surface Current Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.; Zuckerman, S.; Stuart, G.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate and timely knowledge of open ocean surface currents are needed for a variety of engineering and emergency missions, as well as for improving scientific understanding of ocean dynamics. This paper presents surface current observations from a new airborne current measurement capability called the Remote Ocean Current Imaging System (ROCIS). ROCIS exploits space-time processing of airborne ocean wave imagery to produce real-time maps of surface currents every 1 km along the flight track. Post-processing of the data allows for more in depth sensitivity studies than can be undertaken with the real-time measurements alone, providing swaths of current retrievals at higher spatial resolutions. Currents can be calculated on scales down to 100 m, across swaths 3 km wide, along the entire flight path. Here, we report on results for multiple ROCIS data collection flights over the Gulf of Mexico conducted in 2012, 2014 and 2015. We show comparisons to in situ current measurements, explore performance as a function of altitude, dwell, wind speed, and wave height, and discuss sources of error. We present examples of current retrievals revealing mesoscale and submesoscale variability. Lastly, we present horizontal kinetic energy spectra from select flights covering a range of spatial scales from hundreds of meters to hundreds of kilometers.

  12. Early Entry for Youth into the Ocean Science Pipeline Through Ocean Science School Camp and Summer Camp Programs: A Key Strategy for Enhancing Diversity in the Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, N. L.; Wasser, A.; Weiss, T.; Sullivan, M.; Jones, A.

    2004-12-01

    Educators, policymakers, employers and other stakeholders in ocean and other geo-science fields face the continuing challenge of a lack of diversity in these fields. A particular challenge for educators and geo-science professionals promoting ocean sciences is to create programs that have broad access, including access for underrepresented youth. Experiential learning in environments such as intensive multi-day science and summer camps can be a critical captivator and motivator for young people. Our data suggest that youth, especially underrepresented youth, may benefit from exposure to the oceans and ocean science through intensive, sustained (eg more than just an afternoon), hands-on, science-based experiences. Data from the more than 570 youth who have participated in Camp SEA Lab's academically based experiential ocean science camp and summer programs provide compelling evidence for the importance of such programs in motivating young people. We have paid special attention to factors that might play a role in recruiting and retaining these young people in ocean science fields. Over 50% of program attendees were underrepresented youth and on scholarship, which gives us a closer look at the impact of such programs on youth who would otherwise not have the opportunity to participate. Both cognitive (knowledge) and affective (personal growth and motivation) indicators were assessed through surveys and questionnaires. Major themes drawn from the data for knowledge growth and personal growth in Camp SEA Lab youth attendees will be presented. These will be placed into the larger context of critical factors that enhance recruitment and retention in the geo-science pipeline. Successful strategies and challenges for involving families and broadening access to specialized programs such as Camp SEA Lab will also be discussed.

  13. Social media connecting ocean sciences and the general public: the @OceanSeaIceNPI experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. K.; Granskog, M. A.; Gerland, S.; Meyer, A.; Hudson, S. R.; Rösel, A.; King, J.; Itkin, P.; Cohen, L.; Dodd, P. A.; de Steur, L.

    2016-02-01

    As researchers we are constantly being encouraged by funding agencies, policy-makers and journalists to conduct effective outreach and to communicate our latest research findings. As environmental scientists we also understand the necessity of communicating our research to the general public. Many of us wish to become better science communicators but have little time and limited funding available to do so. How can we expend our science communication past project-based efforts that have a limited lifetime? Most critically, how can a small research groups do it without additional resources such as funds and communication officers? Social media is one answer, and has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and researchers are exploring the full breadth of possibilities brought by social media for reaching out to the general public, journalists, policy-makers, stake-holders, and research community. However, smaller research groups and labs are still underrepresented in social media. When it comes to practice, some essential difficulties can be encountered: identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interaction within the research group, and finally, choosing a currently up-to-date social medium as a technical solution for communicating your research. Here, a group of oceanography and sea ice researchers (@OceanSeaIceNPI) share the positive experience of developing and maintaining for more than one year a researcher-driven outreach effort currently implemented through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present potential pitfalls and challenges that small research groups could face, and how to better overcome them. This will hopefully inspire and help other research groups and labs to conduct their own effective ocean science communication.

  14. Motionally-induced electromagnetic fields generated by idealized ocean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R. H.; Mysak, L. A.

    Using the induction equation, we investigate the generation of electromagnetic fields by the motional electromagnetic induction due to ocean currents. In this paper, solutions are presented for a linear induction equation for the magnetic flux density vector which contains prescribed time-independent ocean current and conductivity fields. Once the magnetic flux density is known, the electric field and electric current density are easily obtained by differentiation. Solutions are given for several examples of idealized flow which include: 1) Vertically and horizontally sheared plane-parallel flow with depth-dependent conductivity; 2) A simple Stommel circulation gyre; and 3) Symmetric gyres. The results indicate that typical ocean current features induce magnetic fields with magnitudes reaching 100's of nT within the water and about 1-10 outside of the water. For the case of a field of gyres, the ocean-induced magnetic fields decay away from the ocean on spatial scales set by the horizontal scale of the ocean feature. At the altitudes of magnetic field satellite surveys, ocean-induced magnetic fields may retain values of a few nT, which are strong enough to be detected. Thus it is concluded that satellite observations of the earth's main magnetic field and, in particular, the observed temporal variations, could be affected by the ocean circulation. Summary and discussion In Section 3, we found exact solutions to the induction equation for idealized flows. The results gave magnitudes of about tens to hundreds of nT for the magnetic fields bH, about 10-5 V/m for the electric fields E, and about 10-5 A/m2 for the electric current density J induced by the ocean currents. These figures are in general agreement with the calculations of Lilley et al. (1993). In Section 4.2 we obtained solutions for the magnetic field above the ocean surface for the case of a Stommel gyre and a field of symmetric gyres. It was found in the last case that ocean gyres with a total transport

  15. Ocean Science in a K-12 setting: Promoting Inquiry Based Science though Graduate Student and Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodico, J. M.; Greely, T.; Lodge, A.; Pyrtle, A.; Ivey, S.; Madeiros, A.; Saleem, S.

    2005-12-01

    The University of South Florida, College of Marine Science Oceans: GK-12 Teaching Fellowship Program is successfully enriching science learning via the oceans. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the program provides a unique opportunity among scientists and K-12 teachers to interact with the intention of bringing ocean science concepts and research to the classroom environment enhance the experience of learning and doing science, and to promote `citizen scientists' for the 21st century. The success of the program relies heavily on the extensive summer training program where graduate students develop teaching skills, create inquiry based science activities for a summer Oceanography Camp for Girls program and build a relationship with their mentor teacher. For the last year and a half, two graduate students from the College of Marine Science have worked in cooperation with teachers from the Pinellas county School District, Southside Fundamental Middle School. Successful lesson plans brought into a 6th grade Earth Science classroom include Weather and climate: Global warming, The Geologic timescale: It's all about time, Density: Layering liquids, and Erosion processes: What moves water and sediment. The school and students have benefited greatly from the program experiencing hands-on inquiry based science and the establishment of an after school science club providing opportunities for students to work on their science fair projects and pursuit other science interests. Students are provided scoring rubrics and their progress is creatively assessed through KWL worksheets, concept maps, surveys, oral one on one and classroom discussions and writing samples. The year culminated with a series of hands on lessons at the nearby beach, where students demonstrated their mastery of skills through practical application. Benefits to the graduate student include improved communication of current science research to a diverse audience, a better understanding of the

  16. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kathryn I; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. © 2015 K. I. Danielson and K. D. Tanner. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Increasing ocean sciences in K and 1st grade classrooms through ocean sciences curriculum aligned to A Framework for K-12 Science Education, and implementation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte, S.; Weiss, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean and climate sciences are rarely introduced at the early elementary levels. Reasons for this vary, but include little direct attention at the national and state levels; lack of quality instructional materials; and, lack of teacher content knowledge. Recent recommendations by the National Research Council, "revise the Earth and Space sciences core ideas and grade band endpoints to include more attention to the ocean whenever possible" (NRC, 2012, p. 336) adopted in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), may increase the call for ocean and climate sciences to be addressed. In response to these recommendations' and the recognition that an understanding of some of the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) would be incomplete without an understanding of processes or phenomena unique to the ocean and ocean organisms; the ocean Literacy community have created documents that show the alignment of NGSS with the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts (Ocean Literacy, 2013) as well as the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for Grades K-12 (Ocean Literacy, 2010), providing a solid argument for how and to what degree ocean sciences should be part of the curriculum. However, the percentage of science education curricula focused on the ocean remains very low. This session will describe a new project, that draws on the expertise of curriculum developers, ocean literacy advocates, and researchers to meet the challenges of aligning ocean sciences curriculum to NGSS, and supporting its implementation. The desired outcomes of the proposed project are to provide a rigorous standards aligned curricula that addresses all of the Life Sciences, and some Earth and Space Sciences and Engineering Design Core Ideas for Grades K and 1; and provides teachers with the support they need to understand the content and begin implementation. The process and lessons learned will be shared.

  18. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Universities, Oceanographic Institutions, Science Centers and Aquariums Working Together to Improve Ocean Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, S.; McDonnell, J.; Halversen, C.; Zimmerman, T.; Ingram, L.

    2007-12-01

    and inquiry-based ocean sciences activities for children and families visiting informal institutions. The following COSIA partners have taught the course: Hampton University - Virginia Aquarium; Oregon State University - Hatfield Marine Science Visitor's Center; Rutgers University - Liberty Science Center; University of California, Berkeley - Lawrence Hall of Science; University of Southern California - Aquarium of the Pacific; and Scripps Institution of Oceanography - Birch Aquarium. Communicating Ocean Sciences has also been taught at Stanford, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, University of Oregon (GK-12 program), University of Washington, and others. Data from surveys of students demonstrates improvement in their understanding of how people learn and how to effectively communicate. Providing college students with a background in current learning theory, and applying that theory through practical science communication experiences, will empower future generations of scientists to meet the communication challenges they will encounter in their careers.

  19. Communicating Ocean Science at the Lower-Division Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Ocean Literacy for Youth, Publics, Professionals, and Scientists (POLYPPS) is an NSF-funded collaboration between the University of Hawai`i and the Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) - California, which is based at the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California - Berkeley. One of the objectives of this project is to instutionalize ocean science communications courses at colleges and universities in Hawai`i. Although the focus of most of these communications courses has been on training graduate students and scientists, lower-division students interested in the ocean sciences are finding this background helpful. At the University of Hawai`i Maui College there are several marine science courses and certificate programs that require students to interact with the public through internships, research assistantships, and course-related service-learning projects. Oceanography 270, Communicating Ocean Science, is now offered to meet the needs of these students who engage with the public in informal educational settings. Other students who enroll in this course have a general interest in the marine environment and are considering careers in K-12 formal education. This course gives this group of students an opportunity to explore formal education by assisting classroom teachers and preparing and presenting problem-based, hands-on, inquiry activities. Employers at marine-related businesses and in the tourist industry have welcomed this course with a focus on communication skills and indicate that they prefer to hire local people with strong backgrounds in marine and natural sciences. A basic premise of POLYPPS is that science education must draw not only from the latest advances in science and technology but also from the cultural contexts in which the learners are embedded and that this will achieve increased understanding and stewardship of ocean environments. Students in Oceanography 270 integrate traditional Hawaiian knowledge into their

  20. Ocean Sciences meets Big Data Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, B. L.; Choi, I.; Hartman, J.

    2016-02-01

    Hundreds of researchers worldwide have joined forces in the Tara Oceans Expedition to create an unprecedented planetary-scale dataset comprised of state-of-the-art next generation sequencing, microscopy, and physical/chemical metadata to explore ocean biodiversity. This summer the complete collection of data from the 2009-2013 Tara voyage was released. Yet, despite herculean efforts by the Tara Oceans Consortium to make raw data and computationally derived assemblies and gene catalogs available, most researchers are stymied by the sheer volume of the data. Specifically, the most tantalizing research questions lie in understanding the unifying principles that guide the distribution of organisms across the sea and affect climate and ecosystem function. To use the data in this capacity researchers must download, integrate, and analyze more than 7.2 trillion bases of metagenomic data and associated metadata from viruses, bacteria, archaea and small eukaryotes at their own data centers ( 9 TB of raw data). Accessing large-scale data sets in this way impedes scientists' from replicating and building on prior work. To this end, we are developing a data platform called the Ocean Cloud Commons (OCC) as part of the iMicrobe project. The OCC is built using an algorithm we developed to pre-compute massive comparative metagenomic analyses in a Hadoop big data framework. By maintaining data in a cloud commons researchers have access to scalable computation and real-time analytics to promote the integrated and broad use of planetary-scale datasets, such as Tara.

  1. Remote sensing of ocean currents using ERTS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Major ocean currents such as the Loop Current in the eastern Gulf of Mexico have surface manifestations which can be exploited for remote sensing. Surface chlorophyll-a concentrations, which contribute to the shift in color from blue to green in the open sea, were found to have high spatial variability; significantly lower concentrations were observed in the current. The cyclonic edge of the current is an accumulation zone which causes a peak in chlorophyll concentration. The dynamics also cause surface concentrations of algae, which have a high reflectance in the near infrared. Combining these observations gives rise to an edge effect which can show up as a bright lineation on multispectral imagery delimiting the current's boundary under certain environmental conditions. When high seas introduce bubbles, white caps, and foam, the reflectance is dominated by scattering rather than absorption. This has been detected in ERTS imagery and used for current location.

  2. Equatorial Indian Ocean subsurface current variability in an Ocean General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanaseelan, C.; Deshpande, Aditi

    2017-05-01

    The variability of subsurface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean is studied using high resolution Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) simulations during 1958-2009. February-March eastward equatorial subsurface current (ESC) shows weak variability whereas strong variability is observed in northern summer and fall ESC. An eastward subsurface current with maximum amplitude in the pycnocline is prominent right from summer to winter during strong Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years when air-sea coupling is significant. On the other hand during weak IOD years, both the air-sea coupling and the ESC are weak. This strongly suggests the role of ESC on the strength of IOD. The extension of the ESC to the summer months during the strong IOD years strengthens the oceanic response and supports intensification and maintenance of IODs through modulation of air sea coupling. Although the ESC is triggered by equatorial winds, the coupled air-sea interaction associated with IODs strengthens the ESC to persist for several seasons thereby establishing a positive feedback cycle with the surface. This suggests that the ESC plays a significant role in the coupled processes associated with the evolution and intensification of IOD events by cooling the eastern basin and strengthening thermocline-SST (sea surface temperature) interaction. As the impact of IOD events on Indian summer monsoon is significant only during strong IOD years, understanding and monitoring the evolution of ESC during these years is important for summer monsoon forecasting purposes. There is a westward phase propagation of anomalous subsurface currents which persists for a year during strong IOD years, whereas such persistence or phase propagation is not seen during weak IOD years, supporting the close association between ESC and strength of air sea coupling during strong IOD years. In this study we report the processes which strengthen the IOD events and the air sea coupling associated with IOD. It also unravels

  3. Mechanical Extraction of Power From Ocean Currents and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Chao, Yi

    2010-01-01

    A proposed scheme for generating electric power from rivers and from ocean currents, tides, and waves is intended to offer economic and environmental advantages over prior such schemes, some of which are at various stages of implementation, others of which have not yet advanced beyond the concept stage. This scheme would be less environmentally objectionable than are prior schemes that involve the use of dams to block rivers and tidal flows. This scheme would also not entail the high maintenance costs of other proposed schemes that call for submerged electric generators and cables, which would be subject to degradation by marine growth and corrosion. A basic power-generation system according to the scheme now proposed would not include any submerged electrical equipment. The submerged portion of the system would include an all-mechanical turbine/pump unit that would superficially resemble a large land-based wind turbine (see figure). The turbine axis would turn slowly as it captured energy from the local river flow, ocean current, tidal flow, or flow from an ocean-wave device. The turbine axis would drive a pump through a gearbox to generate an enclosed flow of water, hydraulic fluid, or other suitable fluid at a relatively high pressure [typically approx.500 psi (approx.3.4 MPa)]. The pressurized fluid could be piped to an onshore or offshore facility, above the ocean surface, where it would be used to drive a turbine that, in turn, would drive an electric generator. The fluid could be recirculated between the submerged unit and the power-generation facility in a closed flow system; alternatively, if the fluid were seawater, it could be taken in from the ocean at the submerged turbine/pump unit and discharged back into the ocean from the power-generation facility. Another alternative would be to use the pressurized flow to charge an elevated reservoir or other pumped-storage facility, from whence fluid could later be released to drive a turbine/generator unit at a

  4. A New Approach to Data Publication in Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy; Urban, Ed; Pissierssens, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Data are collected from ocean sciences activities that range from a single investigator working in a laboratory to large teams of scientists cooperating on big, multinational, global ocean research projects. What these activities have in common is that all result in data, some of which are used as the basis for publications in peer-reviewed journals. However, two major problems regarding data remain. First, many data valuable for understanding ocean physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and how the oceans operate in the Earth system are never archived or made accessible to other scientists. Data underlying traditional journal articles are often difficult to obtain. Second, when scientists do contribute data to databases, their data become freely available, with little acknowledgment and no contribution to their career advancement. To address these problems, stronger ties must be made between data repositories and academic journals, and a “digital backbone” needs to be created for data related to journal publications.

  5. Advances in the science and technology of ocean management

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Hance

    2002-01-01

    This book reviews key developments in the field of marine science and technology. It focuses on three major themes such as the importance of technical developments in ocean management, the application of these developments to specific sea uses ranging from fish farming to the disposal of industrial waste, and the long-term issues that such developments raise.

  6. Ocean Filmmaking Camp @ Duke Marine Lab: Building Community with Ocean Science for a Better World

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oca, M.; Noll, S.

    2016-02-01

    A democratic society requires that its citizens are informed of everyday's global issues. Out of all issues those related to ocean conservation can be hard to grasp for the general public and especially so for disadvantaged racial and ethnic groups. Opportunity-scarce communities generally have more limited access to the ocean and to science literacy programs. The Ocean Filmmaking Camp @ Duke Marine Lab (OFC@DUML) is an effort to address this gap at the level of high school students in a small coastal town. We designed a six-week summer program to nurture the talents of high school students from under-represented communities in North Carolina with training in filmmaking, marine science and conservation. Our science curriculum is especially designed to present the science in a locally and globally-relevant context. Class discussions, field trips and site visits develop the students' cognitive abilities while they learn the value of the natural environment they live in. Through filmmaking students develop their voice and their media literacy, while connecting with their local community, crossing class and racial barriers. By the end of the summer this program succeeds in encouraging students to engage in the democratic process on ocean conservation, climate change and other everyday affairs affecting their local communities. This presentation will cover the guiding principles followed in the design of the program, and how this high impact-low cost program is implemented. In its first year the program was co-directed by a graduate student and a local high school teacher, who managed more than 20 volunteers with a total budget of $1,500. The program's success was featured in the local newspaper and Duke University's Environment Magazine. This program is an example of how ocean science can play a part in building a better world, knitting diverse communities into the fabric of the larger society with engaged and science-literate citizens living rewarding lives.

  7. Incorporating Hot Topics in Ocean Sciences to Outreach Activities in Marine and Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergondo, D. L.; Mrakovcich, K. L.; Vlietstra, L.; Tebeau, P.; Verlinden, C.; Allen, L. A.; James, R.

    2016-02-01

    The US Coast Guard Academy, an undergraduate military Academy, in New London CT, provides STEM education programs to the local community that engage the public on hot topics in ocean sciences. Outreach efforts include classroom, lab, and field-based activities at the Academy as well as at local schools. In one course, we partner with a STEM high school collecting fish and environmental data on board a research vessel and subsequently students present the results of their project. In another course, cadets develop and present interactive demonstrations of marine science to local school groups. In addition, the Academy develops In another course, cadets develop and present interactive demonstrations of marine science to local school groups. In addition, the Academy develops and/or participates in outreach programs including Science Partnership for Innovation in Learning (SPIL), Women in Science, Physics of the Sea, and the Ocean Exploration Trust Honors Research Program. As part of the programs, instructors and cadets create interactive and collaborative activities that focus on hot topics in ocean sciences such as oil spill clean-up, ocean exploration, tsunamis, marine biodiversity, and conservation of aquatic habitats. Innovative science demonstrations such as real-time interactions with the Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus, rotating tank simulations of ocean circulation, wave tank demonstrations, and determining what materials work best to contain and clean-up oil, are used to enhance ocean literacy. Children's books, posters and videos are some creative ways students summarize their understanding of ocean sciences and marine conservation. Despite time limitations of students and faculty, and challenges associated with securing funding to keep these programs sustainable, the impact of the programs is overwhelmingly positive. We have built stronger relationships with local community, enhanced ocean literacy, facilitated communication and mentorship between young

  8. Population genetic structure in the North Atlantic Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides): influenced by oceanic current systems?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per E; Albert, Ole T.h.o.m.a.s; Hoelzel, A R.u.s; Stenseth, Nils C.h.r

    2007-01-01

    .... Calculating geographic distance along the flow of ocean currents gave a more linear correlation with genetic differentiation than straight-line geographic distances, suggesting that gene flow follows ocean currents...

  9. Advection by ocean currents modifies phytoplankton size structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Muñoz, Joan S; Jordi, Antoni; Tuval, Idan; Arrieta, Jorge; Anglès, Sílvia; Basterretxea, Gotzon

    2017-05-01

    Advection by ocean currents modifies phytoplankton size structure at small scales (1-10 cm) by aggregating cells in different regions of the flow depending on their size. This effect is caused by the inertia of the cells relative to the displaced fluid. It is considered that, at larger scales (greater than or equal to 1 km), biological processes regulate the heterogeneity in size structure. Here, we provide observational evidence of heterogeneity in phytoplankton size structure driven by ocean currents at relatively large scales (1-10 km). Our results reveal changes in the phytoplankton size distribution associated with the coastal circulation patterns. A numerical model that incorporates the inertial properties of phytoplankton confirms the role of advection on the distribution of phytoplankton according to their size except in areas with enhanced nutrient inputs where phytoplankton dynamics is ruled by other processes. The observed preferential concentration mechanism has important ecological consequences that range from the phytoplankton level to the whole ecosystem. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Deep oceanic currents and sea floor interactions offshore SE Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisson, François; Cazzola, Carlo; Ferry, Jean-Noel

    2016-04-01

    The Pamela Research program, which involves Total and Ifremer and their associated partners (French Universities, CNRS, IFPEN), is currently working to acquire new multidisciplinary data in the Mozambique Channel, in order to improve our knowledge and use this area as "laboratory" for comprehension of sedimentary/stratigraphical/geodynamical/structural and biological processes. The area comprised between the austral ocean and the southern tip of the African continent is a major place for Atlantic and Indian waters exchange, with high impact on the global climate (de Rujiter et al., 1999, Beal et al., 2011). Its prolongation toward the Mozambique Channel is a great playground to study effects of bottom currents on the sea floor. In this synthesis, we compile information about the major oceanic currents that occur at different water depth in the area, and we started listing the main published or ongoing studies, some of them in the scope of the Pamela project, related to sea floor interactions with bottom currents. These interactions are characterized by erosional features: submarine erosions, truncations, stratigraphic hiatuses, associated to depositional features: various types of contouritic drifts, sediment waves, asymmetric turbiditic levees etc. (Simpson et al., 1974, Uenzelmann-Neben et al., 2007, Uenzelmann-Neben & Huhn, 2009, Palermo et al., 2014). Movements of the main water masses in the Mozambique basin are strongly driven by thermohaline circulation but also sea floor topography and coast configuration: the Mozambique Current is not a persistent current but composed by southward moving anticyclonic eddies (De Rujiter et al., 2002, Ridderinkhof & de Rujiter, 2003, Swart et al., 2010, Halo et al., 2014). Deep currents flow northward along the western edge of the Mozambique basin: the North Atlantic Deep Waters (NADW) and the Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) flow along the Mozambican continental slope and form the Mozambique Undercurrent. A portion of

  11. Trends and frontiers for the science and management of the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J

    2017-06-05

    People have an enduring fascination with the biology of the oceans. When the BBC's 'Blue Planet' series first aired on British television almost a quarter of the nation tuned in. As the diversity of science in this special issue of Current Biology attests, the ocean presents a challenging environment for study while also exhibiting some of the most profound and disruptive symptoms of global change. Marine science has made major advances in the past few decades, which were primarily made possible through important technological innovations. This progress notwithstanding, there are persistent challenges in achieving an understanding of marine processes at appropriate scales and delivering meaningful insights to guide ocean policy and management. Naturally, the examples chosen below betray my ecological leanings, but I hope that many of the issues raised resonate with readers in many different disciplines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wirth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts.

    The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is, how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow, is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model.

    The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.

  13. Potential of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) for Ocean Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), a graphic format encoded in Extensible Markup Language (XML), is a recent W3C standard. SVG is text-based and platform-neutral, allowing interoperability and a rich array of features that offer significant promise for the presentation and publication of ocean and earth science research. This presentation (a) provides a brief introduction to SVG with real-world examples; (b) reviews browsers, editors, and other SVG tools; and (c) talks about some of the more powerful capabilities of SVG that might be important for ocean and earth science data presentation, such as searchability, animation and scripting, interactivity, accessibility, dynamic SVG, layers, scalability, SVG Text, SVG Audio, server-side SVG, and embedding metadata and data. A list of useful SVG resources is also given.

  14. Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science: Incorporating ecosystem services approaches into ocean and coastal decision-making and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of social science has been recognized as a priority for effective ocean and coastal management, driving much discussion and fostering emerging efforts in several areas. The Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science (IWG-OSS) is tasked with assisting the Su...

  15. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing

  16. Observed Current Variability on the North Western Bay of Bengal using HF Radar Derived Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Sil, S.

    2016-12-01

    A pair of HF Radar (Courtesy: INCOIS, Hyderabad) has been operating in the North Western Bay of Bengal (BoB) along the Odisha Coast from late 2009 to enable us to study the current variability in this region for the very first time. Due to the absence of the observed in-situ current observations, the HF radar derived surface currents are validated with geostrophic (AVISO) and the wind driven (ASCAT) currents on the daily scale. The higher correlation in the current magnitude and direction gave the confidence to study the high frequency variability. The tidal analysis of the HF Radar datasets indicates that the semi-diurnal tidal component (M2) dominates in the North-Western BoB along with S2 and N2 components. This result agrees with the past studies from the tide observations and model. In addition, the well-known diurnal tidal components K1, O1 and Q1 have also been observed, pointing out that the tidal regime is of mixed type and mainly semi-diurnal. Keywords: Bay of Bengal, HF Radar, Ocean currents, Ocean Circulation, Tides

  17. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  18. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  19. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  20. The Ocean Acidification Curriculum Collection - sharing ocean science resources for k-12 classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.

    2016-02-01

    The fish and shellfish provided by ecosystems that abound in the waters of Puget Sound have sustained the Suquamish Tribe for millennia. However, years of development, pollution and over-harvest have reduced some fish and shellfish populations to just a fraction of their former abundance. Now, ocean acidification (OA) and climate change pose additional threats to these essential natural resources. Ocean acidification can't be stopped; however, many of the other human-caused stressors to ocean health can. If human behaviors that harm ocean health can be modified to reduce impacts, fish populations and ecosystems could become more resilient to the changing ocean conditions. School is arguably the best place to convey the ideas and awareness needed for people to adopt new behaviors. Students are open to new ideas and they influence their peers and parents. In addition, they are captive audiences in classrooms for many years.The Suquamish Tribe is helping to foster new generations of ocean stewards by creating an online searchable database (OACurriculumCollection.org). This site is designed to facilitate finding, reviewing and sharing free educational materials on OA. At the same time, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were released providing a great opportunity to get new materials into classrooms. OA provides highly appropriate context to teach many of the ideas in the new standards making it attractive to teachers looking for interesting and relevant materials. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how teachers can use the site as a place to find and share materials on OA. We will also present a framework developed by teachers for understanding OA, its impacts, and the many ways students can help ease the impacts on ocean ecosystems. We will provide examples of how OA can be used as context and content for the NGSS and finally, we will discuss the failures and successes on our journey to get relevant materials into the classroom.

  1. NOAA Ocean Exploration: Science, Education and Ocean Literacy Online and in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener-Chavis, P.

    2012-12-01

    "Engagement" in ocean science initially might seem like a simple concept, however within an agency like NOAA, with a broad mission and a wide variety of stakeholders, the concept of engagement becomes quite complex. Several years ago, a Kellogg Commission Report was submitted to NOAA's Science Advisory Board to assist the Agency with more closely defining-and refining-how it could more effectively engage with the multiple audiences with which it works. For NOAA, engagement is a two-way relationship that unfolds in a commitment of service to society. It is an Enterprise-wide capability represented in NOAA's Next Generation Strategic Plan and carries the same weight across the Agency as science and technology. NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) engages scientists, educators and the public through a variety of online and social media offerings explicitly tied to the exploration science of its expeditions. The principle platform for this engagement is the Ocean Explorer website (http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov). It is the single point of entry for formal and informal educators and the public to chronicled OER expeditions to little known regions of the world ocean. The site also enables access to live streaming video and audio from the United States' first ship solely dedicated to ocean exploration, the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and the Institute for Exploration's E/V Nautilus. Video includes footage from the remotely operated vehicles, sonar displays, navigation displays, and mapping data displays. Through telepresence technologies and other online communication tools, scientists at remote locations around the world, including Exploration Command Centers, collaborate in deep-sea exploration conducted by the Okeanos Explorer. Those wanting access to the ship's track, oceanographic data, daily updates, web logs, and imagery during an expedition can access the online Okeanos Explorer Digital Atlas. Information on archived expeditions can be accessed

  2. Ocean Tracks: College Edition - Promoting Data Literacy in Science Education at the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, R. E.; Krumhansl, R.; Louie, J.; Aluwihare, L.; Bardar, E. W.; Hirsch, L.; Hoyle, C.; Krumhansl, K.; Madura, J.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Peach, C. L.; Trujillo, A.; Winney, B.; Zetterlind, V.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Tracks is a Web-based interactive learning experience which allows users to explore the migrations of marine apex predators, and the way their behaviors relate to the physical and chemical environment surrounding them. Ocean Tracks provides access to data from the Tagging of Pelagic Predators (TOPP) program, NOAA's Global Drifter Program, and Earth-orbiting satellites via the Ocean Tracks interactive map interface; customized data analysis tools; multimedia supports; along with laboratory modules customized for undergraduate student use. It is part of a broader portfolio of projects comprising the Oceans of Data Institute, dedicated to transforming education to prepare citizens for a data-intensive world. Although originally developed for use in high school science classrooms, the Ocean Tracks interface and associated curriculum has generated interest among instructors at the undergraduate level, who wanted to engage their students in hands-on work with real scientific datasets. In 2014, EDC and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography received funding from NSF's IUSE program for Ocean Tracks: College Edition, to investigate how a learning model that includes a data interface, set of analysis tools, and curricula can be used to motivate students to learn and do science with real data; bringing opportunities to engage broad student populations, including both in-classroom and remote, on-line participants, in scientific practice. Phase 1, completed in the summer of 2015, was a needs assessment, consisting of a survey and interviews with students in oceanography classes at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Palomar Community College; a document review of course syllabi and primary textbooks used in current college marine science courses across the country; and interviews and a national survey of marine science faculty. We will present the results of this work, and will discuss new curriculum materials that are being classroom tested in the fall of 2015.

  3. Barriers to teaching ocean science in Greek schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanassiou, Martha; McHugh, Patricia; Domegan, Christine; Gotensparre, Susan; Fauville, Geraldine; Parr, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Most European citizens are not aware of the full extent of the medical, economic, social, political and environmental importance of the sea to Europe and beyond. Most citizens are not aware of how our day-to-day actions can have a cumulative effect on the health of the ocean - a necessary resource that must be protected for all life on the planet Earth to exist. In other words, European citizens lack a sense of "Ocean Literacy" - an understanding of the ocean's influence on us and our influence on the ocean. Sea Change, a 3.5 million EU-funded project started in March 2015, is designed to bring about a fundamental 'Sea Change' in the way European citizens view their relationship with the sea, by empowering them as 'Ocean Literate' citizens - to take direct and sustainable action towards healthy seas and ocean, healthy communities and ultimately, a healthy planet. The project involves 17 partners from nine countries across Europe and will bring about real actions using behavior change and social engagement methodologies. Building upon the latest research on citizen and stakeholder attitudes, perceptions and values, the Sea Change partnership will design and implement mobilisation activities focused on education, community, government agencies, policy makers and citizens. Eight consultations were held around Europe with regards to barriers to teaching ocean science at schools. All project partners used a Collective Intelligence (CI) methodology to involve target group(s) in active, direct participation for Sea Change. CI is a "barriers and value" structuring methodology, a process of critical learning and reflection followed by action, and then by more critical learning to enable mobilisation, design and development 'with' people rather than on their behalf. In Greece, the consultation was carried out by HCMR, the lead partner for Greece. Participants were recruited through personal contact and existing education networks that the HCMR has previously worked with. In

  4. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  5. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Universities, Oceanographic Institutions, Science Centers and Aquariums Working Together to Improve Ocean Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, S.; McDonnell, J.; Halversen, C.; Zimmerman, T.

    2006-12-01

    institutions and promoting the broader impact of research; and provide diverse role models and inquiry-based ocean sciences activities for children and families visiting ISEI. COSIA partners include: Hampton University Virginia Aquarium; Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Visitor's Center; Rutgers University Liberty Science Center; University of California, Berkeley Lawrence Hall of Science; and University of Southern California Aquarium of the Pacific. COS has been or will soon be taught at Rutgers University, UC Berkeley, Stanford, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, University of Oregon (GK-12 program), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and others. Data from surveys of students demonstrates improvement in their understanding of how people learn and how to effectively communicate. For example, there was a decrease in agreement with statements describing traditional didactic teaching strategies suggesting that students who took the course developed a more sophisticated, inquiry-based philosophy of learning. Providing college students with a background in current learning theory, and applying that theory through practical science communication experiences, will empower future generations of scientists to meet the communication challenges they will encounter in their careers.

  6. Ocean currents shape the microbiome of Arctic marine sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamdan, Leila J; Coffin, Richard B; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Greinert, Jens; Treude, Tina; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    ...). Water and sediment directly underlying water with origin in the Arctic, Pacific or Atlantic oceans were analyzed by pyrosequencing and length heterogeneity-PCR in conjunction with physicochemical...

  7. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field

  8. NODC Standard Format Coastal Ocean Wave and Current (F181) Data from the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE) (1980) (NODC Accession 0014202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series coastal ocean wave and current data collected during the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE). ARSLOE was...

  9. Promoting Lifelong Ocean Education: Shaping Tomorrow's Earth Stewards and the Science and Technology Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeson, Blanche

    2006-01-01

    The coming ocean observing systems provide an unprecedented opportunity to change both the public perception of our oceans, and to inspire, captivate and motivate our children, our young adults and even our fellow adults to pursue careers allied with the oceans and to become stewards of our Planet's last unexplored environment. Education plans for the operational component, the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), and for the research component, Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION), are designed to take advantage of this opportunity. In both cases, community recommendations were developed within the context of the following assumptions: 1. Utilize research on how people learn, especially the four-pronged model of simultaneous learner-centered, knowledge-center, assessment-centered and community-centered learning 2. Strive for maximum impact on national needs in science and technology learning 3. Build on the best of what is already in place 4. Pay special attention to quality, sustainability, and scalability of efforts 5. Use partnerships across federal, state and local government, academia, and industry. Community recommendations for 100s and ORION education have much in common and offer the opportunity to create a coherent education effort allied with ocean observing systems. Both efforts focus on developing the science and technology workforce of the future, and the science and technology literacy of the public within the context of the Earth system and the role of the oceans and Great Lakes in that system. Both also recognize that an organized education infrastructure that supports sustainability and scalability of education efforts is required if ocean observing education efforts are to achieve a small but measurable improvement in either of these areas. Efforts have begun to develop the education infrastructure by beginning to form a community of educators from existing ocean and aquatic education networks and by exploring needs and

  10. Transformative ocean science through the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada ocean observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Taylor, S.

    2009-04-01

    The health of the world's oceans and their impact on global environmental and climate change make the development of cabled observing systems vital and timely as a data source and archive of unparalleled importance for new discoveries. The VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories are on the forefront of a new generation of ocean science and technology. Funding of over $100M, principally from the Governments of Canada and BC, for these two observatories supports integrated ocean systems science at a regional scale enabled by new developments in powered sub-sea cable technology and in cyber-infrastructure that streams continuous real-time data to Internet-based web platforms. VENUS is a coastal observatory supporting two instrumented arrays in the Saanich Inlet, near Victoria, and in the Strait of Georgia, off Vancouver. NEPTUNE Canada is an 800 km system on the Juan de Fuca Plate off the west coast of British Columbia, which will have five instrumented nodes in operation over the next 18 months. This paper describes the development and management of these two observatories, the principal research themes, and the applications of the research to public policy, economic development, and public education and outreach. Both observatories depend on partnerships with universities, government agencies, private sector companies, and NGOs. International collaboration is central to the development of the research programs, including partnerships with initiatives in the EU, US, Japan, Taiwan and China.

