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Sample records for science math language

  1. ESL Mentoring for Secondary Rural Educators: Math and Science Teachers Become Second Language Specialists through Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Thomas, Holly; Grosso Richins, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from the capstone graduate course in a specially designed professional development program for rural math and science teachers that describes how participant teachers translated their newly acquired knowledge about English as a second language (ESL) into a mentoring experience for their rural content specialist peers.…

  2. Promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL in science and maths subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Putu Fika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous learning is a concept in which the learner has the ability to take charge of their own learning. It becomes a notable aspect that should be perceived by students. The aim of this research is for finding out the strategies used by grade two teachers in Bali Kiddy Primary School to promote autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning in science and maths subjects. This study was designed in the form of descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document study. The result of the study shows that there are some strategies of promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of CLIL in Science and Maths subjects. Those strategies are table of content training, questioning & presenting, journal writing, choosing activities, and using online activity. Those strategies can be adopted or even adapted as the way to promote autonomous learning in English subject.

  3. Language of Physics, Language of Math: Disciplinary Culture and Dynamic Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward F.; Kuo, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Mathematics is a critical part of much scientific research. Physics in particular weaves math extensively into its instruction beginning in high school. Despite much research on the learning of both physics and math, the problem of how to effectively include math in physics in a way that reaches most students remains unsolved. In this paper, we suggest that a fundamental issue has received insufficient exploration: the fact that in science, we don't just use math, we make meaning with it in a different way than mathematicians do. In this reflective essay, we explore math as a language and consider the language of math in physics through the lens of cognitive linguistics. We begin by offering a number of examples that show how the use of math in physics differs from the use of math as typically found in math classes. We then explore basic concepts in cognitive semantics to show how humans make meaning with language in general. The critical elements are the roles of embodied cognition and interpretation in context. Then, we show how a theoretical framework commonly used in physics education research, resources, is coherent with and extends the ideas of cognitive semantics by connecting embodiment to phenomenological primitives and contextual interpretation to the dynamics of meaning-making with conceptual resources, epistemological resources, and affect. We present these ideas with illustrative case studies of students working on physics problems with math and demonstrate the dynamical nature of student reasoning with math in physics. We conclude with some thoughts about the implications for instruction.

  4. Mini-Portfolio on Math and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching PreK-8, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents six articles dealing with math and science education: "Sneaker Geometry" (Jack George), "Fairs with a Flair" (Diane McCarty), "Generating Excitement with Math Projects" (Jeffrey Kostecky and Louis Roe), "Playing with Numbers" (Diana Smith), "When Student Teachers Want to Do Hands-On Science" (Betsy Feldkamp-Price), and "Science ala Carte"…

  5. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  6. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  7. Adventures in Science and Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tom B.

    This volume presents historical sketches of events and scientists. Produced for use by teachers using the MINNEMAST curriculum materials, the material is intended to exhibit the roles of processes in science throughout history. The seven stories included concern Anaxagoras, Achimedes, Napier, the development of the telescope and microscope, Louis…

  8. Science + Maths = A Better Understanding of Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Andy; Clark, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Science and mathematics share a common purpose: to explore, understand and explain the pure beauty of our universe and how it works. Using mathematics in science enquiry can enhance children's understanding of science and also provide opportunities for children to apply their mathematical knowledge to "real" contexts. The authors…

  9. PUMAS: Practical Uses of Math And Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    For more than ten years, PUMAS has provided a forum for disseminating peer-reviewed examples of Practical Uses of Math And Science, aimed at helping pre-college teachers enrich their presentation of math and science topics. Contributors include scientists, engineers, and content experts from many disciplines. The innovative ideas in PUMAS examples tend to be treasures, containing the ‘sparks’ of understanding that comes only from having real-life experience with the material. Examples can be essays, anecdotes, problems, demonstrations, or activities, and can be written in any style that serves the material well. They are keyed to the National Standards and Benchmarks, which provide the critical connection to K-12 curriculum guidelines, and the peer-review process involves at least one scientist with a relevant background, and at least one teacher at an appropriate grade level. The PUMAS Web Site has recently been upgraded. It is now a NASA-wide facility, recognized by both the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). This presentation will describe and illustrate the operation of PUMAS, will highlight a few of our many treasures, and will appeal to scientists interested in contributing meaningfully to pre-college education to consider submitting examples to PUMAS.

  10. Differential and Long-Term Language Impact on Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Literature provides consistent evidence that there is a strong relationship between language proficiency and math achievement. However, research results show conflicts supporting either an increasing or a decreasing longitudinal relationship between the two. This study explored a longitudinal data and adopted quantile regression analyses to…

  11. The Language of Mathematics Utilizing Math in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Baber, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    A new and unique way of understanding the translation of concepts and natural language into mathematical expressions Transforming a body of text into corresponding mathematical expressions and models is traditionally viewed and taught as a mathematical problem; it is also a task that most find difficult. The Language of Mathematics: Utilizing Math in Practice reveals a new way to view this process-not as a mathematical problem, but as a translation, or language, problem. By presenting the language of mathematics explicitly and systematically, this book helps readers to learn mathematics¿and i

  12. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanese, Kathy; Chung, Luz; Forbes, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This new addition to Math Solutions "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class series" offers a wealth of lessons and strategies for modifying grades 6-8 instruction. Section I presents an overview of teaching math to English learners: the research, the challenges, the linguistic demands of a math lesson, and specific strategies and…

  13. Science and Math in the Library Media Center Using GLOBE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Teresa L.; Levine, Elissa R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program which helps school library media specialists and science and math teachers bring earth science, math, information literacy, information technology, and student inquiry into the classroom. Discusses use of the Internet to create a global network to study the…

  14. Math and Science Gateways to California's Fastest Growing Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Some students--and parents--think math and science are not too important for their future. As everyday life becomes more dependent on technology, most people will need a better background in math and science to succeed in today's global economy. To get high-paying jobs in some of California's fastest-growing occupations, a strong background in…

  15. Teacher Education that Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners Through Content-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Elisabeth DelliCarpini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little research exists on effective ways to prepare secondary mathematics and science teachers to work with English language learners (ELLs in mainstream mathematics and science (subsequently referred to as STEM classrooms. Given the achievement gap that exists between ELLs and their native-speaking counterparts in STEM subjects, as well as the growing numbers of ELLs in US schools, this becomes a critical issue, as academic success for these students depends on the effectiveness of instruction they receive not only in English as a second language classes (ESL, but in mainstream classrooms as well. This article reports on the effects of a program restructuring that implemented coursework specifically designed to prepare pre-service and in-service mathematics, science, and ESL teachers to work with ELLs in their content and ESL classrooms through collaboration between mainstream STEM and ESL teachers, as well as effective content and language integration. We present findings on teachers’ attitudes and current practices related to the inclusion of ELLs in the secondary-level content classroom and their current level of knowledge and skills in collaborative practice. We further describe the rationale behind the development of the course, provide a description of the course and its requirements as they changed throughout its implementation during two semesters, and present findings from the participants enrolled. Additionally, we discuss the lessons learned; researchers’ innovative approaches to implementation of content-based instruction (CBI and teacher collaboration, which we term two-way CBI (DelliCarpini & Alonso, 2013; and implications for teacher education programs.

  16. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  17. Assessing the Effect of Language Demand in Bundles of Math Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kathleen; Jeddeeni, Ahmad; Walker, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Differential bundle functioning (DBF) analyses were conducted to determine whether seventh and eighth grade second language learners (SLLs) had lower probabilities of answering bundles of math word problems correctly that had heavy language demands, when compared to non-SLLs of equal math proficiency. Math word problems on each of four test forms…

  18. Project TIMS (Teaching Integrated Math/Science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Leo, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project is to increase the scientific knowledge and appreciation bases and skills of pre-service and in-service middle school teachers, so as to impact positively on teaching, learning, and student retention. This report lists the objectives and summarizes the progress thus far. Included is the working draft of the TIMS (Teaching Integrated Math/Science) curriculum outline. Seven of the eight instructional subject-oriented modules are also included. The modules include informative materials and corresponding questions and educational activities in a textbook format. The subjects included here are the universe and stars; the sun and its place in the universe; our solar system; astronomical instruments and scientific measurements; the moon and eclipses; the earth's atmosphere: its nature and composition; and the earth: directions, time, and seasons. The module not included regards winds and circulation.

  19. Change Vocational Funding to Acquire Qualified Math/Science Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Bill

    1985-01-01

    Gives a brief overview of the problems occurring at the high school level due to inadequately paid personnel in the math and science areas, summarizes the current bureaucratic structure surrounding vocational funding, and suggests an alternative. (FL)

  20. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  1. The role of early language abilities on math skills among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence.Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills.The current findings indicate 1 Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2 Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.

  2. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional Teaching Competencies: Differences between Teachers of Math/Science Majors and Non-Math/Science Majors in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chen; Chao, Li-ling; Cheng, Pi-Yun; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Guo, Chorng-Jee

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to probe the differences of perceived professional teaching competence between elementary school math/science teachers in Taiwan who are majored in math/science and those who are not. A researcher-developed Math/Science Teachers' Professional Development Questionnaire was used in a nationwide survey, using a two-stage…

  3. Language and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    1999-01-01

    Reviews recent applied linguistic research on science and language, especially studies conducted during the period between 1990 and 1998. Outlines major changes that have taken place in this area since van Naerssen and Kaplan's 1987 review. (Author/VWL)

  4. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  5. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M D Archibald

    Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  6. TEACHER TRAINING: How to Produce Better Math and Science Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, J

    2000-09-01

    Two National Research Council panels have released new reports on improving science and math education in the United States. One panel says that the best way to improve teacher education is to make it a continuum, with school districts taking more responsibility for the initial preparation of new teachers and university faculty playing a bigger role in ongoing professional development. The other panel says that more recent science Ph.D.s would be willing to teach high school science and math if the government helped with the transition, if the certification process were compressed, and if they could retain ties to research.

  7. Hardly Rocket Science: Collaboration with Math and Science Teachers Doesn't Need to Be Complicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkel, Walter

    2004-01-01

    While librarians routinely collaborate with reading and humanities teachers, they rarely partner with teachers of math and science--to the loss of students. With the current emphasis on standardized testing and declining student performance in math and science, media specialists need to remedy this situation. Why don't librarians click with…

  8. Dale Chihuly: An Inspiration in Art, Science, and Math!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Connecting students to the arts in a concrete way can be an effective teaching tool. In this article, the author describes how Dale Chihuly's "Hart Window," which features hand-blown glass disks affixed to the framework of the window, can be an inspiration for interdisciplinary connections in art, science and math. (Contains 4 online resources.)

  9. Integrating Literacy, Math, and Science to Make Learning Come Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.; Moore, Sara D.; Hayhurst, Elaine; Jones, Rubin; Tuttle, Sherry

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors who are an interdisciplinary team of middle school educators collaboratively developed and implemented an interdisciplinary unit designed to help middle school students: (1) think like mathematicians and scientists; (2) develop specific areas of expertise in math and science; and (3) use literature as a tool to learn…

  10. 77 FR 37016 - Applications for New Awards: Upward Bound Math and Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards: Upward Bound Math and Science Program AGENCY... Bound Math and Science Program. Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2012.... There are three types of grants under the UB Program: regular UB grants, Veterans UB grants, and UB Math...

  11. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Readiness: Ethno-linguistic and gender differences in high-school course selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The study examines science-related course choices of high-school students in the culturally diverse schools of the province of British Columbia, Canada. The analysis employs K-12 provincial data and includes over 44,000 students born in 1990 who graduated from high school by 2009. The research sample reflects the presence of about 27% of students for whom English is not a first language. We construct an empirical model that examines ethno-linguistic and gender differences in Grade 12 course choices while accounting for personal and situational differences among students. The study employs a course selection typology that emphasizes readiness for science, technology, engineering and math fields of study. Findings indicate that math- and science-related course selection patterns are strongly associated with ethnicity, qualified not only by gender and prior math and science achievement but also by the individual's grade level at entry to the system and enrollment in English as a Second Language program. Students who are more likely to engage in math and science courses belong to Asian ethno-linguistic groups and entered the provincial school system during the senior high-school years. We suggest that ethnic diversity and broader academic exposure may play a crucial role in changing the gender composition of science classrooms, university fields of study and science-related occupations.

  12. Math

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2006-01-01

    Flummoxed by formulas? Queasy about equations? Perturbed by pi? Now you can stop cursing over calculus and start cackling over Math, the newest volume in Bill Robertson's accurate but amusing Stop Faking It! best sellers. As Robertson sees it, too many people view mathematics as a set of rules to be followed, procedures to memorize, and theorems to apply. This book focuses on the reasoning behind the rules, from math basics all the way up to a brief introduction to calculus.

  13. Talking Math, Blogging Math

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Linda Marie

    2009-01-01

    Talking Math, Blogging Math is a curriculum designed to aid middle school Pre- Algebra students' mathematical problem-solving through the use of academic language instruction, explanatory proofs, and online technology (blogging). Talking Math, Blogging Math was implemented over a period of ten weeks during the 2008 - 2009 school year. The school where the curriculum was implemented is a non-traditional classroom-based charter school. The 7th, 8th and 9th grade students attended class twice a ...

  14. Sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) of healthy school-age children is associated with grades in math and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Enros, Paul; Paquin, Soukaina; Kestler, Myra; Gillies-Poitras, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between objective measures of sleep duration and sleep efficiency with the grades obtained by healthy typically developing children in math, language, science, and art while controlling for the potential confounding effects of socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. We studied healthy typically developing children between 7 and 11 years of age. Sleep was assessed for five week nights using actigraphy, and parents provided their child's most recent report card. Higher sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) was associated with better grades in math, English language, and French as a second language, above and beyond the contributions of age, gender, and SES. Sleep efficiency, but not sleep duration, is associated with academic performance as measured by report-card grades in typically developing school-aged children. The integration of strategies to improve sleep efficiency might represent a successful approach for improving children's readiness and/or performance in math and languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing Math or Testing Language? The Construct Validity of the KeyMath-Revised for Children with Intellectual Disability and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine T.; Branum-Martin, Lee; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that mathematics ability alone predicts mathematics test performance, linguistic demands may also predict achievement. This study examined the role of language in mathematics assessment performance for children with intellectual disability (ID) at less severe levels, on the KeyMath-Revised Inventory (KM-R) with a…

  16. The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M

    2013-07-01

    Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.

  17. The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students' math and science anxiety and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The "Responsive Classroom" Approach and Fifth Grade Students' Math and Science Anxiety and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Merritt, Eileen G.; Patton, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as…

  19. It's not maths; it's science: exploring thinking dispositions, learning thresholds and mindfulness in science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinnell, R.; Thompson, R.; LeBard, R. J.

    2013-09-01

    Developing quantitative skills, or being academically numerate, is part of the curriculum agenda in science teaching and learning. For many of our students, being asked to 'do maths' as part of 'doing science' leads to disengagement from learning. Notions of 'I can't do maths' speak of a rigidity of mind, a 'standoff', forming a barrier to learning in science that needs to be addressed if we, as science educators, are to offer solutions to the so-called 'maths problem' and to support students as they move from being novice to expert. Moving from novice to expert is complex and we lean on several theoretical frameworks (thinking dispositions, threshold concepts and mindfulness in learning) to characterize this pathway in science, with a focus on quantitative skills. Fluid thinking and application of numeracy skills are required to manipulate experimental data sets and are integral to our science practice; we need to stop students from seeing them as optional 'maths' or 'statistics' tasks within our discipline. Being explicit about the ways those in the discipline think, how quantitative data is processed, and allowing places for students to address their skills (including their confidence) offer some ways forward.

  20. Language of Physics, Language of Math: Disciplinary Culture and Dynamic Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward F.; Kuo, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is a critical part of much scientific research. Physics in particular weaves math extensively into its instruction beginning in high school. Despite much research on the learning of both physics and math, the problem of how to effectively include math in physics in a way that reaches most students remains unsolved. In this paper, we…

  1. Testing Math or Testing Language? The Construct Validity of the KeyMath-Revised for Children With Intellectual Disability and Language Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine T; Branum-Martin, Lee; Morris, Robin D; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A

    2015-11-01

    Although it is often assumed that mathematics ability alone predicts mathematics test performance, linguistic demands may also predict achievement. This study examined the role of language in mathematics assessment performance for children with intellectual disability (ID) at less severe levels, on the KeyMath-Revised Inventory (KM-R) with a sample of 264 children, in grades 2-5. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the hypothesis that the KM-R would demonstrate discriminant validity with measures of language abilities in a two-factor model was compared to two plausible alternative models. Results indicated that KM-R did not have discriminant validity with measures of children's language abilities and was a multidimensional test of both mathematics and language abilities for this population of test users. Implications are considered for test development, interpretation, and intervention.

  2. Do Biology Students Really Hate Math? Empirical Insights into Undergraduate Life Science Majors’ Emotions about Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Lucas P.; Runyon, Christopher R.; Drake, John M.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of Mathematics Inventory (ASMI). We collected data from 359 science and math majors at two research universities and conducted a series of statistical tests that indicated that four AMSI items comprised a reasonable measure of students’ emotional satisfaction with math. We then compared life science and non–life science majors and found that major had a small to moderate relationship with students’ responses. Gender also had a small relationship with students’ responses, while students’ race, ethnicity, and year in school had no observable relationship. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three groups—students who were emotionally satisfied with math, emotionally dissatisfied with math, and neutral. These results and the emotional satisfaction with math scale should be useful for identifying differences in other undergraduate populations, determining the malleability of undergraduates’ emotional satisfaction with math, and testing effects of interventions aimed at improving life science majors’ attitudes toward math. PMID:28798211

  3. Developing Science and Mathematics Teacher Leaders through a Math, Science & Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, André M.; Kent, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effects of a professional development teacher leadership training program on the pedagogical and content development of math and science teacher leaders at the elementary level. The study is qualitative in nature, and the authors collected data using the online survey instrument Survey Monkey. The major implications of the…

  4. Speaking the same language in physics and math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Marci

    2012-02-01

    "Hey, is that the same thing as a derivative from calculus?" "Isn't that a quadratic equation?" These are some of the math-related questions my physics students ask every year. Some students realize that determining velocity from a position-time graph is the same thing as taking the first derivative in calculus or they recognize a quadratic equation has a t2 term. Why can all students not make the connection between the two? I wonder if we, as teachers of two different subjects, are making this learning more difficult because we have different terminology for identical concepts. We have an opportunity to create a learning environment that offers multiple opportunities to improve student comprehension. Teachers can connect the concepts from various classes into a cohesive set of information that can be used for higher-level thinking and processing skills.

  5. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and

  6. 34 CFR 645.13 - What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are they...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional services do Upward Bound Math and... Program? § 645.13 What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are... provided under § 645.11(b), an Upward Bound Math and Science Center must provide— (1) Intensive instruction...

  7. Inhibitory Control of Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Preschool Children: Measurement and Association With Language, Literacy, and Math Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Darcey M; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Phillips, Beth M

    Children's self-regulation, including components of executive function such as inhibitory control, is related concurrently and longitudinally with elementary school children's reading and math abilities. Although several recent studies have examined links between preschool children's self-regulation or executive function and their academic skill development, few included large numbers of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Among the fastest growing segments of the U.S. school-age population, many of these children are at significant risk of academic difficulties. We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores on this last measure were lower for children for whom it was administered in Spanish. For both English and Spanish outcomes, those scores were significantly and uniquely associated with higher scores on measures of phonological awareness and math skills but not vocabulary or print knowledge skills.

  8. Evaluating the impact of digital tools to teach math and science in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluating the impact of digital tools to teach math and science in Chile ... Caribbean countries fare poorly in international comparisons of learning assessments. ... to support governments grappling with intellectual property issues in an age of ...

  9. Do Biology Students Really Hate Math? Empirical Insights into Undergraduate Life Science Majors' Emotions about Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Lucas P; Runyon, Christopher R; Drake, John M; Dolan, Erin L

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of Mathematics Inventory (ASMI). We collected data from 359 science and math majors at two research universities and conducted a series of statistical tests that indicated that four AMSI items comprised a reasonable measure of students' emotional satisfaction with math. We then compared life science and non-life science majors and found that major had a small to moderate relationship with students' responses. Gender also had a small relationship with students' responses, while students' race, ethnicity, and year in school had no observable relationship. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three groups-students who were emotionally satisfied with math, emotionally dissatisfied with math, and neutral. These results and the emotional satisfaction with math scale should be useful for identifying differences in other undergraduate populations, determining the malleability of undergraduates' emotional satisfaction with math, and testing effects of interventions aimed at improving life science majors' attitudes toward math. © 2017 L.P. Wachsmuth et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Software for math and science education for the deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Wilbur, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development of two novel approaches to teaching math and science concepts to deaf children using 3D animated interactive software. One approach, Mathsigner, is non-immersive and the other, SMILE, is a virtual reality immersive environment. The content is curriculum-based, and the animated signing characters are constructed with state-of-the art technology and design. We report preliminary development findings of usability and appeal based on programme features (e.g. 2D/3D, immersiveness, interaction type, avatar and interface design) and subject features (hearing status, gender and age). Programme features of 2D/3D, immersiveness and interaction type were very much affected by subject features. Among subject features, we find significant effects of hearing status (deaf children take longer time and make more mistakes than hearing children) and gender (girls take longer than boys; girls prefer immersive environments rather than desktop presentation; girls are more interested in content than technology compared to boys). For avatar type, we found a preference for seamless, deformable characters over segmented ones. For interface comparisons, there were no subject effects, but an animated interface resulted in reduced time to task completion compared to static interfaces with and without sound and highlighting. These findings identify numerous features that affect software design and appeal and suggest that designers must be careful in their assumptions during programme development.