  11. Transformative ocean science through the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada ocean observing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Taylor, S. [Ocean Networks Canada, University of Victoria, TEF 130 P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 2Y2 (Canada)], E-mail: onet@uvic.ca

    2009-04-11

    The health of the world's oceans and their impact on global environmental and climate change make the development of cabled observing systems vital and timely as a data source and archive of unparalleled importance for new discoveries. The VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories are on the forefront of a new generation of ocean science and technology. Funding of over $100M, principally from the Governments of Canada and BC, for these two observatories supports integrated ocean systems science at a regional scale enabled by new developments in powered sub-sea cable technology and in cyber-infrastructure that streams continuous real-time data to Internet-based web platforms. VENUS is a coastal observatory supporting two instrumented arrays in the Saanich Inlet, near Victoria, and in the Strait of Georgia, off Vancouver. NEPTUNE Canada is an 800 km system on the Juan de Fuca Plate off the west coast of British Columbia, which will have five instrumented nodes in operation over the next 18 months. This paper describes the development and management of these two observatories, the principal research themes, and the applications of the research to public policy, economic development, and public education and outreach. Both observatories depend on partnerships with universities, government agencies, private sector companies, and NGOs. International collaboration is central to the development of the research programs, including partnerships with initiatives in the EU, US, Japan, Taiwan and China.

  12. A Field Course in Ocean Sciences that Emphasizes Sustainabilty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; O'Connell, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Sustainability awareness is increasingly a subject in educational settings. Marine science classes are perfect settings of establishing sustainability awareness owing to declining populations of organisms and perceived collapse in fisheries worldwide. Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (18 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This approach, to use a field basis for a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and laboratories. In addition, short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture. Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for travel to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and NOAA) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local stores, or larger city markets in Washington, Baltimore and Virginia Beach and International distribution centers, enhanced the understanding of productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of sustainability with discussions on ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the

  13. COSEE-AK Ocean Science Fairs: A Science Fair Model That Grounds Student Projects in Both Western Science and Traditional Native Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublin, Robin; Sigman, Marilyn; Anderson, Andrea; Barnhardt, Ray; Topkok, Sean Asiqluq

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the traditional science fair format into an ocean science fair model that promoted the integration of Western science and Alaska Native traditional knowledge in student projects focused on the ocean, aquatic environments, and climate change. The typical science fair judging criteria for the validity and presentation of the…

  14. Western Gulf of Mexico, June 1993 to June 1994 Average Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_AVG_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  15. Eastern Gulf of Mexico, February 1996 to June 1997 Average Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_AVG_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  16. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of science. I stress the international aspects of science communication, the national politico-scientific context as well as more local contexts as equally important conditions for understanding current Danish science communication.

  17. SCUBAnauts International: Exploration and Discovery in the Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, C. S.; Palandro, D.; Coble, P.; Hu, C.

    2007-12-01

    The SCUBAnauts International program originated in 2001, as a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization designed to increase the attraction to science and technology careers in today's youth. SCUBAnauts International (SNI) consists of a diverse group of 12 to 18 year-old young men and women mentored by academic, federal, and state research scientists in an informal education environment. The program's mission is to promote interest in science and technology topics and careers by involving secondary education students as young explorers in the marine sciences and research activities, such as special environmental and undersea conservation projects that educate, promote active citizenship, and develop effective leadership skills. With help from mentors, SNI students collect and interpret research-quality data to meet the needs of ocean scientists, maintaining direct interaction between the scientists and the young men and women in the program. The science component of the program includes collection of benthic habitat, water quality, optics, and coral reef health data. During the school year, the SCUBAnauts are tasked with sharing their experiences to raise the environmental awareness of a larger audience by providing education outreach in formal and informal venues. Here we highlight results from recent SNI activities including data collection and program methodologies, and discuss future plans for the program.

  18. Ocean currents measured by shipboard ADCP from global oceans from the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 2000-07 to 2012-02 (NODC Accession 0093159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  19. Integrated School of Ocean Sciences: Doctoral Education in Marine Sciences in Kiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Nina; Basse, Wiebke; Prigge, Enno; Schelten, Christiane; Antia, Avan

    2016-04-01

    Marine research is a dynamic thematic focus in Kiel, Germany, uniting natural scientists, economists, lawyers, philosophers, artists and computing and medical scientists in frontier research on the scientific, economic and legal aspects of the seas. The contributing institutions are Kiel University, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel Institute for the World Economy and Muthesius University in Kiel. Marine science education in Kiel trains young scientists to investigate the role of the oceans in global change, risks arising from ocean usage and sustainable management of living and non-living marine resources. Basic fundamental research is supplemented with applied science in an international framework including partners from industry and public life. The Integrated School of Ocean Sciences (ISOS) established through the Cluster of Excellence "The Future Ocean", funded within the German Excellence Initiative, provides PhD candidates in marine sciences with interdisciplinary education outside of curricular courses. It supports the doctoral candidates through supplementary training, a framework of supervision, mentoring and mobility, the advisors through transparency and support of doctoral training in their research proposals and the contributing institutions by ensuring quality, innovation and excellence in marine doctoral education. All PhD candidates financed by the Helmholtz Research School for Ocean System Science and Technology (HOSST) and the Collaborative Research Centre 754 "Climate-biogeochemical interactions in the tropical ocean" (SFB 754) are enrolled at the ISOS and are integrated into the larger peer community. Over 150 PhD candidate members from 6 faculties form a large interdisciplinary network. At the ISOS, they sharpen their scientific profile, are challenged to think beyond their discipline and equip themselves for life after a PhD through early exposure to topics beyond research (e.g. social responsibility, public communication

  20. VM-ADCP measured upper ocean currents in the southeastern Arabian Sea and Equatorial Indian Ocean during December, 2000

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Raikar, V.; Tilvi, V.

    The Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) measured currents in the upper 200 m along the cruise track covering the southeastern Arabian Sea and the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during northern winter monsoon (10-31 December...

  1. Surface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean during spring and fall - An altimetry based analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    This communication presents the results of a study aimed at investigating the nature and variability of surface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean between 5 degrees N and 5 degrees S during spring and fall seasons. Geostrophic surface currents...

  2. NODC Standard Product: Ocean current drifter data (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These CD-ROMs hold over 4 million surface current observations, almost all obtained by the ship drift method. Date, data source, position, and current direction and...

  3. Using Deep-Sea Scientific Drilling to Enhance Ocean Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Michael; Cooper, Sharon; Kurtz, Nicole; Burgio, Marion; Cicconi, Alessia

    2017-04-01

    Beginning with confirmation of sea floor spreading in Leg 3 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project in 1968, scientific ocean drilling has provided much of the evidence supporting modern understanding of the Earth System, global climate changes, and many other important concepts. But for more than three decades, results of discoveries were published primarily in scientific journals and cruise volumes. On occasion, science journalists would write articles for the general public, but organized educational outreach efforts were rare. Starting about a decade ago, educators were included in the scientific party aboard the JOIDES Resolution. These "teachers-at-sea" developed formats to translate the technical and scientific activities into language understandable to students, teachers, and the public. Several "Schools of Rock" have enabled groups of teachers and informal science educators to experience what happens aboard the JOIDES Resolution. Over the past few years, educational outreach efforts based on scientific drilling expanded to create a large body of resources that promote Ocean Science Literacy. Partnerships between scientists and educators have produced a searchable database of inquiry-centered classroom and informal science activities. These are available for free through the JOIDES Resolution website, joidesresolution.org. Activities are aligned with the Ocean Literacy Principles (http://oceanliteracy.wp2.coexploration.org/) and Science Education Standards. In addition to a suite of lessons based on the science behind scientific drilling, participants have developed a range of educational resources that include graphic novels ("Tales of the Resolution" (http://joidesresolution.org/node/263) ; children's books ("Uncovering Earth's Secrets" and "Where the Wild Microbes Grow" http://joidesresolution.org/node/2998); posters, videos, and other materials. Cooper and Kurtz are currently overseeing improvements and revisions to the JR education website pages. The

  4. The relation between the statistics of open ocean currents and the temporal correlations of the wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, Golan

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistics of wind-driven open ocean currents. Using the Ekman layer model for the integrated currents, we investigate, analytically and numerically, the relation between the wind distribution and its temporal correlations and the statistics of the open ocean currents. We find that temporally long-range correlated wind results in currents whose statistics is proportional to the wind-stress statistics. On the other hand, short-range correlated wind leads to Gaussian distributions of the current components, regardless of the stationary distribution of the winds, and therefore, to a Rayleigh distribution of the current amplitude if the wind stress is isotropic. An interesting result is the existence of an optimum in the amplitude of the ocean currents as a function of the correlation time of the wind stress. The results were validated using an oceanic general circulation model.

  5. Integrating the Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences at Millersville University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    For nearly 40 years, the Department of Earth Sciences at Millersville University (MU-DES) of Pennsylvania has been preparing students for careers in the earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences by providing a rigorous and comprehensive curricula leading to B.S. degrees in geology, meteorology, and oceanography. Undergraduate research is a hallmark of these earth sciences programs with over 30 students participating in some form of meritorious research each year. These programs are rich in applied physics, couched in mathematics, and steeped in technical computing and computer languages. Our success is measured by the number of students that find meaningful careers or go on to earn graduate degrees in their respective fields, as well as the high quality of faculty that the department has retained over the years. Student retention rates in the major have steadily increased with the introduction of a formal learning community and peer mentoring initiatives, and the number of new incoming freshmen and transfer students stands at an all-time high. Yet until recently, the disciplines have remained largely disparate with only minor inroads made into integrating courses that seek to address the Earth as a system. This is soon to change as the MU-DES unveils a new program leading to a B.S. in Integrated Earth Systems. The B.S. in Integrated Earth Systems (ISS) is not a reorganization of existing courses to form a marketable program. Instead, it is a fully integrated program two years in development that borrows from the multi-disciplinary backgrounds and experiences of faculty, while bringing in resources that are tailored to visualizing and modeling the Earth system. The result is the creation of a cross-cutting curriculum designed to prepare the 21st century student for the challenges and opportunities attending the holistic study of the Earth as a system. MU-DES will continue to offer programs leading to degrees in geology, meteorology, and ocean science, but in addition

  6. AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies: Dynamic, College-Level Geoscience Courses Emphasizing Current Earth System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies are introductory college-level courses developed by the American Meteorological Society, with NSF and NOAA support, for local offering at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The courses place students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate the atmosphere and world ocean using real-world and real-time environmental data. Over 360 colleges throughout the United States have offered these courses in course environments ranging from traditional lecture/laboratory to completely online. AMS Diversity Projects aim to increase undergraduate student access to the geosciences through implementation of the courses at minority-serving institutions and training programs for MSI faculty. The AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies course packages consist of a hard-cover, 15-chapter textbook, Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities, and course website containing weekly current weather and ocean investigations. Course instructors receive access to a faculty website and CD containing answer keys and course management system-compatible files, which allow full integration to a college's e-learning environment. The unique aspect of the courses is the focus on current Earth system data through weekly Current Weather Studies and Current Ocean Studies investigations written in real time and posted to the course website, as well as weekly news files and a daily weather summary for AMS Weather Studies. Students therefore study meteorology or oceanography as it happens, which creates a dynamic learning environment where student relate their experiences and observations to the course, and actively discuss the science with their instructor and classmates. With NSF support, AMS has held expenses-paid course implementation workshops for minority-serving institution faculty planning to offer AMS Weather Studies or AMS Ocean Studies. From May 2002-2007, AMS conducted week-long weather workshops

  7. Current trends of surface science and catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jeong Young

    2014-01-01

    Including detail on applying surface science in renewable energy conversion, this book covers the latest results on model catalysts including single crystals, bridging "materials and pressure gaps", and hot electron flows in heterogeneous catalysis.

  8. Attorneys for the Ocean - Graduate Training in the Transatlantic Helmholtz Research School for Ocean System Science and Technology (HOSST/TOSST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogaard, Christel; Dullo, Christian; Devey, Colin; Kienast, Markus; Wallace, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide growth in population and standards of living is leading to ever increasing human pressure on the oceans: as a source of resources, a transportation/trade pathway, and a sink for pollutants. However, use of the world's ocean is not presently guided by any over-arching management plan at either national or international level. Marine science and technology provide the necessary foundation, both in terms of system understanding and observational and modeling tools, to address these issues and to ensure that management of ocean activities can be placed on the best-possible scientific footing. The transatlantic Helmholtz Research School Ocean Science and Technology pools the complementary expertise of the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR), the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Dalhousie University and the Institute for Ocean Research Enterprise (IORE), to train the next generation of researchers in the key scientific areas critical for responsible resource utilization and management of the ocean with special emphasis on our "local ocean" - the North Atlantic. The Research School is organized around three themes which encompass key sensitivities of the North Atlantic to external forcing and resource exploitation: 4D Ocean Dynamics, Ecosystem Hotspots, and Seafloor Structures. Interactions within and between these themes regulate how the ocean system responds to both anthropogenic and natural change. The HOSST/TOSST fellows gain an in-depth understanding of how these ocean systems interact, which in turn provides a solid understanding for the formulation of scientifically-sound management practices. Given the broad scope of the school, student education is two-pronged: it provides excellent institutional support where needed, including scientific input, personal support and financial incentives, while simultaneously generating an open "intellectual space" in which ingenious, often unpredictable, ideas can take root, overcoming

  9. Minutes of TOPEX/POSEIDON Science Working Team Meeting and Ocean Tides Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This third TOPEX/POSEIDON Science Working Team meeting was held on December 4, 1994 to review progress in defining ocean tide models, precision Earth orbits, and various science algorithms. A related workshop on ocean tides convened to select the best models to be used by scientists in the Geophysical Data Records.

  10. The current state of greenhouse science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zillman, J.W. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The role of greenhouse science in the international development of the climate change issue is reviewed in this paper. It traces its evolution from the time of the 1979 World Climate Conference, to the First Session of the Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change in Berlin in early 1995. It explains the basic science of the climate system needed to understand the role of climate models in studying the implications of greenhouse gas increases. It then examines the evidence for human impacts on the climate of the 20th century and assesses the outlook for future climate change in the 21st century and beyond. It finally considers briefly the Australian situation including the implications of greenhouse science for the national approach to greenhouse gas abatement. (author). 33 figs., 15 refs.

  11. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from 18 June 1992 - 29 October 1993 (NODC Accession 9700223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from June 18, 1992 to October 29, 1993. Data were submitted by Oregon...

  12. Current direction data from moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 30 June 1979 - 16 August 1979 (NODC Accession 8200104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from June 30, 1979 to August 16, 1979. Data were submitted by...

  13. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to October...

  14. Current direction data from moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 1984-04-24 to 1984-06-01 (NODC Accession 8500122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from April 24, 1984 to June 1, 1984. Data were submitted by...

  15. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 05 February 1979 - 01 December 1980 (NODC Accession 8300042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from February 5, 1979 to December 1, 1980. Data...

  16. The monsoon currents in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    -September) and the Winter Monsoon Current (WMC) flows westward during the winter monsoon (November-February). We assemble data on ship drifts, winds and Ekman drift, and geostrophic currents derived from altimetry and hydrography to describe the observed climatological...

  17. Five Aspects of Current Trends in German Library Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steierwald, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The specialisation Library Science at the Hochschule Darmstadt/University of Applied Science Darmstadt is the newest academic program in Germany for the higher education of librarians. Five current trends in library science in Germany reflect the new "Darmstadt Model": (1) The delimitation of a specific professional field…

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1990-04-30 to 1991-05-15 (NODC Accession 9400005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from April 30, 1990 to May 15, 1991. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1979-01-20 to 1984-04-01 (NODC Accession 8700077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  20. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1981-11-21 to 1983-11-20 (NODC Accession 8500258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean from November 21, 1981 to November 20, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  1. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1979-01-20 to 1984-04-26 (NODC Accession 8500007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 26, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  2. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1986-05-28 to 1987-05-11 (NODC Accession 8900168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from 28 May 1986 to 01 May 1983. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  3. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for SADCP holdings from 20 August 1999 to 13 May 2009 (NCEI Accession 0067774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high-frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  4. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit -40 W) as part of the Ocean Dumping project, 1990-05-24 to 1991-06-17 (NODC Accession 9300112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit -40 W) from May 24, 1990 to June 17, 1991. Data were...

  5. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 13 September 1999 to 28 April 2007 (NCEI Accession 0036863)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  6. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 8 October 1993 to 16 March 2008 (NODC Accession 0049878)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  7. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 6 November 1993 to 11 October 2005 (NODC Accession 0002679)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  8. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as part of the Ocean Prediction Through Observation Modeling and Analysis (OPTOMA) project, 26 September 1984 - 16 July 1985 (NODC Accession 9600075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from September 26, 1984 to July 16, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  9. Sea-level and ocean-current control on carbonate-platform growth, Maldives, Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betzler, C.; Fürstenau, J.; Lüdmann, T.; Hübscher, C.; Lindhorst, S.; Paul, A.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Droxler, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Multichannel high-resolution seismic and multibeam data were acquired from the Maldives-isolated carbonate platform in the Indian Ocean for a detailed characterization of the Neogene bank architecture of this edifice. The goal of the research is to decipher the controlling factors of platform

  10. Assessment of great ocean currents as a source of renewable energy using recent OGCM simulations of the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Bernard; Domina, Anastasiia; Maitre, Thierry; Molines, Jean-Marc; Penduff, Thierry; Le Sommer, Julien; Brasseur, Pierre; Gulev, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    The great wind-driven ocean currents (e.g. Gulf-Stream or Kuroshio) are relatively constant in strength and direction, and they carry a great deal of energy because of the density of water. Technologies are being developed to extract energy from those currents and convert it into a usable power. The paper presents a methodology used to select regions of the global ocean where the properties of the great ocean currents are favourable to the implementation of Turbine Power Plants (TPP) made of submerged rotors driven by the motion of water. The methodology relies on a state-of-the-art eddy-resolving global ocean general circulation model used for real-time ocean forecasting, in which the implementation of a large TPP is represented by an additional drag force applied locally. This system is able to simulate the flow changes induced by the implementation of a power plant in the current, and consequently provides an assessment of the renewable energy that could be recovered and of the possible environmental impact. Our results demonstrate that the flow changes induced by a large TPP (covering the area of a model grid size, i.e. a few km) are highly dependent on the details of local topography, leading to a reduction of the available power that can vary from 25% to 85% according to location. We shall also show that impact of a TPP on the flow can be felt a few 100 kilometres upstream and may in some cases not only impact the flow speed, but also induce a large shift of the main current path.

  11. Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8: Climate Change Curriculum Developed Through a Collaboration Between Scientists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halversen, C.; Weiss, E. L.; Pedemonte, S.

    2016-02-01

    Today's youth have been tasked with the overwhelming job of addressing the world's climate future. The students who will become the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow must gain a robust understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, as well as possible adaptation strategies. Currently, few high quality curriculum materials exist that address climate change in a developmentally appropriate manner. The NOAA-funded Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8: The Ocean-Atmosphere Connection and Climate Change (OSS) addresses this gap by providing teachers with scientifically accurate climate change curriculum that hits on some of the most salient points in climate science, while simultaneously developing students' science process skills. OSS was developed through a collaboration between some of the nation's leading ocean and climate scientists and the Lawrence Hall of Science's highly qualified curriculum development team. Scientists were active partners throughout the entire development process, from initial brainstorming of key concepts and creating the conceptual storyline for the curriculum to final review of the content and activities. The goal was to focus strategically and effectively on core concepts within ocean and climate sciences that students should understand. OSS was designed in accordance with the latest research from the learning sciences and provides numerous opportunities for students to develop facility with science practices by "doing" science.Through hands-on activities, technology, informational readings, and embedded assessments, OSS deeply addresses a significant number of standards from the Next Generation Science Standards and is being used by many teachers as they explore the shifts required by NGSS. It also aligns with the Ocean Literacy and Climate Literacy Frameworks. OSS comprises 33 45-minute sessions organized into three thematic units, each driven by an exploratory question: (1) How do the ocean and atmosphere

  12. Range-based underwater vehicle localization in the presence of unknown ocean currents: Theory and experiments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bayat, M.; Crasta, N.; Aguiar, A.P.; Pascoal, A.M.

    This paper addresses the problem of range-based autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) localization in the presence of unknown ocean currents. In the setup adopted, the AUV is equipped with an attitude and heading reference system, a depth sensor...

  13. Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape -- studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hofmann, G. E; Evans, T. G; Kelly, M. W; Padilla-Gamiño, J. L; Blanchette, C. A; Washburn, L; Chan, F; McManus, M. A; Menge, B. A; Gaylord, B; Hill, T. M; Sanford, E; LaVigne, M; Rose, J. M; Kapsenberg, L; Dutton, J. M

    2014-01-01

    The California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), a temperate marine region dominated by episodic upwelling, is predicted to experience rapid environmental change in the future due to ocean acidification...

  14. Transforming Ocean Sciences in the Northeast Pacific: NSF's Ocean Observatories Initiative Cabled Array is Now Operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    In July-August, 2015 the first operations and maintenance cruise was successfully completed for the high power and bandwidth underwater cabled component of the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatories Initiative: the Cabled Array. This system includes 900 km of backbone cable and 7 Primary Nodes, which provide 8 kW power and 10 Gbs bandwidth to myriad seafloor instruments (Manalang et al., this meeting) and instrumented full water column moorings (McRae et al., this meeting). Over 33,000 m of extension cables connected to 17 secondary junction boxes support >100 instruments now streaming data live to shore. In concert, this array forms: 1) the most advanced observatory along the global mid-ocean ridge network were 20 instruments and a state-of-the-art mooring system are providing new insights into volcanic and overlying water column processes at Axial Seamount (which erupted April 2015, see Delaney et al., this meeting); and 2) an extensive, technologically-advanced coastal observatory spanning 80 m to 2900 m water depths off Newport, OR. Here, cabled, instrumented moorings, with up to 18 instruments each, and associated seafloor arrays provide real-time, coregistered geophysical, biogeochemical, and physical measurements at unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. Nearly 1.5 years of continuous data (see Knuth et al., this meeting), two-way communication capabilities that allow responses to events, and continuing real-time data flow, will allow the community to investigate in ways never before possible earthquakes along the Cascadia margin with impacts on fluid flow and release of methane into the hydrosphere, underwater eruptions resulting in perturbations to hydrothermal systems, associated biological communities, and overlying water column properties, and linkages among biogeochemical and physical processes along the Cascadia margin.

  15. Assessing GOCE Gravity Models using Altimetry and In-situ Ocean Current Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Honecker, Johanna

    The Gravity and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth's gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. Previous results have demonstrated a significant advance in our ability to determine the ocean's general circulation. The improved...... gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features and the associated geostrophic surface currents reveal improvements for all of the ocean's current systems. In this study, a series of 23 newer gravity models including observations from...... as quantified quality measures associated with the 23 GOCE gravity models....

  16. Global Energy-saving Map of Strong Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    1 Sv = 106 m3/s) (Bryden et al., 2003). There are two strong currents near the Madagascar Island (Figure 10(a)). Along the eastern coast of the island ...northbound route. In the western equatorial Pacific, the North Equatorial Current (NEC) flows west- ward toward the Philippine Islands near 10°N (Figure 8(a...southward branch. The current speed of the southward-flowing MC is larger than 2 knots along the east coast of Mindanao Island . As the MC flows past

  17. Surface science principles and current applications

    CERN Document Server

    Taglauer, E; Wandelt, K

    1996-01-01

    Modern technologies increasingly rely on low-dimensional physics at interfaces and in thin-films and nano-structures. Surface science holds a key position in providing the experimental methods and theoretical models for a basic understanding of these effects. This book includes case studies and status reports about research topics such as: surface structure determination by tensor-LEED and surface X-ray diffraction; the preparation and detection of low-dimensional electronic surface states; quantitative surface compositional analysis; the dynamics of adsorption and reaction of adsorbates, e.g. kinetic oscillations; the characterization and control of thin-film and multilayer growth including the influence of surfactants; a critical assessment of the surface physics approach to heterogeneous catalysis.

  18. Simulation and detection of tsunami signatures in ocean surface currents measured by HF radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Klaus-Werner; Dzvonkovskaya, Anna; Pohlmann, Thomas; Schlick, Thomas; Gill, Eric

    2011-10-01

    High-frequency (HF) surface wave radars provide the unique capability to continuously monitor the coastal environment far beyond the range of conventional microwave radars. Bragg-resonant backscattering by ocean waves with half the electromagnetic radar wavelength allows ocean surface currents to be measured at distances up to 200 km. When a tsunami propagates from the deep ocean to shallow water, a specific ocean current signature is generated throughout the water column. Due to the long range of an HF radar, it is possible to detect this current signature at the shelf edge. When the shelf edge is about 100 km in front of the coastline, the radar can detect the tsunami about 45 min before it hits the coast, leaving enough time to issue an early warning. As up to now no HF radar measurements of an approaching tsunami exist, a simulation study has been done to fix parameters like the required spatial resolution or the maximum coherent integration time allowed. The simulation involves several steps, starting with the Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM) which is used to estimate the tsunami-induced current velocity at 1 km spatial resolution and 1 s time step. This ocean current signal is then superimposed to modelled and measured HF radar backscatter signals using a new modulation technique. After applying conventional HF radar signal processing techniques, the surface current maps contain the rapidly changing tsunami-induced current features, which can be compared to the HAMSOM data. The specific radial tsunami current signatures can clearly be observed in these maps, if appropriate spatial and temporal resolution is used. Based on the entropy of the ocean current maps, a tsunami detection algorithm is described which can be used to issue an automated tsunami warning message.

  19. Ocean currents across the entrance to the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis A.; Garfield, Newell; Mascarenhas, Affonso S.; Spearman, Monty G.; Rago, Thomas A.

    1997-09-01

    Observations of transport and currents in April, May, and December 1992 and January 1993 were made across the entrance to the Gulf of California with an acoustically tracked dropsonde. Flow was into the gulf along Sinaloa and out of the gulf along Baja California. The transports were 5-10 Sv and the currents were deep, with 10 cm s-1 flow extending to depths greater than 1000 m. The currents were intensified in the upper 300 m. Geostrophic flows compared well with observed currents when smoothed to 2-3 times the Rossby radius. Salinity in the upper 300 m was higher on the Baja California side of the gulf, indicating modification of Subtropical Subsurface waters within the Gulf as well as the presence of surface and near-surface gulf waters. The salinity minimum associated with California Current waters at 50 m had narrow cores that can be resolved only with closely spaced conductivity-temperature-depth casts. Mass and heat fluxes for the upper 300 m were estimated as 280 t s-1 and -0.1×1012 W in May and 170 t s-1 and 2.0×1012 W in December.

  20. Impact of including surface currents on simulation of Indian Ocean variability with the POAMA coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mei; Wang, Guomin; Hendon, Harry H.; Alves, Oscar [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Impacts on the coupled variability of the Indo-Pacific by including the effects of surface currents on surface stress are explored in four extended integrations of an experimental version of the Bureau of Meteorology's coupled seasonal forecast model POAMA. The first pair of simulations differs only in their treatment of momentum coupling: one version includes the effects of surface currents on the surface stress computation and the other does not. The version that includes the effect of surface currents has less mean-state bias in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue but produces relatively weak coupled variability in the Tropics, especially that related to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The version without the effects of surface currents has greater bias in the Pacific cold tongue but stronger IOD and ENSO variability. In order to diagnose the role of changes in local coupling from changes in remote forcing by ENSO for causing changes in IOD variability, a second set of simulations is conducted where effects of surface currents are included only in the Indian Ocean and only in the Pacific Ocean. IOD variability is found to be equally reduced by inclusion of the local effects of surface currents in the Indian Ocean and by the reduction of ENSO variability as a result of including effects of surface currents in the Pacific. Some implications of these results for predictability of the IOD and its dependence on ENSO, and for ocean subsurface data assimilation are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  2. Validation of FOAM near-surface ocean current forecasts using Lagrangian drifting buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockley, E. W.; Martin, M. J.; Hyder, P.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the quality of near-surface current forecasts from the FOAM ocean forecasting system is assessed using the trajectories of Lagrangian drifting buoys. A method is presented for deriving pseudo-Eulerian estimates of ocean currents from the positions of Surface Velocity Program drifters and the resulting data are compared to velocities observed by the global tropical moored buoy array. A quantitative analysis of the global FOAM velocities is performed for the period 2007 and 2008 using currents derived from over 3000 unique drifters (providing an average of 650 velocity observations per day). A potential bias is identified in the Southern Ocean which appears to be caused by wind-slip in the drifter dataset as a result of drogue loss. The drifter-derived currents are also used to show how the data assimilation scheme and a recent system upgrade impact upon the quality of FOAM current forecasts.

  3. Validation of FOAM near-surface ocean current forecasts using Lagrangian drifting buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Blockley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quality of near-surface current forecasts from the FOAM ocean forecasting system is assessed using the trajectories of Lagrangian drifting buoys. A method is presented for deriving pseudo-Eulerian estimates of ocean currents from the positions of Surface Velocity Program drifters and the resulting data are compared to velocities observed by the global tropical moored buoy array. A quantitative analysis of the global FOAM velocities is performed for the period 2007 and 2008 using currents derived from over 3000 unique drifters (providing an average of 650 velocity observations per day. A potential bias is identified in the Southern Ocean which appears to be caused by wind-slip in the drifter dataset as a result of drogue loss. The drifter-derived currents are also used to show how the data assimilation scheme and a recent system upgrade impact upon the quality of FOAM current forecasts.

  4. Simulations of the Arctic Boundary Current in an eddy-resolving global ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Y.; Nurser, A. J. G.; Bacon, S.; Coward, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is shielded from winds by sea ice and is strongly stratified, resulting in extremely low mixing rates. In this quiescent ocean, currents along the continental shelves become the principal dynamical features of the circulation. Observations and model results suggest the existence of a fast oceanic current in the Arctic Ocean, the Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC). The current flows counterclockwise (cyclonically) along the shelf break of the Siberian, Alaskan and Canadian Arctic shelves all way around the Arctic Ocean margins, leaving through western Fram Strait, and taking about two decades to complete the circuit (Aksenov et al., 2011). Simulations with an eddy-resolving global 1/12 degree NEMO model show that the ACBC consists of several jets with the fastest flow occurring at the shelf break. We compare the models results with observations and examine mechanisms driving the ACBC. Through the analysis of the NEMO simulations performed with eddy-resolving, eddy-permitting and non-eddying model configurations we investigate the effect of resolution on the current. Reference Aksenov, Y., V. V. Ivanov, A. J. G. Nurser, S. Bacon, I. V. Polyakov, A. C. Coward, A. C. Naveira-Garabato, and A. Beszczynska-Moeller (2011), The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C09017, doi:10.1029/2010JC006637.

  5. Chasing science at sea: racing hurricanes, stalking sharks, and living undersea with ocean experts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prager, E

    2008-01-01

    ... of ocean science. Special thanks to Linda Glover, Bob Halley, Gene Shinn, and Robin and Jan Hawk for your encouragement and for always providing thought-provoking conversation or at least a good lau...

  6. Current measurements from acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP) in the southwest Atlantic Ocean from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 1991-01-03 to 1992-11-26 (NODC Accession 0087597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data from the ADCP instruments of BE/335 and BW/333 from January 3, 1991 to November 26, 1992 collected as part of the World Ocean Circulation...

  7. Free Surface Effects on the Near-Inertial Ocean Current Response to a Hurricane

    OpenAIRE

    Shay, Lynn K.; Chang, Simon W.; Elsberry, Russell L.

    1990-01-01

    During the passage of hurricane Frederic in 1979, four ocean current meter arrays in water depths of 100- 950 m detected both a barociinic and a depth-independent response in the near-inertial frequency band. Although the oceanic response was predominately barociinic, the hurricane excited a depth-independent component of 5-11 cm S-I. The origin and role of the depth-independent component of velocity is investigated using a linear analytical model and numerical simulations from...

  8. Teaching Ocean Sciences in the 21st Century Classroom: Lab to Classroom Videoconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, C. L.; Gerwick, W.; Gerwick, L.; Senise, M.; Jones, C. S.; Malloy, K.; Jones, A.; Trentacoste, E.; Nunnery, J.; Mendibles, T.; Tayco, D.; Justice, L.; Deutscher, R.

    2010-12-01

    2009 3-day videoconferencing event, 3 graduate students and the lab PI connected to nine, 7th grade life science classes (~300 students) using SKYPE. Each of the nine videoconferences lasted for ~50 minutes and included a mini-lab tour, a short presentation on the graduate students’ field and lab-based research activities, and interspersed question and answer sessions. Teachers are currently exploring ways they can further capitalize on the connection to the research lab and are writing up a “how to” guide for SKYPE lab to classroom videoconferencing. LHS has been evaluating this videoconference project to get feedback from the participants about the collaboration, the technology, and the format in order to improve the program in the future. The collaboration has now been turned over to the graduate students and teachers with little facilitation by COSEE CA staff. COSEE CA is applying the approach to other earth and ocean science topics by offering “Virtual Lab Tours” as a broader impact option.

  9. Satellite-tracked drifting buoy observations in the south equatorial current in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    Three satellite-tracked drifting buoys released in the south equatorial current in the Indian Ocean followed the path of the current moving westward approximately zonally in the vicinity of 10 degrees S latitude. On nearing the east coast of Africa...

  10. Sun glitter imagery of surface waves. Part 2: Waves transformation on ocean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Yurovskaya, Maria; Chapron, Bertrand; Collard, Fabrice; Donlon, Craig

    2017-02-01

    Under favorable imaging conditions, the Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) can provide spectacular and novel quantitative ocean surface wave directional measurements in satellite Sun Glitter Imagery (SSGI). Owing to a relatively large-swath with high-spatial resolution (10 m), ocean surface roughness mapping capabilities, changes in ocean wave energy, and propagation direction can be precisely quantified at very high resolution, across spatial distances of 10 km and more. This provides unique opportunities to study ocean wave refraction induced by spatial varying surface currents. As expected and demonstrated over the Grand Agulhas current area, the mesoscale variability of near-surface currents, documented and reconstructed from satellite altimetry, can significantly deflect in-coming south-western swell systems. Based on ray-tracing calculations, and unambiguously revealed from the analysis of Sentinel-2 MSI SSGI measurements, the variability of the near-surface current explains significant wave-current refraction, leading to wave-trapping phenomenon and strong local enhancement of the total wave energy. In addition to its importance for wave modeling and hazard prediction, these results open new possibilities to combine different satellite measurements and greatly improve the determination of the upper ocean mesoscale vorticity motions.

  11. Oceanic island biogeography: Nomothetic science of the anecdotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Meiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islands get more than their fair share of attention from biogeographers, macroecologists and evolutionary biologists. Adding to this existing bias, I claim that oceanic islands, especially oceanic island archipelagos (and among them, especially the Hawaii, the Canaries, Azores and, of course, the Galapagos attract much more scientific attention than the insights they offer or warrant. This focus on oceanic islands ignores other island types that may be better heuristic tools for studies of general ecological, biogeographic and evolutionary dynamics. The evolutionary and ecological dynamics of landbridge and continental islands are often as fast, dramatic, interesting and insightful, and merit more attention from island biogeographers. 

  12. The Global Drifter Program Currents, Sea Surface Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure and Waves in the World's OceanThe Global Drifter Program Currents, Sea Surface Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure and Waves in the World's Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centurioni, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The Global Drifter Program is the principal component of the Global Surface Drifting Buoy Array, a branch of NOAA's Global Ocean Observing System and a scientific project of the Data Buoy Cooperation Panel (DBCP). The DBCP is an international program coordinating the use of autonomous data buoys to observe atmospheric and oceanographic conditions over ocean areas where few other measurements are taken. The Global Drifter Program maintains an array of over 1,250 Lagrangian drifters, reporting in near real-time and designed measure 15 m depth Lagrangian currents, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level atmospheric pressure (SLP), among others, to fulfill the needs to observe the air-sea interface at temporal and spatial scales adequate to support short to medium-range weather forecasting, ocean state estimates and climate science. This overview talk will discuss the main achievements of the program, the main impacts for satellite SST calibration and validation, for numerical weather prediction, and it will review the main scientific findings based on the use of Lagrangian currents. Finally, we will present new developments in Lagrangian drifter technology, which include special drifters designed to measure sea surface salinity, wind and directional wave spectra. New opportunities for expanding the scope of the Global Drifter Program will be discussed.

  13. Transdisciplinary science: a path to understanding the interactions among ocean acidification, ecosystems, and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Turley, Carol; Hopkinson, Brian M.; Todgham, Anne E.; Cross, Jessica N.; Greening, Holly; Williamson, Phillip; Van Hooidonk, Ruben; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Johnson, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The global nature of ocean acidification (OA) transcends habitats, ecosystems, regions, and science disciplines. The scientific community recognizes that the biggest challenge in improving understanding of how changing OA conditions affect ecosystems, and associated consequences for human society, requires integration of experimental, observational, and modeling approaches from many disciplines over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Such transdisciplinary science is the next step in providing relevant, meaningful results and optimal guidance to policymakers and coastal managers. We discuss the challenges associated with integrating ocean acidification science across funding agencies, institutions, disciplines, topical areas, and regions, and the value of unifying science objectives and activities to deliver insights into local, regional, and global scale impacts. We identify guiding principles and strategies for developing transdisciplinary research in the ocean acidification science community.

  14. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume II."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty papers on the study of tsunamis and respective tsunamigenic earthquakes are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami". The papers presented in this second of two special volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time, including five papers devoted to new findings specifically in the Indian Ocean. Two papers compile results from global observations and eight papers cover Pacific Ocean studies, focusing mainly on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Remaining papers in this volume describe studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and tsunami source studies. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  15. Slow science: the value of long ocean biogeochemistry records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations (SOs) have provided invaluable information on the ocean's biology and biogeochemistry for over 50 years. They continue to play a vital role in elucidating the functioning of the marine ecosystem, particularly in the light of ongoing climate change. Repeated, consistent observations have provided the opportunity to resolve temporal and/or spatial variability in ocean biogeochemistry, which has driven exploration of the factors controlling biological parameters and processes. Here, I highlight some of the key breakthroughs in biological oceanography that have been enabled by SOs, which include areas such as trophic dynamics, understanding variability, improved biogeochemical models and the role of ocean biology in the global carbon cycle. In the near future, SOs are poised to make progress on several fronts, including detecting climate change effects on ocean biogeochemistry, high-resolution observations of physical–biological interactions and greater observational capability in both the mesopelagic zone and harsh environments, such as the Arctic. We are now entering a new era for biological SOs, one in which our motivations have evolved from the need to acquire basic understanding of the ocean's state and variability, to a need to understand ocean biogeochemistry in the context of increasing pressure in the form of climate change, overfishing and eutrophication. PMID:25157192

  16. Energy extraction from ocean currents using straight bladed cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Dudhgaonkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting marine renewable energy remains to be a prime focus of researchers across the globe both in environmental and in commercial perspectives. India is blessed with a long coastline, and the seas around Indian peninsula offer ample potential to tap various ocean energy forms. National Institute of Ocean Technology carries out research and various ocean energy technologies, out of which harnessing kinetic energy in seawater currents is one. This article presents the open sea trials recently carried out on National Institute of Ocean Technology’s cross-flow hydrokinetic ocean current turbine in South Andaman. The turbine was designed to generate 100 W electricity at 1.2 m/s current speed and was built in-house. The turbine was initially tested in a seawater channel and then was deployed in Macpherson Strait in Andaman. It was fitted below a floating platform designed especially for this purpose, and the performance of the turbine was continuously logged inside an on-board data acquisition system. The trials were successful and in line with computations.

  17. Urban science education: examining current issues through a historical lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions. When the findings from these urban science education studies were consolidated with the historical overview provided, it was revealed that the basic design and regulatory policies of urban schools have not substantively changed since their establishment in the nineteenth century. Teachers in urban science classrooms continue to face issues of inequality, poverty, and social injustice as they struggle to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population. Furthermore, persistent concerns of conflicting Discourses, cultural dissonance, and oppression create formidable barriers to science learning. Despite the many modifications in structure and organization, urban students are still subjugated and marginalized in systems that emphasize control and order over high-quality science education.

  18. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  19. Culturally Relevant Educational Games in the Ocean, Earth and Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2007-05-01

    Educational games can be a fun, challenging way of engaging students. Teachers can use games to teach content (students learn as they play), or to assess previously acquired knowledge. I will present a board game that is culturally relevant to Hawaii (available by eamiling barb@hawaii.edu). Originally developed for 6-8th graders studying Mars, it can be readily exported to a variety of grade levels and content areas in the ocean, earth and planetary sciences. This project began with a NASA Education and Public Outreach grant to develop standards-based, hands-on Mars science curricula that are culturally relevant to Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. We both developed new curricula and tailored existing curricula to make the content and teaching methodologies culturally relevant. Our main curriculum product is an eight-lesson unit entitled Life in Hawaii, Life on Mars, developed in partnership with teachers and currently being field-tested in Hawaii schools. The final lesson in the unit is an educational board game entitled Hawaii to Mars: A Voyage of Discovery. Like many board games, players advance along a set path by rolling a die. Landing on certain squares requires students to answer questions on Hawaiian culture and Mars science; landing on others requires students to do a variety of activities (drawing, acting, unscrambling words) on relevant topics. Correct answers allow players to roll again. Although incorrect answers require they skip a turn, correct answers are provided and a limited number of questions ensures a second opportunity to answer the question correctly. We are currently developing a microbial oceanography version of the game in partnership with scientists at the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE), as part of C-MORE's efforts to increase diversity in the ocean sciences. We also plan to develop a generic version of the game board, so simply changing the content and difficulty of the question cards will allow

  20. Energy extraction from ocean currents and waves: Mapping the most promising locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, A.; Hamlington, P.; Fox-Kemper, B.

    2012-12-01

    Concerns about fossil fuel supplies and an ever-increasing demand for energy have prompted the search for alternative power sources. One option is the ocean, a power-dense and renewable source of energy, but its capacity to meet human energy demands is poorly understood. Although raw wave energy resources have been investigated at many scales, there is still substantial uncertainty regarding how much useful power can be extracted. Even less is known about the energy available in ocean currents, especially on a global scale. Moreover, no studies have attempted to examine wave and current energy simultaneously while at the same time taking into account geographical, environmental, and technical factors that can substantially limit the amount of extractable energy. In this study, we use high fidelity oceanographic model data to assess the availability, recoverability, and value of energy in ocean wind waves and currents. Global wave energy transport, coastal wave energy flux, and current energy are calculated and mapped using the model data. These maps are then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) in order to assess the U.S. recoverable ocean energy resource. In the GIS, the amount of recoverable energy is estimated by combining the power output from realistic wave and current energy farms with physical and ecological data such as bathymetry and environmentally protected areas. This holistic approach is then used to examine the distribution and value of extractable wave and current energy along the U.S. coast. The results support previous studies that show that the U.S. West Coast has large potential for wave energy extraction and that the Florida Strait has high potential for current energy extraction. We also show that, at any particular location, the amount of available ocean energy is only one factor of many that determines the ultimate feasibility and value of the energy. We outline ways in which the GIS framework used in this assessment can be

  1. Ocean robotics: 21st century sustainable science & marine resource management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swart, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) covers over 1.5 million km2 and comprises the remote waters around the Prince Edward Islands in the Southern Ocean. The benefits of an EEZ come with the responsibility of managing its resources, one...

  2. Centre of Excellence in Observational Oceanography: Nippon Foundation and POGO Supported Programme at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, F. G.; Sathyendranath, S.; Frouin, R.; Knap, T.

    2008-05-01

    specifically designed to provide for ocean research and education (e.g., sufficient berths for scientists and the NF- POGO Scholars; an education-specific classroom). The Atlantic Explorer will serve as a unique platform for the NF-POGO Scholars to gain hands-on, at-sea experience as participants on all scheduled research cruises. The NF-POGO Scholars will take courses that focus on the theoretical and policy side of observational oceanography and participate in a Core Skills module that emphasizes numeracy, data analysis, science management, and written and oral scientific communication. There will be one Regional Training Programme for a Developing Country each year, focused on local issues and how to resolve them. The course is open to 10 participants from developing countries (or countries with economies in transition). NF- POGO Scholars must have at least a first degree in science. Preference will be given to applicants who currently hold a position in a research or academic institution in a developing country and anticipate returning to the country after the training period. Candidates must demonstrate immediate relevance of their training to on-going or planned ocean observations in their home country.

  3. Cartography and Geographic Information Science in Current Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cartography and Geographic Information Science (CaGIS journal was published as The American Cartographer from 1974 to 1989, after that as Cartography and Geographic Information System, and since then has been published with its current name. It is published by the Cartography and Geographic Information Society, a member of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.

  4. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  5. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon P. Wasser

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and an...

  6. Periscopic Survey of Current Library and Information Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is theoretical, more of a firsthand experience of what the author has observed as the current trends in Nigerian library and information science education and practice. The trends observed are increased ICT component in library schools curricula, increasing resort to the use of ICTs, which has also given rise to the ...

  7. A current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gerald J; Roderer, Nancy K; Assar, Soraya

    2005-04-01

    The article offers a current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship. The authors: (1) discuss how definitions of medical informatics have changed in relation to health sciences librarianship and the broader domain of information science; (2) compare the missions of health sciences librarianship and health sciences informatics, reviewing the characteristics of both disciplines; (3) propose a new definition of health sciences informatics; (4) consider the research agendas of both disciplines and the possibility that they have merged; and (5) conclude with some comments about actions and roles for health sciences librarians to flourish in the biomedical information environment of today and tomorrow. Boundaries are disappearing between the sources and types of and uses for health information managed by informaticians and librarians. Definitions of the professional domains of each have been impacted by these changes in information. Evolving definitions reflect the increasingly overlapping research agendas of both disciplines. Professionals in these disciplines are increasingly functioning collaboratively as "boundary spanners," incorporating human factors that unite technology with health care delivery.

  8. Small-scale open ocean currents have large effects on wind wave heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah T.; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar B.; Rascle, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    Tidal currents and large-scale oceanic currents are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of open ocean currents have revealed the ubiquitous presence of eddies, fronts, and filaments at scales 10-100 km. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations down to 10 km. Model results are consistent with wave height variations along satellite altimeter tracks, resolved at scales larger than 50 km. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70>>2/>(g2>>2>) times the current spectrum, where >> is the spatially averaged significant wave height, >> is the energy-averaged period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This variability induced by currents has been largely overlooked in spite of its relevance for extreme wave heights and remote sensing.Plain Language SummaryWe show that the variations in currents at scales 10 to 100 km are the main source of variations in wave heights at the same scales. Our work uses a combination of realistic numerical models for currents and waves and data from the Jason-3 and SARAL/AltiKa satellites. This finding will be of interest for the investigation of extreme wave heights, remote sensing, and air-sea interactions. As an immediate application, the present results will help constrain the error budget of the up-coming satellite missions, in particular the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, and decide how the data will have to be processed to arrive at accurate sea level and wave measurements. It will also help in the analysis of wave measurements by the CFOSAT satellite.

  9. Biogeochemical and ecological impacts of boundary currents in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Raleigh R.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Wiggert, Jerry D.

    2017-08-01

    Monsoon forcing and the unique geomorphology of the Indian Ocean basin result in complex boundary currents, which are unique in many respects. In the northern Indian Ocean, several boundary current systems reverse seasonally. For example, upwelling coincident with northward-flowing currents along the coast of Oman during the Southwest Monsoon gives rise to high productivity which also alters nutrient stoichiometry and therefore, the species composition of the resulting phytoplankton blooms. During the Northeast Monsoon most of the northern Indian Ocean boundary currents reverse and favor downwelling. Higher trophic level species have evolved behavioral responses to these seasonally changing conditions. Examples from the western Arabian Sea include vertical feeding migrations of a copepod (Calanoides carinatus) and the reproductive cycle of a large pelagic fish (Scomberomorus commerson). The impacts of these seasonal current reversals and changes in upwelling and downwelling circulations are also manifested in West Indian coastal waters, where they influence dissolved oxygen concentrations and have been implicated in massive fish kills. The winds and boundary currents reverse seasonally in the Bay of Bengal, though the associated changes in upwelling and productivity are less pronounced. Nonetheless, their effects are observed on the East Indian shelf as, for example, seasonal changes in copepod abundance and zooplankton community structure. In contrast, south of Sri Lanka seasonal reversals in the boundary currents are associated with dramatic changes in the intensity of coastal upwelling, chlorophyll concentration, and catch per unit effort of fishes. Off the coast of Java, monsoon-driven changes in the currents and upwelling strongly impact chlorophyll concentrations, seasonal vertical migrations of zooplankton, and sardine catch in Bali Strait. In the southern hemisphere the Leeuwin is a downwelling-favorable current that flows southward along western Australia

  10. Modeling, Simulation, and Experiment of Switched Reluctance Ocean Current Generator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents nonlinear simulation model of switched reluctance (SR ocean current generator system on MATLAB/SIMULINK with describing the structure of generator system. The developed model is made up of main model, rotor position calculation module, controller module, gate module, power converter module, phase windings module, flux-linkage module, torque module, and power calculation module. The magnetization curves obtained by two-dimensional finite-element electromagnetic field calculation and the conjugated magnetic energy graphics obtained from the three-dimensional graphics of flux linkage are stored in the “Lookup Table” modules on MATLAB/SIMULINK. The hardware of the developed three-phase 12/8 structure SR ocean current generator system prototype with the experimental platform is presented. The simulation of the prototype is performed by the developed models, and the experiments have been carried out under the same condition with different output power, turn-off angle, and rotor speed. The simulated phase current waveforms agree well with the tested phase current waveforms experimentally. The simulated output voltage curves agree well with the tested output voltage curves experimentally. It is shown that the developed nonlinear simulation model of the three-phase 12/8 structure SR ocean current generator system is valid.

  11. Students Learning Science through Collaborative Discussions on Current Events in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Julie McLean

    After participating in a graduate level Science, Technology, and Society course, a third grade teacher utilized constructivist approaches with her students to foster life-long learning. The focus of this paper is how students searched for patterns while participating in collaborative discussions focused on current events in science. The tools in…

  12. Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Current Status of Regulatory Science Education in Faculties of Pharmaceutical Science in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohkin, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    I introduce the current pharmaceutical education system in Japan, focusing on regulatory science. University schools or faculties of pharmaceutical science in Japan offer two courses: a six-year course for pharmacists and a four-year course for scientists and technicians. Students in the six-year pharmaceutical course receive training in hospitals and pharmacies during their fifth year, and those in the four-year life science course start research activities during their third year. The current model core curriculum for pharmaceutical education requires them to "explain the necessity and significance of regulatory science" as a specific behavior object. This means that pharmacists should understand the significance of "regulatory science", which will lead to the proper use of pharmaceuticals in clinical practice. Most regulatory science laboratories are in the university schools or faculties of pharmaceutical sciences; however, there are too few to conduct regulatory science education. There are many problems in regulatory science education, and I hope that those problems will be resolved not only by university-based regulatory science researchers but also by those from the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory authorities.

  14. Teacher perceptions of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence: Central Gulf of Mexico program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempier, Tracie Tingle

    The 12 Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) are funded by the National Science Foundation and are designed to promote creative ways of disseminating marine science research and its importance to the public. The focus of this study is the COSEE Central Gulf of Mexico program which encourages active partnerships between research scientists and teachers. In these collaborative partnerships, teachers and scientists work together to create educational products and disseminate best practices in ocean sciences education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the lesson plans and curricula created through the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence: Central Gulf of Mexico program (COSEE:CGOM), which are the products of this collaboration, were being used effectively in the classroom. The study addressed issues such as teacher perceptions of collaboration with scientists, effectiveness of COSEE:CGOM curriculum implementation in producing more ocean literate students, and teachers' varying views concerning how to successfully implement new COSEE:CGOM knowledge and concepts into their classrooms in order to improve student scientific understanding. In addition, the study examined frequency of use of COSEE:CGOM lesson plans and identified predictor variables that can produce a model for understanding factors hindering or enhancing lesson plan use. Further, participant perceptions of using peer-teaching as a method for disseminating COSEE:CGOM information in their districts were addressed.

  15. Computing Coastal Ocean Surface Currents from MODIS and VIIRS Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the potential of computing coastal ocean surface currents from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS satellite imagery using the maximum cross-correlation (MCC method. To improve on past versions of this method, we evaluate combining MODIS and VIIRS thermal infrared (IR and ocean color (OC imagery to map the coastal surface currents and discuss the benefits of this combination of sensors and optical channels. By combining these two sensors, the total number of vectors increases by 58.3 % . In addition, we also make use of the different surface patterns of IR and OC imagery to improve the tracking performance of the MCC method. By merging the MCC velocity fields inferred from IR and OC products, the spatial coverage of each individual MCC field is increased by 65.8 % relative to the vectors derived from OC images. The root mean square (RMS error of the merged currents is 18 cm · s − 1 compared with coincident HF radar surface currents. A 5-year long time serious of merged MCC computed currents was used to investigate the current structure of the California Current (CC. Weekly, seasonal, and 5-year mean flows provide a unique space-time picture of the oceanographic variability of the CC.

  16. An improved dual-frequency technique for the remote sensing of ocean currents and wave spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, D. L.; Eng, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    A two frequency microwave radar technique for the remote sensing of directional ocean wave spectra and surface currents is investigated. This technique is conceptually attractive because its operational physical principle involves a spatial electromagnetic scattering resonance with a single, but selectable, long gravity wave. Multiplexing of signals having different spacing of the two transmitted frequencies allows measurements of the entire long wave ocean spectrum to be carried out. A new scatterometer is developed and experimentally tested which is capable of making measurements having much larger signal/background values than previously possible. This instrument couples the resonance technique with coherent, frequency agility radar capabilities. This scatterometer is presently configured for supporting a program of surface current measurements.

  17. Linking the oceans to public health: current efforts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Fleming, Lora E; Backer, Lorraine C; Faustman, Elaine M; Hoagland, Porter; Tsuchiya, Ami; Younglove, Lisa R; Wilcox, Bruce A; Gast, Rebecca J

    2008-11-07

    We review the major linkages between the oceans and public health, focusing on exposures and potential health effects due to anthropogenic and natural factors including: harmful algal blooms, microbes, and chemical pollutants in the oceans; consumption of seafood; and flooding events. We summarize briefly the current state of knowledge about public health effects and their economic consequences; and we discuss priorities for future research.We find that:* There are numerous connections between the oceans, human activities, and human health that result in both positive and negative exposures and health effects (risks and benefits); and the study of these connections comprises a new interdisciplinary area, "oceans and human health."* The state of present knowledge about the linkages between oceans and public health varies. Some risks, such as the acute health effects caused by toxins associated with shellfish poisoning and red tide, are relatively well understood. Other risks, such as those posed by chronic exposure to many anthropogenic chemicals, pathogens, and naturally occurring toxins in coastal waters, are less well quantified. Even where there is a good understanding of the mechanism for health effects, good epidemiological data are often lacking. Solid data on economic and social consequences of these linkages are also lacking in most cases.* The design of management measures to address these risks must take into account the complexities of human response to warnings and other guidance, and the economic tradeoffs among different risks and benefits. Future research in oceans and human health to address public health risks associated with marine pathogens and toxins, and with marine dimensions of global change, should include epidemiological, behavioral, and economic components to ensure that resulting management measures incorporate effective economic and risk/benefit tradeoffs.

  18. Investigating the regime of the South-West Indian Ocean Currents through a numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehmi, Dilmahamod; Reason, Chris; Hermes, Juliet; Penven, Pierrick

    2017-04-01

    The very complex South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO) consists of the Agulhas Current and its three main source regions, whose variability is known to influence the timing of ring formation at the Agulhas Retroflection, and ultimately the strength and stability of the Atlantic overturning circulation due to the leakage of water from the Indian Ocean into the Atlantic Ocean. The East Madagascar Current, being the focus of this study, endures transport changes, mostly influenced by large scale climate phenomena, and the high eddy kinetic energy (EKE) band observed at 25°S, travelling from Australia to Madagascar. Also occurring in the vicinity is the shallow eastward South Indian Ocean Countercurrent (SICC) flow and one of the largest dendroid phytoplankton blooms in the world, the South-east Madagascar Bloom. This unique system, where variability of the termination regime of the EMC, associated with complex mechanisms of the SICC and mesoscale eddies, is being investigated using a high resolution regional physical model. The mesoscale eddies' characteristics in the high EKE band will be discussed, with a section on its seasonality and longitudinal changes as they approach and interact with the western boundary. The eddy-current interaction influences the EMC variability, which in turn induces changes into its termination regime, south of Madagascar. Cross-correlation confirms a 1-month and 2.5 months lag between the EMC transport, and anti-cyclonic circulation and cyclonic circulation respectively, when the current rounds the southern tip of Madagascar. Furthermore, a small section will be dedicated to the possibility of nutrients being advected in the bloom area by the mesoscale eddies, and the complex mechanisms which cause the phytoplankton cells to use these nutrients, hence triggering the bloom at various spots simultaneously.

  19. Remote sensing of ocean surface currents: a review of what is being observed and what is being assimilated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Isern-Fontanet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocean currents play a key role in Earth's climate – they impact almost any process taking place in the ocean and are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, no observing system is able to provide direct measurements of global ocean currents on synoptic scales. Consequently, it has been necessary to use sea surface height and sea surface temperature measurements and refer to dynamical frameworks to derive the velocity field. Second, the assimilation of the velocity field into numerical models of ocean circulation is difficult mainly due to lack of data. Recent experiments that assimilate coastal-based radar data have shown that ocean currents will contribute to increasing the forecast skill of surface currents, but require application in multidata assimilation approaches to better identify the thermohaline structure of the ocean. In this paper we review the current knowledge in these fields and provide a global and systematic view of the technologies to retrieve ocean velocities in the upper ocean and the available approaches to assimilate this information into ocean models.

  20. Remote sensing of ocean surface currents: a review of what is being observed and what is being assimilated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio; García-Ladona, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    Ocean currents play a key role in Earth's climate - they impact almost any process taking place in the ocean and are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, no observing system is able to provide direct measurements of global ocean currents on synoptic scales. Consequently, it has been necessary to use sea surface height and sea surface temperature measurements and refer to dynamical frameworks to derive the velocity field. Second, the assimilation of the velocity field into numerical models of ocean circulation is difficult mainly due to lack of data. Recent experiments that assimilate coastal-based radar data have shown that ocean currents will contribute to increasing the forecast skill of surface currents, but require application in multidata assimilation approaches to better identify the thermohaline structure of the ocean. In this paper we review the current knowledge in these fields and provide a global and systematic view of the technologies to retrieve ocean velocities in the upper ocean and the available approaches to assimilate this information into ocean models.

  1. Communicating Ocean & Climate Science: Promoting Knowledge, Responsible Decision-making and Interest in Geoscience Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Hsia, M.; Wiener, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is not just an atmospheric phenomenon. It has serious impacts on the ocean, such as sea level rise, ocean acidification, and coral bleaching. Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together) aims to educate participants about how increasing carbon dioxide is affecting our oceans, and to inspire students to pursue ocean, earth and environmental science careers. Throughout the program, participants examine their everyday decisions and the impact of their choices on the planet's climate and oceans. Ocean FEST is a two-hour program that explores the ocean and relevant environmental topics through six hands-on science activities. Activities are designed so students can see how globally important issues (e.g., climate change and ocean acidification) have local effects (e.g., sea level rise, coastal erosion, coral bleaching). The program ends with a career component, drawing parallels between the program activities and the activities done by "real scientists" in their jobs. Over the past three years, we have conducted over 60 Ocean FEST events. Evaluations are conducted at selected events using electronic surveys, which students and parents complete immediately prior to (pre-survey) and following (post-survey) the program. Survey items were developed and cognitively tested in collaboration with professional evaluators from the American Institute of Research. The nine-item survey includes items on science content knowledge, personal responsibility, and career interest. For each survey item, participants are asked to indicate agreement (coded as 2.0), disagreement (1.0) or don't know (1.5). By comparing the pre- and post-survey results, we can evaluate program efficacy. For example, one survey item is: "I can do something every day to help fight global climate change." Student mean data moved from 1.78 pre-survey to 1.89 post-survey, which is a statistically significant gain at p<.000. Mean parent data for this same item moved from 1.90 pre-survey to 1

  2. European Collaboration in Ocean Cores Science: roots, highlights, off-springs and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Jean Pierre; Camoin, Gilbert; de Lange, Gert J.; Murphy, Shane

    2010-05-01

    July 4th, 1947, exactly 75 years after the legendary cruise of H.M.S. Challenger and at a time when ocean science seemed to definitively shift to the shores of Massachusetts and California, the Swedish 5-masted schooner and school-ship Albatross set sail from Göteborg for a 15-months ambitious voyage of circumnavigation of the world oceans. Staffed with cadets and scientists and headed by Hans Pettersson, the Albatross had on board a revolutionary tool: Kullenberg's piston corer, a 30m-long device which had already allowed the recovery of a 20m-long sediment core. Previously, the Meteor had recovered cores of a maximal length of 0.90m (1925), while in the thirties C.S. Piggot of the Carnegie Institution had "shot" cores up to 3m length in the North-Atlantic with a gun-like device. Sedimentological, geochemical, mineralogical, micropalaeontological analyses and radio-active dating would be carried out not only in Swedish institutes, but also in Vienna, Göttingen, Hanover, Wageningen, Ghent, Paris, London and La Jolla, in the true spirit of the data exploitation scheme which had shaped the success of the cruise of the Challenger. The stage was set for palaeo-environmental research on long sediment cores, archives of past climate and oceans. In the mid-sixties, ocean cores science takes a giant leap with the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP). 20 years after the Albatross, in the fall of 1968, the Glomar Challenger sails from Dakar for the South Atlantic to verify the hypothesis of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics. Europe would join the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), which set sail in 1984, subsequent to the International Phase of Ocean Drilling (IPOD, 1975-1983). For the first time, the European Science Foundation moves in, providing to numerous smaller European partners a platform of participation in ODP through ECOD, the European Consortium for Ocean Drilling. Some 50 years after the Albatross, the ‘Calypso' piston corer on board of R/V Marion Dufresne would

  3. Benchmark study of magnetic induction codes forced by ocean electric currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šachl, Libor; Einšpigel, David; Grayver, Alexander; Irrgang, Christopher; Kuvshinov, Alexei; Martinec, Zdeněk; Petereit, Johannes; Saynish, Jan; Schnepf, Neesha; Velímský, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    We present a benchmark in which magnetic induction codes are tested in a series of modeling studies. Ocean electric currents provide the forcing. We focus on the wind- and buoyancy-driven ocean-induced magnetic field; tides are not considered. The individual benchmarks start with the magnetostatic case of time-invariant forcing and homogeneous surface conductivity, and the benchmark complexity increases gradually from this starting point. We test a rich variety of induction codes. There are codes based on the full equation of electromagnetic induction, as well as codes that utilize certain approximations of the governing equation, e.g. Tyler (1997)'s thin layer approximation. We include both time-domain and frequency-domain codes. In order to assess the performance of the individual codes, we compare the spatial distributions and power spectra of the induced magnetic fields. References Stephenson, D. & Bryan, K. Large-scale electric and magnetic fields generated by the oceans. J. Geophys. Res 97, 15467 (1992). Tyler, R. H., Mysak, L. A., and Oberhuber, J. M, 1997. Electromagnetic fields generated by a three dimensional global ocean circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5531-5551.

  4. Open science resources for the discovery and analysis of Tara Oceans data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesant, Stéphane; Not, Fabrice; Picheral, Marc; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Le Bescot, Noan; Gorsky, Gabriel; Iudicone, Daniele; Karsenti, Eric; Speich, Sabrina; Troublé, Romain; Dimier, Céline; Searson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Tara Oceans expedition (2009-2013) sampled contrasting ecosystems of the world oceans, collecting environmental data and plankton, from viruses to metazoans, for later analysis using modern sequencing and state-of-the-art imaging technologies. It surveyed 210 ecosystems in 20 biogeographic provinces, collecting over 35,000 samples of seawater and plankton. The interpretation of such an extensive collection of samples in their ecological context requires means to explore, assess and access raw and validated data sets. To address this challenge, the Tara Oceans Consortium offers open science resources, including the use of open access archives for nucleotides (ENA) and for environmental, biogeochemical, taxonomic and morphological data (PANGAEA), and the development of on line discovery tools and collaborative annotation tools for sequences and images. Here, we present an overview of Tara Oceans Data, and we provide detailed registries (data sets) of all campaigns (from port-to-port), stations and sampling events.

  5. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 6, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. ... Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment and Polychaete Worms from the Mzinga Creek and Ras Dege Mangrove Ecosystems, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Ocean to Outback: Leonie Rennie's Contribution to Science Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Grady

    2009-01-01

    In this article I initially borrow a metaphor from an art exhibition, "Ocean to Outback," as a way to express my perspective on the contribution that Leonie Rennie has made to science education in Australia. I then consider Leonie's contributions as overlapping themes. In particular, Leonie's well-known research on gender and issues of…

  7. An Inquiry-Based Science Activity Centred on the Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Diana; Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    We propose an inquiry-based science activity centred on the effects of climate change on ocean ecosystems. This activity can be used to improve acquisition of knowledge on the effects of climate change and to promote inquiry skills, such as researching, reading and selecting relevant information, identifying a problem, focusing on a research…

  8. An Inquiry-Based Science Activity Centred on the Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Diana; Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia

    We propose an inquiry-based science activity centred on the effects of climate change on ocean ecosystems. This activity can be used to improve acquisition of knowledge on the effects of climate change and to promote inquiry skills, such as researching, reading and selecting relevant information, identifying a problem, focusing on a research…

  9. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: A Gulf Science Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Gayanilo, F.; Kobara, S.; Jochens, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System's (GCOOS) regional science portal (gcoos.org) was designed to aggregate data and model output from distributed providers and to offer these, and derived products, through a single access point in standardized ways to a diverse set of users. The portal evolved under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) program where automated largely-unattended machine-to-machine interoperability has always been a guiding tenet for system design. The web portal has a business unit where membership lists, new items, and reference materials are kept, a data portal where near real-time and historical data are held and served, and a products portal where data are fused into products tailored for specific or general stakeholder groups. The staff includes a system architect who built and maintains the data portal, a GIS expert who built and maintains the current product portal, the executive director who marshals resources to keep news items fresh and data manger who manages most of this. The business portal is built using WordPress which was selected because it appeared to be the easiest content management system for non-web programmers to add content to, maintain and enhance. The data portal is custom built and uses database, PHP, and web services based on Open Geospatial Consortium standards-based Sensor Observation Service (SOS) with Observations and Measurements (O&M) encodings. We employ a standards-based vocabulary, which we helped develop, which is registered at the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org). The registry is currently maintained by one of the authors. Products appearing in the products portal are primarily constructed using ESRI software by a Ph.D. level Geographer. Some products were built with other software, generally by graduate students over the years. We have been sensitive to the private sector when deciding which products to produce. While

  10. The value of Operational Ocean SST and Current products in glider deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D.; Proctor, R.; Hollings, B.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Suthers, I.

    2009-04-01

    On November 26, 2008 a Slocum Glider was launched with the mission to explore near-shore processes off southern New South Wales, Australia, then return to the coast. This study contributed to regional activity of the Integrated Marine Observing System (www.imos.org.au), an AU100m 5-year project to establish an ocean and regional ocean observing system for Australia. The planned mission got into difficulties due to the strength of the East Australian Current and the glider began to track offshore and away from the region of interest. In order not to lose the glider to the ocean the mission was redefined to circumnavigate a warm-core eddy evident in satellite imagery. CSIRO routinely generates maps of sea surface temperature from satellite AVHRR imagery and geostrophic currents derived from sea surface height anomalies measured by satellite altimetry. By tracking the development of the SST and geostrophic circulation against the glider reported positions the satellite data helped to guide the glider into the eddy and thus continue the study, even though the satellite SST data quality was low during much of the deployment due to heavy cloud cover, and there being only two altimeters presently useful for estimating currents. The glider was successfully retrieved on December 11, 2008 40km off Jervis Bay after travelling 1002.84 km in 15 days, an average of 0.76m/s, or 1.5kt. This was achieved principally by drifting with the current, and using the glider's 0.25m/s horizontal glide velocity to go sideways with respect to the currents, to get into water thought to be going in the desired direction. The glider was saved and 2374 CTD casts produced giving a valuable dataset for understanding warm-core eddy processes, a dataset which would not have been obtained without the use of operational products.

  11. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  12. Ocean Current Energy Conversion System in Wallacea Region Using Variable Speed Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Current Energy Conversion System (OCECS is a promising green energy resource in this globe. The Thermohaline circulation data indicates that the Wallacea region has the potential of ocean current energy resources. This paper is aimed to propose research and development of OCECSs to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Firstly, four types of green energy conversion systems extracted from ocean are reviewed. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Secondly, the potential of OCECS in the Wallacea region is described. Third, many types of turbines used for OCECS are reviewed and the turbine type for OCECS is selected to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Fourth, control strategy is proposed.From the work reported in this paper it is concluded that it is appropriate to implement OCECSs using axial flow water turbines in the Wallacea region, and that to maximize energy conversion variable speed control approach is selected together with control of mechanism to move the turbine vertically as well as to rotate the turbine in yaw direction. 

  13. Ocean currents modify the coupling between climate change and biogeographical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Molinos, J; Burrows, M T; Poloczanska, E S

    2017-05-02

    Biogeographical shifts are a ubiquitous global response to climate change. However, observed shifts across taxa and geographical locations are highly variable and only partially attributable to climatic conditions. Such variable outcomes result from the interaction between local climatic changes and other abiotic and biotic factors operating across species ranges. Among them, external directional forces such as ocean and air currents influence the dispersal of nearly all marine and many terrestrial organisms. Here, using a global meta-dataset of observed range shifts of marine species, we show that incorporating directional agreement between flow and climate significantly increases the proportion of explained variance. We propose a simple metric that measures the degrees of directional agreement of ocean (or air) currents with thermal gradients and considers the effects of directional forces in predictions of climate-driven range shifts. Ocean flows are found to both facilitate and hinder shifts depending on their directional agreement with spatial gradients of temperature. Further, effects are shaped by the locations of shifts in the range (trailing, leading or centroid) and taxonomic identity of species. These results support the global effects of climatic changes on distribution shifts and stress the importance of framing climate expectations in reference to other non-climatic interacting factors.

  14. Facing Climate Change: Connecting Coastal Communities with Place-Based Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; McLean, M. A.; Brown, J. C.; Ewing, N.; Riddell, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    As coastal communities face a wide range of environmental changes, including threats from climate change, real-time data from cabled observatories can be used to support community members in making informed decisions about their coast and marine resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) deploys and operates an expanding network of community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia, which enable communities to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment. Community observatories comprise an underwater cabled seafloor platform and shore station equipped with a variety of sensors that collect environmental data 24/7. It is essential that data being collected by ONC instruments are relevant to community members and can contribute to priorities identified within the community. Using a community-based science approach, ONC is engaging local parties at all stages of each project from location planning, to instrument deployment, to data analysis. Alongside the science objectives, place-based educational programming is being developed with local educators and students. As coastal populations continue to grow and our use of and impacts on the ocean increase, it is vital that global citizens develop an understanding that the health of the ocean reflects the health of the planet. This presentation will focus on programs developed by ONC emphasizing the connection to place and local relevance with an emphasis on Indigenous knowledge. Building programs which embrace multiple perspectives is effective both in making ocean science more relevant to Indigenous students and in linking place-based knowledge to ocean science. The inclusion of Indigenous Knowledge into science-based monitoring programs also helps develop a more complete understanding of local conditions. We present a case study from the Canadian Arctic, in which ONC is working with Inuit community members to develop a snow and ice monitoring program to assist with predictions and

  15. Geomagnetically induced currents: Science, engineering, and applications readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A.; Bernabeu, E.; Thomson, A.; Viljanen, A.; Pirjola, R.; Boteler, D.; Eichner, J.; Cilliers, P. J.; Welling, D.; Savani, N. P.; Weigel, R. S.; Love, J. J.; Balch, C.; Ngwira, C. M.; Crowley, G.; Schultz, A.; Kataoka, R.; Anderson, B.; Fugate, D.; Simpson, J. J.; MacAlester, M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is the primary deliverable of the very first NASA Living With a Star Institute Working Group, Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC) Working Group. The paper provides a broad overview of the current status and future challenges pertaining to the science, engineering, and applications of the GIC problem. Science is understood here as the basic space and Earth sciences research that allows improved understanding and physics-based modeling of the physical processes behind GIC. Engineering, in turn, is understood here as the "impact" aspect of GIC. Applications are understood as the models, tools, and activities that can provide actionable information to entities such as power systems operators for mitigating the effects of GIC and government agencies for managing any potential consequences from GIC impact to critical infrastructure. Applications can be considered the ultimate goal of our GIC work. In assessing the status of the field, we quantify the readiness of various applications in the mitigation context. We use the Applications Readiness Level (ARL) concept to carry out the quantification.

  16. Geomagnetically induced currents: Science, engineering, and applications readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Bernabeu, E.; Thomson, A.; Viljanen, A.; Pirjola, R.; Boteler, D.; Eichner, J.; Cilliers, P.J.; Welling, D.; Savani, N.P.; Weigel, R.S.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Balch, Christopher; Ngwira, C.M.; Crowley, G.; Schultz, Adam; Kataoka, R.; Anderson, B.; Fugate, D.; Simpson, J.J.; MacAlester, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the primary deliverable of the very first NASA Living With a Star Institute Working Group, Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC) Working Group. The paper provides a broad overview of the current status and future challenges pertaining to the science, engineering, and applications of the GIC problem. Science is understood here as the basic space and Earth sciences research that allows improved understanding and physics-based modeling of the physical processes behind GIC. Engineering, in turn, is understood here as the “impact” aspect of GIC. Applications are understood as the models, tools, and activities that can provide actionable information to entities such as power systems operators for mitigating the effects of GIC and government agencies for managing any potential consequences from GIC impact to critical infrastructure. Applications can be considered the ultimate goal of our GIC work. In assessing the status of the field, we quantify the readiness of various applications in the mitigation context. We use the Applications Readiness Level (ARL) concept to carry out the quantification.

  17. Spatiotemporal variability and long-term trends of ocean acidification in the California Current System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hauri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to seasonal upwelling, the upper ocean waters of the California Current System (CCS have a naturally low pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag, making this region particularly prone to the effects of ocean acidification. Here, we use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS to conduct preindustrial and transient (1995–2050 simulations of ocean biogeochemistry in the CCS. The transient simulations were forced with increasing atmospheric pCO2 and increasing oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations at the lateral boundaries, as projected by the NCAR CSM 1.4 model for the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Our results show a large seasonal variability in pH (range of ~ 0.14 and Ωarag (~ 0.2 for the nearshore areas (50 km from shore. This variability is created by the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. Despite this large variability, we find that present-day pH and Ωarag have already moved outside of their simulated preindustrial variability envelopes (defined by ±1 temporal standard deviation due to the rapidly increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The nearshore surface pH of the northern and central CCS are simulated to move outside of their present-day variability envelopes by the mid-2040s and late 2030s, respectively. This transition may occur even earlier for nearshore surface Ωarag, which is projected to depart from its present-day variability envelope by the early- to mid-2030s. The aragonite saturation horizon of the central CCS is projected to shoal into the upper 75 m within the next 25 yr, causing near-permanent undersaturation in subsurface waters. Due to the model's overestimation of Ωarag, this transition may occur even earlier than simulated by the model. Overall, our study shows that the CCS joins the Arctic and Southern oceans as one of only a few known ocean regions presently approaching the dual threshold of

  18. Nanostructures: Current uses and future applications in food science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Pathakoti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology intend novel and innovative applications in the food sector, which is rather recent compared with their use in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Nanostructured materials are having applications in various sectors of the food science comprising nanosensors, new packaging materials, and encapsulated food components. Nanostructured systems in food include polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nanoemulsions, and microemulsions. These materials enhance solubility, improve bioavailability, facilitate controlled release, and protect bioactive components during manufacture and storage. This review highlights the applications of nanostructured materials for their antimicrobial activity and possible mechanism of action against bacteria, including reactive oxygen species, membrane damage, and release of metal ions. In addition, an overview of nanostructured materials, and their current applications and future perspectives in food science are also presented.