  11. A Case Study of Coaching in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Nugent, Gwen; Kunz, Gina; Luo, Linlin; Berry, Brandi; Craven, Katherine; Riggs, April

    2012-01-01

    A professional development experience for science and mathematics teachers that included coaches was provided for ten science and math teachers. This professional development experience had the teachers develop a lesson that utilized the engineering context to teach a science or mathematics concept through guided inquiry as an instructional…

  12. The Math-Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors' Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students' personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math-Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self--report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students' interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student's value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math-biology values and understand how math-biology values are related to students' achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. © 2017 S. E. Andrews et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. The Language of Mathematics in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boohan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    "The Language of Mathematics in Science" is an ASE/Nuffield project aimed at supporting teachers of 11-16 science in the use of mathematical ideas in the science curriculum. Two publications have been produced. This article focuses on the first of these, "The Language of Mathematics in Science: A Guide for Teachers of 11-16…

  14. The Blue Blazer Club: Masculine Hegemony in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Melanie C.; Bailey, Lucy E.; Van Delinder, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The under-representation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields is of continuing concern, as is the lack of women in senior positions and leadership roles. During a time of increasing demand for science and engineering enterprise, the lack of women and minorities in these academic disciplines needs to be addressed by…

  15. Informal Learning in Science, Math, and Engineering Majors for African American Female Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Ezella

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as frameworks to better understand the participants'…

  16. Math and science education programs from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This booklet reviews math and science education programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The programs can be categorized into six groups: teacher programs; science laboratories for students; student programs; education outreach programs; INEL Public Affairs Office; and programs for college faculty and students

  17. Math and Science Teachers: Recruiting and Retaining California's Workforce. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Middle and high school math and science teachers provide the foundation for education in the growing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. They are crucial to California's efforts to remain competitive in a global economy. This policy brief looks at the shortage and challenges involved in recruiting and retaining fully prepared…

  18. Math and Science Education for the California Workforce: It Starts with K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Workforce projections worldwide show a growing need for people with strong backgrounds in math and science. As the eighth largest economy in the world, California benefits particularly from enterprises in the "STEM" fields (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). How well California's current public school students are…

  19. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montellano, B.O. de

    1996-11-14

    This report describes later stages of a program to develop culturally relevant science and math programs for Hispanic students. Part of this effort was follow-up with 17 teachers who participated in early stages of the program. Response was not very good. Included with the report is a first draft effort for curriculum materials which could be used as is in such a teaching effort. Several of the participating teachers were invited to a writing workshop, where lesson plans were drafted, and critiqued and following rework are listed in this publication. Further work needs to be completed and is ongoing.

  20. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434

  1. Math and Movement: Practical Ways to Incorporate Math into Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Each year, physical educators are asked to incorporate even more math, language arts, science and social studies into their curriculum. The challenge is how to do this without sacrificing the essential health and life skills provided by a quality physical education program. One program, Math & Movement, is a great aid for physical educators to…

  2. Crossing the Gender Gap: A Study of Female Participation and Performance in Advanced Maths and Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, Jessica

    2006-10-01

    A statistical analysis of enrollment in AP maths and sciences in the Abilene Independent School District, between 2000 and 2005, studied the relationship between gender, enrollment, and performance. Data suggested that mid-scoring females were less likely than their male counterparts to enroll in AP-level courses. AISD showed higher female : male score ratios than national and state averages but no improvement in enrollment comparisons. Several programs are suggested to improve both participation and performance of females in upper-level math and science courses.

  3. Discussion of Science and Math Teaching Methods: criticism and possibilities in teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gerhardt Manfredo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion of practices among Science and Math teachers in Brazilian Basic Education. Analysis focuses on criticism over teaching practices throughout Basic Education which includes Children, Primary and Medium levels. Discussion highlights the interdisciplinary and educational projects as the most chosen tool for reflective practices. Most educational problems must be solved by the use of shared theoretical choices and investigative methodological approach. Such choices ought to be made during teachers' continuing trainning based on a researcher-teacher action as it provides ways for methodological changes in Sciences and Math Education in the Country

  4. Mimewrighting: Preparing Students for the Real World of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    passage-a well-invested quantum of energized activity. Students select a passage of interest and read it aloud. With coaching from science-savvy teachers and coaches, students act out the scientific and technical content-and move toward conceptual understanding of the actual phenomenon. Enacting a dynamical model requires the cognitive and physical awareness of the concepts involved. The mimed experience provides comprehensible input that can connect to math, language, and higher-level thinking skills. Following a mime scenario enactment, the teacher and students can refer to the shared experience as a common source to draw upon in discussion. The mimed action becomes a common reference point of shared prior experience. Modifying and manipulating the mimed model can also effect conceptual change. The power of dramatic reenactment through mimewrighting helps make abstract science and nature of science concepts become lively, tangible, and accessible to inquiry discussion. RESULTS: In this way, we re-inspire interest in science learning by engaging students to construct science scenarios that are designed for the incremental increase in challenge for the students. Students can now risk entering the black hole of scientific and technical writing--and emerge with all faculties intact!

  5. The National Teacher Training Institute for Math, Science and Technology: Exemplary Practice in a Climate of Higher Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, James G., Ed.; Donlevy, Tia Rice, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the NTTI (National Teacher Training Institute) for Math, Science and Technology model that trains teachers to use video and Internet resources to enhance math and science instruction. Discusses multimedia methodology; standards-based training; program impact in schools; and lesson plans available on the NTTI Web site. (Author/LRW)

  6. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  7. Gender in STEM Education: An Exploratory Study of Student Perceptions of Math and Science Instructors in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha-Zaidi, Nausheen; Afari, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The current study addresses student perceptions of math and science professors in the Middle East. Gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education continues to exist in higher education, with male professors holding a normative position. This disparity can also be seen in the United Arab Emirates. As female…

  8. Engaging High School Students in Advanced Math and Science Courses for Success in College: Is Advanced Placement the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley-Kemple, Thomas; Proger, Amy; Roderick, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The current study provides an in-depth look at Advanced Placement (AP) math and science course-taking in one school district, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Using quasi-experimental methods, this study examines the college outcomes of students who take AP math and science courses. Specifically, this study asks whether students who take AP math…

  9. Japanese language and Japanese science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  10. Upward Bound: An Untapped Fountain Of Youth Wanting To Learn About Math And Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, L. C.; Svelling, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a two-phased curricula aimed at high school students in Hawaii’s Upward Bound (UB) programs. The course, called “Tour Through the Solar System”, was tested in the summer 2008-2009 programs of two of the four Hawaii UB programs. Authorized by Congress in 1965, UB is a federal program funded by the U.S. Department of Education to serve students underrepresented in higher education. Students enrolled in UB are predominantly low income, or from families in which neither parent holds a bachelor’s degree. UB programs make a measurable improvement in retaining high school students in the education pipeline in part by using innovative educational and outreach programs to spark students’ interest in learning while building academic self-confidence. Curricula developed for UB are sustainable because there are 964 programs in the United States, and U territories. Education and outreach products can be presented at regional and national meetings, which directors of the UB programs attend. Broad regulations and varied instruction formats allow curriculum developers a flexible and creative framework for developing classes. For instance, regulations stipulate that programs must provide participants with academic instruction in mathematics, laboratory sciences, composition, literature, and foreign languages in preparation for college entrance. UB meets these guidelines through school-year academic activities and a six-week summer school program. In designing our curricula the primary goals were to help students learn how to learn and encourage them to develop an interest in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math using NASA planetary data sets in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) environment. Our focus on planetary science stems from our familiarity with the data sets, our view that NASA data sets are a naturally inspirational tool to engage high school students, and its cross-disciplinary character: encompassing geology, chemistry, astronomy

  11. Hands-On Math and Art Exhibition Promoting Science Attitudes and Educational Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Thuneberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current science, technology, engineering, art, math education (STEAM approach emphasizes integration of abstract science and mathematical ideas for concrete solutions by art. The main aim was to find out how experience of learning mathematics differed between the contexts of school and an informal Math and Art Exhibition. The study participants (N=256 were 12-13 years old from Finland. Several valid questionnaires and tests were applied (e.g., SRQ-A, RAVEN in pre- and postdesign showing a good reliability. The results based on General Linear Modeling and Structural Equation Path Modeling underline the motivational effects. The experience of the effectiveness of hands-on learning at school and at the exhibition was not consistent across the subgroups. The lowest achieving group appreciated the exhibition alternative for math learning compared to learning math at school. The boys considered the exhibition to be more useful than the girls as it fostered their science and technology attitudes. However, for the girls, the attractiveness of the exhibition, the experienced situation motivation, was much more strongly connected to the attitudes on science and technology and the worthiness of mathematics. Interestingly, the pupils experienced that even this short informal learning intervention affected their science and technology attitudes and educational plans.

  12. The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task

  13. Advanced placement math and science courses: Influential factors and predictors for success in college STEM majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Cynthia Colon

    President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country. Although research studies offer several contributing factors that point to a higher attrition rate of women in STEM than their male counterparts, no study has investigated the role that high school advanced placement (AP) math and science courses play in preparing students for the challenges of college STEM courses. The purpose of this study was to discover which AP math and science courses and/or influential factors could encourage more students, particularly females, to consider pursuing STEM fields in college. Further, this study examined which, if any, AP math or science courses positively contribute to a student's overall preparation for college STEM courses. This retrospective study combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey sample consisted of 881 UCLA female and male students pursuing STEM majors. Qualitative data was gathered from four single-gender student focus groups, two female groups (15 females) and two male groups (16 males). This study examined which AP math and science courses students took in high school, who or what influenced them to take those courses, and which particular courses influenced student's choice of STEM major and/or best prepared her/him for the challenges of STEM courses. Findings reveal that while AP math and science course-taking patterns are similar of female and male STEM students, a significant gender-gap remains in five of the eleven AP courses. Students report four main influences on their choice of AP courses; self, desire for math/science major, higher grade point average or class rank, and college admissions. Further, three AP math and science courses were

  14. SKyTeach: Addressing the need for Science and Math Teachers in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Scott

    2008-10-01

    The shortage of good science and math teachers is a chronic problem that threatens to undermine the future of our profession and economy. While our world is becoming increasingly dependent on technology, many high schools do not even offer physics, in part due to of the unavailability of a qualified teacher. The entire state of Kentucky typically produces 0-2 new physics teachers per year, compared to 200+ elementary teachers per year from WKU alone. The picture is not much better in math and other sciences. SKyTeach is a new program at WKU to address this great need and is part of a national effort to replicate the successful UTeach program. The University of Texas UTeach program graduates 70-90 new math and science teachers a year, in the process providing them with a strong preparation based on current research on how people learn science and math, experience teaching in real classrooms from the start, and strong mentoring and support. UTeach graduates stay in the classroom at rates above the national average, and some fairly quickly move into leadership positions within their schools. A key element is good collaboration between the college of science, that of education, local P-12 schools, and others. Last year thirteen universities across the nation were selected as part of an effort to replicate the UTeach program nation-wide. This effort is supported by the National Science and Math Initiative in a partnership with the UTeach Institute. Our first cohort of students has started this fall, and we have had many successes and challenges as we move forward.

  15. Rural School Math and Science Teachers' Technology Integration Familiarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonde, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the significance of technology integration familiarization and the subsequent PD provided to rural middle school teachers with several opportunities to gain technological skills for technology use in rural middle school math and science classrooms. In order to explore the use of technology in rural schools, this study surveyed…

  16. Touring Mars Online, Real-time, in 3D for Math and Science Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Greg; Kalinowski, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a project that placed over 97% of Mars' topography made available from NASA into an interactive 3D multi-user online learning environment beginning in 2003. In 2005 curriculum materials that were created to support middle school math and science education were developed. Research conducted at the University of North Texas…

  17. STEM the Tide: Reforming Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, David E.

    2011-01-01

    One study after another shows American students ranking behind their international counterparts in the STEM fields--science, technology, engineering, and math. Business people such as Bill Gates warn that this alarming situation puts the United States at a serious disadvantage in the high-tech global marketplace of the twenty-first century, and…

  18. The Returns to Educational Training in Math and Science for American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Stephen M.; De Souza, Gita

    The economic returns of taking math and science courses in high school are estimated for women who do not go on to college and for women entrepreneurs. A human capital model is used to estimate returns for respondents drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey's New Youth Cohort. Wage rates in 1990 of women who were ages 14-21 in 1979 were…

  19. Making Sense of Principal Leadership in Content Areas: The Case of Secondary Math and Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, Chad R.; Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We drew upon sense making and leadership content knowledge to explore how high school administrators' understanding of content areas informed their leadership. We used math and science to illustrate our interpretations, noting that other content areas may pose different challenges. We found that principals' limited understanding of these content…

  20. A Rural Math, Science, and Technology Elementary School Tangled up in Global Networks of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Kimmel, Sue; Tschida, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This is an ethnographic study of a newly created math, science, and technology elementary magnet school in a rural community fiercely committed to cultural preservation while facing unprecedented economic instability brought on by massive loss of manufacturing jobs. Our goal was to understand global- and community-level contexts that influenced…

  1. Building Links between Early Socioeconomic Status, Cognitive Ability, and Math and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, Angela; Belsky, Jay; Grimm, Kevin; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether and how socioeconomic status (SES) predicts school achievement in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) using structural equation modeling and data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Child Care and Youth Development. The present inquiry addresses gaps in…

  2. The Middle School Experience: Effects on the Math and Science Achievement of Adolescents with LD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study and applying hierarchical linear modeling, this study found a strong gap in achievement in math and science between adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). The gap was reduced for LD adolescents who did not make a school transition until at least ninth grade. (DB)

  3. Solving Math and Science Problems in the Real World with a Computational Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Juan Carlos; Basogain, Xabier; Olabe, Miguel Ángel; Maíz, Inmaculada; Castaño, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n = 242) was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in…

  4. How to Recruit Women and Girls to the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Numbers do not exist for the percentage of girls in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) academies across the U.S. The most recent career and technical education statistics at the secondary level from the U.S. Department of Education are from 2005, and they show very low numbers of female students in STEM. The absence of women from…

  5. Applied Math & Science Levels Utilized in Selected Trade & Industrial Vocational Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James R.

    Research identified and evaluated the level of applied mathematics and science used in selected trade and industrial (T&I) subjects taught in the Kentucky Vocational Education System. The random sample was composed of 52 programs: 21 carpentry, 20 electricity/electronics, and 11 machine shop. The 96 math content items that were identified as…

  6. "I Was Scared to Be the Stupid": Latinas in Residential Academies of Science and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayman, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of Latinas in state residential academies of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Goals of this project focused on understanding their experiences and identifying factors leading to the decision to enroll, along with issues contributing to retention. These schools represent powerful opportunities…

  7. Combining Geography, Math, and Science to Teach Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldakowski, Ray; Johnson, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of integrating geography into existing math and science curriculum to teach climate change and sea level rise. The desired outcome is to improve student performance in all three subjects. A sample of 120 fifth graders from three schools were taught the integrated curriculum over a period of two to three weeks.…

  8. The Effect of Using Mind Maps on the Development of Maths and Science Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ozgul; Yavuz, Ezgi Aksin; Tunc, Ayse Betul Ozkarabak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of mind mapping activities on the maths and science skills of children 48 to 60 months of age. The study was designed using an experimental model with a pre-test post-test and a control group. Accordingly, the hypotheses of the study was that there would be meaningful differences in the values…

  9. Persistence Motivations of Chinese Doctoral Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji

    2014-01-01

    This study explored what motivated 6 Chinese international students to complete a PhD in science, technology, engineering, and math fields in the United States despite perceived dissatisfaction. This study was grounded in the value-expectancy achievement motivation theory and incorporated a Confucian cultural lens to understand motivation. Four…

  10. Women in Physics: A Comparison to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Education over Four Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Linda J.; Lehman, Kathleen J.; Barthelemy, Ramón S.; Lim, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    The dearth of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields has been lamented by scholars, administrators, policymakers, and the general public for decades, and the STEM gender gap is particularly pronounced in physics. While previous research has demonstrated that this gap is largely attributable to a lack of women pursuing…

  11. Addressing the STEM Challenge by Expanding Specialty Math and Science High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.; Hugo, Janet; Lundgren, Dennis; Shapiro, Martin J.; Thomas, Jerald

    2007-01-01

    If America is to succeed in the innovation-powered global economy, boosting math and science skills will be critical. This is why a wide array of task forces and organizations has recently raised the clarion call for more and better scientists and engineers. While the policy proposals offered are wide ranging, one key policy innovation has…

  12. Math tools 500+ applications in science and arts

    CERN Document Server

    Glaeser, Georg

    2017-01-01

    In this book, topics such as algebra, trigonometry, calculus and statistics are brought to life through over 500 applications ranging from biology, physics and chemistry to astronomy, geography and music. With over 600 illustrations emphasizing the beauty of mathematics, Math Tools complements more theoretical textbooks on the market, bringing the subject closer to the reader and providing a useful reference to students. By highlighting the ubiquity of mathematics in practical fields, the book will appeal not only to students and teachers, but to anyone with a keen interest in mathematics and its applications.

  13. Efficacy Expectations and Vocational Interests as Mediators between Sex and Choice of Math/Science College Majors: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapan; Shaughnessy; Boggs

    1996-12-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to test the mediational role of efficacy expectations in relation to sex differences in the choice of a math/science college major. Data on 101 students were gathered prior to their entering college and then again after they had declared a major 3 years later. Path analytic results support the importance of both math self-efficacy beliefs and vocational interest in mathematics in predicting entry into math/science majors and mediating sex differences in these decisions. Also, students who described themselves as more extroverted were less likely to take additional math classes in high school. Students with stronger artistic vocational interests chose majors less related to math and science. School personnel are strongly encouraged to develop programs that challenge the crystallization of efficacy beliefs and vocational interest patterns before students enter college.

  14. PUMAS: The On-line journal of Math and Science Examples for Pre-College Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-11-01

    PUMAS - “Practical Uses of Math And Science” - is an on-line collection of brief examples showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes can be used in interesting settings, including every day life. The examples are written primarily by scientists, engineers, and other content experts having practical experience with the material. They are aimed mainly at classroom teachers to enrich their presentation of math and science topics. The goal of PUMAS is to capture, for the benefit of pre-college education, the flavor of the vast experience that working scientists have with interesting and practical uses of math and science. There are currently over 80 examples in the PUMAS collection, and they are organized by curriculum topics and tagged with relevant grade levels and curriculum topic benchmarks. The published examples cover a wide range of subject matter: from demonstrating why summer is hot, to describing the fluid dynamics of a lava lamp, to calculating the best age to collect Social Security Benefits. The examples are available to all interested parties via the PUMAS web site: http://pumas.nasa.gov/.We invite the community to participate in the PUMAS collection. We seek scientists and scientific thinkers to provide innovative examples of practical uses for teachers to use to enrich the classroom experience, and content experts to participate in peer-review. We also seek teachers to review examples for originality, accuracy of content, clarity of presentation, and grade-level appropriateness. Finally, we encourage teachers to mine this rich repository for real-world examples to demonstrate the value of math in science in everyday life.

  15. Understanding the Language Demands on Science Students from an Integrated Science and Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David John; Hart, Christina Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This case study of a science lesson, on the topic thermal expansion, examines the language demands on students from an integrated science and language perspective. The data were generated during a sequence of 9 lessons on the topic of "States of Matter" in a Grade 7 classroom (12-13 years old students). We identify the language demands…

  16. Thought and Language in Cognitive Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destéfano, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive science, the discussion about the relations between language and thought is very heterogeneous. It involves developments on linguistics, philosophy, psychology, etc. Carruthers and Boucher (1998 identify different criteria that would organize the diversity of positions about language and thought assumed in linguistics, philosophy and psychology. One of them is the constitution thesis (CT, which establishes that language is constitutively involved in thought. In this paper I would like to show some problems of CT in order to understand the relation between language and thought in cognitive science.

  17. Enhancing the Math and Science Experiences of Latinas and Latinos: A Study of the Joaquin Bustoz Math-Science Honors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escontrias, Gabriel, Jr.