  19. Nanostructures: Current uses and future applications in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathakoti, Kavitha; Manubolu, Manjunath; Hwang, Huey-Min

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology intend novel and innovative applications in the food sector, which is rather recent compared with their use in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Nanostructured materials are having applications in various sectors of the food science comprising nanosensors, new packaging materials, and encapsulated food components. Nanostructured systems in food include polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nanoemulsions, and microemulsions. These materials enhance solubility, improve bioavailability, facilitate controlled release, and protect bioactive components during manufacture and storage. This review highlights the applications of nanostructured materials for their antimicrobial activity and possible mechanism of action against bacteria, including reactive oxygen species, membrane damage, and release of metal ions. In addition, an overview of nanostructured materials, and their current applications and future perspectives in food science are also presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Impact of data assimilation on ocean current forecasts in the Angola Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Luke; Toumi, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    The ocean current predictability in the data limited Angola Basin was investigated using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) with four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Six experiments were undertaken comprising a baseline case of the assimilation of salinity/temperature profiles and satellite sea surface temperature, with the subsequent addition of altimetry, OSCAR (satellite-derived sea surface currents), drifters, altimetry and drifters combined, and OSCAR and drifters combined. The addition of drifters significantly improves Lagrangian predictability in comparison to the baseline case as well as the addition of either altimetry or OSCAR. OSCAR assimilation only improves Lagrangian predictability as much as altimetry assimilation. On average the assimilation of either altimetry or OSCAR with drifter velocities does not significantly improve Lagrangian predictability compared to the drifter assimilation alone, even degrading predictability in some cases. When the forecast current speed is large, it is more likely that the combination improves trajectory forecasts. Conversely, when the currents are weaker, it is more likely that the combination degrades the trajectory forecast.

  1. Archives: Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 29 of 29 Items. 2017. Vol 16, No 1 (2017) · 2017: Special Issue 1/2017. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate. 2016. Vol 15, No 2 (2016) · Cover Page ...

  2. Marine Science Lesson Plans about the Pacific Marine National Monuments: Options for Enhancing Ocean Literacy in the 7th through 12th Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Laura K.

    The ocean is one of the Earth's defining features; it provides our world with variety of beneficial services like regulating climate, providing food, and is a source of wonder and inspiration. However, despite its size and powerful nature it is not immune to degradation. One of the greatest risks to our ocean is a general lack of understanding amongst the public of basic ocean processes and how an individual's actions contribute to environmental harm. In the United States, a low level of ocean-centered education in the K-12 classroom contributes to the lack of ocean literacy. This study presents a review of current levels of ocean literacy in the United States and highlights the benefits of increased levels of ocean science education. Barriers, challenges, and potential solutions for the increased implementation of ocean literacy in the classroom are identified. One of the barriers identified is lack of appropriate curricula available to teachers. In response, this study presents a newly developed suite of lesson plans that fit into a variety of scientific disciplines that draw upon the systems of the Pacific Marine National Monuments as examples. Several example lessons are discussed as well as the educational research that influenced their design and the lesson development methodology.

  3. Marine animal behaviour: neglecting ocean currents can lead us up the wrong track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves; Fossette, Sabrina; Lenoble, Arnaud; Ferraroli, Sandra; Le Maho, Yvon

    2006-11-07

    Tracks of marine animals in the wild, now increasingly acquired by electronic tagging of individuals, are of prime interest not only to identify habitats and high-risk areas, but also to gain detailed information about the behaviour of these animals. Using recent satellite-derived current estimates and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) tracking data, we demonstrate that oceanic currents, usually neglected when analysing tracking data, can substantially distort the observed trajectories. Consequently, this will affect several important results deduced from the analysis of tracking data, such as the evaluation of the orientation skills and the energy budget of animals or the identification of foraging areas. We conclude that currents should be systematically taken into account to ensure the unbiased interpretation of tracking data, which now play a major role in marine conservation biology.

  4. Indian Moorings: Deep-sea current meter moorings in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Suryanarayana, A.; Sengupta, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Fernando, V.; Almeida, A.; Khalap, S.; Sardar, A.; Somasundar, K.; Ravichandran, M.

    , for assistance with logistic support; NOAA’s Office of Climate Observation for financial support; and JAMSTEC for its support of the TRITON mooring program. References Duval, J.P. and J. vialard, 2006: The VASCO-CIRENE experiment. Proc 27th AMS Conference... measurements in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Under the OOS program, 3 locations at 93°E, 83°E and 76°E (Fig. 1) were selected along the equator for deploying the current meter moorings (Murty et al., 2002). The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa...

  5. Emergence of a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan

    2017-08-22

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well.

  6. Embedding Probeware Technology in the Context of Ocean Acidification in Elementary Science Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Todd I.; Rye, James A.; Luna, Melissa J.

    2017-12-01

    Research indicates that preservice teacher (PT) education programs can positively impact perceptions of scientific probeware use in K-8 environments. Despite the potential of probeware to improve science instruction and student engagement, its use in elementary education has been limited. Sixty-seven PT enrolled across three sections of an elementary science methods course participated in a mixed-methods study through which they utilized probeware in a thematic experience on ocean acidification. One-way repeated measures ANOVA of pre and post survey data measuring subscales of utility, ability, and intent to use probeware demonstrated a statistically significant increase with medium to large effect sizes for all subscales across all sections (pjournals revealed over 60% felt the multiple capabilities (notably graphing) of probeware make it a useful classroom tool, and almost one-half believed that its use makes science more enjoyable and engaging. Mapping of the unitized data from the journals on the Next Generation Science Standards suggested that probeware use especially engages learners in planning and carrying out investigations and in analyzing and interpreting data. Journals also revealed that despite PT having prior experience with probeware in science courses, its use in their future elementary classroom is conditional on having a positive experience with probeware in a science methods course. Further, embedding a probeware experience in a unit on ocean acidification provides PT with strategies for addressing climate change and engaging in argument from evidence.

  7. Understanding current causes of women's underrepresentation in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M

    2011-02-22

    Explanations for women's underrepresentation in math-intensive fields of science often focus on sex discrimination in grant and manuscript reviewing, interviewing, and hiring. Claims that women scientists suffer discrimination in these arenas rest on a set of studies undergirding policies and programs aimed at remediation. More recent and robust empiricism, however, fails to support assertions of discrimination in these domains. To better understand women's underrepresentation in math-intensive fields and its causes, we reprise claims of discrimination and their evidentiary bases. Based on a review of the past 20 y of data, we suggest that some of these claims are no longer valid and, if uncritically accepted as current causes of women's lack of progress, can delay or prevent understanding of contemporary determinants of women's underrepresentation. We conclude that differential gendered outcomes in the real world result from differences in resources attributable to choices, whether free or constrained, and that such choices could be influenced and better informed through education if resources were so directed. Thus, the ongoing focus on sex discrimination in reviewing, interviewing, and hiring represents costly, misplaced effort: Society is engaged in the present in solving problems of the past, rather than in addressing meaningful limitations deterring women's participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers today. Addressing today's causes of underrepresentation requires focusing on education and policy changes that will make institutions responsive to differing biological realities of the sexes. Finally, we suggest potential avenues of intervention to increase gender fairness that accord with current, as opposed to historical, findings.

  8. The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon: history, current status, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, R G; Jobsis, C T; Onan, G; Day, B N

    2011-07-01

    The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon (AQ) provides opportunities for teams of undergraduate animal and dairy science students to participate in regional American Society of Animal Science (ASAS)/American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) meetings and to collectively exhibit their knowledge and talents competitively in 4 categories: 1) solving practical, hands-on, laboratory-type problems; 2) providing written answers to essay-type questions about principles and concepts; 3) preparing and communicating orally and extemporaneously topics of current animal science interest; and 4) quickly responding to short-answer questions provided in the form of double-elimination quiz bowls. Each team is selected by winning the local AQ at their university. Overall and individual category winning teams are recognized, but team rankings are not emphasized. The ASAS/ADSA members provide leadership for organizing and conducting the AQ, and ASAS and each university provide travel expenses for students. The ultimate purpose is to stimulate academic excellence among undergraduate students and for the students to attend ASAS/ADSA regional scientific meetings to meet faculty and students and to attend scientific research presentations. The purpose of this document was to provide a history of the event and to make recommendations for its improvement. The AQ was conceived in 1967. During the next 10 yr, an ASAS committee developed procedures for a trial AQ held in 1980 at the ASAS Midwestern Section, Kansas State University-Manhattan, and in the next year the first official AQ was held at the ASAS Midwestern Section at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Starting in 1985, AQ programs were initiated at the other 3 ASAS sectional meetings, and an estimated 50,000 students representing 60 universities have participated in AQ programs since that time. If the AQ is to continue its improvement over time, it will greatly depend on sustained ASAS/ADSA faculty interest and support, as well as

  9. Foraging spots of streaked shearwaters in relation to ocean surface currents as identified using their drift movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Ken; Shiomi, Kozue; Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-03-01

    Ocean currents are in continuous motion and strongly influence oceanic ecosystems. In situ observation of currents is of primary importance for understanding how marine animals respond to ocean surface currents at various scales and for realizing effective ecosystem-based management and realistic oceanographic modelling. We developed a new method for obtaining in situ current measurements by using seabirds as Lagrangian current sensors akin to drifting buoys. We deployed high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) loggers on streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) foraging in the Oyashio-Tsugaru Warm Current confluence in Japan, which is one of the most productive oceans in the world. The seabirds repeatedly performed foraging trips, including searching for prey and resting on the sea surface, over several hundred kilometres. The seabirds spent half of their time resting on the water surface and tended to be passive drifters. We inferred that the drift movements of C. leucomelas provided a direct and detailed description of the ocean surface currents, because currents deduced from their drift movements were in good agreement with ocean surface currents derived from in situ and satellite data. In addition, we extracted details of shearwaters’ intense searching flights associated with feeding (i.e. foraging spots) from GPS tracks. C. leucomelas did not forage at the core of anticyclonic eddies; rather, they used the boundary areas between eddies and the edge of eddies where primary productivity and prey density are thought to be high. Our study demonstrated that animal-borne GPS data can provide a detailed and cost-efficient tool for observing ocean surface currents and can reveal the ways in which marine animals respond to these currents at a fine scale.

  10. Temperature profile data collected using current meter, mooring, thermistor casts from the Atlantic Ocean in part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment from 11 March 1973 to 01 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7700106)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using current meter, mooring, thermistor casts from March 11, 1973 to July 1, 1973. Data were submitted by Woods Hole Oceanographic...

  11. In-situ water current velocity measurements collected from moored current meters in the Agulhas Current region of the Indian Ocean from 2010-04-08 to 2013-02-23 (NCEI Accession 0156669)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data package is comprised of two sets of discrete in-situ current velocity measurements from the Agulhas Current Timeseries mooring array, from April 2010 to...

  12. In-situ water current velocity measurements collected from moored current meters in the Agulhas Current region of the Indian Ocean from 2010-04-08 to 2013-02-23 (NCEI Accession 0140939)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data package is comprised of two sets of discrete in-situ current velocity measurements from the Agulhas Current Timeseries mooring array, from April 2010 to...

  13. Facilitymetrics for Big Ocean Science: Towards Improved Measurement of Scientific Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, K.; Owens, D.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Hallonsten, O.; Matthews, K.

    2016-12-01

    Cabled ocean observatories are examples of "Big Science" facilities requiring significant public investments for installation and ongoing maintenance. Large observatory networks in Canada and the United States, for example, have been established after extensive up-front planning and hundreds of millions of dollars in start-up costs. As such, they are analogous to particle accelerators and astronomical observatories, which may often be required to compete for public funding in an environment of ever-tightening national science budget allocations. Additionally, the globalization of Big Science compels these facilities to respond to increasing demands for demonstrable productivity, excellence and competitiveness. How should public expenditures on "Big Science" facilities be evaluated and justified in terms of benefits to the countries that invest in them? Published literature counts are one quantitative measure often highlighted in the annual reports of large science facilities. But, as recent research has demonstrated, publication counts can lead to distorted characterizations of scientific impact, inviting evaluators to calculate scientific outputs in terms of costs per publication—a ratio that can be simplistically misconstrued to conclude Big Science is wildly expensive. Other commonly promoted measurements of Big Science facilities include technical reliability (a.k.a. uptime), provision of training opportunities for Highly Qualified Personnel, generation of commercialization opportunities, and so forth. "Facilitymetrics" is a new empirical focus for scientometrical studies, which has been applied to the evaluation and comparison of synchrotron facilities. This paper extends that quantitative and qualitative examination to a broader inter-disciplinary comparison of Big Science facilities in the ocean science realm to established facilities in the fields of astronomy and particle physics.

  14. Marine Benthic Habitats and Seabed Suitability Mapping for Potential Ocean Current Energy Siting Offshore Southeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mulcan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the legal framework for ocean current energy policy and regulation to develop a metric for assessing the biological and geological characteristics of a seabed area with respect to the siting of OCE devices, a framework of criteria by which to assess seabed suitability (seabed suitability framework that can facilitate the siting, and implementation of ocean current energy (OCE projects. Seafloor geology and benthic biological data were analyzed in conjunction with seafloor core sample geostatistical interpolation to locate suitable substrates for OCE anchoring. Existing submarine cable pathways were considered to determine pathways for power transmission cables that circumvent biologically sensitive areas. Suitability analysis indicates that areas east of the Miami Terrace and north of recently identified deep-sea coral mounds are the most appropriate for OCE siting due to abundance of sand/sediment substrate, existing underwater cable route access, and minimal biological presence (i.e., little to no benthic communities. Further reconnaissance requires higher resolution maps of geological substrate and benthic community locations to identify specific OCE development locations, classify benthic conditions, and minimize potentially negative OCE environmental impacts.

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as part of the Flow Over Abrupt Topography project from 06 January 1990 - 03 December 1991 (NODC Accession 9500077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from January 6, 1990 to December 3, 1991. Data were submitted by...

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1992 to 15 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9400088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from October 1, 1992 to March...

  17. Current meter and other data from current meter casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North and South Pacific Ocean from 1984-06-28 to 1984-07-01 (NODC Accession 8500226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected using current meter casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean from June 28, 1984 to July 1, 1984....

  18. Current meter and temperature profile data from current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 27 April 1993 to 09 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9700042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 27 April 1993 to 09 June 1994....

  19. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Atlantic Ocean from 1980-08-04 to 1981-08-14 (NODC Accession 8200240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Atlantic Ocean from August 4, 1980 to August 14, 1981. Data were...

  20. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 1992-01-01 to 1993-02-17 (NODC Accession 9600019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from January 1, 1992 to...

  1. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 1992-11-03 to 1992-12-05 (NODC Accession 9600018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from November 3, 1992 to...

  2. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the High Energy Benthic Boundary Exp. (HEBBLE) project from 19 March 1983 - 01 August 1984 (NODC Accession 8900107)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from March 19, 1983 to August 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Woods...

  3. Current meter and temperature profile data from current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 29 March 1991 to 24 December 1993 (NODC Accession 9900057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 29 March 1991 to 24 December...

  4. Ocean Acidification: a review of the current status of research and institutional developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Dedert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification is defined as the change in ocean chemistry driven by the oceanic uptake of chemical inputs to the atmosphere, including carbon, nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Ocean acidification is also referred to as ‘the other CO2 problem’ of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions

  5. A Roadmap for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Science for the Next Two Decades and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennicutt, M. C., II

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to 'scan the horizon' to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.

  6. Ocean acidification: Linking science to management solutions using the Great Barrier Reef as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Baird, Mark; Beeden, Roger; Byrne, Maria; Collier, Catherine; Dove, Sophie; Fabricius, Katharina; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Kelly, Ryan P; Lough, Janice; Mongin, Mathieu; Munday, Philip L; Pears, Rachel J; Russell, Bayden D; Tilbrook, Bronte; Abal, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean acidification. While our understanding of the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems is growing, gaps remain that limit our ability to translate scientific knowledge into management action. To guide solution-based research, we review the current knowledge of ocean acidification impacts on coral reefs alongside management needs and priorities. We use the world's largest continuous reef system, Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), as a case study. We integrate scientific knowledge gained from a variety of approaches (e.g., laboratory studies, field observations, and ecosystem modelling) and scales (e.g., cell, organism, ecosystem) that underpin a systems-level understanding of how ocean acidification is likely to impact the GBR and associated goods and services. We then discuss local and regional management options that may be effective to help mitigate the effects of ocean acidification on the GBR, with likely application to other coral reef systems. We develop a research framework for linking solution-based ocean acidification research to practical management options. The framework assists in identifying effective and cost-efficient options for supporting ecosystem resilience. The framework enables on-the-ground OA management to be the focus, while not losing sight of CO2 mitigation as the ultimate solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Where the Ocean Meets the Girl Guides, Exploring the Interface Between Teaching Science and Using Specialized Programs to Engage Girls in Ocean Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M. S.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Hoeberechts, M.

    2016-02-01

    This presentation focuses on Ocean Aware, a joint project between Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) and the British Columbia Girl Guides Canada (Girl Guides). On World Oceans Day 2014, Girl Guides launched a new challenge to its members: "Are you Ocean Aware?" To answer this question, girls of any age can now earn their Ocean Aware Challenge crest. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. Girl Guides provides a safe, all-girl environment that invites girls to challenge themselves, to find their voice, meet new friends, have fun and make a difference in the world. Girl Guides strives to ensure that girls and women from all walks of life, identities and lived experiences feel a sense of belonging and can fully participate. Girl Guides of Canada is a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. Through a partnership between ONC and Girl Guides, Ocean Aware was created to promote ocean literacy and ocean technology to thousands of Guiders in British Columbia and beyond. One of the most interesting challenges was to present STEM learning outcomes in such a way that they are accessible to girls, facilitators, and communities that are both on the coast and inland. With a creative eye to the preforming arts, hands-on experiments, interactive experiences and games, this challenge successfully brings the 7 Principles of Ocean Literacy to any girl, in any community. In this presentation we will share some of the strategies, challenges and impacts of creating a successful program that engages a large audience in ocean science through a novel partnership.

  8. @OceanSeaIceNPI: Positive Practice of Science Outreach via Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Pavlov, A.; Rösel, A.; Granskog, M. A.; Gerland, S.; Hudson, S. R.; King, J.; Itkin, P.; Negrel, J.; Cohen, L.; Dodd, P. A.; de Steur, L.

    2016-12-01

    As researchers, we are keen to share our passion for science with the general public. We are encouraged to do so by colleagues, journalists, policy-makers and funding agencies. How can we best achieve this in a small research group without having specific resources and skills such as funding, dedicated staff, and training? How do we sustain communication on a regular basis as opposed to the limited lifetime of a specific project? The emerging platforms of social media have become powerful and inexpensive tools to communicate science for various audiences. Many research institutions and individual researchers are already advanced users of social media, but small research groups and labs remain underrepresented. A small group of oceanographers, sea ice, and atmospheric scientists at the Norwegian Polar Institute have been running their social media science outreach for two years @OceanSeaIceNPI. Here we share our successful experience of developing and maintaining a researcher-driven outreach through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We present our framework for sharing responsibilities within the group to maximize effectiveness. Each media channel has a target audience for which the posts are tailored. Collaboration with other online organizations and institutes is key for the growth of the channels. The @OceanSeaIceNPI posts reach more than 4000 followers on a weekly basis. If you have questions about our @OceanSeaIceNPI initiative, you can tweet them with a #ask_oceanseaicenpi hashtag anytime.

  9. Assessment of the importance of the current-wave coupling in the shelf ocean forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jordà

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wave-current interactions on shelf ocean forecasts is investigated in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System Project Towards Enviromental Predictions project. A one way sequential coupling approach is adopted to link the wave model (WAM to the circulation model (SYMPHONIE. The coupling of waves and currents has been done considering four main processes: wave refraction due to currents, surface wind drag and bottom drag modifications due to waves, and the wave induced mass flux. The coupled modelling system is implemented in the southern Catalan shelf (NW Mediterranean, a region with characteristics similar to most of the Mediterranean shelves. The sensitivity experiments are run in a typical operational configuration. The wave refraction by currents seems to be not very relevant in a microtidal context such as the western Mediterranean. The main effect of waves on current forecasts is through the modification of the wind drag. The Stokes drift also plays a significant role due to its spatial and temporal characteristics. Finally, the enhanced bottom friction is just noticeable in the inner shelf.

  10. Astrobites: Engaging Undergraduate Science Majors with Current Astrophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Michael; Astrobites

    2017-01-01

    Astrobites is a graduate-student organization that publishes an online astrophysical literature blog (astrobites.com). The purpose of the site is to make current astrophysical research accessible to and exciting for undergraduate physical science majors and astronomy enthusiasts, and the site now hosts an archive of over 1300 posts summarizing recent astrophysical research. In addition, Astrobites presents posts on career guidance, practical 'how-to' articles, conference summaries, and astronomy news. Astrobites has an average of more than 1000 pageviews per day and reaches not only its target audience of undergraduates, but also graduate students and professionals within astronomy, astronomy enthusiasts, and educators. As we enter our seventh year of successful blogging, we share here the most up-to-date summary of our organization, readership, and growth.

  11. The South Carolina Amazing Coast Program: Using Ocean Sciences to Address Next Generation Science Standards in Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. V.; Thomas, C.; Weiss, B.; Bliss, A.; Spence, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are more inclusive of ocean sciences than the National Science Standards and respective state science standards. In response, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-SouthEast (COSEE SE) is piloting the South Carolina's Amazing Coast (SCAC) program: a three-year initiative that incorporates ocean science concepts in grades 3-5 with the goals of addressing NGSS, STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) disciplines, and inquiry skills. The SCAC program targeted two Charleston County, South Carolina elementary schools that were demographically similar: Title 1 status (75% free or reduced lunch), > 90% African American student population, grade level size teachers and approximately 240 students participated in the SCAC program between 2010 and 2013. The SCAC framework uses a scaffolding and multi-pronged approach for teacher professional development and student engagement. The scaffolding approach to curriculum implementation focuses on one grade level per year (Year 1 = 3rd; Year 2 = 4th, and Year 3 = 5th), thus building student and teacher literacy in ocean sciences. The coach-mentor model of teacher professional development was also used for the implementation of the program which differs from the traditional 'train the trainer' method in allowing for more frequent and consistent interaction by COSEE SE staff with the students and teachers during the school year. The coach mentor model enabled the creation of a community of practice where teachers served as both learners and practitioners of student learning. Methods for student engagement aligned with the NGSS and included hands-on classroom activities, use of 'hook' species such as loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) and smooth cord grass (Spartina alterniflora), field experiences to explore local ecosystems, interactions with marine scientists, and a capstone project incorporating STEM and inquiry skills

  12. Physical, currents, nutrients, and other data from bottle and GEK casts from the FUJI and SHIRASE in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from 06 December 1965 to 10 January 1994 (NODC Accession 0000039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, currents, nutrients, and other data were collected from bottle and GEK casts from the FUJI and SHIRASE in the Indian Ocean and other locations from 06...

  13. Temperature profile and current meter data collected using current meter (PCM) from the CHAIN in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment from 01 May 1973 to 01 June 1973 (NODC Accession 7600732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, pressure, depth, east-west current component, and north-south current component data were collected using current meter (PCM) from the CHAIN in the...

  14. Temperature, current meter, and other data using current meter, thermistor, and mooring casts from the HUNT from the Pacific Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Southern Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) project, from 1982-06-28 to 1983-11-23 (NODC Accession 9500019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, conductivity, east-west current component, north-south current component, depth, pressure, and salinity data were collected using current meter,...

  15. Risks of ocean acidification in the California Current food web and fisheries: ecosystem model projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kristin N; Kaplan, Isaac C; Hodgson, Emma E; Hermann, Albert; Busch, D Shallin; McElhany, Paul; Essington, Timothy E; Harvey, Chris J; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    The benefits and ecosystem services that humans derive from the oceans are threatened by numerous global change stressors, one of which is ocean acidification. Here, we describe the effects of ocean acidification on an upwelling system that already experiences inherently low pH conditions, the California Current. We used an end-to-end ecosystem model (Atlantis), forced by downscaled global climate models and informed by a meta-analysis of the pH sensitivities of local taxa, to investigate the direct and indirect effects of future pH on biomass and fisheries revenues. Our model projects a 0.2-unit drop in pH during the summer upwelling season from 2013 to 2063, which results in wide-ranging magnitudes of effects across guilds and functional groups. The most dramatic direct effects of future pH may be expected on epibenthic invertebrates (crabs, shrimps, benthic grazers, benthic detritivores, bivalves), and strong indirect effects expected on some demersal fish, sharks, and epibenthic invertebrates (Dungeness crab) because they consume species known to be sensitive to changing pH. The model's pelagic community, including marine mammals and seabirds, was much less influenced by future pH. Some functional groups were less affected to changing pH in the model than might be expected from experimental studies in the empirical literature due to high population productivity (e.g., copepods, pteropods). Model results suggest strong effects of reduced pH on nearshore state-managed invertebrate fisheries, but modest effects on the groundfish fishery because individual groundfish species exhibited diverse responses to changing pH. Our results provide a set of projections that generally support and build upon previous findings and set the stage for hypotheses to guide future modeling and experimental analysis on the effects of OA on marine ecosystems and fisheries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Modeling mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal response to earthquakes, tides, and ocean currents: a case study at the Grotto mound, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Bemis, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems feature intricate interconnections among oceanic, geological, hydrothermal, and biological processes. The advent of the NEPTUNE observatory operated by Ocean Networks Canada at the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge enables scientists to study these interconnections through multidisciplinary, continuous, real-time observations. The multidisciplinary observatory instruments deployed at the Grotto Mound, a major study site of the NEPTUNE observatory, makes it a perfect place to study the response of a seafloor hydrothermal system to geological and oceanic processes. In this study, we use the multidisciplinary datasets recorded by the NEPTUNE Observatory instruments as observational tools to demonstrate two different aspects of the response of hydrothermal activity at the Grotto Mound to geological and oceanic processes. First, we investigate a recent increase in venting temperature and heat flux at Grotto observed by the Benthic and Resistivity Sensors (BARS) and the Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) respectively. This event started in Mar 2014 and is still evolving by the time of writing this abstract. An initial interpretation in light of the seismic data recorded by a neighboring ocean bottom seismometer on the NEPTUNE observatory suggests the temperature and heat flux increase is probably triggered by local seismic activities. Comparison of the observations with the results of a 1-D mathematical model simulation of hydrothermal sub-seafloor circulation elucidates the potential mechanisms underlying hydrothermal response to local earthquakes. Second, we observe significant tidal oscillations in the venting temperature time series recorded by BARS and the acoustic imaging of hydrothermal plumes by COVIS, which is evidence for hydrothermal response to ocean tides and currents. We interpret the tidal oscillations of venting temperature as a result of tidal loading on a poroelastic medium. We then invoke poroelastic

  17. Hydropower without water falling - electricity from ocean currents; Wasserkraft ohne Fallhoehe - Strom aus Meeresstroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, J.

    2004-07-01

    Human endeavours to use the energy of the seas for mechanical drives date back to the 11th century when the first tidal mills were built. These made use of the difference in water level between low and high tide, driving mills, hammer mills and similar mechanical facilities through the force of water falling from a height of several meters. The first tidal mill in Germany, a pilot plant for power generation, was built in 1913. Similarly to wind power, ocean power is an old idea which is now being revived with the aid of modern technologies for the purpose of electricity production. A wide range of different approaches to producing energy from the oceans have evolved in the course of time: (a) Tidal power: Tidal power plants equipped with barrages utilise the tidal range to drive water turbines through the fall of water. The largest tidal power plant in existence, with a total power capacity of 240 MW, was commissioned in 1966 on the French Atlantic coast at St. Malo. (b) Temperature differences: The idea of using temperature differences between superficial and deep water layers to create a closed vapour cycle dates back to the nineteenth century. The first OTEC (ocean thermal electric conversion) plant was built on the Cuban coast in 1929. Because of the low temperature levels this technology requires the use of working media such as ammonia which pose considerable problems in practice. (c) Waves: On large waters the wind and tide create waves on the water surface. The total energy contained in these waves can be divided into a potential and a kinetic portion. There are very different technical concepts in existence for utilising wave energy. (d) Ocean currents: Similarly to the principle implemented in wind power plants, the kinetic energy contained in a water current be utilised by having a rotor in the current to drive an electrical generator. This approach has received surprisingly little attention in the past. Compared with many other technologies of wave

  18. 75 FR 48731 - Notice of Availability for Public Comment on the Draft Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Notice of Availability for Public Comment on the Draft Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology... Leadership, Attention: IOOC Support Office, 1201 New York Avenue, NW., 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20005 FOR... 2009. Among the requirements in the Act is a directive to the National Ocean Research Leadership...

  19. Prediction of the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Science Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Siegel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth’s carbon cycle and the quantification of their impacts for both present conditions and for predictions into the future remains one of the greatest challenges in oceanography. The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS Science Plan is to develop a predictive understanding of the export and fate of global ocean net primary production (NPP and its implications for present and future climates. The achievement of this goal requires a quantification of the mechanisms that control the export of carbon from the euphotic zone as well as its fate in the underlying twilight zone where some fraction of exported carbon will be sequestered in the ocean’s interior on time scales of months to millennia. Here we present a measurement / synthesis / modeling framework aimed at quantifying the fates of upper ocean NPP and its impacts on the global carbon cycle based upon the EXPORTS Science Plan. The proposed approach will diagnose relationships among the ecological, biogeochemical and physical oceanographic processes that control carbon cycling across a range of ecosystem and carbon cycling states leading to advances in satellite diagnostic and numerical prognostic models. To collect these data, a combination of ship and robotic field sampling, satellite remote sensing and numerical modeling is proposed which enables the sampling of the many pathways of NPP export and fates. This coordinated, process-oriented approach has the potential to foster new insights on ocean carbon cycling that maximizes its societal relevance through the achievement of research goals of many international research agencies and will be a key step towards our understanding of the Earth as an integrated system.

  20. ESN information bulletin. European science notes information bulletin reports on current European/Middle eastern science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorf, C.R.

    1989-10-01

    The European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) 89-09 is a compilation of reports on recent developments in European science of specific interest to the U.S. research and development community, and is issued in support of the mission of the Office of Naval Research European Office. Issue Number 89-09, in addition to European area news, notes, and abstracts, contains reports in the fields of Acoustics, Computer Science, Condensed-Matter Physics, Materials Science, Mathematics, Physics, Psychology, and Solid-State Physics. It is not intended to be part of the scientific literature. The value of the ESNIB to Americans is to call attention to current activity in European science and technology and to identify the institutions and people responsible for these efforts. The ESNIB authors are primarily ONREUR staff members; other reports are prepared by or in cooperation with staff members of the USAF European Office of Aero space Research and Development or the U.S. Army Research, Development and Standardization Group. Scientists from the U.S. who are traveling in Europe may also be invited to submit reports.

  1. Energy transfer of surface wind-induced currents to the deep ocean via resonance with the Coriolis force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2017-03-01

    There are two main comparable sources of energy to the deep ocean-winds and tides. However, the identity of the most efficient mechanism that transfers wind energy to the deep ocean is still debated. Here we study, using oceanic general circulation model simulations and analytic derivations, the way that the wind directly supplies energy down to the bottom of the ocean when it is stochastic and temporally correlated or when it is periodic with a frequency that matches the Coriolis frequency. Basically, under these, commonly observed, conditions, one of the wind components resonates with the Coriolis frequency. Using reanalysis surface wind data and our simple model, we show that about one-third of the kinetic energy that is associated with wind-induced currents resides in the abyssal ocean, highlighting the importance of the resonance of the wind with the Coriolis force.

  2. Frontier Science in the Polar Regions: Current Activities of the Polar Research Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Academies (the umbrella term for the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council) is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1863. The Polar Research Board (PRB) is the focal point within the Academies for providing advice on issues related to the Arctic, Antarctic, and cold regions in general. Tasks within the PRB mission include: providing a forum for the polar science community to address research needs and policy issues; conducting studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues in response to requests from federal agencies and others; providing program reviews, guidance, and assessments of priorities; and facilitating communication on polar issues among academia, industry, and government. The PRB also serves as the US National Committee to two international, nongovernmental polar science organizations: the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The polar regions are experiencing rapid changes in environment and climate, and the PRB has a number of completed and ongoing studies that will enhance scientific understanding of these issues. This poster will illustrate current PRB activities as well as results from two recently released reports: Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems and Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. In the former, a set of frontier research questions are developed to help scientists understand the impacts of climate change on polar ecosystems. The report builds on existing knowledge of climate change impacts and highlights the next big topics to be addressed in the coming decades. In addition, a number of methods and technologies are identified that will be useful to advance future research in polar ecosystem science. In the latter, changes to important science conducted on Antarctica and the surrounding

  3. Structure and variability of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnyushkov, Andrey V.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew C.; Janout, Markus; Rabe, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) transports a vast amount of mass and heat around cyclonic gyres of the deep basins, acting as a narrow, topographically-controlled flow, confined to the continental margins. Current observations during 2002-2011 at seven moorings along the major Atlantic Water (AW) pathway, complemented by an extensive collection of measured temperatures and salinities as well as results of state-of-the-art numerical modeling, have been used to examine the spatial structure and temporal variability of the ACBC within the Eurasian Basin (EB). These observations and modeling results suggest a gradual, six-fold decrease of boundary current speed (from 24 to 4 cm/s) on the route between Fram Strait and the Lomonosov Ridge, accompanied by a transformation of the vertical flow structure from mainly barotropic in Fram Strait to baroclinic between the area north of Spitsbergen and the central Laptev Sea continental slope. The relative role of density-driven currents in maintaining AW circulation increases with the progression of the ACBC eastward from Fram Strait, so that baroclinic ACBC forcing dominates over the barotropic in the eastern EB. Mooring records have revealed that waters within the AW and the cold halocline layers circulate in roughly the same direction in the eastern EB. The seasonal signal, meanwhile, is the most powerful mode of variability in the EB, contributing up to ~70% of the total variability in currents (resolved by moorings records) within the eastern EB. Seasonal signal amplitudes for current speed and AW temperature both decrease with the eastward progression of AW flow from source regions, and demonstrate strong interannual modulation. In the 2000s, the state of the EB (e.g., circulation pattern, thermohaline conditions, and freshwater balance) experienced remarkable changes. Results showing anomalous circulation patterns for an extended period of 30 months in 2008-2010 for the eastern EB, and a two-core AW

  4. Wind and temperature data from current meter in the TOGA - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS), 28 May 1994 to 21 March 1995 (NODC Accession 9800041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and temperature data were collected using current meter in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from May 28, 1994 to March 21, 1995. Data were submitted...

  5. Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecian, W James; Witt, Matthew J; Attrill, Martin J; Bearhop, Stuart; Becker, Peter H; Egevang, Carsten; Furness, Robert W; Godley, Brendan J; González-Solís, Jacob; Grémillet, David; Kopp, Matthias; Lescroël, Amélie; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Patrick, Samantha C; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Phillips, Richard A; Stenhouse, Iain J; Votier, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative species richness peaked in areas where sea surface temperature averaged between 15 and 20°C, and correlated positively with chlorophyll a, revealing the optimum conditions driving bottom-up trophic effects for seabirds. Marine vertebrates are not confined by international boundaries, making conservation challenging. However, by linking diversity to ocean productivity, our research reveals the significance of the CCLME for seabird populations from across the Atlantic, making it a priority for conservation action. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape - studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, G. E.; Evans, T. G.; Kelly, M. W.; Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Blanchette, C. A.; Washburn, L.; Chan, F.; McManus, M. A.; Menge, B. A.; Gaylord, B.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; LaVigne, M.; Rose, J. M.; Kapsenberg, L.; Dutton, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    The California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), a temperate marine region dominated by episodic upwelling, is predicted to experience rapid environmental change in the future due to ocean acidification. The aragonite saturation state within the California Current System is predicted to decrease in the future with near-permanent undersaturation conditions expected by the year 2050. Thus, the CCLME is a critical region to study due to the rapid rate of environmental change that resident organisms will experience and because of the economic and societal value of this coastal region. Recent efforts by a research consortium - the Ocean Margin Ecosystems Group for Acidification Studies (OMEGAS) - has begun to characterize a portion of the CCLME; both describing the spatial mosaic of pH in coastal waters and examining the responses of key calcification-dependent benthic marine organisms to natural variation in pH and to changes in carbonate chemistry that are expected in the coming decades. In this review, we present the OMEGAS strategy of co-locating sensors and oceanographic observations with biological studies on benthic marine invertebrates, specifically measurements of functional traits such as calcification-related processes and genetic variation in populations that are locally adapted to conditions in a particular region of the coast. Highlighted in this contribution are (1) the OMEGAS sensor network that spans the west coast of the US from central Oregon to southern California, (2) initial findings of the carbonate chemistry amongst the OMEGAS study sites, and (3) an overview of the biological data that describes the acclimatization and the adaptation capacity of key benthic marine invertebrates within the CCLME.

  7. Modeling Ships and Space Craft The Science and Art of Mastering the Oceans and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Hagler, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Modeling Ships and Space Craft: The Science and Art of Mastering the Oceans and Sky begins with the theories of Aristotle and Archimedes, moving on to examine the work of Froude and Taylor, the early aviators and the Wright Brothers, Goddard and the other rocket men, and the computational fluid dynamic models of our time. It examines the ways each used fluid dynamic principles in the design of their vessels. In the process, this book covers the history of hydrodynamic (aero and fluid) theory and its progression – with some very accessible science examples – including seminal theories. Hydrodynamic principles in action are also explored with examples from nature and the works of man. This is a book for anyone interested in the history of technology – specifically the methods and science behind the use of scale models and hydrodynamic principles in the marine and aeronautical designs of today.

  8. Building oceanographic moorings in a non-lab introductory ocean science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    A methodology for building low-cost ocean moorings in an introductory ocean sciences course, using HOBO temperature and light pendants, is presented. The moorings, which collect water temperature and light intensity data at high temporal frequency and at multiple depths, are relatively inexpensive, with a total cost of approximately 15 to 30 per student, depending on the configuration. Deployments of multiple months, or even longer, are possible, but in this presentation two ~3-week long deployments are described. Students in an Introduction to Oceanography course at Peninsula College in Port Angeles, Washington (USA) designed and constructed moorings for deployment in an enclosed harbor at depths of ~8 meters. The HOBO pendants integrated into the moorings were set to log observations at one hour intervals. After mooring recovery students downloaded data, which were both incorporated into class lessons where feasible, but were also utilized in a fully inquiry-based research paper. The exercise was often cited in students' evaluations as a highlight, and served to both teach and reinforce oceanographic concepts, introduce students to professional options within ocean science and engineering fields, and provide skills training (by requiring students to work in Excel for data manipulation, for example).

  9. Current fundamental science challenges in low temperature plasma science that impact energy security and international competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebner, Greg

    2010-11-01

    Products and consumer goods that utilize low temperature plasmas at some point in their creation touch and enrich our lives on almost a continuous basis. Examples are many but include the tremendous advances in microelectronics and the pervasive nature of the internet, advanced material coatings that increase the strength and reliability of products from turbine engines to potato chip bags, and the recent national emphasis on energy efficient lighting and compact fluorescent bulbs. Each of these products owes their contributions to energy security and international competiveness to fundamental research investments. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the great commercial success of these products implies a robust understanding of the complicated interactions inherent in plasma systems. Rather, current development of the next generation of low temperature plasma enabled products and processes is clearly exposing a new set of exciting scientific challenges that require leaps in fundamental understanding and interdisciplinary research teams. Emerging applications such as liquid-plasma systems to improve water quality and remediate hazardous chemicals, plasma-assisted combustion to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions, and medical applications promise to improve our lives and the environment only if difficult science questions are solved. This talk will take a brief look back at the role of low temperature plasma science in enabling entirely new markets and then survey the next generation of emerging plasma applications. The emphasis will be on describing the key science questions and the opportunities for scientific cross cutting collaborations that underscore the need for increased outreach on the part of the plasma science community to improve visibility at the federal program level. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences, and Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

  10. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between models and observations that was greater than estimated statistical uncertainty. Averaging over all current meter records in various depth ranges, all four models had mean TKE within a factor of two of observations above 3500. m, and within a factor of three below 3500. m. With the exception of observations between 20 and 100. m, the models tended to straddle the observations. However, individual models had clear biases. The free running (no data assimilation) model biases were largest below 2000. m. Idealized simulations revealed that the parameterized bottom boundary layer tidal currents were not likely the source of the problem, but that reducing quadratic bottom drag coefficient may improve the fit with deep observations. Data assimilation clearly improved the model-observation comparison, especially below 2000. m, despite assimilated data existing mostly above this depth and only south of 47°N. Different diagnostics revealed different aspects of the comparison, though in general the models appeared to be in an eddying-regime with TKE that compared reasonably well with observations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Marine Technology for Teachers and Students: A Multi-modal Approach to Integrate Technology and Ocean Sciences Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, A.; Knowlton, C. W.; Scowcroft, G. A.; Babb, I.; Coleman, D.; Morin, H.

    2016-02-01

    The Marine Technology for Teachers and Students (MaTTS) Project implements a year-long continuum of activities beginning with educators reading and reporting on peer-reviewed publications, followed by face-to-face, hands-on weekend workshops and virtual professional development activities. Teams of teacher and student leaders then participate in an intensive, residential Summer Institute (SI) that emphasizes hands-on building of marine related technologies and exposure to career pathways through direct interactions with ocean scientists and engineers. During the school year, teachers integrate ocean science technology and data into their classrooms and participate, along with colleagues and students from their schools, in science cafes and webinars. Student leaders transfer knowledge gained by engaging their district's middle school students in ocean science activities and technologies by serving as hosts for live broadcasts that connect classrooms with ocean scientists and engineers though the Inner Space Center, a national ocean science telecommunications hub. Communication technologies bridge formal and informal learning environments, allowing MaTTS participants to interact with their fellow cohort members, scientists, and engineers both during and outside of school. Evaluation results indicate that for teachers both the weekend workshops and SI were most effective in preparing them to integrate ocean science and technology in STEM curricula and increase their ocean science content knowledge and leadership characteristics. For students the SI and the middle school interactions supported gains in knowledge, awareness, leadership skills and interest in ocean sciences and technologies, and related STEM careers. In particular, the connections made by working directly with scientists have positively impacted both student and teacher leaders. This presentation will provide an overview of the MaTTS model and early evaluation results.

  12. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: A temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, H.M.; Lutjeharms, J.R.E.; Rouault, M.; Whittle, C.P.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The exchange of heat and salt between the South Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean,at the Southern terminus of the Agulhas current, forms a crucial link in the global ocean circulation. It has been surmised that upstream retroflections in this current could produce temporary interruptions to the

  13. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: A temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, H.M.; Lutjeharms, J.R.E.; Rouault, M.; Whittle, C.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The exchange of heat and salt between the South Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean, at the southern terminus of the Agulhas current, forms a crucial link in the global ocean circulation. It has been surmised that upstream retroflections in this current could produce temporary interruptions to the

  14. ESN information bulletin. European science notes information bulletin reports on current European/Middle eastern science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorf, C.R.

    1990-06-01

    The European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) 90-05 is a compilation of reports on recent developments in European science of specific interest to the U.S. research and development community, and is issued in support of the mission of the Office of Naval Research European Office. Issue Number 90-05, in addition to European area news, notes, and abstracts, contains reports in the fields of Acoustics, Atmospheric Electricity, Computer Science, Electronics, and Physics. The value of the ESNIB to Americans is to call attention to current activity in European science and technology and to identify the institutions and people responsible for these efforts. The ESNIB authors are primarily ONREUR staff members; other reports are prepared by or in cooperation with staff members of the USAF European Office of Aerospace Research and Development or the U.S. Army Research, Development and Standardination Group. Scientists from the U.S. who are traveling in Europe may also be invited to submit reports.

  15. Data Stewardship in the Ocean Sciences Needs to Include Physical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-02-01

    Across the Ocean Sciences, research involves the collection and study of samples collected above, at, and below the seafloor, including but not limited to rocks, sediments, fluids, gases, and living organisms. Many domains in the Earth Sciences have recently expressed the need for better discovery, access, and sharing of scientific samples and collections (EarthCube End-User Domain workshops, 2012 and 2013, http://earthcube.org/info/about/end-user-workshops), as has the US government (OSTP Memo, March 2014). iSamples (Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences) is a Research Coordination Network within the EarthCube program that aims to advance the use of innovative cyberinfrastructure to support and advance the utility of physical samples and sample collections for science and ensure reproducibility of sample-based data and research results. iSamples strives to build, grow, and foster a new community of practice, in which domain scientists, curators of sample repositories and collections, computer and information scientists, software developers and technology innovators engage in and collaborate on defining, articulating, and addressing the needs and challenges of physical samples as a critical component of digital data infrastructure. A primary goal of iSamples is to deliver a community-endorsed set of best practices and standards for the registration, description, identification, and citation of physical specimens and define an actionable plan for implementation. iSamples conducted a broad community survey about sample sharing and has created 5 different working groups to address the different challenges of developing the internet of samples - from metadata schemas and unique identifiers to an architecture for a shared cyberinfrastructure to manage collections, to digitization of existing collections, to education, and ultimately to establishing the physical infrastructure that will ensure preservation and access of the physical samples. Repositories that curate

  16. Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The

  17. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume I"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami." Eight papers examine various aspects of past events with an emphasis on case and regional studies. Five papers are on tsunami warning and forecast, including the improvement of existing tsunami warning systems and the development of new warning systems in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean region. Three more papers present the results of analytical studies and discuss benchmark problems. Four papers report the impacts of tsunamis, including the detailed calculation of inundation onshore and into rivers and probabilistic analysis for engineering purposes. The final two papers relate to important investigations of the source and tsunami generation. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean (Sumatra) and 2011 Japan (Tohoku) tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  18. Not Just About the Science: Cold War Politics and the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2016-12-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition broke ground for a series of multi-national oceanographic expeditions starting in the late 1950s. In and of itself, it would have been historically significant—like the International Geophysical Year (1957-58)—for pulling together the international scientific community during the Cold War. However, US support for this and follow-on Indian Ocean expeditions were not just about the science; they were also about diplomacy, specifically efforts to bring non-aligned India into the US political orbit and out of the clutches of its Cold War enemy, the Soviet Union. This paper examines the behind-the-scenes efforts at the highest reaches of the US government to extract international political gain out of a large-scale scientific effort.

  19. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  20. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  1. Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the worst tsunami disaster in the world's history with more than 200,000 casualties. This disaster was attributed to giant size (magnitude M ~ 9, source length >1000 km) of the earthquake, lacks of expectation of such an earthquake, tsunami warning system, knowledge and preparedness for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean countries. In the last ten years, seismology and tsunami sciences as well as tsunami disaster risk reduction have significantly developed. Progress in seismology includes implementation of earthquake early warning, real-time estimation of earthquake source parameters and tsunami potential, paleoseismological studies on past earthquakes and tsunamis, studies of probable maximum size, recurrence variability, and long-term forecast of large earthquakes in subduction zones. Progress in tsunami science includes accurate modeling of tsunami source such as contribution of horizontal components or "tsunami earthquakes", development of new types of offshore and deep ocean tsunami observation systems such as GPS buoys or bottom pressure gauges, deployments of DART gauges in the Pacific and other oceans, improvements in tsunami propagation modeling, and real-time inversion or data assimilation for the tsunami warning. These developments have been utilized for tsunami disaster reduction in the forms of tsunami early warning systems, tsunami hazard maps, and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments. Some of the above scientific developments helped to reveal the source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which caused devastating tsunami damage in Japan and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Toward tsunami disaster risk reduction, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches are needed for scientists with other stakeholders.

  2. Introducing Ocean Science Research to Two-Year College (2YC) Students Through Inquiry-Based Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, K. R.

    2016-02-01

    An effective approach to introduce 2YC students to ocean science research is through propagating inquiry-based experiences into existing geosciences courses using a series of research activities. The proposed activity is based on scientific ocean drilling, where students begin their research experience (pre-field activity) by reading articles from scientific journals and analyzing and interpreting core and log data on a specific research topic. At the end of the pre-field activity, students will visit the Gulf Coast Repository to examine actual cores, smear slides, thin sections etc. After the visit, students will integrate findings from their pre-field and field activities to produce a term paper. These simple activities allow students to experience in the iterative process of scientific research, illuminates how scientists approach ocean science, and can be the hook to get students interested in pursuing ocean science as a career.

  3. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the Indian Ocean and other locations from 10 February 1976 to 01 November 1987 (NODC Accession 8900160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the Indian Ocean and other locations from 10 February 1976 to 01 November 1987. Data were...

  4. Temperature and pressure data from moored current meter casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from 27 January 1986 - 15 April 1987 (NODC Accession 9500007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and pressure data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from January 27, 1986 to April 15, 1987. Data were...

  5. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Acoustic doppler current profilers data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World-Wide shipboard current data were collected from ADCP casts from the ALPHA HELIX and other platforms as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Data...

  6. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the South Atlantic Ocean from 05 January 1991 to 19 February 1993 (NODC Accession 9500069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 05 January 1991 to 19 February 1993. Data were collected by the...

  7. Temperature profile and current meter data from mooring and CTD in the Atlantic Ocean from 11 March 1989 to 18 June 1989 (NODC Accession 0000215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and current meter data were collected using mooring and CTD casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey in the Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected...

  8. Salinity data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Gulf of Alaska from 03 October 1984 - 01 May 1988 (NODC Accession 8900056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Gulf of Alaska from October 3, 1984 to May 1, 1988. Data...

  9. Using Citizen Science to Close Gaps in Cabled Ocean Observatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, M. G.; Moran, K.; Riddell, D. J.; Hoeberechts, M.; Flagg, R.; Walsh, J.; Dobell, R.; Longo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories off the west coast of British Columbia, and a community observatory in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Continuous power and connectivity permit large volumes of data to be collected and made available to scientists and citizens alike over the Internet through a web-based interface. The Oceans 2.0 data management system contains over one quarter petabyte of data, including more than 20,000 hours of video from fixed seafloor cameras and a further 8,000 hours of video collected by remotely operated vehicles. Cabled observatory instrument deployments enable the collection of high-frequency, long-duration time series of data from a specific location. This enables the study of important questions such as whether effects of climate change—for instance, variations in temperature or sea-level—are seen over the long term. However, cabled observatory monitoring also presents challenges to scientific researchers: the overwhelming volume of data and the fixed spatial location can be barriers to addressing some big questions. Here we describe how Ocean Networks Canada is using Citizen Science to address these limitations and supplement cabled observatory research. Two applications are presented: Digital Fishers is a crowd-sourcing application in which participants watch short deep-sea video clips and make annotations based on scientific research questions. To date, 3,000 participants have contributed 140,000 scientific observations on topics including sablefish abundance, hydrothermal vent geology and deep-sea feeding behaviour. Community Fishers is a program in which ordinary citizens aboard vessels of opportunity collect ocean data including water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll. The program's focus is to directly address the typical quality concerns around data that are collected using a citizen science approach. This is done by providing high quality scientific

  10. The role of vigorous current systems in the Southeast Indian Ocean in redistributing deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Müller, Dietmar; Hogg, Andrew; Spence, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the transport of modern deep-sea sediment is critical for accurate models of climate-ocean history and the widespread use of the sedimentological record as a proxy for productivity where the connection between biogenic seafloor lithologies and sea-surface is tenuous. The Southern Ocean, where diatoms contribute the bulk of pelagic material to the seafloor forming an extensive belt of diatom ooze, is an exemplar. However, most of the key studies on large-scale sediment reworking in the Southern Ocean were conducted in the 1970s when relatively little was known about the oceanography of this region. At this time even our knowledge of the bathymetry and tectonic fabric, which underpin the distribution of deep-sea currents, were fairly general. The record of widespread regional disconformities in the abyssal plains of the Southern Ocean is well-established and indicates extensive erosion of deep-sea sediments throughout the Quaternary. Here we combine a high-resolution numerical model of bottom currents with sedimentological data to constrain the redistribution of sediment across the abyssal plains and adjacent mid-ocean ridges in the Southern Ocean. We use the global ocean-sea ice model (GFDL-MOM01) to simulate ocean circulation at a resolution that results in realistic velocities throughout the water column, and is ideal for estimating interaction between time-dependent bottom currents and ocean bathymetry. 230Th-normalized vertical sediment rain rates for 63 sites in the Southeast Indian Ocean, combined with satellite data-derived surface productivity, demonstrate that a wide belt of fast sedimentation rates (> 5.5 cm/kyr) along the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) occurs in a region of low surface productivity bounded by two major disconformity fields associated with the Kerguelen Plateau to the east and the Macquarie Ridge to the west. Our ocean circulation model illustrates that the disconformity fields occur in regions of intense bottom current

  11. Presal36: a high resolution ocean current model for Brazilian pre-salt area: implementation and validation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellkopf, Jacques P. [Advanced Subsea do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The PRESAL 36 JIP is a project for the development of a powerful Ocean Current Model of 1/36 of a degree resolution, nested in an existing Global Ocean global Model, Mercator PSY4 (1/12-a-degree resolution ), with tide corrections, improved bathymetry accuracy and high frequency atmospheric forcing (every 3 hours). The simulation outputs will be the 3 dimensional structure of the velocity fields (u,v,w) at 50 vertical levels over the water column, including geostrophic, Ekman and tidal currents, together with Temperature, Salinity and sea surface height at a sub-mesoscale spatial resolution. Simulations will run in hindcast, nowcast and forecast modes, with a temporal resolution of 3 hours . This Ocean current model will allow to perform detailed statistical studies on various areas using conditions analysed using hindcast mode, short term operational condition prediction for various surface and sub sea operations using realtime and Forecast modes. The paper presents a publication of significant results of the project, in term of pre-sal zoomed model implementation, and high resolution model validation. It demonstrate the capability to properly describe ocean current phenomenon at beyond mesoscale frontier. This project demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining accurate information for engineering studies and operational conditions, based on a 'zoom technique' starting from global ocean models. (author)

  12. A sketch on the current debate on scientometrics and bibliometrics versus the forgotten science of science (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał KOKOWSKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the debate on scientometrics and bibliometrics, taking place in Poland in the last 25 years, a very serious methodical and methodological mistake has been committed by neglecting the reflection about the science of science, especially of historical and methodological character. The following article discusses this issue. This aim was achieved with the use of a method of interdisciplinary research originating from the scope of the science of science and the history of the science of science. This method was applied to the analysis of selected major publications on scientometrics and bibliometrics in the past 25 years, with special emphasis on Polish context. The results are discussed in the article, i.e. a the context of the current debate on scientometrics and bibliometrics in Poland; b the history of Polish scientometric analyses based on foreign indexation databases; c the current discussion on scientometrics and bibliometrics in Poland and d the key aspect ignored in the current debate, namely the inseparable connection of scientometrics and bibliometrics with the science of science. The study leads to the following conclusions: it is postulated that the informetric (scientometric, bibliometric, Webometric, etc. studies return to the scientific discourse, which would be consciously developed in the context of the integrated science of science. This knowledge should be utilized in the development of the current science policy, i.e. the organizational structure of science and higher education and the formation of rules of appraisal of scientific institutions, individual employees and scientific journals.

  13. Current meter and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 1975-08-29 to 1977-12-01 (NODC Accession 7800741)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean from August 29, 1975...

  14. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Hawaii at Manoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples...

  15. Absolute Geostrophic Velocity Inverted from the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC3.0) of the Arctic Ocean with the P-Vector Method (NCEI Accession 0156425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset (called PHC-V) comprises 3D gridded climatological fields of absolute geostrophic velocity of the Arctic Ocean inverted from the Polar science center...

  16. Current status of the science and technology of vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, R.E.; Simko, T.M. [University of Sydney (Australia). School of Physics

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of the science and technology of vacuum glazing. The construction of vacuum glazing, and its method of manufacture in the laboratory, is described. Experimental data are presented on the magnitude of heat flows through vacuum glazing. Gaseous heat transfer is negligible, and the internal vacuum is shown to be stable over many years, in well-manufactured glazing. Values of air-to-air, centre-of-glazing thermal conductance have been achieved ranging from 3 W m {sup -2} K{sup -1} (for vacuum glazing with no internal low emittance coating) to 0.8 W m {sup -2} K {sup -1} (for samples with two internal low emittance coatings). The overall heat transport rate through 1 m x 1 m samples of vacuum glazing has been measured in accurately calibrated guarded hot box instruments. The results obtained agree to within experimental error ({+-} 6%) with those estimated on the basis of local measurements of heat transfer due to radiation, pillar conduction and lateral heat flow through the edge seal. Sources of mechanical tensile stress in vacuum glazing are identified. Stresses due to atmospheric pressure occur in the vicinity of the pillars, and (in poorly designed glazing) near the edge seal. Stresses due to temperature differences are influenced by many factors including the external heat transfer coefficients, level of insulation of the glazing, edge insulation, and edge constraints. Methods of estimating these stresses are discussed. It is shown that vacuum glazing can be designed with adequately low stresses, and low thermal conductance. (author)

  17. A laboratory analogue of current-topography interaction in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Adekunle; Sommeria, Joel; Raja, Keshav; Staquet, Chantal; Viboud, Samuel; Voisin, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an active site of turbulent mixing in the circulation of Southern Ocean (SO). This is attributed to the instabilities of waves and eddies resulting from the interaction of geostrophic flow with bottom topography. For the first time, the dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is reproduced in the laboratory using the rotating Coriolis platform with diameter 13m. The tank is filled with a 1m thick layer of uniformly stratified salt water. A uniform circular current around the tank is produced by a small change of tank rotation speed which persists by inertia for the duration of the experiment, during which the flow conditions can be considered quasi-steady. Spherical cap(s) was introduce as bottom topography in the flow configuration. The experimental module was divided into two cases: with Coriolis effect and without Coriolis effect. Several experiments with multiple caps to mimic rough topography features were conducted with various values of Froude and Rossby number. Waves and eddies resulting from the interaction of the flow with the topography were studied. It was realised that rotation greatly enhances vertical transport of momentum from the bottom. Inertial oscillations were observed and likely contribute to this transport. Turbulence generation was observed close the topography but also in the fluid interior far above it, which presumably results from wave breaking. Consistently, analysis of the density probes showed vertical mixing in the water column both at the bottom and in the interior. The link with the theoretical modelling by Nikurashin & Ferrari (2010) and Labreuche et al. (2016) will be discussed.

  18. Current Trends in Science | 1-Overview | 5-Publications | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar and Shiv K. Sarin. pp 419-429. Cognitive neuroscience: Development and prospects. Michael I. Posner and Shobini Rao. pp 431-436. The ascent of public health science. V. Raman Kutty. pp 437-452. Stem cells: Concepts and prospects. Savneet Kaur and C. C. Kartha. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES.

  19. Studying Science Teacher Identity: Current Insights and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10?years an increasing number of articles have been published in leading science education journals that report on research about teacher identity and describe interventions that support teacher identity development. My purpose in this review paper is to examine how the construct of science teacher identity has been conceptualised…

  20. Embedding Probeware Technology in the Context of Ocean Acidification in Elementary Science Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Todd I.; Rye, James A.; Luna, Melissa J.

    2017-08-01

    Research indicates that preservice teacher (PT) education programs can positively impact perceptions of scientific probeware use in K-8 environments. Despite the potential of probeware to improve science instruction and student engagement, its use in elementary education has been limited. Sixty-seven PT enrolled across three sections of an elementary science methods course participated in a mixed-methods study through which they utilized probeware in a thematic experience on ocean acidification. One-way repeated measures ANOVA of pre and post survey data measuring subscales of utility, ability, and intent to use probeware demonstrated a statistically significant increase with medium to large effect sizes for all subscales across all sections (pclimate change and engaging in argument from evidence.

  1. The Smartfin: How Citizen Scientist Surfers Could Help Inform Coastal Ocean Science and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems only represent a small percentage of the global ocean's surface area. However, these ecosystems are highly productive, rich in biodiversity, and are where the vast majority of human activity occurs. The complex interaction between seawater, land, and atmosphere makes coastal ecosystems some of the most dynamic in terms of seawater chemistry. In order to capture these dynamic changes in seawater chemistry across appropriate spatial and temporal scales requires a large amount of measurements. Unfortunately, it is often challenging to maintain an array of oceanographic sensors in coastal ecosystems, especially in high energy areas like the surf zone. Citizen science has the potential to increase the collection of oceanographic data from coastal systems where traditional methods are more difficult or expensive to implement. This talk will highlight the Smartfin, a surfboard mounted fin that measures seawater chemical parameters, physical wave characteristics, and GPS location during an ordinary surf session. Created by environmental non-profit Lost Bird, the Smartfin is a partnership between non-profits (Lost Bird and Surfrider Foundation), researchers (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), engineers (Board Formula), and the citizen science community. With an estimated 23 million surfers worldwide the Smartfin could greatly enhance vital data collection in coastal regions as well as raise awareness about our changing coastal and ocean ecosystems.

  2. Current meter and other data collected using current meter casts from R/V RESEARCHER and R/V CALANUS in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean as part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean Circulation Study (EPOCS) and Subtropical Atlantic Current Study (STACS), 23 March 1983 - 19 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8700226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected using current meter casts from R/V RESEARCHER and R/V CALANUS in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean from March 23, 1983 to...

  3. Southern Ocean overturning across streamlines in an eddying simulation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Treguier

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An eddying global model is used to study the characteristics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC in a streamline-following framework. Previous model-based estimates of the meridional circulation were calculated using zonal averages: this method leads to a counter-intuitive poleward circulation of the less dense waters, and underestimates the eddy effects. We show that on the contrary, the upper ocean circulation across streamlines agrees with the theoretical view: an equatorward mean flow partially cancelled by a poleward eddy mass flux. Two model simulations, in which the buoyancy forcing above the ACC changes from positive to negative, suggest that the relationship between the residual meridional circulation and the surface buoyancy flux is not as straightforward as assumed by the simplest theoretical models: the sign of the residual circulation cannot be inferred from the surface buoyancy forcing only. Among the other processes that likely play a part in setting the meridional circulation, our model results emphasize the complex three-dimensional structure of the ACC (probably not well accounted for in streamline-averaged, two-dimensional models and the distinct role of temperature and salinity in the definition of the density field. Heat and salt transports by the time-mean flow are important even across time-mean streamlines. Heat and salt are balanced in the ACC, the model drift being small, but the nonlinearity of the equation of state cannot be ignored in the density balance.

  4. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Harsh R; Martinez, Luis R

    2016-03-01

    Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K-12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community.

  5. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh R. Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K–12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community.

  6. Millennial-scale Agulhas Current variability and its implications for salt-leakage through the Indian-Atlantic Ocean Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Margit H.; Arthur, Kristina L.; Hall, Ian R.; Peeters, Frank J. C.; Loveday, Benjamin R.; Barker, Stephen; Ziegler, Martin; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    The inter-ocean exchange of warm and salt-enriched waters around South Africa (Agulhas leakage), may have played an important role in the mechanism of deglaciations. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from the Agulhas leakage corridor show that leakage maxima occurred during glacial terminations. Therefore enhanced leakage has been suggested as a forcing mechanism to shift the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation into the interglacial mode of circulation. At present, studies have not considered that upstream changes in the properties of the Agulhas Current itself may, in part, explain the observed variability in the Agulhas leakage and play an important role in defining the upper ocean hydrography of the South Atlantic. Here, we present a multi-proxy record from a marine sediment core (CD154 17-17K) located in the main trajectory of the Agulhas Current that spans the past 100 kyr. The record shows considerable variability in reconstructed upper ocean temperatures and salinity. We also find that the relative abundance of tropical and sub-tropical planktic foraminifera, previously used as a proxy for Agulhas leakage fauna, shows considerable upstream variability, likely reflecting changes in the hydrography of the southwest Indian Ocean sub-gyre (SWIOSG) and upper ocean temperatures. Idealised numerical model simulations demonstrate that both a shifting and an intensification of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies modify the vigour of the SWIOSG. These changes also drive increased kinetic and eddy variability in the Agulhas Return Current that potentially enhances cross frontal mixing of southern sourced waters into the SWIOSG system. Our results suggest that variability in the upstream Agulhas Current hydrography is strongly linked to the dynamics of the Agulhas Return Current and strength of the SWIOSG and that downstream variability in the leakage area (Atlantic sector) at least partly reflects regional variations of the Agulhas Current as a whole.

  7. Using integrated, ecosystem-level management to address intensifying ocean acidification and hypoxia in the California Current large marine ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrie Klinger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is intensifying and hypoxia is projected to expand in the California Current large marine ecosystem as a result of processes associated with the global emission of CO2. Observed changes in the California Current outpace those in many other areas of the ocean, underscoring the pressing need to adopt management approaches that can accommodate uncertainty and the complicated dynamics forced by accelerating change. We argue that changes occurring in the California Current large marine ecosystem provide opportunities and incentives to adopt an integrated, systems-level approach to resource management to preserve existing ecosystem services and forestall abrupt change. Practical options already exist to maximize the benefits of management actions and ameliorate impending change in the California Current, for instance, adding ocean acidification and hypoxia to design criteria for marine protected areas, including consideration of ocean acidification and hypoxia in fisheries management decisions, and fully enforcing existing laws and regulations that govern water quality and land use and development.

  8. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: a temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aken, HM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of heat and salt between the South Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean, at the southern terminus of the Agulhas current, forms a crucial link in the global ocean circulation. It has been surmised that upstream retroflections...

  9. Assessing Current State Science Teaching and Learning Standards for Ability to Achieve Climate Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    Even though there exists a high degree of consensus among scientists about climate change, doubt has actually increased over the last five years within the general U.S. public. In 2006, 79% of those polled agreed that there is evidence for global warming, while only 59% agreed in 2010 (Pew Research Center, 2010). The source for this doubt can be partially attributed to lack of knowledge. Formal education is one mechanism that potentially can address inadequate public understanding as school is the primary place where students - and future citizens - learn about the climate. In a joint effort, several governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, scientists and educators have created a framework called The Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy, detailing seven concepts that are deemed vital for individuals and communities to understand Earth's climate system (USGCRP, 2009). Can students reach climate literacy - as defined by these 7 concepts - if they are taught using a curriculum based on the current state standards? To answer this question, the K-12 state science teaching and learning standards for Texas and California - two states that heavily influence nation-wide textbook creation - were compared against the Essential Principles. The data analysis consisted of two stages, looking for: 1) direct reference to "climate" and "climate change" and 2) indirect reference to the 7 Essential Principles through axial coding. The word "climate" appears in the California K-12 science standards 4 times and in the Texas standards 7 times. The word "climate change" appears in the California and Texas standards only 3 times each. Indirect references to the 7 Essential Principles of climate science literacy were more numerous. Broadly, California covered 6 of the principles while Texas covered all 7. In looking at the 7 principles, the second one "Climate is regulated by complex interactions among component of the Earth system" was the most substantively

  10. Exploring the Oceans in 4D: Using Paleoceanography to Engage Students in Interdisciplinary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Fournier, A.; Paxson, M.; Grant, C.; MacFadden, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent collaborations between educators and scientists have helped to change the face of K-12 education and allow for the development of curricula that closely mimic real word scientific inquiry in ever more accessible formats. Here we capitalize on collaborations established by the Great American Biotic Interchange - Research Experience for Teachers (GABI-RET) and the Panama Canal Project - Partnerships in International Research and Education (PCP-PIRE) to create a series of hands-on activities that investigate the dynamic response of various components of the Earth's system to changes in ocean gateways through time. In particular, we focus on the rise of the Isthmus of Panama and subsequent closure of the Central American Seaway that provide an opportune platform for the interdisciplinary teaching of multiple secondary education topics. Relevant themes include, but are not limited to, geologic time, dating techniques, plate tectonics, ocean circulation, climate, and the speciation/diversification of life. We have taken a versatile approach to these activities by simulating deep sea sediment cores, complete with 3D printed microfossils and related data, that allow students to actively apply the scientific method to simplified geologic archives, graph and assess evidence, and debate their findings in a project based format. The exercises themselves are designed to meet Next Generation and Florida State Science Standards for 6th grade Earth Science and 12th grade Environmental Management/Science classes, though the nature of the activities can be adapted to intermediary skill levels with relative ease. The project kit is designed for use in classrooms without ready access to computers or microscopes and the associated lesson plans/materials will be made available through the GABI-RET and PaleoTEACH websites.

  11. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Pathology, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to determine the current status of and to detect any long-term trends in the environmental quality of U.S. nearshore waters, NOAA initiated the National...

  12. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project DNA-Xenobiotic Adducts Data, 1991, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to determine the current status of and to detect any long-term trends in the environmental quality of U.S. nearshore waters, NOAA initiated the National...

  13. Current Approaches to Funding University Science in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Burdonos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the impact of financial provision of university research on the economic growth and development of science and knowledge economy. With the help of the analysis of modern approaches to university research in foreign countries, its development trends and prospects in the context of reform implementation in Ukraine are determined. Improvement of the organizational and economic mechanism of science at all levels - from higher education institution to the state as a whole, aimed at getting the most out of the highly potential high school remains topical.

  14. Zonal and Meridional Ocean Currents at TOPEX/Poseidon and JASON-1 Crossovers around Taiwan: Error Analysis and Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A crossover method for determining zonal and meridional ocean current components is examined using data at three crossovers of TOPEX/Poseidon and JASON-1 ground tracks over 2002 - 2006. To implement this method, a geoid model around Taiwan is constructed using surface and airborne gravity data. The modeled and observed geoidal heights at coastal benchmarks are consistent to 5 cm RMS with the means removed. The error and limitation of this method are discussed, concluding that, in order to obtain current velocities at a 10 cm s-1 accuracy and a 6-km resolution, the dynamic ocean topography (DOT at a mm-level accuracy is needed, which is not possible to achieve today. By filtering DOT to a spatial scale of 100 km or coarser, a 10 cm s-1 accuracy of velocity may be obtained. One crossover (A is situated south of Taiwan and near the Kuroshio, the second (B is at the axis of the Kuroshio and the third is located in the northern Taiwan Strait. These three crossovers feature different ocean current patterns. At a spatial scale of 120 km, the agreement among the altimeter, the Princeton Ocean Model (POM, and the drifter-derived velocities is the best at B, followed by that at A, and then C. In fact, at C the altimeter-derived velocities contradict the POM-derived values, and the tide model error is to be blamed. Further improvement on geoid modeling is suggested.

  15. Ocean Surface Current Vectors from MODIS Terra/Aqua Sea Surface Temperature Image Pairs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellites that record imagery of the same sea surface area, at times separated by a few hours, can be used to estimate ocean surface velocity fields based on the...

  16. APPLICATIONS OF GODAE OCEAN CURRENT FORECASTS TO SEARCH AND RESCUE AND SHIP ROUTING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FRASER J.M. DAVIDSON; ARTHUR ALLEN; GARY B. BRASSINGTON; ØYVIND BREIVIK; PIERRE DANIEL; MASAFUMI KAMACHI; SATOSHI SATO; BRIAN KING; FABIEN LEFEVRE; MARION SUTTON; HIDEKI KANEKO

    2009-01-01

    .... In this article, we review present uses of GODAE ocean forecast systems for various safety applications at sea, including search and rescue drift calculations, iceberg drift calculations, ice cover...

  17. current.html | jess | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SPEAKER: Prof. Krishnaswamy Ravi-Chandar. VENUE: Faculty Hall, Indian Institute of Science. 23 February 2018 ǀ 1500. Event poster · Introducing: Summer Schools. Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and ...

  18. Gravitational biology and space life sciences: Current status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gravitational and space biology organizations and journals. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics ... importance of International Space Station for life sciences. http://asgsb.org/index.php. Astrobiology Magazine. ... Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The site provides information about activities, ...

  19. Bioinformatics: Current practice and future challenges for life science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Catherine; Kendall, Gary

    2005-03-01

    It is widely predicted that the application of high-throughput technologies to the quantification and identification of biological molecules will cause a paradigm shift in the life sciences. However, if the biosciences are to evolve from a predominantly descriptive discipline to an information science, practitioners will require enhanced skills in mathematics, computing, and statistical analysis. Universities have responded to the widely perceived skills gap primarily by developing masters programs in bioinformatics, resulting in a rapid expansion in the provision of postgraduate bioinformatics education. There is, however, a clear need to improve the quantitative and analytical skills of life science undergraduates. This article reviews the response of academia in the United Kingdom and proposes the learning outcomes that graduates should achieve to cope with the new biology. While the analysis discussed here uses the development of bioinformatics education in the United Kingdom as an illustrative example, it is hoped that the issues raised will resonate with all those involved in curriculum development in the life sciences. Copyright © 2005 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Highlighting patterns of fungal diversity and composition shaped by ocean currents using the East China Sea as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Mengmeng; Pan, Haoqin; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Liang, Shengkang; Guo, Jiajia; Luo, Tian; Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Shoumei; Cai, Lei

    2017-11-25

    How ocean currents shape fungal transport, dispersal and more broadly fungal biogeography remains poorly understood. The East China Sea (ECS) is a complex and dynamic habitat with different water masses blending microbial communities. The internal transcribed spacer 2 region of fungal rDNA was analysed in water and sediment samples directly collected from the coastal (CWM), Kuroshio (KSWM), Taiwan warm (TWM) and the shelf mixed water mass (MWM), coupled with hydrographic properties measurements, to determine how ocean currents impact the fungal community composition. Almost 9k fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) spanning six phyla, 25 known classes, 102 orders and 694 genera were obtained. The typical terrestrial and freshwater fungal genus, Byssochlamys, was dominant in the CWM, while increasing abundance of a specific OTU affiliated with Aspergillus was revealed from coastal to open ocean water masses (TWM and KSWM). Compared with water samples, sediment harboured an increased diversity with distinct fungal communities. The proximity of the Yangtze and Qiantang estuaries homogenizes the surface water and sediment communities. A significant influence of ocean currents on community structure was found, which is believed to reduce proportionally the variation explained by environmental parameters at the scale of the total water masses. Dissolved oxygen and depth were identified as the major parameters structuring the fungal community. Our results indicate that passive fungal dispersal driven by ocean currents and river run-off, in conjunction with the distinct hydrographic conditions of individual water masses, shapes the fungal community composition and distribution pattern in the ECS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Study of the velocity field of surface currents in the South Atlantic Ocean derived from drifting buoy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1442 data series of 996 drifters from public and research databases were analyzed in order to decompose and to estimate the velocity field of surface currents between 30º S and 50º S in the South Atlantic Ocean, with emphasis on the South Atlantic Current (SAC. The SAC is the southernmost limit of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and presents strong interaction with other currents such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC. The data were processed according to the Taylor's theory. The velocity field map for the study area as well as the mean values of the current intensity and associated standard deviation are presented and discussed. The highest estimated values of the average current velocity are located at the origin of the SAC and at the Malvinas Current (MC. The mean intensity of the SAC is approximately 30 cm.s-1 and the highest intensity values are observed at its origin decaying towards east. The SAC comprises a system containing a main axis and two branches, north and south. The N-SAC feeds the Benguela Current and the S-SAC leaks to the east towards the Indian Ocean. The flow pattern observed for the SAC presents a meandering characteristics and high variability in the regions where it interacts with other currents and mesoscale features.