    Latinas and Latinos are currently underrepresented in terms of our 21 st century student academic attainment and workforce, compared to the total U.S. Hispanic population. In a field such as mathematical sciences, Hispanic or Latino U.S. citizenship doctoral recipients only accounted for 3.04% in 2009--2010. While there are various initiatives to engage underrepresented STEM populations through education, there is a need to give a voice to the experiences of Latinas and Latinos engaged in such programs. This study explored the experiences of seven Arizona State University undergraduate Latina and Latino Joaquin Bustoz Math-Science Honors Program (JBMSHP) participants as well as examined how the program enhanced their math and science learning experiences. Participants attended either a five-week or eight-week program and ranged in attendance from 2006 to 2011. Students were provided an opportunity to begin university mathematics and science studies before graduating high school. Through a demographic survey and one-on-one guided interview, participants shared their personal journey, their experience in the JBMSHP, and their goals. Using grounded theory, a qualitative research approach, this study focuses on the unique experiences of Latina and Latino participants. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the data. Each participant applied to the program with a foundation in which they sought to challenge themselves academically through mathematics and/or science. Through their involvement it the JBMSHP, participants recognized benefits during and after the program. All participants recognized the value of these benefits and their participation and praised the program. Overall, the JBMSHP provided the students the resources to grow their academic capital and if they chose seek a STEM related bachelor degree. The results of this study emphasize the need to expand the JBMSHP both within Arizona and nationally. In addition, there is a need to explore the other

  18. School Science and the Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2014-01-01

    An integrated science curriculum assists pupils to retain learnings better than to separate academic disciplines. Too frequently, science teachers teach each academic discipline as separate entities. However, there is much correlating of science with language, for example which might well be implemented in teaching and learning situations. Thus,…

  19. Progressing science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in North Dakota with near-space ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Marissa Elizabeth

    The United States must provide quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in order to maintain a leading role in the global economy. Numerous initiatives have been established across the United States that promote and encourage STEM education within the middle school curriculum. Integrating active learning pedagogy into instructors' lesson plans will prepare the students to think critically - a necessary skill for the twenty first century. This study integrated a three-week long Near Space Balloon project into six eighth grade Earth Science classes from Valley Middle School in Grand Forks, North Dakota. It was hypothesized that after the students designed, constructed, launched, and analyzed their payload experiments, they would have an increased affinity for high school science and math classes. A pre- and post-survey was distributed to the students (n=124), before and after the project to analyze how effective this engineering and space mission was regarding high school STEM interests. The surveys were statistically analyzed, comparing means by the Student's t-Test, specifically the Welch-Satterthwaite test. Female students displayed a 57.1% increase in math and a 63.6% increase in science; male students displayed a 46.6% increase in science and 0% increase in math. Most Likert-scale survey questions experienced no statistically significant change, supporting the null hypothesis. The only survey question that supported the hypothesis was, "I Think Engineers Work Alone," which experienced a 0.24% decrease in student understanding. The results suggest that integrating a three-week long Near Space Balloon project into middle school curricula will not directly influence the students' excitement to pursue STEM subjects and careers. An extensive, yearlong ballooning mission is recommended so that it can be integrated with multiple core subjects. Using such an innovative pedagogy method as with this balloon launch will help students master the

  20. STAR: Preparing future science and math teachers through authentic research experiences at national laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John; Rebar, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides 9-week paid summer research experiences at national research laboratories for future science and math teachers. The program, run by the Cal Poly Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) on behalf of the entire California State University (CSU) System, has arranged 290 research internships for 230 STEM undergraduates and credential candidates from 43 campuses over the past 6 years. The program has partnered with seven Department of Energy labs, four NASA centers, three NOAA facilities, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Primary components of the summer experience include a) conducting research with a mentor or mentor team, b) participating in weekly 2-3 hour workshops focused on translating lessons learned from summer research into classroom practice, and c) presenting a research poster or oral presentation and providing a lesson plan linked to the summer research experience. The central premise behind the STAR Program is that future science and math teachers can more effectively prepare the next generation of science, math, and engineering students if they themselves have authentic experiences as researchers.

  1. Combining Graphic Arts, Hollywood and the Internet to Improve Distance Learning in Science and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso-Varela, S.; Friedberg, R.; Lipnick, D.

    We on the Navajo Reservation face the daunting problem of trying to educate a widely scattered student population over a landmass (25,000+ sq. miles) larger than all the New England states combined. Compounding this problem is the fact that English is a second language for many students and that many of our students lack basic foundation skills. One of the obvious answers is Distance Learning Programs. But, in the past Distance Learning Programs have been notably ineffective on the Navajo Reservation. An experimental Internet Astronomy that we taught last summer showed conclusively that we must specifically tailor our Distance Learning courses to a Navajo audience. As with many college level science courses, our experimental course was English intensive and there lies the crux of the problem. With the help of our colleague institutions, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, University of New Mexico, Kennesaw State University, and New Mexico Highlands University, we undertook to replace 90% of the traditional verbiage with art, an idiom much accepted on the Navajo Reservation. We used the Walt Disney Studios as a model. Specifically, we studied the Pvt. Snafu cartoons used by the War Department in World War II. We tried to emulate their style and techniques. We developed our own cartoon characters, Astroboy, Professor Tso and Roxanne. We combined high quality graphic art, animation, cartooning, Navajo cultural elements, Internet hyperlinks and voiceovers to tell the story of Astronomy 101 Lab. In addition we have added remedial math resources and other helpful resources to our web site. We plan to test initial efforts in an experimental Internet course this summer.

  2. Math Avoidance: A Barrier to American Indian Science Education and Science Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rayna

    1978-01-01

    For American Indian students, math anxiety and math avoidance are the most serious obstacles to general education and to the choice of scientific careers. Indian students interviewed generally exhibited fear and loathing of mathematics and a major lack of basic skills which were caused by a missing or negative impression of the mathematics…

  3. Effect of Balanced Math Instruction on Math Performance of Grade 1 and Grade 2 English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Gary Scott

    2017-01-01

    Research affirmed that instructional strategies that promote English Language Learners' (ELLs) Academic Language Proficiency (ALP) are essential in the primary grades for ELLs to succeed in school. This quantitative causal-comparative study relied on the premise of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and addressed to what extent Balanced Math…

  4. Solving math and science problems in the real world with a computational mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Olabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n=242 was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in mathematics, participants were introduced to a taxonomic tool for the description of K-12 Math problems. The tool allows the identification, decomposition and description of Type-A problems, the characteristic ones in the traditional curriculum, and of Type-B problems in the new paradigm. The workshops culminated with a set of surveys where participants were asked to assess both the current and the new proposed paradigms. The surveys in this study revealed that according to the majority of participants: (i The K-12 Mathematics curricula are designed to teach students exclusively the resolution of Type-A problems; (ii real life Math problems respond to a paradigm of Type-B problems; and (iii the current Math curriculum should be modified to include this new paradigm.

  5. Similarity of TIMSS Math and Science Achievement of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Zabulionis

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1991-97, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA undertook a Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in which data about the mathematics and science achievement of the thirteen year-old students in more than 40 countries were collected. These data provided the opportunity to search for patterns of students' answers to the test items: which group of items was relatively more difficult (or more easy for the students from a particular country (or group of countries. Using this massive data set an attempt was made to measure the similarities among country profiles of how students responded to the test items.

  6. Toad-Ally Cool Math and Science Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkich, Katie; Allen, Melony; Huffling, Lacey; Matthews, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    "Hop to It," a week-long herpetology-focused summer STEM camp for rising fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade girls, provided young females with authentic, hands-on science experiences, allowing them to develop the habits of thought and processes of action used by STEM field experts while also engaging and sustaining their interest in the…

  7. Project LAUNCH: Bringing Space into Math and Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauerbach, M.; Henry, D. P.; Schmidt, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Project LAUNCH is a K-12 teacher professional development program, which has been created in collaboration between the Whitaker Center for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education at Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU), and the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI). Utilizing Space as the overarching theme it is designed to improve mathematics and science teaching, using inquiry based, hands-on teaching practices, which are aligned with Florida s Sunshine State Standards. Many students are excited about space exploration and it provides a great venue to get them involved in science and mathematics. The scope of Project LAUNCH however goes beyond just providing competency in the subject area, as pedagogy is also an intricate part of the project. Participants were introduced to the Conceptual Change Model (CCM) [1] as a framework to model good teaching practices. As the CCM closely follows what scientists call the scientific process, this teaching method is also useful to actively engage institute participants ,as well as their students, in real science. Project LAUNCH specifically targets teachers in low performing, high socioeconomic schools, where the need for skilled teachers is most critical.

  8. Increasing the Competitive Edge in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlewell, Janet S., Ed.; Henry, Ronald J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The U. S. is losing its competitive edge in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Thomas Friedman warns that America is not producing enough young people in STEM fields that are essential for entrepreneurship and innovation in the 21st century (The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, 2005). Blue ribbon…

  9. Exploring Pulses through Math, Science, and Nutrition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane K.; Mandal, Bidisha; Wallace, Michael L.; Riddle, Lee Anne; Kerr, Susan; Atterberry, Kelly Ann; Miles, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 includes pulses as a required component of the school lunch menu standard. Pulses are nutritionally important staple food crops, and include dry beans, dry peas, garbanzo beans, and lentils. This current study examined the short-term effectiveness of a Science, Technology, Engineering,…

  10. Understanding decisions Latino students make regarding persistence in the science and math pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Janet Lynn

    This qualitative study focused on the knowledge and perceptions of Latino high school students, as well those of their parents and school personnel, at a southwestern, suburban high school regarding persistence in the math/science pipeline. In the context of the unique school and community setting these students experience, the decision-making process was examined with particular focus on characterizing the relationships that influence the process. While the theoretical framework that informs this study was that of social capital, its primary purpose was to inform the school's processes and policy in support of increased Latino participation in the math and science pipeline. Since course selection may be the most powerful factor affecting school achievement and college-preparedness, and since course selection is influenced by school policy, school personnel, students, parents, and teachers alike, it is important to understand the beliefs and perceptions that characterize the relationships among them. The qualitative research design involved a phenomenological study of nine Latino students, their parents, their teachers and counselors, and certain support personnel from the high school. The school's and community's environment in support of academic intensity served as context for the portrait that developed. Given rapidly changing demographics that bring more and more Latino students to suburban high schools, the persistent achievement gap experienced by Latino students, and the growing dependence of the world economy on a citizenry versed in the math- and science-related fields, a deeper understanding of the decision-making processes Latino 12 students experience can inform school policy as educators struggle to influence those decisions. This study revealed a striking lack of knowledge concerning the college-entrance ramifications of continued course work in math and science beyond that required for graduation, relationships among peers, parents, and school

  11. Evaluating RITES, a Statewide Math and Science Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D. P.; Caulkins, J. L.; Burns, A. L.; de Oliveira, G.; Dooley, H.; Brand, S.; Veeger, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Rhode Island Technology-Enhanced Science project (RITES) is a NSF-MSP Program that seeks to improve science education by providing professional development to science teachers at the 5th through 12th grade levels. At it's heart, RITES is a complex, multifaceted project that is challenging to evaluate because of the nature of its goal: the development of a large, statewide partnership between higher education and K12 public school districts during a time when science education strategies and leadership are in flux. As a result, these difficulties often require flexibility and creativity regarding evaluation, study design and data collection. In addition, the research agenda of the project often overlaps with the evaluator's agenda, making collaboration and communication a crucial component of the project's success. In it's 5th year, RITES and it's evaluators have developed a large number of instruments, both qualitative and quantitative, to provide direction and feedback on the effectiveness of the project's activities. RITES personnel work closely with evaluators and researchers to obtain a measure of how RITES' 'theory-of-action' affects both student outcomes and teacher practice. Here we discuss measures of teacher and student content gains, student inquiry gains, and teacher implementation surveys. Using content questions based on AAAS and MOSART databases, teachers in the short courses and students in classrooms showed significant normalized learning gains with averages generally above 0.3. Students of RITES-trained teachers also outperformed their non-RITES peers on the inquiry-section of the NECAP test, and The results show, after controlling for race and economic status, a small but statistically significant increase in test scores for RITES students. Technology use in the classroom significantly increased for teachers who were 'expected implementers' where 'expected implementers' are those teachers who implemented RITES as the project was designed. This

  12. Do Biology Students Really Hate Math? Empirical Insights into Undergraduate Life Science Majors' Emotions about Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Lucas P.; Runyon, Christopher R.; Drake, John M.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of…

  13. Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

    There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  14. Gender differences in math and science choices and preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhadrawi, Amamah A.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to discover how the myth of gender differences in STEM inform the lived experiences of male and female 12th graders in one high school in Northwest Ohio. Over the years, the observed gender gap favoring males over females in STEM ability has closed, and female students have even surpassed males in some measures. The fact that girls have met and exceeded boys in many measures of STEM ability over time suggests that the historical disparity was the result of social or psychological, and not biological, differences. Even though schools have changed throughout the years to accommodate and encourage female students in STEM, there is still a persistent disparity in participation at the highest levels of STEM in education and in careers. Males still outnumber females in the more mathematical and technical sciences, such as computer science and engineering. This study applied feminist socialization theory and phenomenology as its theoretical framework. The biggest themes that informed student"s choices and preferences were as follows: intended choices follow family influence, myth persists in subtle ways, teenagers have a limited future view, and the chicken and the egg issues of personal interests versus social influence. There are clearly more factors that contribute to this gender socialization, which may be a combination of socioeconomic status and the influence of family.

  15. SPORT SCIENCE STUDENTS‟ BELIEFS ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Akhiriyah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons for students of Sport Science to use English. Yet, knowing the importance of learning English is sometimes not enough to encourage them to learn English well. Based on the experience in teaching them, erroneous belief seems to be held by many of them. It arouses curiosity about the beliefs which might be revealed to help the students to be successful in language learning. By investigating sport science students‘ beliefs about language learning, it is expected that types of the beliefs which they hold can be revealed. Understanding students‘ beliefs about language learning is essential because these beliefs can have possible consequences for second language learning and instruction. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence. The subjects of this study were 1st semester students majoring in Sport Science of Sport Science Faculty. There were 4 classes with 38 students in each class. There were approximately 152 students as the population of the study. The sample was taken by using random sampling. All members of the population received the questionnaire. The questionnaire which was later handed back to the researcher is considered as the sample. The instrument in this study is the newest version of Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, version 2.0, developed by Horwitz to asses the beliefs about learning a foreign language.

  16. Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Julie

    The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (pgender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

  17. Dr Math gets MUDDY: the "dirt" on how to attract teenagers to Mathematics and Science by using multi-user dungeon games over Mxit on cell phones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -user dungeon games (MUDs) with a science and mathematical twist were deployed using Mxit (a popular instant messaging system in South Africa) on cell phones to encourage teenagers to learn more about math and science to practice math and science skills...

  18. Science As A Second Language: Acquiring Fluency through Science Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R.; EcoVoices Expedition Team

    2013-05-01

    Science Enterprises are problems that students genuinely want to solve, questions that students genuinely want to answer, that naturally entail reading, writing, investigation, and discussion. Engaging students in personally-relevant science enterprises provides both a diagnostic opportunity and a context for providing students the comprehensible input they need. We can differentiate instruction by creating science enterprise zones that are set up for the incremental increase in challenge for the students. Comprehensible input makes reachable, those just-out-of-reach concepts in the mix of the familiar and the new. EcoVoices takes students on field research expeditions within an urban natural area, the San Gabriel River Discovery Center. This project engages students in science enterprises focused on understanding ecosystems, ecosystem services, and the dynamics of climate change. A sister program, EcoVoces, has been launched in Mexico, in collaboration with the Universidad Loyola del Pacífico. 1) The ED3U Science Inquiry Model, a learning cycle model that accounts for conceptual change: Explore { Diagnose, Design, Discuss } Use. 2) The ¿NQUIRY Wheel, a compass of scientific inquiry strategies; 3) Inquiry Science Expeditions, a way of laying out a science learning environment, emulating a field and lab research collaboratory; 4) The Science Educative Experience Scale, a diagnostic measure of the quality of the science learning experience; and 5) Mimedia de la Ciencia, participatory enactment of science concepts using techniques of mime and improvisational theater. BACKGROUND: Science has become a vehicle for teaching reading, writing, and other communication skills, across the curriculum. This new emphasis creates renewed motivation for Scientists and Science Educators to work collaboratively to explore the common ground between acquiring science understanding and language acquisition theory. Language Acquisition is an informal process that occurs in the midst of

  19. WWC Review of the Report "Accommodations for English Language Learner Students: The Effect of Linguistic Modification of Math Test Item Sets"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this report is a randomized controlled trial in which seventh- and eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to complete a set of 25 math questions delivered with either standard language or language that had undergone "linguistic modification" by the research team. The purpose of the study was to assess the…

  20. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  1. Adolescent Girls' Experiences and Gender-Related Beliefs in Relation to Their Motivation in Math/Science and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell; Farkas, Timea; Brown, Christia Spears

    2012-01-01

    Although the gender gap has dramatically narrowed in recent decades, women remain underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examined social and personal factors in relation to adolescent girls' motivation in STEM (math/science) versus non-STEM (English) subjects. An ethnically diverse…

  2. A rural math, science, and technology elementary school tangled up in global networks of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Kimmel, Sue; Tschida, Christina

    2010-06-01

    This is an ethnographic study of a newly created math, science, and technology elementary magnet school in a rural community fiercely committed to cultural preservation while facing unprecedented economic instability brought on by massive loss of manufacturing jobs. Our goal was to understand global- and community-level contexts that influenced the school's science curriculum, the ways the school promoted itself to the community, and the implicit meanings of science held by school staff, parents and community members. Main sources of data were the county's newspaper articles from 2003 to 2006, the school's, town's, and business leaders' promotional materials, and interviews with school staff, parents, and community members. A key finding was the school's dual promotion of science education and character education. We make sense of this "science with character" curriculum by unpacking the school and community's entanglements with historical (cultural preservation), political (conservative politics, concerns for youth depravity), and economic (globalization) networks. We describe the ways those entanglements enabled certain reproductive meanings of school science (as add-on, suspect, and elitist) and other novel meanings of science (empathetic, nurturing, place-based). This study highlights the school as a site of struggle, entangled in multiple networks of practice that influence in positive, negative, and unpredictable ways, the enacted science curriculum.

  3. An Exploration of the Ways that Parents Can Influence African American Girls Interest in Achieving in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lori L.

    Math and science is the core of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education. It is the staying power of economic growth, job opportunities, new technology, innovation and emerging research on a global spectrum in the 21st century. Data reports that African American women are underrepresented in the STEM career field. The focus of this project was to specifically address African American middle school girls achievement gap, awareness and interests in the STEM pipeline. Data for this research was gathered by using Action Research Methodology approach using journals, questionnaire survey and dialogue. Five parents/educators participated in this empirical research study by sharing their personal, lived and unapologetic experiences through eight weeks of action/reflection inquiry. The finding of this research is that parents need to be engaged about STEM and the importance for girls to do well academically early in school with math and science.

  4. Troubled Waters: where Multiple Streams of Inequality Converge in the Math and Science Experiences of Nonprivileged Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Laurel; Spatig, Linda; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Carter, Carolyn C.; Keyes, Marian

    Water is often hardest to navigate at the confluence of individual streams. As they experience math and science, nonprivileged girls maneuver through roiling waters where the streams of gender, ethnicity, poverty, place, and teaching practices converge. Just as waters of separate streams blend, these issues - too often considered separate factors - become blended and difficult to isolate, and the resulting turbulence produces a bumpy ride. We draw on 3 years of qualitative data collected as part of an intervention program to explore the math and science experiences and perceptions of a group of ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status rural and urban adolescent Appalachian girls. After describing program and community contexts, we explore "opportunity to leant" issues - specifically, expectations, access to content, and support networks - and examine their schooling experiences against visions of science and math reform and pressures for accountability. Data are discussed within a framework of critical educational theory.

  5. Climate change in the classroom: Reaching out to middle school students through science and math suitcase lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo, A. C.; Collay, R.; Harris, R. N.; de Silva, L.

    2011-12-01

    We have formed a link between the Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences (IDES) program with the Science and Math Investigative Learning Experiences (SMILE) program, both at Oregon State University. The IDES mission is to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population and the SMILE mission is to provide science and math enrichment for underrepresented and other educationally underserved students in grades 4-12. Traditionally, underserved schools do not have enough time or resources to spend on science and mathematics. Furthermore, numerous budget cuts in many Oregon school districts have negatively impacted math and science cirriculum. To combat this trend we have designed suitcase lessons in climate change that can be carried to a number of classrooms. These lesson plans are scientifically rich and economically attractive. These lessons are designed to engage students in math and science through climate change presentations, group discussions, and hands-on activities. Over the past year we have familiarized ourselves with the academic ability of sixth and seventh graders through in-class observation in Salem Oregon. One of the suit case lessons we developed focuses on climate change by exploring the plight of polar bears in the face of diminishing sea ice. Our presentation will report the results of this activity.