  2. Ten Years of Observatory Science from Saanich Inlet on the VENUS Cabled Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Macoun, P.; Round, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Saanich Inlet array of the VENUS cabled ocean observatory, maintained and operated by Ocean Networks Canada, was installed in February 2006, and in 2016 will have supported ten years of comprehensive interactive science. Representing the first in the present generation of cabled observing technologies, this coastal array has provided continuous high power and broadband communications to a variety of instrument platforms, hundreds of sensors, and enabled dozens of short, medium, and long-term studies. Saanich Inlet is a protected fjord with limited tidal action, resulting in an extremely productive environment, with strong seasonal chemical variations driven by episodic deep water renewal events and oxygen reduction processes. The breadth of the research has included microbial and benthic community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, forensics, quantifying inter-annual variations, benthic-pelagic coupling, sensor testing, plankton dynamics, and bio-turbulence. Observatory measurements include core water properties (CTD & O2) and water-column echo-sounder records, as well as experiment-oriented deployments utilizing cameras, Gliders, Dopplers, hydrophones, and a variety of biogeochemical sensors. With a recently installed Buoy Profiler System for monitoring the entire water column, community plans continue with a dedicated Redox experiment through the 2016-17 seasons. Highlights from the dozens of research papers and theses will be presented to demonstrate the achievements enabled by a comprehensive coastal cabled observing system.

  3. A Two-Ocean Bouillabaisse: Science, Politics, and the Central American Sea-Level Canal Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, Christine

    2017-11-01

    As the Panama Canal approached its fiftieth anniversary in the mid-1960s, U.S. officials concerned about the costs of modernization welcomed the technology of peaceful nuclear excavation to create a new waterway at sea level. Biologists seeking a share of the funds slated for radiological-safety studies called attention to another potential effect which they deemed of far greater ecological and evolutionary magnitude - marine species exchange, an obscure environmental issue that required the expertise of underresourced life scientists. An enterprising endeavor to support Smithsonian naturalists, especially marine biologists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, wound up sparking heated debates - between biologists and engineers about the oceans' biological integrity and among scientists about whether the megaproject represented a research opportunity or environmental threat. A National Academy of Sciences panel chaired by Ernst Mayr failed to attract congressional funding for its 10-year baseline research program, but did create a stir in the scientific and mainstream press about the ecological threats that the sea-level canal might unleash upon the Atlantic and Pacific. This paper examines how the proposed megaproject sparked a scientific and political conversation about the risks of mixing the oceans at a time when many members of the scientific and engineering communities still viewed the seas as impervious to human-facilitated change.

  4. Indian Ocean Surface Circulations and Their Connection to Indian Ocean Dipole, Identified From Ocean Surface Currents Analysis Real Time (OSCAR) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    49 C. THE EASTWARD EQUATORIAL JET (OR WYRTKI JET) ................50 D. COMPLEX EFO ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT DATA ALONG THE...and b. D. COMPLEX EFO ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT DATA ALONG THE EQUATOR AND COMPARISON WITH DMI To see the variance in the spatial patterns along

  5. OBIS-USA: Enhancing Ocean Science Outcomes through Data Interoperability and Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, P.; Fornwall, M.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial and industrial information systems have long built and relied upon standard data formats and transactions. Business processes, analytics, applications, and social networks emerge on top of these standards to create value. Examples of value delivered include operational productivity, analytics that enable growth and profit, and enhanced human communication and creativity for innovation. In science informatics, some research and operational activities operate with only scattered adoption of standards and few of the emergent benefits of interoperability. In-situ biological data management in the marine domain is an exemplar. From the origination of biological occurrence records in surveys, observer programs, monitoring and experimentation, through distribution techniques, to applications, decisions, and management response, marine biological data can be difficult, limited, and costly to integrate because of non-standard and undocumented conditions in the data. While this presentation identifies deficits in marine biological data practices, the presentation also identifies this as a field of opportunity. Standards for biological data and metadata do exist, with growing global adoption and extensibility features. Scientific, economic, and social-value motivations provide incentives to maximize marine science investments. Diverse science communities of national and international scale begin to see benefits of collaborative technologies. OBIS-USA (http://USGS.gov/obis-usa) is a program of the United States Geological Survey. This presentation shows how OBIS-USA directly addresses the opportunity to enhance ocean science outcomes through data infrastructure, including: (1) achieving rapid, economical, and high-quality data capture and data flow, (2) offering technology for data storage and methods for data discovery and quality/suitability evaluation, (3) making data understandable and consistent for application purposes, (4) distributing and integrating data in

  6. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Circulation and water mass properties in a meander of the North Pacific Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2016-09-01

    A Seaglider autonomous underwater vehicle augmented the Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W) surface mooring, measuring spatial structure on scales relevant to the monthly evolution of the moored time series. During each of three missions from June 2008 to January 2010, a Seaglider made biweekly 50 km × 50 km surveys in a bowtie-shaped survey track. Horizontal temperature and salinity gradients measured by these surveys were an order of magnitude stronger than climatological values and sometimes of opposite sign. Geostrophically inferred circulation was corroborated by moored acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements and AVISO satellite altimetry estimates of surface currents, confirming that glider surveys accurately resolved monthly scale mesoscale spatial structure. In contrast to climatological North Pacific Current circulation, upper-ocean flow was modestly northward during the first half of the 18 month survey period, and weakly westward during its latter half, with Rossby number O>(0.01>). This change in circulation coincided with a shift from cool and fresh to warm, saline, oxygen-rich water in the upper-ocean halocline, and an increase in vertical fine structure there and in the lower pycnocline. The anomalous flow and abrupt water mass transition were due to the slow growth of an anticyclonic meander within the North Pacific Current with radius comparable to the scale of the survey pattern, originating to the southeast of OSP.

  7. Inquiry-Driven Field-Based (IDFB) Ocean Science Classes: an Important Role in College Students' Development as Scientists, and Student Retention in the Geo-science Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, N. L.

    2004-12-01

    Experiential learning, engaging students in the process of science, can not only teach students important skills and knowledge, it can also help them become connected with the process on a personal level. This study investigates the role that Inquiry-Driven Field-Based (IDFB) experiences (primarily field classes) in ocean science have on undergraduate science students' development as ocean scientists. Both cognitive (knowledge-based) and affective (motivation and attitude) measures most important to students were used as indicators of development. Major themes will be presented to illustrate how IDFB science experiences can enhance the academic and personal development of students of science. Through their active engagement in the process of science, students gain important skills and knowledge as well as increased confidence, motivation, and ability to plan for their future (in particular their career and educational pathways). This growth is an important part of their development as scientists; the IDFB experience provides them a way to build a relationship with the world of science, and to better understand what science is, what scientists do, and their own future role as scientists. IDFB experiences have a particularly important role in affective measures of development: students develop an important personal connection to science. By doing science, students learn to be scientists and to understand science and science concepts in context. Many underrepresented students do not have the opportunity to take IDFB classes, and addressing this access issue could be an important step towards engaging more underrepresented students in the field. The nature of IDFB experiences and their impact on students makes them a potentially important mechanism for retaining students in the geo-science `pipeline'.

  8. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, J.P. [J. P. Consulting, Monterey, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

  9. Current Developments in Basic Space Science in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, P. N.

    Astronomy is important to developing African countries. In this paper, a brief review of the situation of astronomical research in Africa before 1991 is given. During that period only South Africa and Egypt were carrying out observational research in astronomy. In other African countries astronomy research was in its infancy, except the University of Nigeria Space Research Centre (UNNSRC) in theoretical areas. A summary of the important recommendations for Africa at the United Nations/ European Space Agency (UN/ESA) series of workshops on basic space science were itemized to help identify those which have now been accomplished. Additionally, UNNSRC has now embarked on further observational programmes through the establishment of strong collaborative ventures with two observatories in South Africa, the Hartesbeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory (Hart RAO) and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). UNNSRC has also made permanent arrangements with HartRAO, SAAO, and the Jodrell Bank for collaborations in data analysis. A new interest in astronomy appears to have awakened in Nigeria with three more universities joining this area of basic space science. It is recommended that the time has come for all African countries to contribute towards a common facility such as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The efforts of UN/ESA which resulted in tremendous achievements are commended.

  10. Ocean currents and acoustic backscatter data from shipboard ADCP measurements at three North Atlantic seamounts between 2004 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Christian; Denda, Anneke; Christiansen, Svenja; Kaufmann, Manfred; Peine, Florian; Springer, Barbara; Turnewitsch, Robert; Christiansen, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Seamounts are amongst the most common physiographic structures of the deep-ocean landscape, but remoteness and geographic complexity have limited the systematic collection of integrated and multidisciplinary data in the past. Consequently, important aspects of seamount ecology and dynamics remain poorly studied. We present a data collection of ocean currents and raw acoustic backscatter from shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements during six cruises between 2004 and 2015 in the tropical and subtropical Northeast Atlantic to narrow this gap. Measurements were conducted at seamount locations between the island of Madeira and the Portuguese mainland (Ampère, Seine Seamount), as well as east of the Cape Verde archipelago (Senghor Seamount). The dataset includes two-minute ensemble averaged continuous velocity and backscatter profiles, supplemented by spatially gridded maps for each velocity component, error velocity and local bathymetry. The dataset is freely available from the digital data library PANGAEA at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.883193.

  11. Ocean warming and seabird communities of the southern California Current System (1987-98): response at multiple temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrenbach, K. David; Veit, Richard R.

    2003-08-01

    Declines in ocean productivity and shifts in species assemblages along the West Coast of North America during the second half of the XXth century have been attributed to the concurrent warming of the California Current. This paper addresses changes in the avifauna off southern California between May 1987 and September 1998, in response to shifting water mass distributions over short (seabird abundance decreased; the relative importance of cold-water seabirds that dive in pursuit of prey declined; and warm-water species that feed at the surface and plunge to capture prey became more numerous. These community-level changes are consistent with the northward shifts in species ranges and the declining ocean productivity anticipated as a result of global warming. However, the response of individual taxa with an affinity for warm-water and cold-water conditions has been more difficult to predict, due to differences in species-specific responses to ocean warming. The three cold-water species investigated (Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, and Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) decreased in abundance during this study. On the other hand, only one of the six warm-water species considered (Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus) increased significantly over the long term. Yet, the warm-water Leach's Storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa) increased between 1987 and 1993, and then declined between 1994 and 1998. Moreover, cross-correlations between seasonally adjusted anomalies of bird abundance and ocean temperature revealed that seabirds responded differently to ocean warming over intermediate (1-8 years), and long (8-12 years) time scales. We hypothesize that this nonlinear behavior of seabird populations in response to ocean warming is caused by the juxtaposition of distinct behavioral and demographic responses operating at different temporal scales.

  12. Current and other data from fixed platforms from the South Atlantic Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 1975-02-22 to 1980-02-24 (NODC Accession 9500011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current and other data were collected from fixed platforms in the South Atlantic Ocean from 22 February 1975 to 24 February 1980. Data were collected by the Texas...

  13. An observational study of the western boundary currents in the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsoni, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we have investigated different aspects of the WBCs in the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans, based on observational data sampled both in situ and from satellites. In October 2010 an array of five moorings were deployed off eastern Madagascar, nominally at 23S, as part of the

  14. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    selected ocean regions. He is well known for his of an interesting wave climate analysis (with Dr. discovery of a remote technique for estimating tidal...regions of relatively shallow water. sage of a front, and the simple procedure for esti- Motions are caused by both thermohaline mating the wind at the

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon as part of the Low Level Waste Ocean Disposal project from 13 August 1979 - 27 September 1984 (NODC Accession 9500016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon from August 13, 1979 to September 27, 1984. Data...

  16. Current direction, wind wave spectra, and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1982-09-15 to 1983-09-15 (NODC Accession 8500148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, wind wave spectra, and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Gulf of Mexico from September 3, 1982 to September...

  17. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 1980-09-23 to 1980-12-01 (NODC Accession 8100469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii from September 23, 1980 to December 1, 1980. Data were submitted...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 15 February 1979 - 01 February 1980 (NODC Accession 8100608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from February 15, 1979 to February 1, 1980. Data were submitted by University...

  19. A pivotal role for ocean eddies in the distribution of microbial communities across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarthan Venkatachalam

    Full Text Available Mesoscale variability and associated eddy fluxes play crucial roles in ocean circulation dynamics and the ecology of the upper ocean. In doing so, these features are biologically important, providing a mechanism for the mixing and exchange of nutrients and biota within the ocean. Transient mesoscale eddies in the Southern Ocean are known to relocate zooplankton communities across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC and are important foraging grounds for marine top predators. In this study we investigated the role of cyclonic and anti-cyclonic eddies formed at the South-West Indian Ridge on the spatial variability and diversity of microbial communities. We focused on two contrasting adjacent eddies within the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone to determine how these features may influence the microbial communities within this region. The water masses and microbiota of the two eddies, representative of a cyclonic cold core from the Antarctic zone and an anti-cyclonic warm-core from the Subantarctic zone, were compared. The data reveal that the two eddies entrain distinct microbial communities from their points of origin that are maintained for up to ten months. Our findings highlight the ecological impact that changes, brought by the translocation of eddies across the ACC, have on microbial diversity.

  20. Resuspension and Shelf-Deep Ocean Exchange in the Northern California Current: New Insights From Underwater Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, A.; Barth, J. A.; Shearman, R. K.; Pierce, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Shelf-deep ocean exchange is dominated by wind-driven upwelling and downwelling in the northern California Current. The interaction of strong, along-shelf jets with coastline and bottom topographic features can also create significant cross-margin exchange. We are using data from over 60,000 kilometers of autonomous underwater glider tracks to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of shelf-deep ocean exchange off central Oregon. Year-round glider observations of temperature, salinity, depth-averaged currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, light backscatter, and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence from a single cross-margin transect are used to examine shelf-deep ocean exchange mechanisms. During summer, cross-margin exchange is dominated by wind-driven upwelling and the relaxation or reversal of the dominant southward winds. This process has been fairly well observed and studied due to the relatively low sea states and winds during summer. There is far less data from fall and winter off Oregon, a time of strong winds and large waves. We use autonomous underwater gliders to sample during the winter, including through the fall and spring transitions. Glider observations of suspended material detected via light backscatter, show time-space variations in resuspension in the bottom boundary layer due to winds, waves and currents. Examples of shelf-deep ocean exchange are shown by layers with high light backscatter separating from the bottom near the shelf break and extending into the interior along isopycnals. We describe these features and events in relationship to wind-forcing, along-shelf flows, and other forcing mechanisms.

  1. Managing ocean information in the digital era--events in Canada open questions about the role of marine science libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Peter G

    2014-06-15

    Information is the foundation of evidence-based policies for effective marine environmental protection and conservation. In Canada, the cutback of marine science libraries introduces key questions about the role of such institutions and the management of ocean information in the digital age. How vital are such libraries in the mission of studying and protecting the oceans? What is the fate and value of the massive grey literature holdings, including archival materials, much of which is not in digital form but which often contains vital data? How important is this literature generally in the marine environmental sciences? Are we likely to forget the history of the marine pollution field if our digital focus eclipses the need for and access to comprehensive collections and skilled information specialists? This paper explores these and other questions against the backdrop of unprecedented changes in the federal libraries, marine environmental science and legislation in Canada. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-frequency variability of Western Boundary Currents in the turbulent ocean: intrinsic modes and atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérazin, Guillaume; Penduff, Thierry; Terray, Laurent; Grégorio, Sandy; Barnier, Bernard; Molines, Jean-Marc

    2015-04-01

    Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes are particularly strong in Western Boundary Current (WBC) regions where SST front variations influence basin-scale climate variability. Observed low-frequency fluctuations in latitude and strength of these oceanic jets are classically thought to be essentially atmospherically-driven by wind stress curl variability via the oceanic Rossby wave adjustment. Yet academic eddy-resolving process-oriented models with double-gyre configurations have revealed that an idealized WBC may exhibit low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations without low-frequency external forcing (e.g. Berloff et al., 2007, Dijkstra and Ghil, 2005, etc). Experiments with eddying Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) have also shown that the amount of low-frequency Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) variability is largely intrinsic in WBCs (Penduff et al. 2011; Sérazin et al 2014) and that the frontal-scale (<10°) pattern of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) variability is similar to intrinsic modes (Taguchi et al. 2010). Based on a pair of atmospherically-forced 1/12° OGCM experiments that simulate with accuracy either the intrinsic variability (seasonally-forced) or the observed total variability (forced with the full range of atmospheric timescales), Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis is performed on zonally-averaged SLA fields of four main WBCs (e.g. Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Extension, Agulhas Current and East Australian Current). The first two modes of the KE and GS exhibit a similar spatial structure that is shaped by oceanic intrinsic processes. The frequency content is however different between the intrinsic and total Principal Components, the former containing a wide range of timescales similar to a red noise and the latter being more autocorrelated at interannual-to-decadal timescales. These modes are compared with those obtained from the 20 years of altimetry observation and relationships with low-frequency westward propagative features in the respective oceanic basin are

  3. Hypertelescopes: potential science gains, current testing and prospects in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeyrie, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the way of giant dilute telescopes, the hypertelescope is a many-aperture interferometer, which provides direct high resolution images with efficient light concentration. Pending future versions in space, a prototype terrestrial hypertelescope is under test in a high valley of the southern Alps. A moving focal gondola, suspended 101 m above small static mirrors, is driven under computer control with millimeter accuracy. The coude focus at ground level has been qualified by observing a Vega image focused by one of the mirrors and transmitted through the gondola. Upgrades under way for multi-beam interference include full autoguiding, the installation of several cameras on the gondola and adaptive optics for cophasing. Science observing is expected to begin in a few years, and other potential sites are considered for a larger meta-aperture, in the kilometer range. Future space versions, utilizing a 10-1000 km flotilla of small mirrors, are also considered and proposed to NASA and ESA, but require different technical developments.

  4. Symposium on Current Research in the Chemical Sciences: Third Annual Southern Station Chemical Sciences Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy G. Rials; [Editor

    1994-01-01

    The original charter for this annual meeting of chemical sciences personnel called for an informal atmosphere for the discussion of common concerns and needs. The years have seen the definition of our "common concern" evolve into a sharing of our efforts in applying the science of chemistry to the resolution of problems faced by our forest resource. I believe...

  5. Experimental investigation of the relationship between HF radar measurements of currents and the dynamical properties of the upper ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunie, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Forget P., Barbin Y., Bellomo L., Doglioli, *Lecuyer E., Fraunié P., Malengros D., Marmain J., Molcard A., Petrenko A., Quentin C., *Sentchev A. Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography-MIO UM 110 UTLN - AMU - CNRS/INSU 7294 - IRD 235 BP 20132 F-83957 La Garde cedex *Laboratoire d'Océanologie et Géosciences CNRS UMR 8187 LOG Université du Littoral - Côte d'Opale 32 avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux The increasing application of HF radio-oceanography for coastal circulation monitoring requires a validation of the radar derived current velocities using independent velocity estimates. Surface currents measured by radar, as they are relative to some finite patch of the sea (the radar cell), depend on the spatial distribution of the current within the radar cell, its time variability, its vertical structure near the surface and the presence of ocean waves. We present an experimental investigation conducted in the NW Mediterranean to measure radial surface currents by HF radar simultaneously to the dynamical properties of the surface ocean. These latter included high resolution current profiling by ADCP, microprofiling of temperature/salinity by SCAMP and Lagrangian velocities from surface drifting buoys. All the data were GPS geo-localized. The current profiling by towed ADCP was performed along the radar beam directions. The poster shows the first results of the experiment and presents samples of the 3D structure of the horizontal current (down to 15m and over some km2) and of the stratification. The spatial distribution of the surface currents is described from Lagrangian measurements. The radar derived surface currents are discussed on the basis of these in situ data. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the LEFE IMAGO program of CNRS -INSU, project SUBCORAD.

  6. Decadal fCO2 trends in global ocean margins and adjacent boundary current-influenced areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjie; Hu, Xinping; Cai, Wei-Jun; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair

    2017-09-01

    Determination of the rate of change of sea surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2) is important, as the fCO2 gradient between the atmosphere and the ocean determines the direction of CO2 flux and hence the fate of this greenhouse gas. Using a newly available, community-based global CO2 database (Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Version 3 coastal data set) and a newly developed statistical method, we report that the global ocean margins (within 400 km offshore, 30°S-70°N) fCO2 temporal trends on decadal time scales (1.93 ± 1.59 μatm yr-1) closely follow the atmospheric fCO2 increase rate (1.90 ± 0.06 μatm yr-1) in the Northern Hemisphere but are lower (1.35 ± 0.55 μatm yr-1) in the Southern Hemisphere, reflecting dominant atmospheric forcing in conjunction with different warming rates in the two hemispheres. In addition to the atmospheric fCO2 forcing, a direct warming effect contributes more to fCO2 increase in the western boundary current-influenced areas, while intensified upwelling contributes more to fCO2 increase in eastern boundary current-influenced areas.

  7. The Ocean in Depth - Ideas for Using Marine Technology in Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, A.

    2009-04-01

    By deploying camera and video systems on remotely operated diving vehicles (ROVs), new and fascinating insights concerning the functioning of deep ocean ecosystems like cold-water coral reef communities can be gained. Moreover, mapping hot vents at mid-ocean ridge locations, and exploring asphalt and mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea with the aid of video camera systems have illustrated the scientific value of state-of-the-art diving tools. In principle, the deployment of sophisticated marine technology on seagoing expeditions and their results - video tapes and photographs of fascinating submarine environments, publication of new scientific findings - offer unique opportunities for communicating marine sciences. Experience shows that an interest in marine technology can easily be stirred in laypersons if the deployment of underwater vehicles such as ROVs during seagoing expeditions can be presented using catchwords like "discovery", "new frontier", groundbreaking mission", etc. On the other hand, however, a number of restrictions and challenges have to be kept in mind. Communicating marine science in general, and the achievements of marine technology in particular, can only be successful with the application of a well-defined target-audience concept. While national and international TV stations and production companies are very much interested in using high quality underwater video footage, the involvement of journalists and camera teams in seagoing expeditions entails a number a challenges: berths onboard research vessels are limited; safety aspects have to be considered; copyright and utilisation questions of digitalized video and photo material has to be handled with special care. To cite one example: on-board video material produced by professional TV teams cannot be used by the research institute that operated the expedition. This presentation aims at (1)informing members of the scientific community about new opportunities related

  8. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) in 2009: An Overview of the Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Kattsov, V.; Lawford, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Five years ago NEESPI was launched with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects launched in EU, Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with an international participation) with a budget close to $15M annually, the Initiative is in full swing. A new crop of NEESPI projects were launched in 2009 to compensate for the projects that have been completed and the total number of the NEESPI projects practically did not change. Several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at the International Meetings were held during 2009 that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in Central Asia, Siberia and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. An overview NEESPI paper submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society was published in May 2009. Book “Regional Aspects of Climate-Terrestrial-Hydrologic Interactions in Non-boreal Eastern Europe” was published by Springer (Groisman and Ivanov, eds., 2009). Two more books devoted to the high latitudes of Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team are scheduled to appear before the end of this year. In April 2008 NEESPI received an intergovernmental level of support being included in a Memorandum of Understanding for Collaboration in the Fields of Meteorology, Hydrology, and Oceanography between the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. The new level of recognition requires a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, and across disciplines.

  9. Partner-built ecosystem science - The National Ocean Partnership Program as a builder of EBM Tools and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P. L.; Green, R. E.; Kohanowich, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    The National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP) was created in 1997 by federal public law to identify "and carry out partnerships among federal agencies, academia, industry, and other members of the oceanographic scientific community in the areas of data, resources, education, and communications." Since that time, numerous federal agencies have pooled talent, funding, and scientific resources (e.g. ships, aircraft, remote sensors and computing capability) to address pressing ocean science needs which no one entity can manage alone. In this presentation, we will address the ways the National Ocean Policy identifies ecosystem-based management (EBM) as a foundation for providing sound science-based and adaptable management to maintain the health, productivity, and resilience of U.S. ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes ecosystems. Because EBM is an important approach for efficient and effective interagency, multi-jurisdictional, and cross-sectoral marine planning and management, ocean science partnerships such as those provided by NOPP create a pool of regionally-pertinent, nationally-available data from which EBM decision makers can draw to address critical management issues. Specifically, we will provide examples drawn from the last five years of funding to illustrate how the NOPP process works, how it is managed by a federal Interagency Working Group (IWG-OP), and how EBM practitioners can both partner with others through the NOPP and offer guidance on the implementation of projects beneficial to the regional needs of the EBM community. Projects to be discussed have been carried out under the following themes: Arctic Cumulative Impacts: Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES) - Ecosystem Dynamics and Monitoring of the Beaufort Sea: An Integrated Science Approach. Biodiversity Indicators: Demonstration of a U.S. Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (Marine BON) Long-Term Observations: Coordinated Regional Efforts That Further the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System

  10. The impact of the ocean observing system on estimates of the California current circulation spanning three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew M.; Jacox, Michael G.; Crawford, William J.; Laughlin, Bruce; Edwards, Christopher A.; Fiechter, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Data assimilation is now used routinely in oceanography on both regional and global scales for computing ocean circulation estimates and for making ocean forecasts. Regional ocean observing systems are also expanding rapidly, and observations from a wide array of different platforms and sensor types are now available. Evaluation of the impact of the observing system on ocean circulation estimates (and forecasts) is therefore of considerable interest to the oceanographic community. In this paper, we quantify the impact of different observing platforms on estimates of the California Current System (CCS) spanning a three decade period (1980-2010). Specifically, we focus attention on several dynamically related aspects of the circulation (coastal upwelling, the transport of the California Current and the California Undercurrent, thermocline depth and eddy kinetic energy) which in many ways describe defining characteristics of the CCS. The circulation estimates were computed using a 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system, and our analyses also focus on the impact of the different elements of the control vector (i.e. the initial conditions, surface forcing, and open boundary conditions) on the circulation. While the influence of each component of the control vector varies between different metrics of the circulation, the impact of each observing system across metrics is very robust. In addition, the mean amplitude of the circulation increments (i.e. the difference between the analysis and background) remains relatively stable throughout the three decade period despite the addition of new observing platforms whose impact is redistributed according to the relative uncertainty of observations from each platform. We also consider the impact of each observing platform on CCS circulation variability associated with low-frequency climate variability. The low-frequency nature of the dominant climate modes in this region allows us to track through time the

  11. New approaches to business cycle theory in current economic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica DOBRESCU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.

  12. Wolves in the Wild: Using Current Issues to Make Science Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jennie; Sadler, Troy D.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, one of our most important responsibilities is to help students develop dynamic and useful views of science. Using current issues to create learning experiences can help generate student interest in science and help students appreciate its significance in both personal and societal contexts. This article presents a lesson based on news…

  13. The role of the computer in science fair projects: Current status and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for more students to enter the field of science is acute in the nation, and science fair projects provide a motivational mechanism to entice students into pursuing scientific careers. Computers play a major role in science today. Because computers are a major source of entertainment for our children, one would expect them to play a significant role in many science fair projects. This study investigated current and potential uses of computers in science fair projects and incorporated an informal case study of scientists, teachers, and students involved in science fair projects from a highly scientific community. Interviews, a survey, and observations were conducted. Results indicated that most projects either do not use or inadequately use computers and that a significant potential for more effective use of computers for science fair projects exists.

  14. Assessing the performance of formulations for nonlinear feedback of surface gravity waves on ocean currents over coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Sheng, Jinyu; Hannah, Charles

    2017-08-01

    This study presents applications of a two-way coupled wave-circulation modelling system over coastal waters, with a special emphasis of performance assessments of two different methods for nonlinear feedback of ocean surface gravity waves on three-dimensional (3D) ocean currents. These two methods are the vortex force (VF) formulation suggested by Bennis et al. (2011) and the latest version of radiation stress (RS) formulation suggested by Mellor (2015). The coupled modelling system is first applied to two idealized test cases of surf-zone scales to validate implementations of these two methods in the coupled wave-circulation system. Model results show that the latest version of RS has difficulties in producing the undertow over the surf zone. The coupled system is then applied to Lunenburg Bay (LB) of Nova Scotia during Hurricane Juan in 2003. The coupled system using both the VF and RS formulations generates much stronger and more realistic 3D circulation in the Bay during Hurricane Juan than the circulation-only model, demonstrating the importance of surface wave forces to the 3D ocean circulation over coastal waters. However, the RS formulation generates some weak unphysical currents outside the wave breaking zone due to a less reasonable representation for the vertical distribution of the RS gradients over a slopping bottom. These weak unphysical currents are significantly magnified in a two-way coupled system when interacting with large surface waves, degrading the model performance in simulating currents at one observation site. Our results demonstrate that the VF formulation with an appropriate parameterization of wave breaking effects is able to produce reasonable results for applications over coastal waters during extreme weather events. The RS formulation requires a complex wave theory rather than the linear wave theory for the approximation of a vertical RS term to improve its performance under both breaking and non-breaking wave conditions.

  15. A Hurricane Hits Home: An Interactive Science Museum Exhibit on Ocean Mapping and Marine Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkiewicz, T.; Vasta, D. J.; Gager, N. C.; Fruth, B. W.; LeClair, J.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the outreach component for a project involving the detection and analysis of marine debris generated by Super Storm Sandy, The Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping / Joint Hydrographic Center partnered with The Seacoast Science Center to develop an interactive museum exhibit that engages the public with a touchscreen based game revolving around the detection and identification of marine debris. "A Hurricane Hits Home" is a multi-station touchscreen exhibit geared towards children, and integrates a portion of a historical wooden shipwreck into its physical design. The game invites museum guests to examine a number of coastal regions and harbors in Sandy affected areas. It teaches visitors about modern mapping technology by having them control boats with multibeam sonars and airplanes with lidar sensors. They drag these vehicles around maps to reveal the underlying bathymetry below the satellite photos. They learn the applications and limitations of sonar and lidar by where the vehicles can and cannot collect survey data (e.g. lidar doesn't work in deep water, and the boat can't go in shallow areas). As users collect bathymetry data, they occasionally reveal marine debris objects on the seafloor. Once all the debris objects in a level have been located, the game challenges them to identify them based on their appearance in the bathymetry data. They must compare the simulated bathymetry images of the debris targets to photos of possible objects, and choose the correct matches to achieve a high score. The exhibit opened January 2016 at the Seacoast Science Center in Rye, NH.

  16. Investigating the Effect of Ocean Currents on the Surface Stress and Heat Fluxes over the Gulf of Mexico Using a Two-way Coupled Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, M. A.; Shi, Q.

    2016-02-01

    A two-way coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system is used to investigate the effects associated with air-sea interaction through the use of wind-current shear in the bulk formula. This study focuses on changes in the mean and the variability of the wind stress magnitude, the heat fluxes, the near surface temperature and the precipitation on meso-scale. The atmospheric and the ocean components of the coupled modeling system are the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) respectively. The ocean and the atmospheric models exchange data fields using the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). The ocean surface currents are passed to the atmospheric model for use in surface layer schemes to allow for the current to change the wind shear. The wind stress and heat fluxes computed by the WRF surface scheme are passed to the ocean model, which allows both models to use the same fluxes at the interface. The inclusion of the wind-current shear results in weaker surface stress over most of the Gulf of Mexico compared to the wind alone estimate. Changes are also being found in air-sea heat fluxes. The weekly averaged Latent Heat Flux (LHF) decreases by 1% 2% over most of the Gulf of Mexico by considering the currents effect, but localized LHF increases of 10% are found in the Loop current. The sensible heat flux changes (> 5%) due to using the wind-current shear are found in the Loop Current as well as over the land. The air-sea heat fluxes associated with surface wind stress feedback onto the upper-ocean thermodynamics. The weekly mean SSTs increase over most of the Gulf of Mexico using the wind-current shear, and significant increases (>0.2 K) are found next to the Loop Current and ocean eddies. However, the SSTs slightly decrease ( 0.05 K) in the Loop Current.

  17. Estimating Advective Near-surface Currents from Ocean Color Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Deepwater Horizon oil spill : Experiments with the BioCast system. Ocean Modelling, 75, 84–99. Kamachi, M. (1989). Advective surface velocities...Remote Sensing of Environment 158 (2015) 1–14Jolliff, J.K., Smith, T.A., Ladner, S., & Arnone, R.A. (2014). Simulating surface oil transport during the...sequences: 2. Application to the Brazil –Malvinas confluence area. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105(C8), 19515–19534. Wahl, D.D., & Simpson, J.J. (1989

  18. Introduction to Indian Ocean biogeochemical processes and ecological variability: Current understanding and emerging perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wiggert, J.D.; Hood, R.R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Brink, K.H.; Smith, S.L.

    topic in the oceanographic literature. The large-magnitude river inflows of the Bay of Bengal exert prominent hydro- logic controls on the bay’s ecosystem; the impact of this control, in conjunction with monsoon forcing, coastal cur- rents, cyclones... modification of basin-wide primary production is provided by Wiggert et al. [this volume] through utilization of the �0+ years of Sea- viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data. While the influence of the IOD on spatiotemporal bio- logical...

  19. Hydrology Science and Applications from the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretaux, J. F.; Pavelsky, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA and CNES, the French space agency. It aims to provide the first simultaneous, space-based measurements of inundation extent and water surface elevation in rivers, lakes, and wetlands around the world. Although the orbit repeat time is approximately 21 days, many areas of the earth will be viewed multiple times during this window. SWOT will observe rivers as narrow as 50-100 m and lakes as small as 0.01-0.06 km2, with height accuracies of 10 cm for water bodies 1 km2 in area. Because SWOT will measure temporal variations in the height, width, and slope of rivers, several algorithms have been developed to estimate river discharge solely from SWOT measurements. Additionally, measurements of lake height and area will allow estimation of variability in lake water storage. In this introductory presentation, we will discuss SWOT's capabilities and the science questions that it will aim to address.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Seabirds Coastal and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    From the cold, high Arctic area of Alaska to the warm, tropical Pacific area of Hawai'i, a diverse array of seabird species numbering in the millions of individuals live off the bounty of the Pacific Ocean. Many come to land only to nest and raise their young - these are species supremely adapted for life on the water, whether it be near the coast or hundreds of miles at sea. Those seabirds that reside in the North Pacific year-round are joined each summer by millions of migrant birds that leave the southern hemisphere in winter for better feeding conditions in the north. Seabirds in the Pacific remain one of the great wildlife spectacles on the earth. Yet, seabirds face a number of threats such as oil spills, introduction of predators to their nesting islands, and conflicts with fisheries. State and Federal agencies require increasingly sophisticated information on population dynamics, breeding biology, and feeding ecology to successfully manage these species and their ecosystems. Within the Western Region of the USGS, scientists from the Alaska Science Center (ASC), Western Ecological Research Center (WERC), and Pacific Islands Ecosystems Research Center are leading the way in conducting research on many of these little known species. Their aim is to improve our understanding of seabirds in the Pacific and to provide information to support informed management of the birds and their ecosystems.

  1. CURRENT DIRECTION, turbidity and other data from FIXED PLATFORM and UNKNOWN PLATFORMS OF CANADA in the North Pacific Ocean, Northwest Passage and other waters from 1979-01-01 to 1987-12-31 (NCEI Accession 9000069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains microfische data provided by the Canadian Fisheries and Oceans and taken from the Canadian Data Report of Hydrography and Sciences. The...

  2. Thick-shelled, grazer-protected diatoms decouple ocean carbon and silicon cycles in the iron-limited Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assmy, P.; Smetacek, V.; Klaas, C.; Henjes, J.; Strass, V.H.; Arrieta, J.M.; Bathmann, U.; Cisewski, B.; Fuchs, N.; Herndl, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Diatoms of the iron-replete continental margins and North Atlantic are key exporters of organic carbon. In contrast, diatoms of the iron-limited Antarctic Circumpolar Current sequester silicon, but comparatively little carbon, in the underlying deep ocean and sediments. Because the Southern Ocean is

  3. How Does the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Affect the Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Christopher; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-04-01

    The Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) in the Southern Ocean is investigated using hydrographic observations combined with satellite observations of sea-surface height. A three-dimensional (spatial and vertical) estimate of the isopycnal eddy-diffusivity in the Southern Ocean is obtained using the theory of Ferrari & Nikurashin (2010), that includes the influence of suppression of the diffusivity by the strong, time-mean flows. It is found that the eddy diffusivity is enhanced at depth, reaching a maximum at the "critical layer" near 1000m. The estimate of diffusivity is used with a simple diffusive parameterization to estimate the meridional eddy volume flux. Together with an estimate of the meridional Ekman transport and the time-mean meridional geostrophic transport, the eddy volume flux is used to reconstruct the time-mean overturning circulation. By comparing the reconstruction with, and without, suppression of the eddy diffusivity by the mean flow, the influence of the suppression on the overturning is illuminated. It is shown that the suppression of the eddy diffusivity results in a large reduction of interior eddy transports, and a more realistic eddy induced overturning circulation. We will also use a simple conceptual model is used to show that the MOC is influenced not only by the existence of enhanced diffusivity at depth, but also by the details of the vertical structure of the eddy diffusivity, such as the depth of the critical layer.

  4. Life satisfaction, health, self-evaluation and sexuality in current university students of sport sciences, education and natural sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sigmund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle and health of an individual are influenced by many factors; a significant factor is life satisfaction. Life satisfaction is understood as a multidimensional construct closely related to the area of personal wellbeing and quality of life. Life satisfaction in university students represents one of the determinants of good health, high motivation for studying, work productivity, satisfactory interpersonal relationships and overall healthy lifestyle. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to identify and compare the level of overall life satisfaction and selected components of health, self-evaluation and sexuality in current university students with respect to their study specialization. Methods: The study included a total of 522 students from Palacký University. These were students from the Faculty of Physical Culture (n = 118, Faculty of Education (n = 218 and Faculty of Science (n = 186. In terms of age, the study focused on young adults aged 19 to 26. To assess the current level of life satisfaction, the research study used a standardized psychodiagnostic tool - Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ. The used diagnostic methods are fully standardized and contain domestic normative values. Statistical result processing was conducted using the Statistica programme v10.0. Results: The highest level of overall life satisfaction was revealed in university students of sport sciences. In comparison with the students of education and students of natural sciences the difference is significant. Satisfaction with health among the students of sport sciences is significantly higher than in the students of education (p ≤ .001; d = 0.53 and the students of natural sciences (p ≤ .05; d = 0.38. Similar results were found in the area of satisfaction with own person and self-evaluation, where the values of the students of sport sciences were significantly higher compared with the students of education (p

  5. A robust interpolation procedure for producing tidal current ellipse inputs for regional and coastal ocean numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Do-Seong; Hart, Deirdre E.

    2017-04-01

    Regional and/or coastal ocean models can use tidal current harmonic forcing, together with tidal harmonic forcing along open boundaries in order to successfully simulate tides and tidal currents. These inputs can be freely generated using online open-access data, but the data produced are not always at the resolution required for regional or coastal models. Subsequent interpolation procedures can produce tidal current forcing data errors for parts of the world's coastal ocean where tidal ellipse inclinations and phases move across the invisible mathematical "boundaries" between 359° and 0° degrees (or 179° and 0°). In nature, such "boundaries" are in fact smooth transitions, but if these mathematical "boundaries" are not treated correctly during interpolation, they can produce inaccurate input data and hamper the accurate simulation of tidal currents in regional and coastal ocean models. These avoidable errors arise due to procedural shortcomings involving vector embodiment problems (i.e., how a vector is represented mathematically, for example as velocities or as coordinates). Automated solutions for producing correct tidal ellipse parameter input data are possible if a series of steps are followed correctly, including the use of Cartesian coordinates during interpolation. This note comprises the first published description of scenarios where tidal ellipse parameter interpolation errors can arise, and of a procedure to successfully avoid these errors when generating tidal inputs for regional and/or coastal ocean numerical models. We explain how a straightforward sequence of data production, format conversion, interpolation, and format reconversion steps may be used to check for the potential occurrence and avoidance of tidal ellipse interpolation and phase errors. This sequence is demonstrated via a case study of the M2 tidal constituent in the seas around Korea but is designed to be universally applicable. We also recommend employing tidal ellipse parameter

  6. Brahan Project High Frequency Radar Ocean Measurements: Currents, Winds, Waves and Their Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Lipa; Donald Barrick; Andres Alonso-Martirena; Maria Fernandes; Maria Inmaculada Ferrer; Bruce Nyden

    2014-01-01

    We describe radar measurements of waves, currents and winds made on the coast of northern Scotland during two 2013/14 winter storms, giving methods, results and interpretation. Wave parameters (height, period, direction and short-wave/wind direction) were derived and compared with measurements made by a neighboring buoy and local weather stations. Wind direction and current velocity maps were produced and the interactions of winds and currents discussed. Significant oscillations in wave param...

  7. Brahan Project High Frequency Radar Ocean Measurements: Currents, Winds, Waves and Their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Lipa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe radar measurements of waves, currents and winds made on the coast of northern Scotland during two 2013/14 winter storms, giving methods, results and interpretation. Wave parameters (height, period, direction and short-wave/wind direction were derived and compared with measurements made by a neighboring buoy and local weather stations. Wind direction and current velocity maps were produced and the interactions of winds and currents discussed. Significant oscillations in wave parameters were observed, which appear to be due to forcing by tidal current velocity variations. The oscillations in waveheight are explained using hydrodynamic analysis and derived amplitudes are compared with radar measurements.

  8. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  9. The Ocean Science Program of the U.S. Navy. An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Rivera Ocean Seismic Experiment (ROSE)......................... 5- 7 Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) ...................... 5- 7 High Energy...y of wdss Ile Iiuj rowd Ve on turel-i ’ci ~I: .olle se iiitcir’Idtioin 7717 "TELITES- DMS, 6 JULY 󈨐 NOAA -VHRR. 19 AUGUST 󈨑 PROJECT HUELVA INVEST...nm 5-6 farther to the north, if possible. Thickening of the lithosphere with age will be investigated from seismicity along the RIVERA OCEAN SEISMIC

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  11. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  12. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  13. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  14. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  15. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  16. Temperature profiles and current measurements from the Nathaniel B. Palmer during the 1997 Dovetail cruise in the Southern Ocean (NODC Accession 9900243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection includes temperature profiles from CTD casts and current measurements from hull-mounted ADCP system aboard the research vessel Nathaniel B....

  17. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  18. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  19. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  20. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  1. Variability of wind stress and currents at selected locations over the north Indian Ocean during 1977 and 1979 summer monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, M.V.

    Intra-seasonal variability of wind stress, wind stress curl and currents at different locations over the northern Indian Ocean during two contrasting monsoon seasons has been investigated making use of the time series data collected during MONSOON...

  2. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  3. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  4. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  6. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  7. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  8. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  10. Current structure and kinetic energy of the abyssal waters in the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N; RameshBabu, V.; Suryanarayana, A; Beena, B.S.

    is presented. Monthly mean currents showed a general SSE flow and suggested seasonal variability in the flow pattern with a reversal in January. The variation of 6 month-mean current speed indicated near-bottom intensification of the flow at 50 mab and presence...

  11. Long-range sediment transport in the world's oceans by stably stratified turbidity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Benjamin; Nasr-Azadani, Mohamad M.; Radhakrishnan, Senthil; Meiburg, Eckart

    2016-12-01

    Submarine fans, supplied primarily by turbidity currents, constitute the largest sediment accumulations on Earth. Generally accepted models of turbidity current behavior imply they should dissipate rapidly on the very small gradients of submarine fans, thus their persistence over long distances is enigmatic. We present numerical evidence, constrained by published field data, suggesting that turbidity currents traveling on low slopes and carrying fine particles have a stably stratified shear layer along their upper interface, which dramatically reduces dissipation and entrainment of ambient fluid, allowing the current to propagate over long distances. We propose gradient Richardson number as a useful criterion to discriminate between the different behaviors exhibited by turbidity currents on high and low slopes.

  12. Fostering Eroticism in Science Education to Promote Erotic Generosities for the Ocean-Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increase in marine science curriculum in secondary schools, marine science is not generally required curricula and has been largely deemphasized or ignored in relation to earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. I call for the integration and implementation of marine science more fully in secondary science education through…

  13. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    smoothly," said 1992 in the Culture & Sports Center, Varna Bulgaria. Chairman, Dr. Nikola Dukov, President of the Center of More information will be...S. Di Capua Scanning Electron Microscopy Developments at the Institute of Scientific Instruments and TESLA in Brno 08:124 Marco S. Di Capua X-Ray...Institute of Scientific Instruments and TESLA in Brno 08:124 Marco S. Di Capua X-Ray Diagnostics and Laser Research at the Nuclear Science and

  14. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Report on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    bock, Texas, and Pulse Sciences Incorporated, San Lean - ges in Vacuum. During informal get-togethers, Soviet dro, California. A brief summary at the...reiliree- Are the nmilit ary williiig toc relinquish encuigh produtioicn tli of cC rsources roiun thle iiilit ary itc scti irs oficC h ceccn- so...missed the microprocessor revolution and laboratories system that leans to overspecialization and where quality are now beginning to implement data

  15. Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 1975-08-29 to 1977-02-24 (NODC Accession 7700458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from August 29, 1975 to...

  16. East-west current components and temperature profile data collected using thermistor, mooring, current meter and casts from the Atlantic Ocean as part of the IDOE/POLYMODE (International Decade of Ocean Exploration / combination of USSR POLYGON project and US MODE) from 16 December 1975 to 01 November 1977 (NODC Accession 8000270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — East-west current components and temperature profile data were collected using thermistor, mooring, and current meter casts from December 16, 1975 to November 1,...

  17. Ocean Current Velocity Moored Time-Series Records, collected from moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) during 2010 and 2011 in Vieques Sound and Virgin Passage (NODC Accession 0088063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nortek 600kHz Aquadopp acoustic current profilers were deployed between March 2010 and April 2011 on shallow water moorings located in Vieques Sound, Puerto Rico,...

  18. Vertical current data collected using current meter from KNORR and other platforms in North/South Pacific and Atlantic Ocean from 05 May 1974 to 27 April 1982 (NODC Accession 8600269)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vertical current profiler data collected from various ships off of the "White Horse" instrument. Data were submitted by Dr. James Luyten of Woods Hole Oceanographic...

  19. Ocean Current Velocity Moored Time-Series Records, collected from moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) during 2011 near Grammanik Bank SPAG and Frenchcap Cay, USVI (NODC Accession 0088064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nortek 600kHz Aquadopp acoustic current profilers were deployed between April 2011 and September 2011 on shallow water moorings located on the coastal shelf south of...

  20. C-MORE Scholars Program: Encouraging Hawaii`s Undergraduates to Explore the Ocean and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Gibson, B.

    2008-05-01

    Hawaii residents make up 60% of the undergraduate student body at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), but they are not studying ocean and earth science. The UHM School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology offers four undergraduate majors: Geology (22%), Geology & Geophysics (19%), Meteorology (16%), and Global Environmental Science (23%). The numbers in parentheses show the proportion of Hawaii residents in each major, based on 2006 data obtained from the UHM Institutional Research Office. The numbers of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are considerably smaller. The primary goal of the C-MORE Scholars Program, which will launch in Summer 2008, is to recruit and retain local Hawaii students (esp. NHPI) into earth and ocean science majors. To achieve this goal, the C-MORE Scholars Program will: 1. Actively recruit local students, partly by introducing them and their families to job opportunities in their community. Recruiting will be done in partnership with organizations that have successful track records in working with NHPI students; 2. Retain existing students through proactive counseling and course tutoring. Math and physics courses are stumbling blocks for many ocean and earth science majors, often delaying or even preventing graduation. By offering individual and group tutoring, we hope to help local students succeed in these courses; 3. Provide closely mentored, paid undergraduate research experiences at three different academic levels (trainee, intern, and fellow). This research is the cornerstone of the C-MORE Scholars Program. As students progress through the levels, they conduct higher level research with less supervision. Fellows (the highest level) may serve as peer advisors and tutors to underclassmen and assist with recruitment-related activities; and 4. Create a sense of community among the cohort of C-MORE scholars. A two-day summer residential experience will be instrumental in developing a strong cohort, emphasizing links

  1. Seasonal variability in the vertical current structure and kinetic energy in the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Savin, M.; RameshBabu, V.; Suryanarayana, A.

    apart, indicates the existence of anticyclonic gyral circulation. The depth variation of kinetic energy (KE) emphasises the bottom intensification of currents with minimum KE at deeper depths followed by relatively higher KE at abyssal depths...

  2. Surface and subsurface geostrophic current variability in the Indian Ocean from altimetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Cadden, D.D.H.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Chambers, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    equations to compute current velocity. Satellite altimeters have been in orbit for more than three decades, and the degree of accuracy has increased greatly during this time (Chelton et al. 2001). The current level of accuracy of SSHA data is approximately 2... cm as a result mainly of new methods for precise orbit determination, but also due to the reduction of errors resulting from instrumentation problems, external geophysical factors, atmospheric refraction, and sea-state bias (Chelton et al. 2001...

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  4. Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Cliff S.; Breviere, Emilie; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Garcon, Veronique; Guieu, Cecile; Kieber, David J.; Kontradowitz, Stefan; Paulmier, Aurelien; Quinn, Patricia K.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Stefels, Jacqueline; von Glasow, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on critical issues in ocean-atmosphere exchange that will be addressed by new research strategies developed by the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) research community. Eastern boundary upwelling systems are important sites for CO2 and trace gas emission

  5. Monitoring biodiversity using ecosystem assessment surveys and regional ocean models within the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, I. D.; Santora, J. A.; Field, J. C.; Hazen, E. L.; Bograd, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service has conducted an annual midwater trawl survey for juvenile rockfish and other pelagic micronekton every May and June from 1983 to the present. Although both the spatial and temporal coverage have varied over time, a "core" region has been sampled continuously for the region that extends from Monterey Bay to just north of San Francisco Bay, California. Stations are located from nearshore waters to the offshore environment, but generally within 60 km from land. The mid-water trawl targets a diverse micronekton community spanning a range of juvenile stages of fishes, adult forage fishes and various invertebrates. Here we use the historical catch data to investigate biodiversity across space and time, specifically through developing indices of richness, diversity and evenness. The interannual variability of these indices is coherent over three unique ecological regions located along the shelf, Monterey Bay submarine canyon, and offshore habitats. Spatiotemporal changes in diversity reflect different taxa such as juvenile groundfish, rockfish and forage fish, and influx of oceanic species to nearshore habitat during anomalous years. Finally, data from CTD casts and from a data-assimilative ROMS model links changes in biodiversity with changing environmental conditions. The results of this project will be used to help inform researchers in the creation of a Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.

  6. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) during the past 12 months: An Overview of the Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Ya.; Kattsov, V. M.; Lawford, R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Four years ago NEESPI was launched with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects launched in EU, Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with an international participation) with a budget close to 15M US dollars annually, the Initiative is in full swing. Several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at the International Meetings were held since April 2008 when we presented our Status Report to the Assembly the last time. The Workshops strengthen the NEESPI grasp on climatic and hydrological modeling and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic and Eastern Europe. Two volumes of the NEESPI Workshop Proceedings have been published recently (Groisman and Reissell 2009; Groisman and Ivanov 2009), one book (Gutman 2009) is currently in press, and the Initiative progress overview paper is scheduled to appear in the May issue of The Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Following the recommendations of the Aspen Global Change Institute Workshop (http://neespi.org/meetings/Aspen2007_Workshop_Report_web.pdf), the NEESPI research focus has begun to shift from organizing improved environmental monitoring of the region and studying of individual environmental processes towards modeling and its ability to project the future state of climate, environment, and societies in the NEESPI domain. Soon after the past EGU Meeting in April 2008, this focus within NEESPI, received an intergovernmental level of support being included in a Memorandum of Understanding for Collaboration in the Fields of Meteorology, Hydrology, and Oceanography between the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. The new focus will require a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, and

  7. Temperature profile and current meter data collected using moored buoy and profiling floats in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 03 October 1972 to 13 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7500548)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, pressure, east-west current component, north-south current component, fluorescence, and other data were collected using moored buoy and profiling floats...

  8. Temperature profile and current meter data collected using drifting buoy and profiling buoy casts from the Atlantic Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 01 September 1972 to 01 April 1974 (NODC Accession 7400622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile east-west current component, north-south current component, and other data were collected using drifting buoy and profiling float casts from the...

  9. Current Realities and Future Possibilities: Language and science literacy—empowering research and informing instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Treagust, David F.

    2006-02-01

    In this final article, we briefly review and synthesize the science and language research and practice that arose from the current literature and presentations at an international conference, referred to as the first “Island Conference”. We add to the synthesis of the articles the conference deliberations and on-going discussions of the field and also offer our views as to how such contributions can take place. These central issues—the definition of science literacy; the models of learning, discourse, reading, and writing and their underlying pedagogical assumptions; the roles of discourse in doing, teaching, and learning science; and the demands on teacher education and professional development in the current reforms in language and science education—provide points of departure for discussion of four possible new considerations to research in this field of endeavour that could contribute to a broader and productive scholarship and deeper and enriched understanding of both teaching and learning. These considerations, each from well-established fields of research literature, are the need to develop support for a contemporary view of science literacy, the role of metacognition in science learning generally, the role of multiple representations in knowledge building and science literacy, and the need for more focused teacher education and professional development programmes.

  10. Watermass structure and current system in the equatorial western Indian Ocean during August, 1985

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Reddy, G.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    . At the equator, currents were computed using Montgomery's method. Westerly flows near Equator and easterly flows on either side of the equator are deduced. The presence of the Arabian Sea surface water, the Red Sea water, and Pacific low salinity water is noticed...

  11. Millennial-scale ocean current intensity changes off southernmost Chile and implications for Drake Passage throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Arz, H. W.; Kilian, R.; Baeza Urrea, O.; Caniupan, M.; Kissel, C.; Lange, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) plays an essential role in the thermohaline circulation and global climate. Today a large volume of ACC water passes through the Drake Passage, a major geographic constrain for the circumpolar flow. Satellite tracked surface drifters have shown that Subantarctic Surface water of the ACC is transported northeastward across the Southeast Pacific from ~53°S/100°W towards the Chilean coast at ~40°S/75°W where surface waters bifurcate and flow northward into the Peru Chile Current (PCC) finally reaching the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and southwards into the Cape Horn Current (CHC). The CHC thus transports a significant amount of northern ACC water towards the Drake Passage and reaches surface current velocities of up to 35 cm/s within a narrow belt of ~100-150 km width off the coast. Also at deeper water levels, an accelerated southward flow occurs along the continental slope off southernmost South America that likewise substantially contributes to the Drake Passage throughflow. Here we report on high resolution geochemical and grain-size records from core MD07-3128 (53°S; 1032 m water depth) which has been retrieved from the upper continental slope off the Pacific entrance of the Magellan Strait beneath the CHC. Magnetic grain-sizes and grain-size distributions of the terrigenous fraction reveal large amplitude changes between the Holocene and the last glacial, as well as millennial-scale variability (most pronounced during Marine Isotope Stage). Magnetic grain-sizes, silt/clay ratios, fine sand contents, sortable silt contents, and sortable silt mean grain-sizes are substantially higher during the Holocene suggesting strongly enhanced current activity. The high absolute values imply flow speeds larger than 25 cm/s as currently observed in the CHC surface current. Furthermore, winnowing processes through bottom current activity and changes in the availability of terrigenous material (ice-sheet extension and related supply of

  12. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  13. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Hydrolytic Routes 0 Modification and Hydrolysis of Metal Alkoxides Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et * Nanomaterials Prepared by Sol-Gel Process...gel research in France is heavily dominat- Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Organoie- ed by chemists. Consequently, research emphasis tallique - J...section provides the titles of current projects at academic institutions in France. Overview of Research Laboratories Laboratoire de Chimie

  14. Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education: Activities in Support of Earth, Oceans and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty, and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF offers funding programs that support geoscience education spanning atmospheric, oceans, and Earth sciences, as well as environmental science, climate change and sustainability, and research on learning. The 'Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education' (RTUGeoEd) is an NSF Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) Type 2 special project aimed at supporting college-level geoscience faculty at all types of institutions. The project's goals are to carry out activities and create digital resources that encourage the geoscience community to submit proposals that impact their courses and classroom infrastructure through innovative changes in instructional practice, and contribute to making transformative changes that impact student learning outcomes and lead to other educational benefits. In the past year information sessions were held during several national and regional professional meetings, including the GSA Southeastern and South-Central Section meetings. A three-day proposal-writing workshop for faculty planning to apply to the TUES program was held at the University of South Florida - Tampa. During the workshop, faculty learned about the program and key elements of a proposal, including: the need to demonstrate awareness of prior efforts within and outside the geosciences and how the proposed project builds upon this knowledge base; need to fully justify budget and role of members of the project team; project evaluation and what matters in selecting a project evaluator; and effective dissemination practices. Participants also spent time developing their proposal benefitting from advice and feedback from workshop facilitators. Survey data gathered from workshop participants point to a consistent set of challenges in seeking grant support for a desired educational innovation, including poor understanding of the educational literature, of available funding programs, and of learning assessment and project evaluation. Many also noted

  15. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jing Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled high upto 41% of the total debris. Compared to the ocean conservancy�s 2013 report of marine debris in Malaysian beaches, which was 27,005 items with in 6.44 km, the current count is slightly low. However, Malaysia was ranked 14th place among the top 20 countries in International Marine Debris Watch program. Nelayan Beach is the dirtiest beach in Port Dickson. Around 50% of the total plastic items collected are found on those beaches. The marine debris items indicated that they arrived there by land-based and ocean-based activities. High energy conditions such as wind and waves in the beaches correlated well with less debris deposition on the beaches. With debris equivalent of 4193 items/km, Malaysia harvests less solid wastes compared to Croatia, USA, Singapore and Turkey. However, a nation wide survey is needed to assess the seriousness of marine debris problem in Malaysia.

  16. High magnetic field science and its application in the United States current status and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    National Research Council of the National Academies

    2013-01-01

    The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was convened by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation. This report answers three questions: (1) What is the current state of high-field magnet science, engineering, and technology in the United States, and are there any conspicuous needs to be addressed? (2) What are the current science drivers and which scientific opportunities and challenges can be anticipated over the next ten years? (3) What are the principal existing and planned high magnetic field facilities outside of the United States, what roles have U.S. high field magnet development efforts played in developing those facilities, and what potentials exist for further international collaboration in this area? A magnetic field is produced by an electrical current in a metal coil. This current exerts an expansive force on the coil, and a magnetic field is "high" if it challenges the str...

  17. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 9, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to Recommended Environmental Quality Targets for the Western Indian Ocean · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JF Machiwa, 17-30 ...

  18. European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    LINK-type consortia involve industrial part- recombinant DNA, biosensor materials, bioreactor de- ners in other EC countries, they fall under the...Vibrational bea Micrn t J Energy Flow. The use of intensity as a vector quantity by Dean L Mitchell characterizing the directional flow of energy is...zation techniques currently being developed will certainly scanning, and in 1975 was involved in a project that used beas easilyapplied toliquid

  19. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    all West em railroad system) is difficult to predict. The German contacts are equipped to deal with such plans for high-speed magnetic levitation ...conductors, magnetic insu- The mechanical stresses generated in the solenoids lators, and superconductors . are heroic: at peak current, a pressure of 5 Present...are insufficient. Other interesting fea- tures of the magnetoresistance in the REBaCuO 300 and other oxide superconductors are under investi- gation. 0

  20. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    shape preserving in- test facilities it was discovered that, after some period of terpolation schemes. The problem they are presently at- time, the...convergence. Hence, the global thermohaline circulation operates on a much increased precipitation generally follows centers of SST longer timescale. This...that manifests itself in horizontal currents. This Other Issues process is the principal component of the thermohaline circulation. Many factors other

  1. Structure and variability of the Leeuwin current in the south eastern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, B.N.; Sreeraj, P.; VimalKumar, K.G.

    southward flow along the coast off western Australia and the flow seems to turning eastward at Cape Leeuwin and continuing to the Great Australian Bight. The steric gradient shows strong flow between 112?E and 113?E. Another tremendous change observed... and recent models: In Leeuwin Current: an influence on the coastal climate and marine life of Western Australia, (eds.) Pearce, A.F. & Walker, D.I., J. Roy Soc. WA 74: 1-4 Dakin, W.J., 1919. The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Abrolhos Islands...

  2. Current velocity and hydrographic observations in the Southwestern North Atlantic Ocean: Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies (STACS), 1989 (NCEI Accession 9100033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objective of the STACS program are to increase our understanding of the dynamics of the North Atlantic circulation and the role of the ocean circulation...

  3. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, pressure, and current data collected in the Sub Tropical North Atlantic Ocean, SPURS-1 (NCEI Accession 0125198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SPURS field campaign consisted of a variety of observing assets. SPURS-1 (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study - North Atlantic Field Campaign)...

  4. Particle filtering with path sampling and an application to a bimodal ocean current model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weare, Jonathan

    2009-07-01

    This paper introduces a recursive particle filtering algorithm designed to filter high dimensional systems with complicated non-linear and non-Gaussian effects. The method incorporates a parallel marginalization (PMMC) step in conjunction with the hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) scheme to improve samples generated by standard particle filters. Parallel marginalization is an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy that uses lower dimensional approximate marginal distributions of the target distribution to accelerate equilibration. As a validation the algorithm is tested on a 2516 dimensional, bimodal, stochastic model motivated by the Kuroshio current that runs along the Japanese coast. The results of this test indicate that the method is an attractive alternative for problems that require the generality of a particle filter but have been inaccessible due to the limitations of standard particle filtering strategies.

  5. Spatial and temporal arrival patterns of Madagascar's vertebrate fauna explained by distance, ocean currents, and ancestor type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

    2012-01-01

    How, when, and from where Madagascar's vertebrates arrived on the island is poorly known, and a comprehensive explanation for the distribution of its organisms has yet to emerge. We begin to break that impasse by analyzing vertebrate arrival patterns implied by currently existing taxa. For each of 81 clades, we compiled arrival date, source, and ancestor type (obligate freshwater, terrestrial, facultative swimmer, or volant). We analyzed changes in arrival rates, with and without adjusting for clade extinction. Probability of successful transoceanic dispersal is negatively correlated with distance traveled and influenced by ocean currents and ancestor type. Obligate rafters show a decrease in probability of successful transoceanic dispersal from the Paleocene onward, reaching the lowest levels after the mid-Miocene. This finding is consistent with a paleoceanographic model [Ali JR, Huber M (2010) Nature 463:653–656] that predicts Early Cenozoic surface currents periodically conducive to rafting or swimming from Africa, followed by a reconfiguration to present-day flow 15–20 million years ago that significantly diminished the ability for transoceanic dispersal to Madagascar from the adjacent mainland. PMID:22431643

  6. Determining Science Teacher Candidates' Academic Knowledge and Misconceptions about Electric Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert Çibik, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is two-fold. Its first aim is to determine science teacher candidates' knowledge (academic success) and misconceptions about electric current and its second aim is to compare these results across participants' year of study and gender. A total of 132 teacher candidates studying in their 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years in Gazi…

  7. Careers; Current Events; Government, U.S.; Insects; Science Experiments; Terrorism, War on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites for grades K-8 focuses on careers, current events, government, insects, science experiments, the war on terrorism, and calendar connections for Martin Luther King Day and other January observances. Specific grade levels are indicated for each annotation. (LRW)

  8. Disturbingly Weak: The Current State of Financial Management Education in Library and Information Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Robert H.; Kaufman, Paula T.; Atkinson, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Financial management skills are necessary for responsible library management. In light of the profession's current emphasis on financial literacy, the authors posed four questions: (1) to what extent are library and information science schools providing courses in financial management for their graduates; (2) what is the quality and quantity of…

  9. Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and North American Coastline-South as part of the North Carolina FRontal Eddy Dynamics Experiment (FRED) project, 1987-05-07 to 1987-11-01 (NODC Accession 8900181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean...

  10. 75 FR 38079 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ecological disaster- integrating Federal, State, academia and NGO science capabilities within a regional..., Science Advisory Board, NOAA, Rm. 11230, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910. Phone: 301...

  11. Foraminiferal area density as a proxy for ocean acidification over the last 200 years in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in an increase in atmospheric CO2 from 280 ppm to 400 ppm over the last 250 years. It is estimated that approximately one-third of this anthropogenically produced CO2 is sequestered in the global ocean, increasing the inventory of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+) and consuming carbonate (CO32-) as a result of carbonate buffering reactions. This increase in [H+] lowers seawater pH, the phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). Estimates indicate that mean seawater pH has already decreased by 0.1 pH units since 1750 and IPCC reports indicate it is likely that CO2 concentrations will reach 790 ppm by 2100 further reducing pH by 0.3 units. Marine calcifiers, such as foraminifera, utilize CO32- dissolved in seawater during calcification, a process that is highly sensitive to changes in pH due to the chemical reactions described above. The reduction in surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) caused by OA has impaired calcification of planktonic foraminifera and other marine calcifiers. It has been proposed that planktonic foraminiferal shell weight or shell thickness is positively correlated with ambient [CO32-] and has been used as proxy to reconstruct past changes in the surface ocean carbonate system. An ideal location for the application of this proxy is the California Current System (CSS), an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (EBUS), which is characterized as having naturally lower pH. Upwelling introduces CO2-enriched bottom waters to the surface ocean, intensifying the effects of increasing dissolved CO2 as a result of anthropogenic activities. Upwelling produces a wide range of surface water [CO32-] making the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) an ideal site to carry out a foraminiferal shell weight calibration study. Area density (ρA) is a new method for collecting size-normalized shell weights that will be used in this study. Species-specific calibrations have been derived for two symbiont

  12. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 03 June 1981 - 09 June 1981 (NODC Accession 8100724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from June 3, 1981 to June 9, 1981. Data...

  13. Upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) from Satellite-tracked drifting buoys (drifters) as part of the Global Drifter Program for Hawaii region 1980/02/01 - 2009/03/31 (NODC Accession 0063296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite-tracked drifting buoys ("drifters") collect measurements of upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) around the world as part of the Global...

  14. Moored current meter data collected from the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fisheries Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) project, from 16 February 1994 to 25 May 2002 (NODC Accession 0001014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Moored current meter data were collected from the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and North Pacific Ocean from February 16, 1994 to May 25, 2002. Data were collected by...

  15. Sea surface temperature (SST) and surface current data collected from the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race (VOR) from 2011-11-05 to 2012-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0130694)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Navigation, surface current, sea surface temperature, wind, and atmospheric pressure data collected by the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race...

  16. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 09 September 1981 - 14 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from September 9, 1981 to September 14,...

  17. Salinity and sigma-t data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 1979-08-26 to 1982-06-07 (NODC Accession 8200146)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity and sigma-t data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from August 26, 1979 to June 7, 1982. Data were...

  18. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 1992-02-26 to 1993-04-14 (NODC Accession 9700264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS. Data were collected by Oregon State University (OSU) as part of the World Ocean Circulation...

  19. Current meter and other data from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from the North Atlantic Ocean and others locations from 1979-10-20 to 1981-05-01 (NCEI Accession 8600256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North Atlantic Ocean and others locations from 20 October 1979 to 01 May 1981....

  20. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 01 August 1981 - 07 August 1981 (NODC Accession 8200028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from August 1, 1981 to August 7, 1981....

  1. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 20 April 1982 - 24 April 1982 (NODC Accession 8300034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from August 1, 1981 to August 7, 1981....

  2. Salinity, sigma-t, and temperature data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 29 August 1981 - 07 December 1981 (NODC Accession 8300048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity, sigma-t, and temperature data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from August 29, 1981 to December 7, 1981....

  3. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 21 April 1980 - 18 July 1980 (NODC Accession 8100501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from April 21, 1980 to July 18, 1980....

  4. On the effects of ENSO on ocean biogeochemistry in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS): A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollón, Rodrigo; Calil, Paulo H. R.

    2017-08-01

    The response of the ocean biogeochemistry to intense El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is assessed with an eddy-resolving coupled physical-biogeochemical model. El Niño (EN) 1997-1998 and La Niña (LN) 1999-2000 are well reproduced, inducing large spatial and temporal variability of biogeochemical properties at three coastal upwelling centers along the Peruvian coast (Chimbote 9.4°S, Callao 12.1°S, and Pisco 14°S). During EN, the upper limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) experiences an offshore displacement of, approximately, 60 km and a deepening of, approximately, 150 m when compared to neutral-ENSO conditions, thus ventilating the upper 100 m of the water column. In contrast, during LN, the OMZ tongue outcrops over the continental shelf deoxygenating the water column at all locations. During LN, at the southernmost location, enhanced Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) induces a leaking of the coastal nutrient inventory by horizontally advecting nitrogen from the nearshore region into the oligotrophic ocean. This leads to a reduction of biological production in the coastal zone. During EN, nitrification is an order of magnitude larger than denitrification in supplying the nitrite coastal pool. During LN peak, nitrification is reduced by 80%, while denitrification becomes equally important, evidencing a coupling between these two oxygen-dependent processes. The nitrogen removal due to suboxic activity is mostly controlled by the Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) in the southern domain during neutral-ENSO conditions. Our results show that during EN, denitrification contributes with 60% of the total nitrogen removal. In contrast, Anammox contributes with 70% during LN. The outgassing of nitrous oxide (N2O), an intermediate product of denitrification, is reduced and enhanced during EN and LN, respectively, and it is strongly modulated by the spatiotemporal variability of oxygen in the environment.

  5. Sympatric spawning but allopatric distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata: temperature- and oceanic current-dependent sieving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-San Han

    Full Text Available Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata share overlapping spawning sites, similar drifting routes, and comparable larval durations. However, they exhibit allopatric geographical distributions in East Asia. To clarify this ecological discrepancy, glass eels from estuaries in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and China were collected monthly, and the survival rate of A. marmorata under varying water salinities and temperatures was examined. The composition ratio of these 2 eel species showed a significant latitude cline, matching the 24 °C sea surface temperature isotherm in winter. Both species had opposing temperature preferences for recruitment. A. marmorata prefer high water temperatures and die at low water temperatures. In contrast, A. japonica can endure low water temperatures, but their recruitment is inhibited by high water temperatures. Thus, A. japonica glass eels, which mainly spawn in summer, are preferably recruited to Taiwan, China, Korea, and Japan by the Kuroshio and its branch waters in winter. Meanwhile, A. marmorata glass eels, which spawn throughout the year, are mostly screened out in East Asia in areas with low-temperature coastal waters in winter. During summer, the strong northward currents from the South China Sea and Changjiang River discharge markedly block the Kuroshio invasion and thus restrict the approach of A. marmorata glass eels to the coasts of China and Korea. The differences in the preferences of the recruitment temperature for glass eels combined with the availability of oceanic currents shape the real geographic distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata, making them "temperate" and "tropical" eels, respectively.

  6. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 6, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Preliminary Investigation Into the Use of Edible Fishery By-products as Sources of Nutrients for Fish and Livestock Feeds on Zanzibar, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE ... Status of a Marginal Dugong (Dugong Dugon) Population in the Lagoon of Mayotte (Mozambique Channel), in the Western Indian Ocean · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  7. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 4, No 1 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive Cycle of Edible Echinoderms from the Southwestern Indian Ocean II. The Ssandfish Holothuria ... The Occurrence and Distribution of Dolphins in Zanzibar, Tanzania, with Comments on the Differences Between Two Species of Tursiops · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  8. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 8, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climatology and Landfall of Tropical Cyclones in the South- West Indian Ocean · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AF Mavume, L Rydberg, M Rouault, JRE Lutjeharms. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wiojms.v8i1.56672 ...

  9. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 5, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bathymetric Distribution of Soft Bottom Tropical Macrobenthos From the Exposed East Coast of Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L Bigot, J P Quod, C Conand, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wiojms.v5i1.

  10. Forging Educational Partnerships Between Science Centers and Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.

    2006-12-01

    When most people think about science education, they usually consider classrooms as ideal venues for communicating and disseminating knowledge. But most learning that we humans engage in happens outside of the classroom and after we finish our formal education. That is where informal science education picks up the ball. The forums for these learning opportunities are diverse: museum exhibits, the Web, documentaries, and after school settings are becoming increasingly important as venues to keep up with the ever changing world of science. . The Exploratorium and other science centers act as transformers between the world of science and the public. As such they are ideal partners for scientists who would like to reach a large and diverse audience of families, adults, teens, and teachers. In this session, Senior Science Producer Mary Miller will discuss the ways that the Exploratorium engages working scientists in helping the museum-going public and Web audiences understand the process and results of scientific research.

  11. Communicating polar science to the general public: sharing the social media experience of @OceanSeaIceNPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösel, Anja; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Meyer, Amelie; Hudson, Stephen R.; King, Jennifer; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Dodd, Paul; de Steur, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The findings of climate science need to be communicated to the general public. Researchers are encouraged to do so by journalists, policy-makers and funding agencies and many of us want to become better science communicators. But how can we do this at the lab or small research group level without specifically allocated resources in terms of funds and communication officers? And how do we sustain communication on a regular basis and not just during the limited lifetime of a specific project? One of the solutions is to use the emerging platform of social media, which has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and individual researchers are already advanced users of social media, but small research groups and labs remain underrepresented. The group of oceanographers, sea ice and atmospheric scientists at the Norwegian Polar Institute (@OceanSeaIceNPI( will share our experiences developing and maintaining researcher-driven outreach for over a year through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present our solutions to some of the practical considerations such as identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interactions within the research group, and choosing an up-to-date and appropriate social medium. By sharing this information, we aim to inspire and assist other research groups and labs in conducting their own effective science communication.

  12. Current controlled sediment deposition from the shelf to the deep ocean: the Cenozoic evolution of circulation through the SW Pacific gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R. M.; Carter, L.; McCave, I. N.