  6. Language-Based Reasoning in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Sherriff, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Language is critical in the mediation of scientific reasoning, higher-order thinking and the development of scientific literacy. This study investigated how an exemplary primary science teacher scaffolds and supports students' reasoning during a Year 4 materials unit. Lessons captured on video, teacher and student interviews and micro-ethnographic…

  7. Mathematical learning instruction and teacher motivation factors affecting science technology engineering and math (STEM) major choices in 4-year colleges and universities: Multilevel structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahlam

    2011-12-01

    Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/06, this study examined the effects of the selected mathematical learning and teacher motivation factors on graduates' science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related major choices in 4-year colleges and universities, as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, I analyzed: (1) the association between mathematical learning instruction factors (i.e., computer, individual, and lecture-based learning activities in mathematics) and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy and (2) the association between school factor, teacher motivation and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities via mediators of math performance and math self-efficacy. The results revealed that among the selected learning experience factors, computer-based learning activities in math classrooms yielded the most positive effects on math self-efficacy, which significantly predicted the increase in the proportion of students' STEM major choice as mediated by math self-efficacy. Further, when controlling for base-year math Item Response Theory (IRT) scores, a positive relationship between individual-based learning activities in math classrooms and the first follow-up math IRT scores emerged, which related to the high proportion of students' STEM major choices. The results also indicated that individual and lecture-based learning activities in math yielded positive effects on math self-efficacy, which related to STEM major choice. Concerning between-school levels, teacher motivation yielded positive effects on the first follow up math IRT score, when controlling for base year IRT score. The results from this study inform educators, parents, and policy makers on how mathematics instruction can improve student math performance and encourage more students to prepare for STEM careers. Students

  8. Factors which deter potential science/math teachers from teaching; changes necessary to ameliorate their concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert H.

    In light of the perceived national need for more science and math teachers, this study was conceived to:1.Identify teaching oriented students among freshmen at a mid-western engineering school, who have chosen NOT to become teachers;2.Find out what reasons these potential science and math teachers have for deciding not to pursue teaching careers;3.Determine what amelioration of these problems would be necessary for them to no longer be factors which would inhibit students from becoming teachers.Of a random sample of 110 students drawn from a freshman class, 98 participated fully in the study. Each participant took Holland's Self-Directed Search to determine teaching orientation and author-constructed instruments to assess their concerns about teaching.Results showed teaching oriented students avoided teaching due to low starting salaries, lack of job security, low maximum salaries, not wanting to do the work teacher's do, poor job availability and discouragement by family and friends. Starting salaries of 21,693 and salaries of 32,600 for a teacher with a B.A. and 10 years experience were among the changes deemed necessary to make teaching attractive.

  9. Developing Elementary Math and Science Process Skills Through Engineering Design Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Matthew G.

    This paper examines how elementary students can develop math and science process skills through an engineering design approach to instruction. The performance and development of individual process skills overall and by gender were also examined. The study, preceded by a pilot, took place in a grade four extracurricular engineering design program in a public, suburban school district. Students worked in pairs and small groups to design and construct airplane models from styrofoam, paper clips, and toothpicks. The development and performance of process skills were assessed through a student survey of learning gains, an engineering design packet rubric (student work), observation field notes, and focus group notes. The results indicate that students can significantly develop process skills, that female students may develop process skills through engineering design better than male students, and that engineering design is most helpful for developing the measuring, suggesting improvements, and observing process skills. The study suggests that a more regular engineering design program or curriculum could be beneficial for students' math and science abilities both in this school and for the elementary field as a whole.

  10. Hazardous Asteroids: Cloaking STEM Skills Training within an Attention-Grabbing Science/Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.

    2015-11-01

    A graduate-level course was designed and taught during the summer months from 2009 - 2015 in order to contribute to the training and professional development of K-12 teachers residing in the Southwest. The teachers were seeking Master’s degrees via the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology’s (NMT’s) Masters of Science Teaching (MST) program, and the course satisfied a science or math requirement. The MST program provides opportunities for in-service teachers to enhance their content backgrounds in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET). The ultimate goal is to assist teachers in gaining knowledge that has direct application in the classroom.The engaging topic area of near-Earth object (NEO) characterization studies was used to create a fun and exciting framework for mastering basic skills and concepts in physics and astronomy. The objective was to offer a class that had the appropriate science rigor (with an emphasis on mathematics) within a non-threatening format. The course, entitled “Hazardous Asteroids”, incorporates a basic planetary physics curriculum, with challenging laboratories that include a heavy emphasis on math and technology. Since the authors run a NASA-funded NEO research and follow-up program, also folded into the course is the use of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory’s 2.4-meter telescope so participants can take and reduce their own data on a near-Earth asteroid.In exit assessments, the participants have given the course excellent ratings for design and implementation, and the overall degree of satisfaction was high. This validates that a well-constructed (and rigorous) course can be effective in receptively reaching teachers in need of basic skills refreshment. Many of the teachers taking the course were employed in school districts serving at-risk or under-prepared students, and the course helped provide them with the confidence vital to developing new strategies for successful teaching.

  11. Advancing participation of blind students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard; Riccobono, Mark A.

    2008-12-01

    Like their sighted peers, many blind students in elementary, middle, and high school are naturally interested in space. This interest can motivate them to learn fundamental scientific, quantitative, and critical thinking skills, and sometimes even lead to careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. However, these students are often at a disadvantage in science because of the ubiquity of important graphical information that is generally not available in accessible formats, the unfamiliarity of teachers with non-visual teaching methods, lack of access to blind role models, and the low expectations of their teachers and parents. We discuss joint efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Federation of the Blind’s (NFB) National Center for Blind Youth in Science (NCBYS) to develop and implement strategies to promote opportunities for blind youth in science. These include the development of tactile space science books and curriculum materials, science academies for blind middle school and high school students, and college-level internship and mentoring programs. The partnership with the NFB exemplifies the effectiveness of collaborations between NASA and consumer-directed organizations to improve opportunities for underserved and underrepresented individuals.

  12. The long-term impact of a math, science and technology program on grade school girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sandra Judd

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a math, science, and technology intervention program improved grade school girls' attitudes and stereotypes toward science and scientists, as well as participation levels in science-related activities, two years after their participating in the program. The intervention program evaluated was Operation SMART, developed by Girls Incorporated. Participants were recruited from the 6th and 7th grades from two public middle schools in Northern California. One hundred twenty-seven girls signed up for the survey and were assigned to either the SMART group (previous SMART participants) or Non-SMART group (no previous experience with SMART). The survey consisted of five parts: (1) a background information sheet, (2) the Modified Attitudes Toward Science Inventory, (3) the What Do You Do? survey, (4) the Draw-A-Scientist Test-Revised, and (5) a career interests and role models/influencer survey. Results indicated that there were no significant differences between the SMART and Non-SMART groups on any of the test measures. However, middle school attended did have a significant effect on the outcome variables. Girls from Middle School A reported more positive attitudes toward science, while girls from Middle School B reported higher participation levels in extracurricular science activities. Possible explanations for these findings suggest too much time had passed between treatment effect and time of measurement as well as the strong influence of teacher and school environment on girls' attitudes and stereotypes. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  13. Math remediation for the college bound how teachers can close the gap, from the basics through algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Khatri, Daryao

    2011-01-01

    Algebra is the language that must be mastered for any course that uses math because it is the gateway for entry into any science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) discipline. This book fosters mastery of critical math and algebraic concepts and skills essential to all of the STEM disciplines and some of the social sciences.

  14. Effects of Center-Based Early Childhood Education Programs on Children’s Language, Literacy, and Math Skills: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kholoptseva, Evgenia

    2016-01-01

    This study examines effects of early childhood education (ECE) programs on children’s language, literacy, and math skills using a meta-analytic database that includes information about evaluations conducted between 1960 and 2007 for children between birth and 5 years of age. The study extends upon prior syntheses by examining treatment effects separately on language, literacy, and math outcomes. Findings indicate that ECE attendance has small-to-moderate impacts of between 1/10th to 1/3rd of...

  15. Elementary teachers past experiences: A narrative study of the past personal and professional experiences of elementary teachers who use science to teach math and reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acre, Andrea M.

    This qualitative study investigated the experiences of four elementary teachers who have elected to use science to teach math and reading/language arts in an attempt to identify what motivates them to do so. Identifying what experiences have motivated these teachers to go against the gain and teach elementary science in this current era of high-stakes tests is of the upmost importance given that science is being eliminated from the elementary curriculum and it is during the elementary years that students' nurture and develop their interest in science. Additionally, the United States is failing to produce enough college graduates in STEM areas to fill the thousands of STEM jobs each year. Through a review of the literature, the past trends and current trends of elementary science education were explored as well as teacher training. Furthermore, the literature reviewed inquiry teaching which is considered to be the most effective teaching method when teaching science at any level. Using John Dewey's Interest and Effort Relationship Theory and the Self-Determination Motivation Theory to guide this study, there were five prominent themes which emerged from the reconstructed stories of the four teachers: positive experiences with science, neutral/negative experiences with science, seeks meaningful professional development, influence and support from others, and regret/wants to do more.

  16. Expedition Zenith: Experiences of eighth grade girls in a non-traditional math/science program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, Barbara Jean

    2004-11-01

    This qualitative study describes the experiences of a group of sixteen, eighth grade girls participating in a single-sex, math/science program based on gender equity research and constructivist theory. This phenomenological case study highlights the individual changes each girl perceives in herself as a result of her involvement in this program which was based at a suburban middle school just north of New York City. Described in narrative form is what took place during this single-sex program. At the start of the program the girls worked cooperatively in groups to build canoes. The canoes were then used to study a wetland during the final days of the program. To further immerse the participants into nature, the girls also camped during these final days. Data were collected from a number of sources to uncover, as fully as possible, the true essence of the program and the girls' experiences in it. The data collection methods included direct observation; in-depth, open-ended interviews; and written documentation. As a result of data collection, the girls' perceived outcomes and assessment of the program, as well as their recommendations for future math/science programs are revealed. The researcher in this study also acted as teacher, directing the program, and as participant to better understand the experiences of the girls involved in the program. Thus, unique insights could be made. The findings in this study provide insight into the learning of the participants, as well as into the relationships they formed both inside and outside of the program. Their perceived experiences and assessment of the program were then used to develop a greater understanding as to the effectiveness of this non-traditional program. Although this study echoed much of what research says about the needs of girls in learning situations, and therefore, reinforces previously accepted beliefs, it also reveals significant findings in areas previously unaddressed by gender studies. For example

  17. Supporting Girls' and Boys' Engagement in Math and Science Learning: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Hofkens, Tara; Wang, Ming-Te; Mortenson, Elizabeth; Scott, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This study uses a mixed method sequential exploratory design to examine motivational and contextual influences on boys' and girls' engagement in math and science, paying particular attention to similarities and differences in the patterns by gender. First, interviews were conducted with 38 middle and high school students who varied in their level…

  18. Friends and Family: A Literature Review on How High School Social Groups Influence Advanced Math and Science Coursetaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael; Owens, Ann; Williams, Darryl; Kim, Hui Yon; Musto, Michela

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized the literature on how informal contexts, namely friends and family social groups, shape high school students' likelihood of pursuing advanced math and science coursework. Extending scholarly understandings of STEM education, we turned to the body of literature with three guiding questions: (1) What influence do…

  19. Differences between the Sexes among Protestant Christian Middle School Students and Their Attitudes toward Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Kurt Y.; Alsup, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    Research focusing on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education among conservative Protestant Christian school students is scarce. Crenshaw's intersectionality theory is examined as it pertains to religion as a group identifier. The STEM Semantic Survey was completed by 157 middle school students attending six different private…

  20. A Latent Curve Model of Parental Motivational Practices and Developmental Decline in Math and Science Academic Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal approach was used to examine the effects of parental task-intrinsic and task-extrinsic motivational practices on academic intrinsic motivation in the subject areas of math and science. Parental task-intrinsic practices comprise encouragement of children's pleasure and engagement in the learning process, whereas task-extrinsic…

  1. When Is Homework Worth the Time?: Evaluating the Association between Homework and Achievement in High School Science and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, Adam V.; Tai, Robert H.; Fan, Xitao

    2012-01-01

    Even with the history of debate over the merits of homework, there are significant gaps in the research record regarding its benefit to students. The focus of this study is on the association between time spent on homework and academic performance in science and math by assessing survey and transcript data from two nationally representative…

  2. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Academic Librarian Positions during 2013: What Carnegie Classifications Reveal about Desired STEM Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trei, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the requirements and preferences of 171 science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) academic librarian positions in the United States as advertised in 2013. This analysis compares the STEM background experience preferences with the Carnegie rankings of the employing institution. The research examines the extent to which…

  3. Implications for School Leaders of the Impact of Math, Science, and Technology Magnet Programs on Middle School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Lupita

    2012-01-01

    Although many national studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of magnet programs, there is limited research involving math, science, and technology magnet schools and their influence on student academic performance, especially at the middle school level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a statistical difference existed…

  4. Comparing the Math Anxiety of Secondary School Female Students in Groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Khatoon; Pourrazavy, Zinat alsadat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is comparing math anxiety of secondary school female students in groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools, district 2, city of Sari. The purpose of the research is applied research, it is a development branch, and in terms of the nature and method, it is a causal-comparative research. The statistical…

  5. WVU--community partnership that provides science and math enrichment for underrepresented high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, J A; Chester, A L

    1999-04-01

    In response to the need to help West Virginia secondary school students overcome educational and economic barriers and to increase the number of health professionals in the state, the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (hereafter, "the Academy") was established in 1994. The Academy is a partnership between West Virginia University (WVU)--including the Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, and the College of Human Resources and Education--and members of the community, including secondary-school teachers, health care professionals, and other community leaders. The Academy targets students from underrepresented groups (mainly African Americans and financially disadvantaged whites) in grades nine through 12. By November 1997, 290 students (69% girls and 33% African American) from 17 counties were Academy participants. Funding is from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Coca-Cola Foundation, and other sources. Academy programs are an on-campus summer institute and community-based clubs, where students engage in activities for science and math enrichment, leadership development, and health careers awareness. In the Academy's clubs, students carry out extended investigations of problems related to human health and local communities. Most students report that the Academy has increased their interest in health care careers, and almost all who have continued to participate in Academy programs through their senior year have been accepted into college.

  6. Bringing Computational Thinking into the High School Science and Math Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouille, Laura; Beheshti, E.; Horn, M.; Jona, K.; Kalogera, V.; Weintrop, D.; Wilensky, U.; University CT-STEM Project, Northwestern; University CenterTalent Development, Northwestern

    2013-01-01

    Computational thinking (for example, the thought processes involved in developing algorithmic solutions to problems that can then be automated for computation) has revolutionized the way we do science. The Next Generation Science Standards require that teachers support their students’ development of computational thinking and computational modeling skills. As a result, there is a very high demand among teachers for quality materials. Astronomy provides an abundance of opportunities to support student development of computational thinking skills. Our group has taken advantage of this to create a series of astronomy-based computational thinking lesson plans for use in typical physics, astronomy, and math high school classrooms. This project is funded by the NSF Computing Education for the 21st Century grant and is jointly led by Northwestern University’s Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), the Computer Science department, the Learning Sciences department, and the Office of STEM Education Partnerships (OSEP). I will also briefly present the online ‘Astro Adventures’ courses for middle and high school students I have developed through NU’s Center for Talent Development. The online courses take advantage of many of the amazing online astronomy enrichment materials available to the public, including a range of hands-on activities and the ability to take images with the Global Telescope Network. The course culminates with an independent computational research project.

  7. Signaling threat: how situational cues affect women in math, science, and engineering settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary C; Steele, Claude M; Gross, James J

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the cues hypothesis, which holds that situational cues, such as a setting's features and organization, can make potential targets vulnerable to social identity threat. Objective and subjective measures of identity threat were collected from male and female math, science, and engineering (MSE) majors who watched an MSE conference video depicting either an unbalanced ratio of men to women or a balanced ratio. Women who viewed the unbalanced video exhibited more cognitive and physiological vigilance, and reported a lower sense of belonging and less desire to participate in the conference, than did women who viewed the gender-balanced video. Men were unaffected by this situational cue. The implications for understanding vulnerability to social identity threat, particularly among women in MSE settings, are discussed.

  8. Developing a Global Science and Math Education System Based on Real Astronomy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennypacker, Carlton

    2015-03-01

    Global Hands-On Universe (GHOU) is an educational system where students use real astronomy data from (largely optical) telescopes to learn fundamental physics, math, astronomy, and technology.GHOU is a good example of a collaborative global education project, where data, software, teacher training methods, curriculum, activities, telescopes, and human resources are developed by many members of GHOU and then shared internationally.Assessments show that in this program students learn more science and math than in conventional classroom teaching, and students change their attitudes towards choosing careers in science and technology.GHOU is an exemplar of appropriate use of computers in the classroom for real data analysis.The International Asteroid Search program of GHOU has helped students discover over 700 asteroids. Half a dozen high schools have named the asteroids they have found after their high school (some from here in Texas!).GHOU has found resonance with many teachers and students around the world, reaching approximately 20,000 global teachers in the International Year of Astronomy in 2009.In addition, activities from French HOU are part of the official French National Curriculum, and exit exam, teacher training syllabus and teacher exit exams. GHOU has found particular enthusiasms in nations with increasing technology basis - for example, GHOU is reaching many teachers in China, Chile, Indonesia, Kenya, Venezuela, with expansion plans for Cuba underway. Some nations, such as Portugal, have reached reasonable fractions of their teachers through GHOU. Workshops are planned in Iran, and HOU colleagues are starting to build a GHOU telescope in Israel. US HOU had trained approximately 1000 teachers in the United States, before the closing of the NSF Teacher Enhancement Section.But as many new large and smaller telescopes come on line - e.g., the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope - the need for GHOU around the world and even the United States will only increase.

  9. Using network science in the language sciences and clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Castro, Nichol

    2015-02-01

    A number of variables—word frequency, word length—have long been known to influence language processing. This study briefly reviews the effects in speech perception and production of two more recently examined variables: phonotactic probability and neighbourhood density. It then describes a new approach to study language, network science, which is an interdisciplinary field drawing from mathematics, computer science, physics and other disciplines. In this approach, nodes represent individual entities in a system (i.e. phonological word-forms in the lexicon), links between nodes represent relationships between nodes (i.e. phonological neighbours) and various measures enable researchers to assess the micro-level (i.e. the individual word), the macro-level (i.e. characteristics about the whole system) and the meso-level (i.e. how an individual fits into smaller sub-groups in the larger system). Although research on individual lexical characteristics such as word-frequency has increased understanding of language processing, these measures only assess the "micro-level". Using network science, researchers can examine words at various levels in the system and how each word relates to the many other words stored in the lexicon. Several new findings using the network science approach are summarized to illustrate how this approach can be used to advance basic research as well as clinical practice.

  10. Using Art to Enhance the Learning of Math and Science: Developing an Educational Art-Science Kit about Fractal Patterns in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa

    This study documents the development of an educational art-science kit about natural fractals, whose aim is to unite artistic and scientific inquiry in the informal learning of science and math. Throughout this research, I argue that having an arts-integrated approach can enhance the learner of science and math concepts. A guiding metaphor in this thesis is the Enlightenment-era cabinet of curiosities that represents a time when art and science were unified in the process of inquiry about the natural world. Over time, increased specialization in the practice of arts and science led to a growing divergence between the disciplines in the educational system. Recently, initiatives like STEAM are underway at the national level to integrate "Arts and Design" into the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) formal education agenda. Learning artifacts like science kits present an opportunity to unite artistic and scientific inquiry in informal settings. Although science kits have been introduced to promote informal learning, presently, many science kits have a gap in their design, whereby the activities consist of recipe-like instructions that do not encourage further inquiry-based learning. In the spirit of the cabinet of curiosities, this study seeks to unify visual arts and science in the process of inquiry. Drawing from educational theories of Dewey, Piaget, and Papert, I developed a novel, prototype "art-science kit" that promotes experiential, hands-on, and active learning, and encourages inquiry, exploration, creativity, and reflection through a series of art-based activities to help users learn science and math concepts. In this study, I provide an overview of the design and development process of the arts-based educational activities. Furthermore, I present the results of a pilot usability study (n=10) conducted to receive user feedback on the designed materials for use in improving future iterations of the art-science fractal kit. The fractal kit

  11. Preparing English as a Second Language Students for College Level Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Hector

    2014-01-01

    In a diverse classroom, there are students who are in need of both mathematics and English as a second language instruction. One of the challenges faced at Lake Washington Institute of Technology (LWIT) was the development of a pathway for English language learners into core academic courses at the college. In addition, English language learners…

  12. Technology and Communications Coursework: Facilitating the Progression of Students with Learning Disabilities through High School Science and Math Coursework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara; Callahan, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    Students identified with learning disabilities experience markedly lower levels of science and mathematics achievement than students who are not identified with a learning disability. Seemingly compounding their disadvantage, students with learning disabilities also complete more credits in non-core coursework-traditionally considered non-academic coursework-than students who are not identified with a learning disability. The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a large national dataset with both regular and special education high school students, is utilized to determine whether credit accumulation in certain types of non-core coursework, such as Technology and Communications courses, is associated with improved science and math course-taking outcomes for students with learning disabilities. Results show that credit accumulation in Technology and Communications coursework uniquely benefits the science course-taking, and comparably benefits the math course-taking, of students identified with learning disabilities in contrast to students who are not identified with a learning disability.

  13. Comparing Self-Regulatory and Early Academic Skills as Predictors of Later Math, Reading, and Science Elementary School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, William M., III

    The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.

  14. Science and Math Lesson Plans to Meet the Ohio Revised Science Standards and the Next Generation of Standards for Today; Technology (Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers (K-12 developed and taught lesson plans that met the state and national science and technology standards by integrating Excel and PowerPoint into their lesson. A sample of 74 pre-service teachers in our science education program were required to integrate technology (Excel as they developed science and math lesson plans with graphing as a requirement. These students took pre-test and post-test (n=74 to determine their understanding of Excel in relation to the need of current technology for todays' science classroom. The test results showed that students obtained content gains in Excel graphing in all the inquiry-based lab experiments. They also gained experience in developing math skills, inquiry-based science lesson plans, and communication and presentation skills.

  15. Computability, complexity, and languages fundamentals of theoretical computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Martin D; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1983-01-01

    Computability, Complexity, and Languages: Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science provides an introduction to the various aspects of theoretical computer science. Theoretical computer science is the mathematical study of models of computation. This text is composed of five parts encompassing 17 chapters, and begins with an introduction to the use of proofs in mathematics and the development of computability theory in the context of an extremely simple abstract programming language. The succeeding parts demonstrate the performance of abstract programming language using a macro expa

  16. Automatic Item Generation via Frame Semantics: Natural Language Generation of Math Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen

    This paper is an exploration of the conceptual issues that have arisen in the course of building a natural language generation (NLG) system for automatic test item generation. While natural language processing techniques are applicable to general verbal items, mathematics word problems are particularly tractable targets for natural language…

  17. The Language Demands of Science Reading in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui

    2006-04-01

    The language used to construct knowledge, beliefs, and worldviews in school science is distinct from the social language that students use in their everyday ordinary life. This difference is a major source of reading difficulty for many students, especially struggling readers and English-language learners. This article identifies some of the linguistic challenges involved in reading middle-school science texts and suggests several teaching strategies to help students cope with these challenges. It is argued that explicit attention to the unique language of school science should be an integral part of science literacy pedagogy.

  18. Shoring Up Math and Science in the Elementary Grades: Schools Enlist Specialists to Teach Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    As science gets squeezed in the elementary curriculum, at least two Florida districts are trying a new approach to keeping hands-on lessons a part of pupils' experiences. This article reports how Broward and Palm Beach county districts have increased the number of science specialists working in their elementary schools--teachers who, like physical…

  19. PUMAS (Practical Uses of Math And Science) - Low Cost, High Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    PUMAS is an on-line journal, aimed at giving pre-college teachers brief examples showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes can be used in interesting settings, including everyday life. The concept is a simple one - (1) ask scientists, engineers, and other content experts to write up their favorite examples of practical uses, (2) ask the authors to key their examples to the National Standards and Benchmarks, so the material is grade-appropriate and useful in the classroom, (3) have each example peer-reviewed by at least one scientist with a relevant background, and at least one teacher at an appropriate grade level, helping keep an emphasis on quality, and (4) disseminate the examples widely and inexpensively through the PUMAS Web Site (http://pumas.jpl.nasa.gov). PUMAS examples may be activities, anecdotes, descriptions of "neat ideas," formal exercises, puzzles, or demonstrations; each one is a gem, written in the voice of its author. The PUMAS site also provides opportunities for feedback on individual examples and on the journal as a whole. As with most scientific journals, the writing, reviewing, and editing efforts are volunteered; they leverage the "community service" offered by so many teachers and scientists. We have streamlined all aspects of the example submission, review, and search processes so participants can contribute at a high level, with a minimum of extraneous effort. The primary PUMAS operating expenses cover Web Site technical maintenance and computer security. The PUMAS site receives several thousand unique queries per week, and publishes an average of about one new example per month. Maintaining a strong user base has been helped by endorsements from such organizations as the NSTA and NCTM. To contributors we offer an avenue for making a real impact on pre-college education with a relatively small time commitment, and the opportunity for peer-reviewed publication. We are always looking for good examples of the Practical Uses

  20. Prediction of Basic Math Course Failure Rate in the Physics, Meteorology, Mathematics, Actuarial Sciences and Pharmacy Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rojas-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study conducted in 2013 with the purpose of predicting the failure rate of math courses taken by Pharmacy, Mathematics, Actuarial Science, Physics and Meteorology students at Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR. Using the Logistics Regression statistical techniques applied to the 2010 cohort, failure rates were predicted of students in the aforementioned programs in one of their Math introductory courses (Calculus 101 for Physics and Meteorology, Math Principles for Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Applied Differential Equations for Pharmacy. For these models, the UCR admission average, the student’s genre, and the average correct answers in the Quantitative Skills Test were used as predictor variables. The most important variable for all models was the Quantitative Skills Test, and the model with the highest correct classification rate was the Logistics Regression. For the estimated Physics-Meteorology, Pharmacy and Mathematics-Actuarial Science models, correct classifications were 89.8%, 73.6%, and 93.9%, respectively.

  1. The effect of using mind maps on the development of maths and science skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgul Polat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of mind mapping activities on the maths and science skills of children 48 to 60 months of age. The study was designed using an experimental model with a pre-test post-test and a control group. Accordingly, the hypotheses of the study was that there would be meaningful differences in the values obtained from the pre-test and post-test scores in favor of the children working with mind maps compared to the ones who did not work with mind maps. In the examination of the development of mind maps, it was observed that as the children engaged in preparing mind maps, they used skills requiring high-level mind organization. Mind maps, which can be used in all areas of life, are believed to be supportive of children's development areas and to be an important strategy for children to adopt and experience during the time of childhood.

  2. Science: the shared language of development

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This year’s conference on “Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean” is being held in Malta from 5 to 8 May. It is the sixth in a series of conferences whose aim is to promote dialogue among countries in the Mediterranean region through the language of science, organised by the “Sharing Knowledge Foundation”. CERN is one of the Foundation’s partners, and today John Ellis, one of CERN’s non-Member State advisors, announced CERN's readiness to donate several hundred computers to various Moroccan universities to encourage their participation in high-energy physics and Grid computing   CERN scientists, including John Ellis and Patrick Fassnacht, participate in the 6th Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean conference in Malta, on Friday 6 May. This gesture of support to the North African region was announced during the sixth "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean" conference. Embracing many of CERN's gu...

  3. The impact of maths support tutorials on mathematics confidence and academic performance in a cohort of HE Animal Science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veggel, Nieky; Amory, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Students embarking on a bioscience degree course, such as Animal Science, often do not have sufficient experience in mathematics. However, mathematics forms an essential and integral part of any bioscience degree and is essential to enhance employability. This paper presents the findings of a project looking at the effect of mathematics tutorials on a cohort of first year animal science and management students. The results of a questionnaire, focus group discussions and academic performance analysis indicate that small group tutorials enhance students' confidence in maths and improve students' academic performance. Furthermore, student feedback on the tutorial programme provides a deeper insight into student experiences and the value students assign to the tutorials.

  4. An exploration of the gateway math and science course relationships in the Los Angeles Community College District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Donald G.

    This study evaluated selected demographic, pre-enrollment, and economic status variables in comparison to college-level performance factors of GPA and course completion ratios for gateway math and science courses. The Transfer and Retention of Urban Community College Students (TRUCCS) project team collected survey and enrollment data for this study in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD). The TRUCCS team surveyed over 5,000 students within the nine campus district beginning in the fall of 2000 and spring of 2001 with follow-up data for next several years. This study focused on the math and science courses; established background demographics; evaluated pre-enrollment high school self-reported grades; reviewed high school and college level math courses taken; investigated specific gateway courses of biology, chemistry and physics; and compared them to the overall GPAs and course completion ratios for 4,698 students. This involved the SPSS development of numerous statistical products including the data from frequency distributions, means, cross-tabulations, group statistics t-tests, independent samples t-tests, and one-way ANOVA. Findings revealed demographic and economic relationships of significance for students' performance factors of GPA and course completion ratios. Furthermore, findings revealed significant differences between the gender, age, ethnicity and economic employment relationships. Conclusions and implications for institutions of higher education were documented. Recommendations for dissemination, intervention programs, and future research were also discussed.

  5. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Montellano, B.

    1996-11-14

    As planned a letter was sent out to 17 teachers who had participated in a Summer 1994 workshop on ``Culturally Relevant Science for Hispanics`` at Michigan State. These teachers were supposed to have spent the intervening time developing lesson plans and curricula. The letter requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed by February 1996 with a stipend of $400 for satisfactory reports. It was a disappointment to only get 9 responses and not all of them demonstrating a satisfactory level of activity. Diana Marinez, Dean of Science at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi, who is the other developer of this curriculum and the author reviewed the submitted materials and chose those showing the most promise to be invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. Spring of 1996 and particularly in May--June, the author wrote a partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual which would provide a rationale for doing culturally relevant science, present the cultural and the scientific background that teachers would need in order to be able to teach. One of the goals of this curriculum is that it should be off-the-shelf ready to teach and that teachers would not have to do extra research to encourage its adoption. The outline of the book is appendix 1. The Writing Workshop was held at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi from July 14 to July 27, 1996. Participating teachers chose topics that they were interested in developing and wrote first drafts. These were distributed to all participants and critiqued by the workshop directors before being rewritten. Some teachers were more productive than others depending on their science background. In total an impressive number of lesson plans were written. These lesson plans are listed in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 is a sample lesson. Work still needs to be done on both the source book and the teachers` manual.

  6. The Math–Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors’ Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students’ personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math–Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self-­report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students’ interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student’s value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math–biology values and understand how math–biology values are related to students’ achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. PMID:28747355

  7. The Math-Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors' Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory,…

  8. Self-efficacy beliefs of underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay, Guadalupe

    The purpose of this study is to understand the self-perceptions, confidence, and self-efficacy of underrepresented minorities (URMs) as they undertake Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) courses during their K-12 years in urban-public schools. Through the lens of Bandura's self-efficacy theory, this study analyzed self-efficacious behaviors as they revealed themselves in K-12 classrooms. The participants were 11th- and 12th-grade students, their parents, their STEM teachers, and their mentor. The goal was to understand what has been inhibiting the growth of URM representation in STEM majors and in STEM fields. This qualitative study was designed to understand the participants' stories and uncover personal characteristics such as grit, perseverance, and determination in the face of obstacles. The instruments used in this study were interviews, observations, and self-efficacy surveys. The findings revealed that the participants' perceptions of the students' abilities to succeed in a STEM field were all tentatively positive. The participants focused on the many obstacles already overcome by the students and used it as precedent for future success. All the student-participants shared a similar set of adult types in their lives--adults who believed not only in their STEM abilities, but also in their abilities to face obstacles, who were willing to give their time and expertise when necessary, and who shared similar experiences in terms of the lack of educational resources or of economic struggles. It was these shared experiences that strengthened the beliefs that, if the adult participants could succeed in education or succeed in spite of poverty, the student participants could succeed, as well.

  9. Women in physics: A comparison to science, technology, engineering, and math education over four decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gloria

    Women have been underrepresented in many STEM fields including physics. The gap appears to be largely attributable to a lack of women pursuing physics in college, and little is known about the characteristics and career interests of women who do plan to major in physics. Using nationwide data on first-time, full-time college students, this study set out to: (1) document national trends in plans to major in physics among women entering college; (2) document the career aspirations of women who intend to major in physics; and (3) explore the characteristics of women who intend to major in physics and how this population has evolved across time. The results show that women's interest in physics has been consistently low in the past four decades. The most popular career aspiration among women who plan to major in physics is research scientist, although this career aspiration is declining in popularity. Further, this study identifies a distinctive profile of the average female physics student as compared to women in other STEM fields and women across all majors. Women who plan to pursue a physics major tend to be confident in their math abilities, value college as an opportunity to learn, plan to attend graduate school, and are less likely than women in other fields to have a social activist orientation. The paper concludes with implications for scholars, educators, administrators, and policymakers as they seek to recruit more women in to the physics field. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation, HRD No. 1135727. Part of this work was also completed with the support of a Fulbright Fellowship in Finland.

  10. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for hispanics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montellano, B.O. de

    1996-11-14

    This progress report summarizes results of a teacher workshop. A letter sent to 17 teachers who had participated in the workshop requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed. Only nine responses were received, and not all of them demonstrated a satisfactory level of activity. Teachers who submitted materials showing the most promise were invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. A partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual was written which provides a rationale for culturally relevant science and presents the cultural and scientific background needed. The outline of the book is presented in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 is a sample chapter from the book.

  11. Teaching and Learning the Language of Science: A Case Study of Academic Language Acquisition in a Dual Language Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Robin Margaretha

    English language learners (EL) are the fastest growing sub-group of the student population in California, yet ELs also score the lowest on the science section of the California Standardized Tests. In the area of bilingual education, California has dramatically changed its approach to English learners since the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998, which called for most EL instruction to be conducted in English (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). In reality, this means that EL students are often placed in programs that focus on basic language skills rather than rigorous content, meaning that they are not getting access to grade level science content (Lee & Fradd, 1998). As a result, many EL students exit eighth grade without a strong foundation in science, and they continue to score below their English-speaking peers on standardized achievements. While the usefulness of the academic language construct remains controversial (Bailey, 2012), the language used in science instruction is nevertheless often unfamiliar to both EL and English proficient students. The discourse is frequently specialized for discipline-specific interactions and activities (Bailey, 2007; Lemke, 1990). This qualitative case study examined academic language instruction in three middle school science classrooms at a dual language charter school. The goal was to understand how teachers integrate academic language and content for linguistically diverse students. The findings fom this study indicate that targeting language instruction in isolation from science content instruction prohibits students from engaging in the "doing of science" and scientific discourse, or the ability to think, reason, and communicate about science. The recommendations of this study support authentically embedding language development into rigorous science instruction in order to maximize opportunities for learning in both domains.

  12. The trials, tribulations, and triumphs of black faculty in the math and science pipeline: A life history approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa D.

    2000-12-01

    This study explores the career progression and life history of black mathematicians and scientists who teach on university faculties in the United States. It investigates the following questions: Why are there so few black mathematicians and scientists in colleges and universities in the United States? What is the experience of black students who express an interest in science and math? What barriers do black scientists and mathematicians face as they move through school towards their career in higher education? What factors facilitate their success? The current literature shows that there are few women and minorities teaching or working in math and science compared to white men, although reasons for this underrepresentation are still not well understood. I explored this phenomenon by conducting two sets of in-depth interviews with twelve black faculty, six women, six men, from both historically black and predominantly white higher educational institutions in the United States. My interviews were based upon a life history approach that identified the participants' perceptions of the barriers and obstacles, as well as the supports and facilitators encountered in their schooling and career progression. The findings from the study show the importance of a strong family, community, and teacher support for the participants throughout their schooling. Support systems continued to be important in their faculty positions. These support systems include extended family members, teachers, community members, supervisors, and classmates, who serve as role models and mentors. The life study interviews provide striking evidence of the discrimination, isolation, and harassment due to race and gender experienced by black male and female mathematicians and scientists. The racial discrimination and the compounding effect of racism and sexism play out differently for the male and female participants in this study. This study suggests directions for future research on the experiences

  13. Factorial, Convergent, and Discriminant Validity of TIMSS Math and Science Motivation Measures: A Comparison of Arab and Anglo-Saxon Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Leung, Kim Chau; Xu, Man K.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Parker, Philip

    2013-01-01

    For the international Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS2007) math and science motivation scales (self-concept, positive affect, and value), we evaluated the psychometric properties (factor structure, method effects, gender differences, and convergent and discriminant validity) in 4 Arab-speaking countries (Saudi Arabia,…

  14. Language in Science Classrooms: An Analysis of Physics Teachers' Use of and Beliefs about Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2012-01-01

    The world over, secondary school science is viewed mainly as a practical subject. This may be one reason why effectiveness of teaching approaches in science education has often been judged on the kinds of practical activity with which teachers and students engage. In addition to practical work, language--often written (as in science texts) or oral…

  15. Moments in the Modern History of the Language Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the beginning of the ascendancy of the language sciences in the past 50 years to become the "queen" of social studies. Focuses on contributions by Mikhail Bakhtin, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Noam Chomsky, Erving Goffman, and Michael Halliday. (SC)

  16. Professional Parity Between Co-Teachers in Secondary Science and Math As Influenced By Administrative Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordh, Camilla S.

    2011-12-01

    School improvement plans, budget constraints, and compliance mandates targeting academic progress for all students indicate a need for maximal professional efficacy at every level in the educational system, including parity between co-teachers in the co-teaching service delivery model. However, research shows that the special education co-teacher frequently assumes an assistive role while the general education co-teacher adopts a leading role in the classroom. When the participants in a co-teaching partnership fail to equitably share the professional responsibilities for which both teachers are qualified to perform, overall efficacy is compromised in that the special education teacher is not exercising his or her qualified expertise. Administrative support can be a primary influencing factor in increasing parity between the co-teachers. A qualitative study using a phenomenological design was conducted to explore the influences of co-teacher attitudes and administrative support on professional parity in co-taught secondary science and math classrooms. Content analysis was used to interpret data from interviews with five special education and 15 general education co-teachers at eight secondary schools in a suburban school district in a mid-Atlantic state. Five themes emerged from the data: content mastery by the special education co-teacher, joint planning time for co-teachers, continuity within co-teaching dyads, compatible personalities between co-teachers, and clear administrative expectations about co-teaching. Results indicate that administrative support to consider the content mastery of the special education co-teacher is the most influential factor to parity, followed by the co-teaching partners having joint planning time and that both can be implemented through scheduling and assignment considerations rather than training initiatives. The results provide an examination of each theme as it pertains to the issue of professional efficacy in co-teaching and

  17. Math and Science Pursuits: A Self-Efficacy Intervention Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Elizabeth D.; Porter, Sarah H.; Israel, Tania; Brown, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two interventions to increase math self-efficacy among undergraduate students. Ninety-nine first-year undergraduate students participated in an intervention involving performance accomplishment or an intervention combining performance accomplishment and belief-perseverance techniques in which participants constructed a…

  18. A Multilevel, Longitudinal Analysis of Middle School Math and Language Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Zvoch

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of schools in a large urban school district was examined using achievement data from a longitudinally matched cohort of middle school students. Schools were evaluated in terms of the mean achievement and mean growth of students in mathematics and language arts. Application of multilevel, longitudinal models to student achievement data revealed that 1 school performance varied across both outcome measures in both subject areas, 2 significant proportions of variation were associated with school-to-school differences in performance, 3 evaluations of school performance differed depending on whether school mean achievement or school mean growth in achievement was examined, and 4 school mean achievement was a weak predictor of school mean growth. These results suggest that assessments of school performance depend on choices of how data are modeled and analyzed. In particular, the present study indicates that schools with low mean scores are not always “poor performing” schools. Use of student growth rates to evaluate school performance enables schools that would otherwise be deemed low performing to demonstrate positive effects on student achievement. Implications for state accountability systems are discussed.

  19. Crossing borders: High school science teachers learning to teach the specialized language of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Jennifer Drake

    The highly specialized language of science is both challenging and alienating to adolescent readers. This study investigated how secondary science teachers learn to teach the specialized language of science in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what do science teachers know about teaching reading in science? (b) what understanding about the unique language demands of science reading do they construct through professional development? and (c) how do they integrate what they have learned about these specialized features of science language into their teaching practices? This study investigated the experience of seven secondary science teachers as they participated in a professional development program designed to teach them about the specialized language of science. Data sources included participant interviews, audio-taped professional development sessions, field notes from classroom observations, and a prior knowledge survey. Results from this study suggest that science teachers (a) were excited to learn about disciplinary reading practices, (b) developed an emergent awareness of the specialized features of science language and the various genres of science writing, and (c) recognized that the challenges of science reading goes beyond vocabulary. These teachers' efforts to understand and address the language of science in their teaching practices were undermined by their lack of basic knowledge of grammar, availability of time and resources, their prior knowledge and experiences, existing curriculum, and school structure. This study contributes to our understanding of how secondary science teachers learn about disciplinary literacy and apply that knowledge in their classroom instruction. It has important implications for literacy educators and science educators who are interested in using language and literacy practices in the service of science teaching and learning. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University

  20. Making the case for STEM integration at the upper elementary level: A mixed methods exploration of opportunity to learn math and science, teachers' efficacy and students' attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brianna M.