    The circulation of cold, deep water is one of the controlling factors of the Earth's climate. Forty percent of this water enters the world ocean through the Southwest Pacific as a deep western boundary current (DWBC) flowing northwards at bathyal to abyssal depths, east of the New Zealand microcontinent. South of latitude 50°S, the DWBC is intimately linked with the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC), which is the prominent force for the shallow-water circulation. The Pacific DWBC is presently the largest single contributor of deep ocean water, and deciphering its evolution is of fundamental importance to understanding ocean and climate history, and global ocean hydrography. The evolution of the DWBC system, and of related circum-Antarctic currents, has taken place since 30-25Ma when plate movements created the first oceanic gaps south of Australia and South America. The stratigraphic record preserved in sediment drifts of the Southwest Pacific, in eastern New Zealand, is the best available for deciphering the Neogene history of Southern Ocean water masses, and of the circulation of the ACC, DWBC and their precursor systems. Major current activity commenced on the New Zealand margin in the late Eocene or early Oligocene (Hoiho Drift; early ACC) and was widespread by the mid-late Oligocene (Marshall Paraconformity and Weka Pass Limestone drift; ACC). During the Neogene the eastern South Island continental shelf built seawards by accretion at its outer edge of large Miocene current drifts up to tens of kilometres long and hundreds of metres thick (Canterbury drifts). Also commencing in the mid-Cenozoic, but in depths >2000m, the DWBC emplaced large deep-water sediment drifts. Rates of drift deposition accelerated considerably in the late Neogene, when climatic change (and particularly glacial sea-level falls) caused the delivery of large volumes of turbiditic sediment into the path of the DWBC via the Bounty and Hikurangi channels.

  13. Ocean current measurement techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_6.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_6.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text.../plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. Ocean Modeling and Visualization on Massively Parallel Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Li, P. Peggy; Wang, Ping; Katz, Daniel S.; Cheng, Benny N.

    1997-01-01

    Climate modeling is one of the grand challenges of computational science, and ocean modeling plays an important role in both understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting future climate change.

  15. Introduction to this special issue on ocean acidification: the pathway from science to policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jeremy T.; Cooley, Sarah R.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Williamson, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is a progressive decrease in the pH of seawater over decades, caused primarily by uptake of excess atmospheric CO2 and accompanied by changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. Scientific studies designed to examine the effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on global carbon fluxes have also led to the detection of OA. During the last decade, this phenomenon has surged to the attention of not only scientists but also policymakers and the public. OA chemistry is well understood and follows first principles of acid-base chemistry (e.g., Gattuso and Hansson, 2011; Box 1 in McLaughlin et al.). Today, total anthropogenic release of CO2 exceeds nine petagrams of carbon annually, with ~85% coming directly from industrial sources and ~15% from changes in land use. The three major sinks for this CO2 are: ~46% of CO2 emitted remains in the atmosphere, ~29% is absorbed by the terrestrial biosphere, and the ocean absorbs the remaining ~26% (Le Quéré et al., 2014), resulting in OA. Since the Industrial Revolution, global average surface ocean pH has dropped 0.1 unit (about a 30% increase in acidity; IPCC, 2013), and it is expected to drop another 0.3 to 0.4 units by 2100 (100-150% increase in acidity) if CO2 emissions continue in a business-as-usual scenario (Orr et al., 2005; IPCC, 2013). Some areas of the ocean, such as coastal regions, upwelling zones, and polar seas, may be subjected to much greater chemical perturbations from OA than indicated by such globally averaged values (e.g., Feely et al., 2008; Mathis et al.).

  16. Incorporating Science News Into Middle School Curricula: Current Events in the 21st Century Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, E.

    2010-12-01

    Middle school students are instructed with the aid of textbooks, lectures, and activities to teach topics that satisfy state standards. However, teaching materials created to convey standard-aligned science concepts often leave students asking how the content relates to their lives and why they should be learning it. Conveying relevance, especially in science when abstract concepts can often be incorrectly perceived as irrelevant, is important for student learning and retention. One way to create an educational link between classroom content and everyday life is through the use of scientific current events. Students read, hear, and watch media coverage of natural events (such as the Haiti or Chile earthquakes in 2010), but do not necessarily relate the scientific information from media sources to classroom studies. Taking advantage of these brief ‘teachable moments’-when student interest is high- provides a valuable opportunity to make classroom-to-everyday life associations and to incorporate inquiry based learning. To address this need, we are creating pre-packaged current event materials for middle school teachers in Arizona that align to state standards and which are short, effective, and easy to implement in the classroom. Each lesson takes approximately 15 minutes to implement, allowing teachers time to facilitate brief but meaningful discussions. Materials are assembled within approximately one week of the regional or global science event (e.g., volcanic eruptions, earthquakes) and may include a short slide show, maps, videos, pictures, and real-time data. A listserv is used to send biweekly emails to subscribed instructors. The email contains the current event topic, specific Arizona science standards addressed, and a link to download the materials. All materials are hosted on the Arizona State University Education Outreach website and are archived. Early implementation efforts have been received positively by participating teachers. In one case

  17. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydrolase (AHH) Data, 1988-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to determine the current status of and detect any long-term trends in the environmental quality of U.S. nearshore waters, NOAA initiated the National Status...

  18. Current, physical profile, and meteorological data collected as part of the Exploratory Study of Deepwater Currents in the Gulf of Mexico by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), 2/28/2003 - 4/11/2004 (NODC Accession 0031345)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) awarded a contract to Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to conduct a four-year study titled: Exploratory...

  19. Plastics in the Ocean: Engaging Students in Core Competencies Through Issues-Based Activities in the Science Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson-Kolmes, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a critical issue. The high profile of this issue in the popular media makes it an opportune vehicle for promoting deeper understanding of the topic while also advancing student learning in the core competency areas identified in the NSF's Vision and Change document: integration of the process of science, quantitative reasoning, modeling and simulation, and an understanding of the relationship between science and society. This is a challenging task in an introductory non-majors class where the students may have very limited math skills and no prior science background. In this case activities are described that ask students to use an understanding of density to make predictions and test them as they consider the fate of different kinds of plastics in the marine environment. A comparison of the results from different sampling regimes introduces students to the difficulties of carrying out scientific investigations in the complex marine environment as well as building quantitative literacy skills. Activities that call on students to make connections between global issues of plastic pollution and personal actions include extraction of microplastic from personal care products, inventories of local plastic-recycling options and estimations of contributions to the waste stream on an individual level. This combination of hands-on-activities in an accessible context serves to help students appreciate the immediacy of the threat of plastic pollution and calls them to reflect on possible solutions.

  20. Opportunities for Space Science Education Using Current and Future Solar System Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella Novak, M.; Beisser, K.; Butler, L.; Turney, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) office in The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department strives to excite and inspire the next generation of explorers by creating interactive education experiences. Since 1959, APL engineers and scientists have designed, built, and launched 61 spacecraft and over 150 instruments involved in space science. With the vast array of current and future Solar System exploration missions available, endless opportunities exist for education programs to incorporate the real-world science of these missions. APL currently has numerous education and outreach programs tailored for K-12 formal and informal education, higher education, and general outreach communities. Current programs focus on Solar System exploration missions such as the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) Moon explorer, the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Satellite, to name a few. Education and outreach programs focusing on K-12 formal education include visits to classrooms, summer programs for middle school students, and teacher workshops. APL hosts a Girl Power event and a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Day each year. Education and outreach specialists hold teacher workshops throughout the year to train educators in using NASA spacecraft science in their lesson plans. High school students from around the U.S. are able to engage in NASA spacecraft science directly by participating in the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT) and the Student Principal Investigator Programs. An effort is also made to generate excitement for future missions by focusing on what mysteries will be solved. Higher education programs are used to recruit and train the next generation of scientists and engineers. The NASA/APL Summer Internship Program offers a

  1. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  2. Topics in Current Science Research: Closing the Achievement Gap for Under Resourced Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya Villalpando, Alvaro; Daal, Miguel; Phipps, Arran; Speller, Danielle; Sadoulet, Bernard; Winheld, Rachel; Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Topics in Current Science Research (TCSR) is a five-week summer course offered at the University of California, Berkeley through a collaboration between the Level Playing Field Institute's Summer Math and Science Honors Academy (SMASH) Program and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) group at UC Berkeley. SMASH is an academic enrichment program geared towards under-resourced, high school students of color. The goals of the course are to expand the students' conception of STEM, to teach the students that science is a method of inquiry and not just a collection of facts that are taught in school, and to expose the scholars to critical thinking within a scientific setting. The course's curriculum engages the scholars in hands-on scientific research, project proposal writing, and presentation of their scientific work to their peers as well as to a panel of UC Berkeley scientists. In this talk, we describe the course and the impact it has had on previous scholars, we discuss how the course's pedagogy has evolved over the past 10 years to enhance students' perception and understanding of science, and we present previous participants' reflections and feedback about the course and its success in providing high school students a genuine research experience at the university level.

  3. Marine organism concentrations, carbonate chemistry variables, and nutrient concentrations from Atlantis ecosystem model simulation output in the California Current from 2013-01-01 to 2053-12-31 to understand vulnerability of California current food webs and economics to ocean acidification (NCEI Accession 0131198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the model output of a study to evaluate likely economic and ecological outcomes of ocean acidification in the California Current....

  4. Ocean current data measured by the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) aboard the Discoverer Enterprise oil platform from May 23, 2010 to July 04, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (NODC Accession 0083684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean current data were collected by ADCP aboard the Discoverer Enterprise in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event on April 20,...

  5. Ocean current data measured by the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) aboard the Development Driller III from 2010-05-31 to 2010-07-04 in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (NODC Accession 0083634)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean current data were collected by ADCP aboard the Discoverer Enterprise in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event on April 20,...

  6. Linking sardine recruitment in coastal areas to ocean currents using surface drifters and HF radar. A case study in the Gulf of Manfredonia, Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Roberta; Berta, Maristella; Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2017-01-01

    (Sardinus pilchardus) to the Gulf of Manfredonia, a known recruitment area in the Adriatic Sea. Sardine early life history stages (ELHS) were collected during two cruises to provide observational estimates of age-size relationship and of their passive pelagic larval duration (PPLD). We combine these PPLDs...... with observations of surface ocean currents to test two hypotheses: 1) ELHS are transported from remote spawning areas (SAs) by ocean cur- rents to the Gulf of Manfredonia; 2) sardines spawn locally and ELHS are retained by eddies. A historical surface drifter database is used to test hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 2...

  7. SciNews: Incorporating Science Current Events in 21st Century Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaggio, E.

    2011-12-01

    Middle school students are instructed with the aid of textbooks, lectures, and activities to teach topics that satisfy state standards. However, teaching materials created to convey standard-aligned science concepts often leave students asking how the content relates to their lives and why they should be learning it. Conveying relevance is important for student learning and retention, especially in science where abstract concepts can often be incorrectly perceived as irrelevant. One way to create an educational link between classroom content and everyday life is through the use of scientific current events. Students read, hear, and watch media coverage of natural events (such as the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan), but do not necessarily relate the scientific information from media sources to classroom studies. Taking advantage of these brief 'teachable moments'--when student interest is high--provides a valuable opportunity to make classroom-to-everyday life associations and to incorporate inquiry based learning. To address this need, I create pre-packaged current event materials for middle to high school teachers that align to state standards, and which are short, effective, and easy to implement in the classroom. Each lesson takes approximately 15-30 minutes to implement, allowing teachers time to facilitate brief but meaningful discussions. I assemble materials within approximately one week of the regional or global science event, consisting of short slide shows, maps, videos, pictures, and real-time data. I use a listserv to send biweekly emails to subscribed instructors containing the current event topic and a link to download the materials. All materials are hosted on the Arizona State University Education Outreach SciNews website (http://sese.asu.edu/teacher-resources) and are archived. Currently, 285 educators subscribe to the SciNews listserv, representing 36 states and 19 countries. In order to assess the effectiveness and usefulness of Sci

  8. A Research Experiences for Undergraduates program (REU) Program Designed to Recruit, Engage and Prepare a Diverse Student Population for Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2016-02-01

    The problem of improving diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce—still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines—can only be addressed by first recruiting and engaging a more diverse student population into the discipline, then retaining them in the workforce. California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) is home to the Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. As an HSI with strong ties to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system, the Monterey Bay REU is uniquely positioned to address the crucial recruitment and engagement of a diverse student body. Eleven sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students develop scientific self-efficacy and literacy skills through rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two

  9. Successes, Challenges and Lessons Learned for Recruiting, Engaging and Preparing a Diverse Student Population for 21st Century Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2015-12-01

    Diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce is still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines, a problem that will be only be solved by recruiting, engaging and retaining a more diverse student population. The Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates program is housed at California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), an HSI with strong connections to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system. From this unique position, 11 sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students engage in rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two cohorts (2014, 2015) and here we present successes, challenges and lessons learned for a program designed to prepare students for 21st century Ocean Science careers.

  10. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.

  11. Air, Ocean and Climate Monitoring Enhancing Undergraduate Training in the Physical, Environmental and Computer Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, W. W.; Johnson, L. P.; Obl, W.; Stewart, A.; Harris, W. C.; Craig, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Faculty in the Department of Physical, Environmental and Computer Sciences strongly believe in the concept that undergraduate research and research-related activities must be integrated into the fabric of our undergraduate Science and Technology curricula. High level skills, such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration and the ability to engage in research, are learned for advanced study in graduate school or for competing for well paying positions in the scientific community. One goal of our academic programs is to have a pipeline of research activities from high school to four year college, to graduate school, based on the GISS Institute on Climate and Planets model.

  12. Deep-Sea Phylogeographic Structure Shaped by Paleoenvironmental Changes and Ongoing Ocean Currents Around the Sea of Japan in a Crangonid Shrimp, Argis lar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Junta; Drumm, David T; Iguchi, Akira; Ueda, Yuji; Yamashita, Yuho; Ito, Masaki; Tominaga, Osamu; Kai, Yoshiaki; Ueno, Masahiro; Yamashita, Yoh

    2017-10-01

    The deep-sea crangonid shrimp, Argis lar, is a highly abundant species from the northern Pacific Ocean. We investigated its phylogeographic and demographic structure across the species' extensive range, using mitochondrial DNA sequence variation to evaluate the impact of deep-sea paleoenvironmental dynamics in the Sea of Japan on population histories. The haplotype network detected three distinct lineages with allopatric isolation, which roughly corresponded to the Sea of Japan (Lineage A), the northwestern Pacific off the Japanese Archipelago (Lineage B), and the Bering Sea/Gulf of Alaska (Lineage C). Lineage A showed relatively low haplotype and nucleotide diversity, a significantly negative value of Tajima's D, and a star-shaped network, suggesting that anoxic bottom-water in the Sea of Japan over the last glacial period may have brought about a reduction in the Sea of Japan population. Furthermore, unexpectedly, the distributions of Lineage A and B were closely related to the pathways of the two ocean currents, especially along the Sanriku Coast. This result indicated that A. lar could disperse across shallow straits through the ocean current, despite their deep-sea adult habitat. Bayesian inference of divergence time revealed that A. lar separated into three lineages approximately 1 million years before present (BP) in the Pleistocene, and then had been influenced by deep-sea paleoenvironmental change in the Sea of Japan during the last glacial period, followed by a more recent larval dispersal with the ocean current since ca. 6 kilo years BP.

  13. Using Web 2.0 tools to connect shore-based users to live science from the wide blue ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S. K.; Peart, L.; Collins, J.

    2009-12-01

    The fast-expanding use of social networking tools, combined with improved connectivity available through satellite-provided internet on board the scientific ocean drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution (the JR), has allowed for a whole new kind of interaction. Unlike in the not-so-distant past, when non-participants were forced to wait for months to read about the results of ongoing research, web tools allow almost instantaneous participation in ship-based ocean science. Utilizing a brand new portal, joidesresolution.org, scientists and educators at sea can post daily blogs about their work and respond to questions and comments on those blogs, update the JR’s Facebook and Twitter pages, and post videos and photos to YouTube and Flickr regularly. Live video conferencing tools also allow for direct interaction with scientists and a view into the work being done on board in real time. These tools have allowed students, teachers and families, groups and individuals on shore to follow along with the expeditions of the ship and its exciting scientific explorations -- and become a part of them. Building this community provides a whole range of rich interactions and brings seafloor research and the real process of science to those who would never before have had access to it. This presentation will include an overview of the web portal and its associated social networking sites, as well as a discussion of the challenges and lessons learned over nearly a year of utilizing these new tools. The web portal joidesresolution.org home page.

  14. CURRENT - DIRECTION and Other Data from UNKNOWN From North Atlantic Ocean and Others from 19630101 to 19841231 (NODC Accession 8900254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the University of Wisconsin's Indian/Atlantic/Pacific Climate Atlas data. This data set includes maps of: temperature; salinity; mixed-layer...

  15. Current Research and Statistical Practices in Sport Science and a Need for Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake R. Bernards

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current research ideologies in sport science allow for the possibility of investigators producing statistically significant results to help fit the outcome into a predetermined theory. Additionally, under the current Neyman-Pearson statistical structure, some argue that null hypothesis significant testing (NHST under the frequentist approach is flawed, regardless. For example, a p-value is unable to measure the probability that the studied hypothesis is true, unable to measure the size of an effect or the importance of a result, and unable to provide a good measure of evidence regarding a model or hypothesis. Many of these downfalls are key questions researchers strive to answer following an investigation. Therefore, a shift towards a magnitude-based inference model, and eventually a fully Bayesian framework, is thought to be a better fit from a statistical standpoint and may be an improved way to address biases within the literature. The goal of this article is to shed light on the current research and statistical shortcomings the field of sport science faces today, and offer potential solutions to help guide future research practices.

  16. Laboratory animal science in China: current status and potential for adoption of Three R alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qi; Qin, Chuan

    2010-03-01

    R alternatives, and animal welfare, and shows that there is currently great potential for the adoption of alternatives. The information will help scientists and organisations around the world to gain better insight into the current state of laboratory animal science in China, and hopefully, will enable them to give advice on how we can improve the adoption of Three R alternatives in our country. 2010 FRAME.

  17. Current state of Czech astronomy popularization and its potential for enhancing science career interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříček, Radek

    2015-08-01

    The Czech Republic has a dense net of observatories, astronomical clubs and other activities for both adults and children. Can we use it to improve skills of our pupils and their motivation to choose their career in science? Does the situation in the Czech Republic differ from abroad? What can we improve in the future? These questions were not answered satisfactorily so far. We decided to contribute to solve this issue.We present our survey of current state based mainly on electronic sources and personal dealings. Besides of 56 observatories working with public and many interest clubs, there are other possibilities to meet astronomy. For example, Astronomical Olympiad attracts thousands of pupils across the country each year to solve both theoretical and practical tasks in astronomy. In other projects, children can visit Dark-Sky Parks, design experiments for a stratospheric balloon, observe with CCD or radio devices or build their own rockets.We outline our ongoing project to examine the link between popularization activities and pupils’ or high school students’ attitude toward science and science career. We plan to create a typology of both popularization activities and life stories of people dealing with astronomy. From the methodological point of view, the mixed method design, combining both the qualitative and quantitative approach, will be used to solve the research problems. The basic research plan will be a case study. So far the project is based on interviews with various subjects. We choose people with different life stories, all connected with astronomy or astronomy popularization in some period. We focus on important moments in their career, similarities between subjects, and various types of possible motivation to participate in astronomy-related activities or to study science at university.Future results can be used to help interested organizations such as universities, observatories or astronomical societies. They will be able to work more

  18. The Western South Atlantic Ocean in a High-CO2 World: Current Measurement Capabilities and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rodrigo; da Cunha, Letícia C; Kikuchi, Ruy K P; Horta, Paulo A; Ito, Rosane G; Müller, Marius N; Orselli, Iole B M; Lencina-Avila, Jannine M; de Orte, Manoela R; Sordo, Laura; Pinheiro, Bárbara R; Bonou, Frédéric K; Schubert, Nadine; Bergstrom, Ellie; Copertino, Margareth S

    2016-03-01

    An international multi-disciplinary group of 24 researchers met to discuss ocean acidification (OA) during the Brazilian OA Network/Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (BrOA/SOLAS) Workshop. Fifteen members of the BrOA Network (www.broa.furg.br) authored this review. The group concluded that identifying and evaluating the regional effects of OA is impossible without understanding the natural variability of seawater carbonate systems in marine ecosystems through a series of long-term observations. Here, we show that the western South Atlantic Ocean (WSAO) lacks appropriate observations for determining regional OA effects, including the effects of OA on key sensitive Brazilian ecosystems in this area. The impacts of OA likely affect marine life in coastal and oceanic ecosystems, with further social and economic consequences for Brazil and neighboring countries. Thus, we present (i) the diversity of coastal and open ocean ecosystems in the WSAO and emphasize their roles in the marine carbon cycle and biodiversity and their vulnerabilities to OA effects; (ii) ongoing observational, experimental, and modeling efforts that investigate OA in the WSAO; and (iii) highlights of the knowledge gaps, infrastructure deficiencies, and OA-related issues in the WSAO. Finally, this review outlines long-term actions that should be taken to manage marine ecosystems in this vast and unexplored ocean region.

  19. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  20. Embedding Probeware Technology in the Context of Ocean Acidification in Elementary Science Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Todd I.; Rye, James A.; Luna, Melissa J.

    2017-01-01

    Research indicates that preservice teacher (PT) education programs can positively impact perceptions of scientific probeware use in K-8 environments. Despite the potential of probeware to improve science instruction and student engagement, its use in elementary education has been limited. Sixty-seven PT enrolled across three sections of an…

  1. A New Architecture for the Interface between Society and the Earth-Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J.; Robigou, V.; Stoermer, M.; Penrose, N.

    2004-12-01

    A revolution is sweeping through scientific, technological, and educational communities. New and growing in-situ sensor networks will soon provide unprecedented real-time information about natural and human-generated processes interacting throughout the ocean basins and spilling over onto the continents. This sea change of sensing technologies, coupled to next-generation scientific investigations, can have profound ramifications for the manner in which scientists, engineers, and educators conduct their professional activities. The most far-reaching effects, however, will be the inevitable shift in public attitudes. Our societies will begin to perceive more directly and accurately the complexities of the interlinked planetary systems that sustain us and will better understand the importance of the global ocean as the environmental flywheel of our planet. A parallel may be drawn with changes in weather forecasting. Up until the 1960s, weather was a local phenomenon that was simply lived with. Now synoptic overviews from satellites, high-speed communications, and computationally sophisticated weather simulations provide an elegant means of anticipating the weather. A similar, but more profound shift is taking place as the new paradigm for "environmental sensing from within" unfolds its power to anticipate and understand cause and effect associated with multifaceted non-linear change across our planet. We are accumulating vast reservoirs of data, indexed in time and space, about how the terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric systems interact to support the health and biodiversity of our planet. Novel database architectures and data-mining strategies are required to cope with the flood of new data into these ever-expanding archives and to make vast amounts of diverse information decipherable by many users. As that shift occurs, human society will be in a historically unprecedented position: we will have a global-scale and rapidly growing archives of quantifiable time

  2. Earth science: role of fO2 on fluid saturation in oceanic basalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel

    2004-07-29

    Assessing the conditions under which magmas become fluid-saturated has important bearings on the geochemical modelling of magmas because volatile exsolution may profoundly alter the behaviour of certain trace elements that are strongly partitioned in the coexisting fluid. Saal et al. report primitive melt inclusions from dredged oceanic basalts of the Siqueiros transform fault, from which they derive volatile abundances of the depleted mantle, based on the demonstration that magmas are not fluid-saturated at their eruption depth and so preserve the mantle signature in terms of their volatile contents. However, in their analysis, Saal et al. consider only fluid-melt equilibria, and do not take into account the homogeneous equilibria between fluid species, which, as we show here, may lead to a significant underestimation of the pressure depth of fluid saturation.

  3. What is the current state of the science of Cyber defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-09

    My overall sense of the cyber defense field is one of an adolescent discipline currently bogged down in a cloud of issues, the most iconic of which is the great diversity of approaches that are being aggregated to form a coherent field. Because my own expertise is complex systems and materials physics research, I have limited direct experience in cyber security sciences except as a user of secure networks and computing resources. However, in producing this report, I have found with certainty that there exists no calculus for cyber risk assessment, mitigation, and response, although some hopeful precepts toward this end are emerging.

  4. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  5. On the Leeuwin Current System and its Linkage to Zonal Flows in the South Indian Ocean as Inferred From a Gridded Hydrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H. E.; Furue, R.; Guerreiro, K.; McCreary, J. P., Jr.; Bindoff, N. L.

    2016-12-01

    Observations from many different platforms, over many years, have been synthesized into a highly-resolved (1/8°) hydrographic climatology (CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas, CARS) for the ocean around Australia. We use geostrophic currents obtained from this climatology to advance understanding of the Leeuwin Current System (LCS), without getting wet.The LCS along the coast of Western Australia consists of the southward-flowing Leeuwin Current (LC), the northward-flowing Leeuwin Undercurrent (LUC), and neighboring flows in the South Indian Ocean (SIO). The LC and LUC are remarkable in that they flow opposite to the directions of the boundary currents along most eastern-ocean boundaries in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The SIO zonal current is noteworthy because it flows against the predictions of wind-driven theory.We describe the spatial structure and annual variability of the LC, LUC, and SIO zonal currents, estimate their transports, and identify linkages among them. Although the three-dimensional structure and seasonality of the LCS have been suggested by previous observational and modeling studies, we believe our analysis is the first quantitative description of them. Furthermore the seasonality of the LUC is described for the first time.Our analysis establishes that there is a large overturning circulation in the zonal-vertical plane with an eastward flow in the upper 200 m into the LC, downwelling from the LC into the LUC, and a westward flow out of the LUC in the lower layer (200-800 m). This contradicts some of the previous theories (including ours) that the LC should accelerate southward because it keeps absorbing the mass from the near-surface eastward flow. Our results suggest that this downwelling is key to the not-yet-well-understood dynamics of the LCS, especially that of the LUC. We expect our results will provide guidelines that lead to the development of more complete theories.

  6. Ocean Tracks: Investigating Marine Migrations in a Changing Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, R.; Kochevar, R. E.; Aluwihare, L.; Bardar, E. W.; Hirsch, L.; Hoyle, C.; Krumhansl, K.; Louie, J.; Madura, J.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Peach, C. L.; Trujillo, A.; Winney, B.; Zetterlind, V.; Busey, A.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of scientific data sets online opens up exciting new opportunities to raise students' understanding of the worlds' oceans and the potential impacts of climate change. The Oceans of Data Institute at EDC; Stanford University; and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have been collaborating, with the support of three National Science Foundation grants over the past 5 years, to bring marine science data sets into high school and undergraduate classrooms. These efforts have culminated in the development of a web-based student interface to data from the Tagging of Pacific Predators (TOPP) program, NOAA's Global Drifter Program, and NASA Earth-orbiting satellites through a student-friendly Web interface, customized data analysis tools, multimedia supports, and course modules. Ocean Tracks (http://oceantracks.org), which incorporates design principles based on a broad range of research findings in fields such as cognitive science, visual design, mathematics education and learning science, focuses on optimizing students' opportunities to focus their cognitive resources on viewing and comparing data to test hypotheses, while minimizing the time spent on downloading, filtering and creating displays. Ocean Tracks allows students to display the tracks of elephant seals, white sharks, Bluefin tuna, albatross, and drifting buoys along with sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-A, bathymetry, ocean currents, and human impacts overlays. A graphing tool allows students to dynamically display parameters associated with the track such as speed, deepest daily dive and track tortuosity (curviness). These interface features allow students to engage in investigations that mirror those currently being conducted by scientists to understand the broad-scale effects of changes in climate and other human activities on ocean ecosystems. In addition to supporting the teaching of the Ocean and Climate Literacy principles, high school curriculum modules facilitate the teaching

  7. Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was

  8. Collaborative, Early-undergraduate-focused REU Programs at Savannah State University have been Vital to Growing a Demographically Diverse Ocean Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, M. R.; Cox, T. M.; Hintz, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Formal support for undergraduates to participate in marine/ocean science research at Savannah State University (SSU), a historically-Black unit of the University System of Georgia, began in 1989 with funding from the National Science Foundation for an unsolicited proposal (OCE-8919102, 34,935). Today SSU, which has offered B.S degrees since 1979 and M.S. degrees since 2001 in Marine Sciences, is making major contributions nationally to demographic diversity in ocean sciences. 33% of Master's degrees in marine/ocean sciences earned by African Americans in the U.S. from 2004-2007 were earned at SSU. 10% of African American Master's and Doctoral students in marine/ ocean sciences in 2007 were either enrolled in the Master's program at SSU or were former SSU students enrolled in Doctoral programs elsewhere. Collaborative REU programs that focus on early (freshman and sophomore) undergraduate students have been a consistent and vital part of that success. In the most recent iteration of our summer REU program we used six of the best practices outlined in the literature to increase success and retention of underrepresented minority students in STEM fields: early intervention, strong mentoring, research experience, career counseling, financial support, workshops and seminars. The early intervention with strong mentoring has proven successful in several metrics: retention in STEM majors (96%), progression to graduate school (50%), and continuation to later research experiences (75%). Research mentors include faculty at staff at SSU, the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and Georgia Tech-Savannah. Formal collaborative and cooperative agreements, externally-funded grants, and contracts in support of student research training have proven to be critical in providing resources for growth and improvement marine science curricular options at the University. Since 1981 the program has had four formal partnerships and 36 funded grant awards

  9. More Than One Way to Catch a Fish: Effective Translation of Ocean Science for the Public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meeson, B. W; McDonnell, J; Kohut, J; Litchenwahler, S; Helling, H

    2006-01-01

    .... Surprisingly little is known about effective translation of complex scientific and technical information into information that is easy to understand, easy to use, and of interest to the public and educators. Information translation is one way to make science and technical information more accessible to the public and thereby, improve scientific literacy of many Americans. We present three information translation models that promote scientific and technical literacy.

  10. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-04-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices.

  11. Analysis of current laboratory animal science policies and administration in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qi; Qin, Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory animal science (LAS) advances scientific understanding of the care and use of animals that play a key role in research supporting the development of biomedicine. LAS has developed quickly in China in recent decades, and this report provides an analysis of the current status of the countrys LAS policies and administration. National and provincial laws, regulations, guidelines, and standards apply to quality control and licensing, quarantine and infectious disease control, breeding and husbandry, transgenic animals, staff qualifications, animal welfare, and imports, exports, and transportation. Regulation and oversight of lab animal use are the responsibility of the national Ministry of Science and Technology, provincial departments of science and technology, and institutional animal care and use committees. We begin with an explanation of the rationale behind this paper and then offer a brief history of policy-related activities and achievements. We then present various policies, discuss their implementation, and hypothesize about future policy developments. With the improvement of policies under an integrated, multitiered administration, the use of high-quality lab animals in Chinese scientific research is increasing and many more papers describing animal experiments performed in China are being published in international journals.

  12. The current practice of using multiple representations in year 4 science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenmanee, Chanoknat; Thathong, Kongsak

    2018-01-01

    Multiple representations have been widely used as a reasoning tool for understanding complex scientific concepts. Thus this study attempted to investigate the current practice of using multiple representations on Year 4 science classrooms in terms of modes and levels which appear in curriculum documents, teaching plans, tasks and assessments, teaching practices, and students' behaviors. Indeed, documentary analysis, classroom observation, and interview were used as the data collection methods. First of all, Year 4 science documents were analyzed. Then classroom observation was used as a collecting method to seek what actually happen in the classroom. Finally, in-depth interviews were used to gather more information and obtain meaningful data. The finding reveals that many modes of verbal, visual, and tactile representations within three levels of representations are posed in Year 4 documents. Moreover, according to classroom observations and interviews, there are three main points of applying multiple representations into classrooms. First of all, various modes of representations were used, however, a huge number of them did not come together with the levels. The levels of representations, secondly, macroscopic and cellular levels were introduced into all classrooms while symbolic level was provided only in some classrooms. Finally, the connection of modes and levels pointed out that modes of representations were used without the considerations on the levels of them. So, it seems to be that teaching practice did not meet the aims of curriculum. Therefore, these issues were being considered in order to organize and design the further science lessons.

  13. The Use of Online Current Awareness Services by Natural Sciences and Engineering Faculty at Western Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Carrie C.; Eckel, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every commercial database that covers natural sciences and engineering offers some type of current awareness (CA) service that provides regular updates to users on current literature in a selected field of interest. Current awareness services include e-mail alerts, tables of contents, and RSS feeds. This study was designed to find out what…

  14. Biogeography of the Oceans: a Review of Development of Knowledge of Currents, Fronts and Regional Boundaries from Sailing Ships in the Sixteenth Century to Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.

    2014-06-01

    currents, fronts and eddies, which are often the focus of high biological productivity. Direct tracking of animals using satellite-based systems has helped resolve the biological function of such features and indeed animals instrumented in this way have helped the study of such features in three dimensions, including depths beyond the reach of conventional satellite remote sensing. Patterns of surface productivity detected by satellite remote sensing are reflected in deep sea life on the sea floor at abyssal depths >3,000 m. Satellite remote sensing has played a major role in overcoming the problems of large spatial scales and variability in ocean dynamics and is now an essential tool for monitoring global change.

  15. History and Nature of Science enriched Problem-Based Learning on the origins of biodiversity and of continents and oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sousa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The episode of the History of Science (HOS on the theory of continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener has been considered an excellent example for teaching students aspects of Nature of Science (NOS and the relation of Science with social and tecnological contexts. We implemented a NOS and HOS-enriched Problem-Based Learning environment at the middle (year 7 of the Portuguese National Curriculum and secondary level (year 10 for teaching the origins of biodiversity and of continents and oceans (mobilism.  The goal of providing detailed implementation practices is to adress the lack of how to in Problem-based learning (PBL implementation in classrooms for 12 to 16 year old students and is the first practical example of implementation using this episode of HOS for teaching geological mobilism integrated with evolution. Therefore, in this study, we provide specific suggestions for supporting teachers’ classroom efforts in implementing PBL, such as scaffolding. The ill-problem presented to students, without a single correct answer, was based on the phylogeny of extant and extinct ratite birds, described by Charles Darwin and the present geographical distribution. The evaluation of the students was focused on the chain of reasoning employed, and we performed a comparisation analysis of the problem’s solution presented by the students of both classes regarding the explanation of the phylogeny of ratites based on geological mobilism. We observed an overall improvement (25-77% of the percentages of students pre- and post-instruction adequate answers; therefore our PBL strategy was efficient.

  16. Currents, attenuation, temperature, conductivity, and pressure in the North Atlantic Ocean on the New England Continental Slope from the RV OCEANUS from November 10th, 1982 through November 18th, 1984 (NODC Accession 0066097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study of currents on the Continental Slope designed to describe the currents and to investigate the transport of sediment from the shelf to the slope. This work...

  17. Eastward and northward components of ocean current and water temperature collected from moorings in the vicinity of Quinault Canyon in the North East Pacific Coast from 1980-09-25 to 1981-01-24 (NCEI Accession 0164076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Washington maintained 9 current meter moorings, QC801 through QC8010 (QC806 was not deployed) in and around Quinault Canyon. Current meters were...

  18. Natural radionuclides tracing in marine surface waters along the northern coast of Oman Sea by combining the radioactivity analysis, oceanic currents and the SWAN model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Tari, Marziyeh; Mosayebi, Sanaz; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2015-03-15

    This study aims to establish a managed sampling plan for rapid estimate of natural radio-nuclides diffusion in the northern coast of the Oman Sea. First, the natural radioactivity analysis in 36 high volume surface water samples was carried out using a portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Second, the oceanic currents in the northern coast were investigated. Then, the third generation spectral SWAN model was utilized to simulate wave parameters. Direction of natural radioactivity propagation was coupled with the preferable wave vectors and oceanic currents direction that face to any marine pollution, these last two factors will contribute to increase or decrease of pollution in each grid. The results were indicated that the natural radioactivity concentration between the grids 8600 and 8604 is gathered in the grid 8600 and between the grids 8605 and 8608 is propagated toward middle part of Oman Sea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thick-shelled, grazer-protected diatoms decouple ocean carbon and silicon cycles in the iron-limited Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmy, Philipp; Smetacek, Victor; Montresor, Marina; Klaas, Christine; Henjes, Joachim; Strass, Volker H; Arrieta, Jesús M; Bathmann, Ulrich; Berg, Gry M; Breitbarth, Eike; Cisewski, Boris; Friedrichs, Lars; Fuchs, Nike; Herndl, Gerhard J; Jansen, Sandra; Krägefsky, Sören; Latasa, Mikel; Peeken, Ilka; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Scharek, Renate; Schüller, Susanne E; Steigenberger, Sebastian; Webb, Adrian; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2013-12-17

    Diatoms of the iron-replete continental margins and North Atlantic are key exporters of organic carbon. In contrast, diatoms of the iron-limited Antarctic Circumpolar Current sequester silicon, but comparatively little carbon, in the underlying deep ocean and sediments. Because the Southern Ocean is the major hub of oceanic nutrient distribution, selective silicon sequestration there limits diatom blooms elsewhere and consequently the biotic carbon sequestration potential of the entire ocean. We investigated this paradox in an in situ iron fertilization experiment by comparing accumulation and sinking of diatom populations inside and outside the iron-fertilized patch over 5 wk. A bloom comprising various thin- and thick-shelled diatom species developed inside the patch despite the presence of large grazer populations. After the third week, most of the thinner-shelled diatom species underwent mass mortality, formed large, mucous aggregates, and sank out en masse (carbon sinkers). In contrast, thicker-shelled species, in particular Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, persisted in the surface layers, sank mainly empty shells continuously, and reduced silicate concentrations to similar levels both inside and outside the patch (silica sinkers). These patterns imply that thick-shelled, hence grazer-protected, diatom species evolved in response to heavy copepod grazing pressure in the presence of an abundant silicate supply. The ecology of these silica-sinking species decouples silicon and carbon cycles in the iron-limited Southern Ocean, whereas carbon-sinking species, when stimulated by iron fertilization, export more carbon per silicon. Our results suggest that large-scale iron fertilization of the silicate-rich Southern Ocean will not change silicon sequestration but will add carbon to the sinking silica flux.

  20. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…