    Student achievement in science and math has been linked to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth propagating the belief that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is an important factor in economic prosperity. However, The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), favors math over science, positioning the subjects as competitors rather than collaborators. Additionally, NCLB focuses almost exclusively on the cognitive outcome of students' achievement with the affective outcome of students' attitudes being nearly ignored. Positive attitudes toward science and math early on are essential for subsequent and cumulative decisions students make in taking courses, choosing majors, and pursuing careers. Positioning students' attitudes as a desirable educational outcome comparable to students' achievement is an emerging goal in the literature. Using the case of one school district in south-central Pennsylvania with three elementary schools, 15 upper elementary teachers, and 361 students, the purpose of this study was to better understand influences on upper elementary students' attitudes toward STEM (SA) subjects and careers. The study aimed to explore two influences on SA, opportunity to learn (OTL) and teacher's efficacy (TE), in the comparative contexts of math and science. The studied employed a mixed methods convergent design in which five data sets from four sources were collected over three phases to triangulate three constructs: OTL, TE, and SA. The goal of the study was to offer recommendations to the case school district for enhancing OTL, TE, and thus SA. Findings regarding OTL revealed that the opportunity to learn science was lower than math. Finding regarding TE revealed that outcome expectancy was lower than personal teaching efficacy in both science and math; and, teachers had low STEM career awareness, STEM integration, and technology use. Findings regarding SA revealed a lower perceived usefulness of science compared to math

  1. Critical thinking in higher education: The influence of teaching styles and peer collaboration on science and math learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian Joseph

    Many higher education faculty perceive a deficiency in students' ability to reason, evaluate, and make informed judgments, skills that are deemed necessary for academic and job success in science and math. These skills, often collected within a domain called critical thinking (CT), have been studied and are thought to be influenced by teaching styles (the combination of beliefs, behavior, and attitudes used when teaching) and small group collaborative learning (SGCL). However, no existing studies show teaching styles and SGCL cause changes in student CT performance. This study determined how combinations of teaching styles called clusters and peer-facilitated SGCL (a specific form of SGCL) affect changes in undergraduate student CT performance using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test research design and valid and reliable CT performance indicators. Quantitative analyses of three teaching style cluster models (Grasha's cluster model, a weighted cluster model, and a student-centered/teacher-centered cluster model) and peer-facilitated SGCL were performed to evaluate their ability to cause measurable changes in student CT skills. Based on results that indicated weighted teaching style clusters and peer-facilitated SGCL are associated with significant changes in student CT, we conclude that teaching styles and peer-facilitated SGCL influence the development of undergraduate CT in higher education science and math.

  2. Taking Advantage of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Popularity to Enhance Student/Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    For a student group on campus, "the public" can refer to other students on campus or citizens from the community (including children, parents, teenagers, professionals, tradespeople, older people, and others). All of these groups have something to offer that can enrich the experiences of a student group. Our group focuses on science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in K-12 schools, university courses, and outreach activities with the general public. We will discuss the experiences of "All Things STEM" on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus and outreach in Boulder and Weld County, CO. Our experiences include (1) tours and events that offer an opportunity for student/public interaction, (2) grant requests and projects that involve community outreach, and (3) organizing conferences and events with campus/public engagement. Since our group is STEM-oriented, tours of water treatment plants, recycling centers, and science museums are a great way to create connections. Our most successful campus/public tour is our annual tour of the Valmont Station coal power plant near Boulder. We solicit students from all over campus and Boulder public groups with the goal to form a diverse and intimate 8 person group (students, school teachers, mechanics, hotel managers, etc.) that takes a 1.5 hr tour of the plant guided by the Chief Engineer. This includes a 20 minute sit-down discussion of anything the group wants to talk about including energy policy, plant history, recent failures, coal versus other fuels, and environmental issues. The tour concludes with each member placing a welding shield over their face and looking at the flames in the middle of the boiler, a little excitement that adds to the connections the group forms with each other. We have received over 11,000 to work with local K-12 schools and CU-Boulder undergraduate and graduate classes to develop a platform to help students learn and explain water quality concepts in a more practical manner

  3. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  4. Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L

    1999-03-01

    It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music.

  5. Project Lifescape | Initiatives | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This project is part of the Academy initiative to enhance the quality of science education. It is pursued in ... database through a website. Project Lifescape has also initiated work using some Indian languages. ... and Outreach. Math and Finance ...

  6. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  7. Preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math using the Geophysical Institute Framework for Professional Development in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry Bertram, Kathryn

    2011-12-01

    The Geophysical Institute (GI) Framework for Professional Development was designed to prepare culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Professional development programs based on the framework are created for rural Alaskan teachers who instruct diverse classrooms that include indigenous students. This dissertation was written in response to the question, "Under what circumstances is the GI Framework for Professional Development effective in preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math?" Research was conducted on two professional development programs based on the GI Framework: the Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) and the Science Teacher Education Program (STEP). Both programs were created by backward design to student learning goals aligned with Alaska standards and rooted in principles of indigenous ideology. Both were created with input from Alaska Native cultural knowledge bearers, Arctic scientists, education researchers, school administrators, and master teachers with extensive instructional experience. Both provide integrated instruction reflective of authentic Arctic research practices, and training in diverse methods shown to increase indigenous student STEM engagement. While based on the same framework, these programs were chosen for research because they offer distinctly different training venues for K-12 teachers. STEP offered two-week summer institutes on the UAF campus for more than 175 teachers from 33 Alaska school districts. By contrast, ACMP served 165 teachers from one rural Alaska school district along the Bering Strait. Due to challenges in making professional development opportunities accessible to all teachers in this geographically isolated district, ACMP offered a year-round mix of in-person, long-distance, online, and local training. Discussion centers on a comparison of the strategies used by each program to address GI Framework cornerstones, on

  8. Special health care needs explains the effect of extremely low birth weight on math but not language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Hack, Maureen

    2017-12-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; math achievement compared to normal birth weight (NBW) peers. SHCN are associated with poor academic achievement among NBW children. We hypothesize that SHCN explain the effect of ELBW on math achievement. We compared age 14 Woodcock-Johnson Calculation standard scores between 181 ELBW infants and 115 NBW controls. Persistent SHCN included: 1) prescription medication or equipment use, 2) subspecialty or therapeutic service use, or 3) hospitalization. We used nonlinear marginal effects models to decompose the total effect of ELBW on math into the following 4 components: the effect of ELBW controlling for SHCN, the effect of SHCN controlling for ELBW, effect modification by SHCN, and mediated interaction where SHCN is both causal mediator and effect modifier. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors. ELBW adolescents had lower mean math scores than NBW peers (81.3 vs. 96.4). SHCN were more common among ELBW adolescents (54.1% vs. 27%). The total effect of ELBW on math scores was -15.7 points (95% CI -21.0, -10.5). The effect of birth weight alone was -7.6 points (95% CI -13.7, -1.4); the effect of SHCN alone was negligible. SHCN interaction and mediated interaction effects each accounted for 25% of the total effect. Birth weight alone explains only half of the effect of ELBW on math achievement. We found evidence of effect modification and mediation by SHCN. Understanding these explanatory pathways may lead to targeted interventions for improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Gender Perspectives in Language | Nelson | Science, Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender is multi-faceted, always changing, but often contested. It is embedded in our institutions, our actions, our beliefs, and our desires, that it appears to us to be completely natural. Gender is, after all, a system of meaning -- a way of construing notions of male and female – and language is the primary means through ...

  10. Evaluation of the Academy of Math, Science, and Engineering at Luther Burbank High School During the 1984-85 School Year. Evaluation Report No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento City Unified School District, CA.

    The Academy of Math, Science, and Engineering was established at the Luther Burbank High School of Sacramento, California as a rigorous and competitive academic alternative program. This report contains an evaluation of the second year (1984-85) of the program. Program accomplishments are reviewed in the categories of: (1) student enrollment; (2)…

  11. Elementary Teacher Perceptions of Principal Leadership, Teacher Self-Efficacy in Math and Science, and Their Relationships to Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Bertha Cookie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary teacher perceptions of elementary principal instructional leadership and elementary teacher evaluation of self-efficacy at low and high performing low socio-economic elementary schools. These variables were examined to determine whether relationships with math and science academic achievement…

  12. Underrepresented Entrepreneurship: A Mixed Method Study Evaluating Postsecondary Persistence Approaches for Minorities in Science Technology Engineering Math (STEM) to Graduate Studies and STEM Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Kamela Joy

    2017-01-01

    Small businesses with emphasis in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) are catalytic in launching the United States' global presence and competitiveness into the twenty-first century through innovation and technology. The projected growth compared to non-STEM occupations, is almost twice as high for STEM occupations which further…

  13. Using TPCK as a Lens to Study the Practices of Math and Science Teachers Involved in a Year-Long Technology Integration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kara; Ritzhaupt, Albert; Liu, Feng; Rodriguez, Prisca; Frey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways teachers enact technological, pedagogical and content practices in math and science lessons and to document the change with teachers involved in a year-long technology integration initiative. Six hundred seventy-two lessons were analyzed in this research using Technological, Pedagogical Content…

  14. Crisis in Science and Math Education. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

    This document contains the transcript of a senate hearing on the crisis in science and math education. The document includes the opening statements of Senators Glenn, Kohl, Bingaman, Lieberman, Heinz, and Sasser, and the testimony of seven witnesses including: Honorable Mark O. Hatfield, Senator from the State of Oregon; Carl Sagan, Ph.D. Cornell…

  15. Why They Leave: The Impact of Stereotype Threat on the Attrition of Women and Minorities from Science, Math and Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Maya A.; Fischer, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of group performance anxiety on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math, and engineering majors. While past research has relied primarily on the academic deficits and lower socioeconomic status of women and minorities to explain their absence from these fields, we focus on the impact of stereotype…

  16. Gender and engineering aptitude: Is the color of science, technology, engineering, and math materials related to children's performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Miller, Bridget; Rizzardi, Victoria

    2017-08-01

    To investigate gender stereotypes, demonstrated engineering aptitude, and attitudes, children (N=105) solved an engineering problem using either pastel-colored or primary-colored materials. Participants also evaluated the acceptability of denial of access to engineering materials based on gender and counter-stereotypic preferences (i.e., a boy who prefers pastel-colored materials). Whereas material color was not related to differences in female participants' performance, younger boys assigned to pastel materials demonstrated lower engineering aptitude than did other participants. In addition, results documented age- and gender-related differences; younger participants, and sometimes boys, exhibited less flexibility regarding gender stereotypes than did older and female participants. The findings suggest that attempts to enhance STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) engagement or performance through the color of STEM materials may have unintended consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Attracting students and professionals into math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades: Annual report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flick, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the progress of a project to encourage students and professionals to participate in math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades. The topics of the report include developing a model laboratory/classroom for teacher education, providing financial incentives for students with technical majors to complete the program, and emphasizing issues of equity and minority participation in mathematics, science and technology education through recruitment procedures and in course content.

  18. MathSci

    OpenAIRE

    De Robbio, Antonella

    1997-01-01

    This paper shows the prestigious mathematics database MathSci, produced by American Mathematical Society (AMS). It is an indexing resource that deals with the whole literature about mathematics. The subject involved in referred to mathematical sciences and others relating such as Statistics, Information science, Operative research and Mathematics Physics. Moreover it indexes sciences related to applied mathematics such as Astronomy, Astrophysics, Biology, Compartmental Sciences, Thermodyn...

  19. How can we improve Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math education to encourage careers in Biomedical and Pathology Informatics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Rahul; Mandava, Gunasheil; Romagnoli, Katrina M; King, Andrew J; Draper, Amie J; Handen, Adam L; Fisher, Arielle M; Becich, Michael J; Dutta-Moscato, Joyeeta

    2016-01-01

    The Computer Science, Biology, and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI) program was initiated in 2011 to expose the critical role of informatics in biomedicine to talented high school students.[1] By involving them in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) training at the high school level and providing mentorship and research opportunities throughout the formative years of their education, CoSBBI creates a research infrastructure designed to develop young informaticians. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be an expert in the emerging fields of biomedical informatics and pathology informatics requires accelerated learning at an early age.In our 4(th) year of CoSBBI as a part of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Academy (http://www.upci.upmc.edu/summeracademy/), and our 2nd year of CoSBBI as an independent informatics-based academy, we enhanced our classroom curriculum, added hands-on computer science instruction, and expanded research projects to include clinical informatics. We also conducted a qualitative evaluation of the program to identify areas that need improvement in order to achieve our goal of creating a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics in the era of big data and personalized medicine.

  20. How can we improve Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math education to encourage careers in Biomedical and Pathology Informatics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Uppal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Computer Science, Biology, and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI program was initiated in 2011 to expose the critical role of informatics in biomedicine to talented high school students.[1] By involving them in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM training at the high school level and providing mentorship and research opportunities throughout the formative years of their education, CoSBBI creates a research infrastructure designed to develop young informaticians. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be an expert in the emerging fields of biomedical informatics and pathology informatics requires accelerated learning at an early age.In our 4th year of CoSBBI as a part of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI Academy (http://www.upci.upmc.edu/summeracademy/, and our 2nd year of CoSBBI as an independent informatics-based academy, we enhanced our classroom curriculum, added hands-on computer science instruction, and expanded research projects to include clinical informatics. We also conducted a qualitative evaluation of the program to identify areas that need improvement in order to achieve our goal of creating a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics in the era of big data and personalized medicine.

  1. "Finding the Joy in the Unknown": Implementation of STEAM Teaching Practices in Middle School Science and Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Herro, Dani

    2016-06-01

    In response to a desire to strengthen the economy, educational settings are emphasizing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum and programs. Yet, because of the narrow approach to STEM, educational leaders continue to call for a more balanced approach to teaching and learning, which includes the arts, design, and humanities. This desire created space for science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) education, a transdisciplinary approach that focuses on problem-solving. STEAM-based curricula and STEAM-themed schools are appearing all over the globe. This growing national and global attention to STEAM provides an opportunity for teacher education to explore the ways in which teachers implement STEAM practices, examining the successes and challenges, and how teachers are beginning to make sense of this innovative teaching practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation of STEAM teaching practices in science and math middle school classrooms, in hopes to provide research-based evidence on this emerging topic to guide teacher educators.

  2. Academic language use in science education in Kindergarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menninga, Astrid; van Dijk, Marijn; Wetzels, Anna; Steenbeek, Henderien; van Geert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at gaining insight into the academic language use of teachers and their pupils in science education in Kindergarten. Using videotaped classroom observations of a video feedback coaching intervention study (Author Citation, 2012), teachers’ (intervention n = 5, controls n = 5) and

  3. Modern maths

    CERN Multimedia

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  4. Approaching the relationship between religion and science through language games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Stanciulescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally, applying Wittgenstein phrase “language games” into the science and religion relationship, reflects the futility of attempting to identify the truth beyond linguistic communities in which each of them takes part. Starting from the idea that through semantic assumption of some concepts, specific to a particular language game by another language game, the principles of comprehension can be violated, the postmodernist thinkers consider necessary the compartmentalization of the two types of discourses, scientific and religious. Therefore, the statements should be regarded as moves in a game. Each category of utterance operate according to some rules, without which there can be no “language game” and whose change, even minor, leads to changing the whole game.

  5. Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

    2003-06-01

    This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy

  6. Opening a Can of Worms: The Schools/ Math/Science/ 2-4 year Colleges and the Job Market - Are We just 'Fishing' for Solutions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Yukech

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper confronts some of the biggest problems educators face in the teaching of math and science. The article focuses on a grass roots method called the Algebra project. The Algebra project has improved algebra skills among groups of students who are either steered away from upper level math or who may not ever have the chance to take an advanced math course. According to the data by the department of labor and statistics many jobs are going unfilled. This paper discusses where the jobs are, the courses that are the gateway to employment and the skill sets students need to fill the jobs. Math and science courses need to be used as a tool for liberation of such a problem. We have to ask ourselves why we have a society where only a small group of students are prepared for their future. We need to determine where the knowledge gap is and provide courses that prepare students for the job market and transfer credit from the 2 year to 4 year colleges. This paper also looks at factors that effect change, who the change agents are and what mind set implement solutions.

  7. Teaching and Learning the Language of Science: A Case Study of Academic Language Acquisition in a Dual Language Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Robin Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (EL) are the fastest growing sub-group of the student population in California, yet ELs also score the lowest on the science section of the California Standardized Tests. In the area of bilingual education, California has dramatically changed its approach to English learners since the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998,…

  8. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  9. The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt: An Innovative Research-Based Program for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeds, Angela; Vanags, Chris; Creamer, Jonathan; Loveless, Mary; Dixon, Amanda; Sperling, Harvey; McCombs, Glenn; Robinson, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt (SSMV) is an innovative partnership program between a Research I private university and a large urban public school system. The SSMV was started in 2007 and currently has 101 students enrolled in the program, with a total of 60 students who have completed the 4-yr sequential program. Students attend the SSMV for one full day per week during the school year and 3–6 wk in the summers following their ninth- to 11th-grade years, with each grade of 26 students coming to the Vanderbilt campus on a separate day. The research-based curriculum focuses on guiding students through the process of learning to develop questions and hypotheses, designing projects and performing analyses, and communicating results of these projects. The SSMV program has elevated the learning outcomes of students as evidenced by increased achievement scores relative to a comparison group of students; has provided a rigorous research-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics elective curriculum that culminates in a Summer research internship; has produced 27 Intel and Siemens semifinalists and regional finalists over the past 4 yr; and has supported the development of writing and communication skills resulting in regional and national oral presentations and publications in scientific journals. PMID:26086660

  10. Science &Language Teaching in Hands-on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    As announced in the paper presented in Toulouse, a trinational teacher training program addressing school teachers from France, Germany and Italy on teaching foreign languages together with science and history through Space related projects has been implemented and launched successfully. Supported by the French Ministry of Education (Académie de Nice), the bigovernmental French-German Youth Office (Office franco- allemand pour la Jeunesse) and the European Space Agency the first session was held in Cannes in October 2001 and brought together 36 language, science and history teachers, 12 from each country. Through different workshops, presentations and visits this five-day training encounter initiated the participants with Space activities and exploration as well as offering them back-up information on astronomy. It gave them furthermore the opportunity of improving their linguistic skills and of exchanging their teaching experience. The program was highly welcomed by all the participants who will meet this year in Germany for the second session devoted to establishing together bi- or trinational projects for future class encounters based on the same subjects. My paper will deal with the results of the program which have been beyond expectation and will encourage us to continue this pluridisciplinary approach of language &science teaching and extend it to other language combinations.

  11. Culture and math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample.

  12. Math Safari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Vaunda; Stanko, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Describes Math Safari, a mathematical, scientific, geographic, informational adventure for fourth grade students. It integrates all curriculum areas and other skills by using information children must find in books to pose math problems about animals. It encourages cooperative learning, critical reading, analysis, and use of research skills. (SM)

  13. Impact of Students' and their Schoolmates' Achievement Motivation on the Status and Growth in Math and Language Achievement of Boys and Girls across Grades 7 through 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Van de gaer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses not only on the impact of students' achievement motivation, but also on the influence of achievement motivation of fellow students on status and growth in language and math achievement across Grades 7 and 8. The achievement motivation of schoolmates may create a learning environment that facilitates or impedes learning above and beyond what would be expected on the basis of the individual student's achievement motivation, intelligence and background characteristics. Data from the LOSO-project, a longitudinal study in secondary education, have been analysed using multilevel linear growth curve modeling. It turns out that the effect of achievement motivation, both of individuals and in groups, should not be neglected in explanations of individual progress in achievement, even when ability and background characteristics such as the socio-economic status, age, sex and home language have been controlled for. In addition, the data suggest that especially boys with poor achievement motivation at the start of secondary education are at risk of falling behind with regard to language achievement in the subsequent years.

  14. Math, Science, and Engineering Integration in a High School Engineering Course: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Clara G.; Berland, Leema K.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering in K-12 classrooms has been receiving expanding emphasis in the United States. The integration of science, mathematics, and engineering is a benefit and goal of K-12 engineering; however, current empirical research on the efficacy of K-12 science, mathematics, and engineering integration is limited. This study adds to this growing…

  15. Students' Achievement in Math and Science: How Grit and Attitudes Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutawah, Masooma Ali; Fateel, Moosa Jaafar

    2018-01-01

    Many recent studies in the field of mathematics and science education have been studying the effect of non-cognitive factors in students' achievement such as emotions, attitudes, values, beliefs, motivation, anxiety and grit. For example, attitude has been an important area in science education, and there have been many attempts to measure…

  16. National Youth Sports Program: Math/Science. Final report, [June 1, 1992--November 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    NYSP, a partnership of NCAA, HHS, and colleges and universities, is aimed at sports instruction and physical activity for disadvantaged youth. In 1992, DOE joined in to add a mathematics/science component. Federal funds were used to conduct mathematics and science education components on a limited pilot basis at 16 sites. Recommendations for future improvements are given.

  17. French language space science educational outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, I.; Masongsong, E. V.; Connors, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Athabasca University's AUTUMNX ground-based magnetometer array to measure and report geomagnetic conditions in eastern Canada is located in the heart of French speaking Canada. Through the course of the project, we have had the privilege to partner with schools, universities, astronomy clubs and government agencies across Quebec, all of which operate primarily in French. To acknowledge and serve the needs of our research partners, we have endeavored to produce educational and outreach (EPO) material adapted for francophone audiences with the help of UCLA's department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (EPSS). Not only will this provide greater understanding and appreciation of the geospace environment unique to Quebec and surrounding regions, it strengthens our ties with our francophone, first nations (native Americans) and Inuit partners, trailblazing new paths of research collaboration and inspiring future generations of researchers.

  18. Elementary School Math Instruction: Can Reading Specialists Assist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Audrey S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)

  19. STEAMakers- a global initiative to connect STEM career professionals with the public to inspire the next generation and nurture a creative approach to science, technology, maths & engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Niamh; Sorkhabi, Elburz; Gasquez, Oriol; Yajima, Saho

    2016-04-01

    STEAMakers is a global initiative founded by Niamh Shaw, Elburz Sorkhabi, Oriol Gasquez & Saho Yajima, four alumni of The International Space University's Space Studies Programme 2015 who each shared a vision to inspire the next generation to embrace science, technology, engineering & maths (STEM) in new ways, by embedding the Arts within STEM, putting the 'A' in STEAM. STEAMakers invited STEM professionals around the world to join their community, providing training and a suite of STEAM events, specially designed to encourage students to perceive science, technology, engineering & maths as a set of tools with which to create, design, troubleshoot, innovate, and imagine. The ultimate goal of STEAMakers is to grow this community and create a global culture of non-linear learning among the next generation, to nurture within them a new multidisciplinary mindset and incubate new forms of innovation and thought leadership required for the future through the power of inspiration and creativity.

  20. The characteristics of effective secondary math and science instructional facilitators and the necessary support structures as perceived by practitioners and principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahagan, Vikki Lynn

    Instructional facilitators are known by a variety of titles depending on the school district in which they are employed. They are sometimes called instructional coaches, teacher leaders, lead teachers, and instructional specialist (Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009). Throughout this study, the title instructional facilitator was used and will refer to secondary math or science instructional facilitators who are housed at least one day per week on a campus. This study is a mixed-methods descriptive study which has identified character traits, specials skill, and talents possessed by effective secondary math and science instructional facilitators as perceived by practicing facilitators and principals and assistant principals who work along side instructional facilitators. Specific job training to help ensure the success of a facilitator was identified as viewed by both facilitators and principals. Additionally, this study compared the perceptions of practicing facilitators and principals to determine if significant differences exist with respect to perceptions of staff development opportunities, support structures, and resources available for instructional facilitators.

  1. [Chaucer and the language of science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterling, K

    1999-01-01

    The study of the medieval sciences and their technical vocabulary has been considered essential to an adequate understanding of Chaucer's works ever since the nineteenth century. But any attempt of evaluating Chaucer's scientific vocabulary is confronted with several major difficulties. The well-known fact that the Norman Conquest caused the breakdown of an established literary standard and eventually led to the dominance of French and the suppression of the native vernacular as a means of instruction and formal education up to the middle of the fourteenth century is equally responsible for the comparative lateness of Middle English literature on the artes. This limitedness of comparative material also contributes to the difficulty in evaluating Chaucer's scientific lexicon and its use in fictional contexts. The still unsatisfactory state of scholarship in the field of Middle English prose enhances these problems. Concerning Chaucer, three separate possibilities are discussed: the poet follows an already established native tradition, he makes use of existing French or Latin terminology, or he coins a new word. Especially the third case poses intricate problems which are connected with the question of the status of words, since it is often impossible to draw precise limits between different categories.--In addition to that, Chaucer's use of the hermeneutic technique of etymology and the linguistic importance of variant readings are dealt with.

  2. The Language of the Pharaohs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Marcia

    1991-01-01

    This article describes a course in ancient Egyptian studies for gifted elementary students. The course incorporates social studies, science, math, language, reading/writing, and art activities. Students study history and development of Egyptian culture, reading and writing with glyphs, and analyzing and evaluating Egyptian hieroglyphic writing.…

  3. The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt: An Innovative Research-Based Program for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeds, Angela; Vanags, Chris; Creamer, Jonathan; Loveless, Mary; Dixon, Amanda; Sperling, Harvey; McCombs, Glenn; Robinson, Doug; Shepherd, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt (SSMV) is an innovative partnership program between a Research I private university and a large urban public school system. The SSMV was started in 2007 and currently has 101 students enrolled in the program, with a total of 60 students who have completed the 4-yr sequential program. Students attend the SSMV for one full day per week during the school year and 3-6 wk in the summers following their ninth- to 11th-grade years, with each grade of 26 students coming to the Vanderbilt campus on a separate day. The research-based curriculum focuses on guiding students through the process of learning to develop questions and hypotheses, designing projects and performing analyses, and communicating results of these projects. The SSMV program has elevated the learning outcomes of students as evidenced by increased achievement scores relative to a comparison group of students; has provided a rigorous research-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics elective curriculum that culminates in a Summer research internship; has produced 27 Intel and Siemens semifinalists and regional finalists over the past 4 yr; and has supported the development of writing and communication skills resulting in regional and national oral presentations and publications in scientific journals. © 2014 A. Eeds et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Applications of Natural Language Processing in Biodiversity Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Thessen

    2012-01-01

    A computer can handle the volume but cannot make sense of the language. This paper reviews and discusses the use of natural language processing (NLP and machine-learning algorithms to extract information from systematic literature. NLP algorithms have been used for decades, but require special development for application in the biological realm due to the special nature of the language. Many tools exist for biological information extraction (cellular processes, taxonomic names, and morphological characters, but none have been applied life wide and most still require testing and development. Progress has been made in developing algorithms for automated annotation of taxonomic text, identification of taxonomic names in text, and extraction of morphological character information from taxonomic descriptions. This manuscript will briefly discuss the key steps in applying information extraction tools to enhance biodiversity science.

  5. Where's the Math?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Offers examples of materials and activities that promote and guide math-learning opportunities in all areas of the classroom. Materials and activities relate to: (1) art center; (2) science and discovery center; (3) blocks; (4) library and writing centers; (5) music and movement; (6) manipulatives; (7) dramatic play; (8) outdoor play; and (9)…

  6. Development of Case Stories by Interviewing Students about their Critical Moments in Science, Math, and Engineering Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Esselstein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dartmouth’s Critical Moments project is designed to promote discussions among faculty and graduate students about the retention of students, particularly women and minorities, in science, math, and engineering (SME disciplines. The first phase of the ongoing project has been the development of four case stories, which are fictionalized composites drawn from surveys and interviews of real Dartmouth students. The surveyed population was 125 students in general chemistry. Of the 77 who agreed to be interviewed, 61 reported having experienced a critical moment – i.e., a positive or negative event or time that had a significant impact on the student’s academic life. Leading critical moments were a poor grade on an exam; challenge from group work; excitement from an internship; and falling in love with a non-SME discipline from other coursework. Interviews of 13 students who had negative critical moments led to the development of case stories for: Antoinetta ’09, who had a disappointing group experience; Dalila ’08, who was poorly prepared; Greg ’09, who got in over his head in his first year; and Michelle ’08, who was shocked by her result in the first exam. The case stories are being discussed by graduate students, TA and faculty in various workshops at the Dartmouth Center for the Advancement of Learning.

  7. The Potential Role of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Programs in Reducing Teen Dating Violence and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Kearns, Megan C; Reidy, Dennis E

    2016-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are growing fields that provide job stability, financial security, and health prosperity for professionals in these fields. Unfortunately, females are underrepresented in STEM, which is potentially both a consequence and precipitant of gender inequity in the United States. In addition to the financial and health benefits, increasing the number of girls and women in STEM fields may also indirectly prevent and/or reduce teen dating violence and intimate partner violence by: (1) increasing women's financial independence, thereby reducing dependence on potentially abusive partners; (2) decreasing household poverty and financial stress, which may lead to reductions in relationship discord; and (3) increasing attitudes and beliefs about women as equals, thereby increasing gender equity. In this commentary, we discuss the potential role of primary and secondary school STEM programs in reducing violence against women. We review the literature on existing evaluations of STEM programs for educational outcomes, discuss the limitations of these evaluations, and offer suggestions for future research.

  8. Language used in interaction during developmental science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenia-Tapper, Brianna

    The coordination of theory and evidence is an important part of scientific practice. Developmental approaches to instruction, which make the relationship between the abstract and the concrete a central focus of students' learning activity, provide educators with a unique opportunity to strengthen students' coordination of theory and evidence. Therefore, developmental approaches may be a useful instructional response to documented science achievement gaps for linguistically diverse students. However, if we are to leverage the potential of developmental instruction to improve the science achievement of linguistically diverse students, we need more information on the intersection of developmental science instruction and linguistically diverse learning contexts. This manuscript style dissertation uses discourse analysis to investigate the language used in interaction during developmental teaching-learning in three linguistically diverse third grade classrooms. The first manuscript asks how language was used to construct ascension from the abstract to the concrete. The second manuscript asks how students' non-English home languages were useful (or not) for meeting the learning goals of the developmental instructional program. The third manuscript asks how students' interlocutors may influence student choice to use an important discourse practice--justification--during the developmental teaching-learning activity. All three manuscripts report findings relevant to the instructional decisions that teachers need to make when implementing developmental instruction in linguistically diverse contexts.

  9. Problem-based scenarios with laptops: an effective combination for cross-curricular learning in mathematics, science and language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Freiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many educational systems consider using one-to-one access to the laptop as a way to improve teaching and learning. A two-year action research project on the use of laptop computers by New Brunswick (Canada grade 7 and 8 Francophone students aimed to better understand the impact of laptops on learning. Two problem-based learning (PBL interdisciplinary scenarios (math, science, language arts were implemented in eight experimental classes to measure and document students’ actual learning process, particularly in terms of their ability to scientifically investigate authentic problems, to reason mathematically, and to communicate. On-site observations, video-recording, journals, samples of students’ work, and interviews were used to collect qualitative data. Based on our findings, we argue that laptops in and of themselves may not automatically lead to better results on standardized tests, but rather create opportunities to enrich learning with more open-ended, constructive, collaborative, reflective, and cognitively complex learning tasks.

  10. Math Stuff

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    2002-01-01

    Whether it's stuff in your kitchen or garden, stuff that powers your car or your body, stuff that helps you work, communicate or play, or stuff that you've never heard of you can bet that mathematics is there. MATH STUFF brings it all in the open in the Pappas style. Not many people think of mathematics as fascinating, exciting and invaluable. Yet Pappas writes about math ideas in such a way that conveys its often overlooked fascination, excitement, and worth. MATH STUFF deals with 38 topics in an non-threatening way that piques our curiosities. Open the book at random, and learn about such to

  11. Academic Language Knowledge and Comprehension of Science Text for English Language Learners and Fluent English-Speaking Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as Engli...

  12. An Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions through Metaphors: Prospective Turkish Teachers of Science, Math and Social Science in Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Süleyman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, teachers' perceptions of prospective Turkish teachers (that is, those who have completed their undergraduate studies) in the fields of Science, Mathematics and Social Sciences are investigated through teacher metaphors. These perceptions were classified in accordance with their answers to two open-ended questions within a metaphoric…

  13. Early Childhood Educators' Self-Efficacy in Science, Math, and Literacy Instruction and Science Practice in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Hope K.; Pierce, Steven J.; Lee, Kyungsook; Van Egeren, Laurie A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Quality early science education is important for addressing the low science achievement, compared to international peers, of elementary students in the United States. Teachers' beliefs about their skills in a content area, that is, their content self-efficacy is important because it has implications for teaching practice and…

  14. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  15. Using the Discipline of Agricultural Engineering to Integrate Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutz, Tim; Navarro, Maria; Hill, Roger B.; Thompson, Sidney A.; Miller, Kathy; Riddleberger, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    An outcome of a 1998 forum sponsored by the National Research Council was a recognition that topics related to food production and agriculture are excellent mechanisms for integrating science topics taught in the K-12 education system and for providing many avenues for inquiry based and project based learning. The engineering design process is…

  16. Talk of U.S. Crisis in Math, Science Is Largely Misplaced, Skeptics Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2006-01-01

    Back in 1983, the National Commission on Excellence on Education issued a dire warning: The United States' "once unchallenged, pre-eminence in commerce, industry, science, and technological innovation is being overtaken by competitors throughout the world." Policy observers say such calls have been a leitmotif in the national discourse on…

  17. Opening the Classroom Door: Professional Learning Communities in the Math and Science Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamos, James E.; Bergin, Kathleen B.; Maki, Daniel P.; Perez, Lance C.; Prival, Joan T.; Rainey, Daphne Y.; Rowell, Ginger H.; VanderPutten, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at how professional learning communities (PLCs) have become an operational approach for professional development with potential to de-isolate the teaching experience in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The authors offer a short synopsis of the intellectual origins of PLCs, provide multiple…

  18. Advanced Placement Math and Science Courses: Influential Factors and Predictors for Success in College STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Cynthia Colon

    2010-01-01

    President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country.…

  19. A Review of Mindfulness Research Related to Alleviating Math and Science Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalique; Trager, Bradley; Rodwell, Megan; Foinding, Linda; Lopez, Cori

    2017-01-01

    Defined as nonjudgmentally paying attention to the present moment (Kabat-Zinn, 1994), modern-day mindfulness has gained considerable attention in various science fields. However, despite this growth, many uses of mindfulness remain unexplored. In this paper, we focus on the application of mindfulness programs in educational settings, specifically…

  20. Nurturing At-Risk Youth in Math and Science: Curriculum and Teaching Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Randolf

    The social environment of today has necessitated revision in educators' beliefs about what students are considered to be at risk of failing to complete their education with adequate levels of skills. This book addresses this issue in the areas of mathematics and science and is intended as a curriculum and teacher training accompaniment that can…

  1. Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) in Higher Education from the Perspective of Female Students: An Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Laura J.

    A persistent disadvantage for females is systemically embedded in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education in postsecondary institutions. As a result, undergraduate women majoring in STEM fields face a uniquely difficult path; yet, for the most part, recommendations made and supported in the literature have focused on recruitment of women to STEM fields or on ways to make women more successful and comfortable in their STEM major. These recommendations have so far proved to be insufficient to remedy a gender gap and serve to replicate the existing male hierarchy. In order to truly make the STEM classroom one in which women are welcome and comfortable and to challenge the existing social and scientific systems, it is necessary to explore and understand the social and political implications embedded within teaching and learning choices. This institutional ethnography addresses that gap. The purpose of this study was to uncover and describe the institutional practices of STEM education at a Midwest research university (MRU) from the standpoint of female undergraduate students. Using the framework of feminist standpoint theory, this study explored the everyday "work" of female undergraduate STEM students to provide a unique perspective on the STEM education teaching and learning environment. Data collection began with in-depth interviews with female undergraduate math and physics students. As the institutional processes shaping undergraduate participant experiences were identified, subsequent data collection included classroom observations, additional interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of the texts that mediate these processes (e.g., syllabi and student handbooks). Data analysis followed Carspecken's process of ethnographic data analysis that began with low-level coding, followed by high-level coding, and concluded by pulling codes together through the creation of themes. Analysis of data led to three key findings. First, undergraduate

  2. Longitudinal Study of Career Cluster Persistence from 8th Grade to 12th Grade with a Focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math Career Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Judson

    Today's technology driven global economy has put pressure on the American education system to produce more students who are prepared for careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Adding to this pressure is the demand for a more diverse workforce that can stimulate the development of new ideas and innovation. This in turn requires more female and under represented minority groups to pursue future careers in STEM. Though STEM careers include many of the highest paid professionals, school systems are dealing with exceptionally high numbers of students, especially female and under represented minorities, who begin but do not persist to STEM degree completion. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) framework that attributes student motivation to a combination of intrinsic, utility, and attainment values, this study analyzed readily available survey data to gauge students' career related values. These values were indirectly investigated through a longitudinal approach, spanning five years, on the predictive nature of 8 th grade survey-derived recommendations for students to pursue a future in a particular career cluster. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that this 8 th grade data, particularly in STEM, provides significantly high probabilities of a 12th grader's average grade, SAT-Math score, the math and science elective courses they take, and most importantly, interest in the same career cluster.

  3. Issues in Scientific Terminology in African / Bantu Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Taljard , Elsabé

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, the South African Department of Education initiated a pilot project in which the Matric or Senior Certificate papers for Science, Maths, Biology and History were translated into the nine official African/Bantu languages of the country. Grade 12 learners who use these languages as home languages therefore received a question paper containing questions in English, where every question was followed by its translation into the relevant language. Taking into consideration that these learn...

  4. The Impact of MOVE IT Math(TM) and Traditional Textbook Instruction on Math Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Angela Stephens

    2010-01-01

    One recommendation of government, education, and business leaders is an increased emphasis on math and science instruction in public schools. The purpose of this quantitative study using a posttest, quasi-experimental design was to determine if the Math Opportunities, Valuable Experiences, and Innovative Teaching (MOVE IT Math(TM)) program…

  5. Characteristics Associated with Persistence and Retention among First-Generation College Students Majoring in Science, Technology, Engineering, or Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Lorie Lasseter

    Persistence and retention of college students is a great concern in American higher education. The dropout rate is even more apparent among first-generation college students, as well as those majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). More students earning STEM degrees are needed to fill the many jobs that require the skills obtained while in college. More importantly, those students who are associated with a low-socioeconomic background may use a degree to overcome poverty. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics associated with student attrition among first-generation students or STEM majors, very little information exists in terms of persistence and retention among the combined groups. The current qualitative study identified some of the characteristics associated with persistence and retention among first-generation college students who are also STEM majors. Participants were juniors or seniors enrolled at a regional 4-year institution. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to allow participants to share their personal experiences as first-generation STEM majors who continue to persist and be retained by their institution. Tinto's Theory of Individual Departure (1987) was used as a framework for the investigation. This theory emphasizes personal and academic background, personal goals, disconnecting from one's own culture, and institutional integration as predictors of persistence. The findings of the investigation revealed that persisting first-generation STEM majors are often connected to family, but have been able to separate that connection with that of the institution. They also are goal-driven and highly motivated and have had varied pre-college academic experiences. These students are academically integrated and socially integrated in some ways, but less than their non-first-generation counterparts. They are overcoming obstacles that students from other backgrounds may not experience. They receive

  6. Shift in Language Policy in Malaysia: Unravelling Reasons for Change, Conflict and Compromise in Mother-Tongue Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Saran Kaur

    2007-01-01

    Malaysia experienced a major shift in language policy in 2003 for the subjects of science and maths. This meant a change in the language of education for both national and national-type schools. For national schools, this resulted in a shift from Bahasa Malaysia, the national language to English. Parallel with this, to ensure homogeneity of impact…

  7. Prolog as description and implementation language in computer science teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    population with uneven mathematical backgrounds. % Definitional interpreters, compilers, and other models of computation are defined in a systematic way as Prolog programs, and as a result, formal descriptions become running prototypes that can be tested and modified by the students. These programs can......Prolog is a powerful pedagogical instrument for theoretical elements of computer science when used as combined description language and experimentation tool. A teaching methodology based on this principle has been developed and successfully applied in a context with a heterogeneous student...

  8. Language experience narratives and the role of autobiographical reasoning in becoming an urban science teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.

    2011-06-01

    One of the central challenges globalization and immigration present to education is how to construct school language policies, procedures, and curricula to support academic success of immigrant youth. This case-study compares and contrasts language experience narratives along Elena's developmental trajectory of becoming an urban science teacher. Elena reflects upon her early language experiences and her more recent experiences as a preservice science teacher in elementary dual language classrooms. The findings from Elena's early schooling experiences provide an analysis of the linkages between Elena's developing English proficiency, her Spanish proficiency, and her autobiographical reasoning. Elena's experiences as a preservice teacher in two elementary dual language classrooms indicates ways in which those experiences helped to reframe her views about the intersections between language learning and science learning. I propose the language experience narrative, as a subset of the life story, as a way to understand how preservice teachers reconstruct past language experiences, connect to the present, and anticipate future language practices.

  9. The Consequences of the National Math and Science Performance Environment for Gender Differences in STEM Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Mann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the lens of expectation states theory, which we formalize in Bayesian terms, this article examines the influences of national performance and self-assessment contexts on gender differences in the rate of aspiring to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM occupations. We demonstrate that girls hold themselves to a higher performance standard than do boys before forming STEM orientations, and this gender "standards gap" grows with the strength of a country’s performance environment. We also demonstrate that a repeatedly observed paradox in this literature—namely, that the STEM gender gap increases with a more strongly gender-egalitarian national culture—vanishes when the national performance culture is taken into account. Whereas other research has proposed theories to explain the apparent paradox as an empirical reality, we demonstrate that the empirical relationship is as expected; net of the performance environment, countries with a more gender-egalitarian culture have a smaller gender gap in STEM orientations. We also find, consistent with our theory, that the proportion of high-performing girls among STEM aspirants grows with the strength of the national performance environment even as the overall gender gap in STEM orientations grows because of offsetting behavior by students at the lower end of the performance distribution.

  10. Teaching the Future: On the Use of Science Fiction in English Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the features of "pulpstyle" and its continuing influence on later science fiction. Considers some science fiction texts that explicitly address language issues. These ideas are related to practical techniques of using science fiction in the language classroom. (Author/VWL)

  11. Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

  12. The early evolution of southwestern Pennsylvania's regional math/science collaborative from the leadership perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Nancy R.

    Designed as a regional approach to the coordination of efforts and focusing of resources in fragmented southwestern Pennsylvania, the Collaborative's story is narrated by its founding director. Drawing from office archives, including letters of invitation, meeting notes, and participant evaluations of each event, the study describes the genesis of the Collaborative. It begins with identification of the problem and the resulting charge by a founding congress. It details the building of an organizational framework, the creation of a shared vision, the development of a blueprint for action, and the decision-making involved in determining how to strengthen mathematics and science education in the region. The study notes several influences on the Collaborative's leadership. Considering the role of other collaboratives, the study notes that knowledge of the Los Angeles Educational Partnership's LA SMART jump-started the Collaborative's initial planning process. Knowledge of San Francisco's SEABA influenced the size and naming of the Collaborative's Journal. Fred Newmann's definition of authentic instruction, learning and assessment are reflected in the shared vision and belief statements of the Collaborative. The five disciplines of Peter Senge influenced the nature of the organizational framework as well as the day-to-day operations of the Collaborative. The study also notes that the five organizational tensions identified in Ann Lieberman's work on "intentional learning communities" were present in every aspect of the evolution of the Collaborative. The study suggests that leaders of evolving collaboratives: (1) engage all relevant stakeholders in assessing the current situation and defining a desired future state, (2) take advantage of the lessons learned by others and the resources available at the state and national levels to design strategies and build action plans, (3) model the practices to be inspired in the learning community, (4) constantly gather feedback on

  13. Language games: Christian fundamentalism and the science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Cheryl J.

    Eighty years after the Scope's Trial, the debate over evolution in the public school curriculum is alive and well. Historically, Christian fundamentalists, the chief opponents of evolution in the public schools, have used the court system to force policymakers, to adopt their ideology regarding evolution in the science curriculum. However, in recent decades their strategy has shifted from the courts to the local level, where they pressure teachers and school boards to include "alternate theories" and the alleged "flaws" and "inconsistencies" of evolution in the science curriculum. The purpose of this content analysis study was to answer the question: How do Christian fundamentalists employ rhetorical strategies to influence the science curriculum? The rhetorical content of several public legal and media documents resulting from a lawsuit filed against the Athens Public Schools by the American Center of Law and Justice were analyzed for the types of rhetorical strategies employed by the participants engaged in the scientific, legal, and public discourse communities. The study employed an analytical schema based on Ludwig Wittgenstein's theory of language games, Lawrence Prelli's theory of discourse communities, and Michael Apple's notion of constitutive and preference rules. Ultimately, this study revealed that adroit use of the constitutive and preference rules of the legal and public discourse communities allowed the school district to reframe the creation-evolution debate, thereby avoiding a public spectacle and ameliorating the power of creationist language to affect change in the science curriculum. In addition, the study reinforced the assertion that speakers enjoy the most persuasive power when they attend to the preference rules of the public discourse community.

  14. La linguistica, la glottodidattica e l'elaboratore elettronico: Note sull'introduzione dell'informatica nell'insegnamento delle lingue (Linguistics, Language Pedagogy, and Computers: Notes on the Introduction of Computer Science in the Teaching of Languages).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmayer, Ciro

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to show that the use of computers in the classroom should not be limited to the teaching of math but that the language classroom is an even more appropriate place for the introduction and use of computers. (CFM)

  15. Academic language and the challenge of reading for learning about science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E

    2010-04-23

    A major challenge to students learning science is the academic language in which science is written. Academic language is designed to be concise, precise, and authoritative. To achieve these goals, it uses sophisticated words and complex grammatical constructions that can disrupt reading comprehension and block learning. Students need help in learning academic vocabulary and how to process academic language if they are to become independent learners of science.

  16. Talking Maths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Discussion in maths lessons has always been something encouraged by ATM but can be difficult to initiate for non-specialist and inexperienced teachers who may feel they need material in books to get them going. In this article, the author describes resources aimed at encouraging discussion among primary mathematicians. These resources include: (1)…

  17. Penguin Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…

  18. Tangible Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatos, Lori L.

    2006-01-01

    Educators recognize that group work and physical involvement with learning materials can greatly enhance the understanding and retention of difficult concepts. As a result, math manipulatives--such as pattern blocks and number lines--have increasingly been making their way into classrooms and children's museums. Yet without the constant guidance…

  19. Math Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    Many experts give the nation's schools a poor grade for their approach to teaching mathematics and for their preparation of mathematics teachers. While many policymakers make much of data that suggest children in the United States lag behind many other advanced countries in math, many experts call for a change in mathematics education,…

  20. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  1. Teaching of science and language by elementary teachers who emphasize the integrated language approach: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouch, Kathleen Kennedy

    This research involved investigating the nature of science and language instruction in 13 elementary classrooms where teachers have restructured their language programs to reflect an integrated or holistic view of language instruction. The teachers were identified by school administrators and other professionals as teachers who have implemented instructional reforms described in the Pennsylvania Framework for Reading, Writing and Speaking Across the Curriculum (PCRPII), (Lytle & Botel, 1900). The instruction utilized by these teachers was described as atypical when compared to that of teachers utilizing the more traditional didactic skills oriented approach to language literacy. The research involved observing, recording and categorizing teaching behaviors during both science and language instruction. Videotaped observations were followed by analyses and descriptions of these behaviors. Interviews were also conducted to ascertain the basis for selection of the various instructional approaches. The instruction was compared on four dimensions: participation patterns, time the behaviors were practiced, type of tasks and levels of questioning. The instruction was then described in light of constructivist teaching practices: student collaboration, student autonomy, integration and higher order thinking. Constructivist practices differed among teachers for science and language instruction. During science instruction teachers spent more time involved in teacher-whole group participation patterns with more direct questioning as compared to language instruction in which children participated alone or in groups and had opportunity to initiate conversations and questions. Student inquiry was evidenced during language instruction more so than during science. The 13 teachers asked a variety of levels and types of questions both in science and language instruction. More hands-on science experiences were observed when science was taught separately compared to when integrated with

  2. An inquiry approach to science and language teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Imelda; Bethel, Lowell J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an inquiry approach to science and language teaching to further develop classification and oral communication skills of bilingual Mexican American third graders. A random sample consisting of 64 subjects was selected for experimental and control groups from a population of 120 bilingual Mexican American third graders. The Solomon Four-Group experimental design was employed. Pre- and posttesting was performed by use of the Goldstein-Sheerer Object Sorting Test, (GSOST) and the Test of Oral Communication Skills, (TOCS). The experimental group participated in a sequential series of science lessons which required manipulation of objects, exploration, peer interaction, and teacher-pupil interaction. The children made observations and comparisons of familiar objects and then grouped them on the basis of perceived and inferred attributes. Children worked individually and in small groups. Analysis of variance procedures was used on the posttest scores to determine if there was a significant improvement in classification and oral communication skills in the experimental group. The results on the posttest scores indicated a significant improvement at the 0.01 level for the experimental group in both classification and oral communication skills. It was concluded that participation in the science inquiry lessons facilitated the development of classification and oral communication skills of bilingual children.

  3. All you need in Maths!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Craats, J.; Bosch, R.

    2014-01-01

    All You Need in Maths! covers the basic mathematics you need to successfully embark on a university or college career in technology, natural sciences, computer and information science, economics, business and management studies, and related disciplines. By basic mathematics we mean elementary

  4. Briefing paper for universities on Core Maths

    OpenAIRE

    Glaister, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This briefing paper outlines the rationale for and development of the new Core Maths qualifications, the characteristics of Core Maths, and why Core Maths is important for higher education. It is part of a communication to university vice-chancellors from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) comprising this paper and a joint Ministerial letter from Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities and Science in BIS, and Nick Gibb, Minister of State for Schools in the Departm...

  5. English Language Assessment in the Colleges of Applied Sciences in Oman: Thematic Document Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hajri, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency in English language and how it is measured have become central issues in higher education research as the English language is increasingly used as a medium of instruction and a criterion for admission to education. This study evaluated the English language assessment in the foundation Programme at the Colleges of Applied sciences in…

  6. Working memory, math performance, and math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Mark H; Krause, Jeremy A

    2007-04-01

    The cognitive literature now shows how critically math performance depends on working memory, for any form of arithmetic and math that involves processes beyond simple memory retrieval. The psychometric literature is also very clear on the global consequences of mathematics anxiety. People who are highly math anxious avoid math: They avoid elective coursework in math, both in high school and college, they avoid college majors that emphasize math, and they avoid career paths that involve math. We go beyond these psychometric relationships to examine the cognitive consequences of math anxiety. We show how performance on a standardized math achievement test varies as a function of math anxiety, and that math anxiety compromises the functioning of working memory. High math anxiety works much like a dual task setting: Preoccupation with one's math fears and anxieties functions like a resource-demanding secondary task. We comment on developmental and educational factors related to math and working memory, and on factors that may contribute to the development of math anxiety.

  7. Using the Psychology of Language to Effectively Communicate Actionable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The words used to articulate science can have as significant a psychological impact on public perception as the data itself. It is therefore essential to utilize language that not only accurately relates the scientific information, but also effectively conveys a message that is congruent with the presenter's motivation for expressing the data. This is especially relevant for environmental subjects that are surrounded by emotionally charged, political discourses. For example are terms like catastrophe and disaster; while these words may accurately illustrate impartial scientific data, they will likely trigger psychological responses in audiences such as fear or denial that have a detrimental impact on the human decision making process. I propose a set of 5 key principles to assist in communicating data to the general public that both support the transfer of ideas and the presenter's intended psychological impact. 1) Articulate the underlying intentions that motivate the communication of data in a transparent manner 2) Use language congruent with the presenter's stated intentions 3) Maintain a neutral, non-judgmental attitude towards the complex human psychological and emotional dynamics present in a target audience 4) Demonstrate acceptance and compassion when analyzing past and present human actions that adversely affect the environment 5) Develop a perspective of non-attachment when proposing future actions and/or consequences of current human behaviors. The application of these 5 principles provides a framework to move from our current understanding of problems and solutions to effective physical action that allows us to gracefully adapt with our ever changing planet.

  8. Functional Automata - Formal Languages for Computer Science Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco T. Morazán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An introductory formal languages course exposes advanced undergraduate and early graduate students to automata theory, grammars, constructive proofs, computability, and decidability. Programming students find these topics to be challenging or, in many cases, overwhelming and on the fringe of Computer Science. The existence of this perception is not completely absurd since students are asked to design and prove correct machines and grammars without being able to experiment nor get immediate feedback, which is essential in a learning context. This article puts forth the thesis that the theory of computation ought to be taught using tools for actually building computations. It describes the implementation and the classroom use of a library, FSM, designed to provide students with the opportunity to experiment and test their designs using state machines, grammars, and regular expressions. Students are able to perform random testing before proceeding with a formal proof of correctness. That is, students can test their designs much like they do in a programming course. In addition, the library easily allows students to implement the algorithms they develop as part of the constructive proofs they write. Providing students with this ability ought to be a new trend in the formal languages classroom.

  9. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) Brining STEM Research to 7th-12th Grade Science and Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radencic, S.; McNeal, K. S.; Pierce, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) program at Mississippi State University (MSU), funded by the NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK12) program, focuses on the advancement of Earth and Space science education in K-12 classrooms. INSPIRE currently in its third year of partnering ten graduate students each year from the STEM fields of Geosciences, Engineering, Physics and Chemistry at MSU with five teachers from local, rural school districts. The five year project serves to enhance graduate student's communication skills as they create interactive lessons linking their STEM research focus to the state and national standards covered in science and math classrooms for grades 7-12 through inquiry experiences. Each graduate student is responsible for the development of two lessons each month of the school year that include an aspect of their STEM research, including the technologies that they may utilize to conduct their STEM research. The plans are then published on the INSPIRE project webpage, www.gk12.msstate.edu, where they are a free resource for any K-12 classroom teacher seeking innovative activities for their classrooms and total over 300 lesson activities to date. Many of the participating teachers and graduate students share activities developed with non-participating teachers, expanding INSPIRE's outreach of incorporating STEM research into activities for K-12 students throughout the local community. Examples of STEM research connections to classroom topics related to earth and ocean science include activities using GPS with GIS for triangulation and measurement of area in geometry; biogeochemical response to oil spills compared to organism digestive system; hydrogeology water quality monitoring and GIS images used as a determinant for habitat suitability in area water; interactions of acids and bases in the Earth's environments and surfaces; and the importance of electrical circuitry in an electrode used in

  10. Using a Non-Equivalent Groups Quasi Experimental Design to Reduce Internal Validity Threats to Claims Made by Math and Science K-12 Teacher Recruitment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Laura

    2009-10-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act national policy established in 2009 calls for ``meaningful data'' that demonstrate educational improvements, including the recruitment of high-quality teachers. The scant data available and the low credibility of many K-12 math/science teacher recruitment program evaluations remain the major barriers for the identification of effective recruitment strategies. Our study presents a methodology to better evaluate the impact of recruitment programs on increasing participants' interest in teaching careers. The research capitalizes on the use of several control groups and presents a non-equivalent groups quasi-experimental evaluation design that produces program effect claims with higher internal validity than claims generated by current program evaluations. With this method that compares responses to a teaching career interest question from undergraduates all along a continuum from just attending an information session to participating (or not) in the recruitment program, we were able to compare the effect of the program in increasing participants' interest in teaching careers versus the evolution of the same interest but in the absence of the program. We were also able to make suggestions for program improvement and further research. While our findings may not apply to other K-12 math/science teacher recruitment programs, we believe that our evaluation methodology does and will contribute to conduct stronger program evaluations. In so doing, our evaluation procedure may inform recruitment program designers and policy makers.

  11. Urban School Leadership for Elementary Science Education: Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Maricela H.

    2012-01-01

    Science education reform and state testing accountability call upon principals to become instructional leaders in science. Specifically, elementary school principals must take an active role in science instruction to effectively improve science education for all students including English Language Learners. As such, the research questioned posed…

  12. Perceptions of preparedness of LBS I teachers in the state of Illinois and graduates of Illinois State University's LBS I program to collaborate in teaching grade 7--12 math, science, and social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Janet E.

    The expectations for no child to be left behind are leading to increased emphasis on teaching math, science, and social science effectively to students with disabilities. This study utilized information collected from online surveys to examine how current LBS I teachers and individuals graduating from the Illinois State University teacher certification program in LBS I perceive their preparedness to teach these subjects. Participants provided information about coursework and life experiences, and they made suggestions about teacher preparation and professional development programs. Six key items forming the composite variable focused on level of preparation in (a) best practices, (b) selecting materials, (c) selecting objectives, (d) adapting instructional strategies, (e) planning lessons, and (f) and evaluating outcomes. Only 30 LBS I teachers of the 282 contacted by e-mail completed surveys. Of 115 graduates contacted, 71 participated in the original survey and 23 participated in a follow-up survey. Data were analyzed to learn more about the teachers' self-perceptions regarding preparedness to teach math, science, or social science. There was a correlation between perceived level of knowledge and the composite preparation variable for all subjects, but no correlation with length of teaching. Both groups indicated high school content courses were important in preparation to teach. Teachers also indicated collaboration and graduates indicated grade school learning. The most frequent recommendation for both teacher preparation and professional development was additional methods courses. A survey distributed to math, science, and social science teachers of Grades 7--12 asked about their perceptions of the preparedness of LBS I teachers to teach their area of content. Few surveys were completed for each subject so they were examined qualitatively. There was variability among participants, but generally the content area teachers rated themselves as more prepared than

  13. Literacy Specialists in Math Class! Closing the Achievement Gap on State Math Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGisi, Lori L.; Fleming, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    Sixth and eighth grade students who are English language learners must be able to read and interpret 39 math word problems in order to successfully calculate the answers on the Massachusetts state math assessment (MCAS). The first year that MCAS was administered, many ELL students read the questions, found them confusing, and left them blank,…

  14. Fatou, Julia, Montel le grand prix des sciences mathématiques de 1918, et après

    CERN Document Server

    Audin, Michèle

    2009-01-01

    Comment Fatou et Julia ont inventA(c) ce que la (TM)on appelle aujourda (TM)hui les ensembles de Julia, avant, pendant et aprA]s la premiA]re guerre mondiale? La (TM)histoire est racontA(c)e, avec ses mathA(c)matiques, ses conflits, ses personnalitA(c)s. Elle est traitA(c)e A partir de sources nouvelles, et avec rigueur. On pourra sa (TM)y initier A la (TM)itA(c)ration des fractions rationnelles et A la dynamique complexe (ensembles de Julia, de Mandelbrot, ensembles-limites). Qui A(c)taient Pierre Fatou, Gaston Julia, Paul Montel? On y trouvera en particulier des informations sur un mathA(c)m

  15. Counseling the Math Anxious

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Sheila; Donady, Bonnie

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rationale and mode of operations for a Math Clinic at Wellesley University and Wesleyan College where counselors and math specialists work together to combat "math anxiety," particularly in female students. (HMV)

  16. It is not known the impact or implications of a study skills class and its effect on high school students in relation to performance on math and science Georgia High School Graduation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary E.

    The Georgia State Board of Education has put in place requirements that high school students must meet in order to advance to a higher grade level and to achieve credits for graduation. Georgia requires all ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth graders to take an end-of-course test after completing class time for academic core subjects. The student's final grade in the end-of-course test course will be calculated using the course grade as 85% and the end-of-course test score as 15%. The student must have a final course grade of 70 or above to pass the course and to earn credit toward graduation. Students in Georgia are required to take the Georgia High School Graduation Test. The tests consist of five parts, writing, math, science, social studies and language arts. Students must make a minimum score of 500 which indicates the student was proficient in mastering the objectives for that particular section of the test. Not all students finish high school in four years due to obstacles that occur. Tutorial sessions are provided for those that wish to participate. High schools may offer study skills classes for students that need extra help in focusing their attention on academic courses. Study skill courses provide the student with techniques that he or she may find useful in organizing thoughts and procedures that direct the student towards success.

  17. Supporting Academic Language Development in Elementary Science: A Classroom Teaching Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Karl Gerhard

    Academic language is the language that students must engage in while participating in the teaching and learning that takes place in school (Schleppegrell, 2012) and science as a content area presents specific challenges and opportunities for students to engage with language (Buxton & Lee, 2014; Gee, 2005). In order for students to engage authentically and fully in the science learning that will take place in their classrooms, it is important that they develop their abilities to use science academic language (National Research Council, 2012). For this to occur, teachers must provide support to their students in developing the science academic language they will encounter in their classrooms. Unfortunately, this type of support remains a challenge for many teachers (Baecher, Farnsworth, & Ediger, 2014; Bigelow, 2010; Fisher & Frey, 2010) and teachers must receive professional development that supports their abilities to provide instruction that supports and scaffolds students' science academic language use and development. This study investigates an elementary science teacher's engagement in an instructional coaching partnership to explore how that teacher planned and implemented scaffolds for science academic language. Using a theoretical framework that combines the literature on scaffolding (Bunch, Walqui, & Kibler, 2015; Gibbons, 2015; Sharpe, 2001/2006) and instructional coaching (Knight, 2007/2009), this study sought to understand how an elementary science teacher plans and implements scaffolds for science academic language, and the resources that assisted the teacher in planning those scaffolds. The overarching goal of this work is to understand how elementary science teachers can scaffold language in their classroom, and how they can be supported in that work. Using a classroom teaching experiment methodology (Cobb, 2000) and constructivist grounded theory methods (Charmaz, 2014) for analysis, this study examined coaching conversations and classroom

  18. A protocol for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled superiority trial investigating the effects of two pedagogical methodologies in Swedish preschool settings on language and communication, executive functions, auditive selective attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerholm, Tove; Hörberg, Thomas; Tonér, Signe; Kallioinen, Petter; Frankenberg, Sofia; Kjällander, Susanne; Palmer, Anna; Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz

    2018-06-19

    During the preschool years, children develop abilities and skills in areas crucial for later success in life. These abilities include language, executive functions, attention, and socioemotional skills. The pedagogical methods used in preschools hold the potential to enhance these abilities, but our knowledge of which pedagogical practices aid which abilities, and for which children, is limited. The aim of this paper is to describe an intervention study designed to evaluate and compare two pedagogical methodologies in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned skills in Swedish preschool children. The study is a randomized control trial (RCT) where two pedagogical methodologies were tested to evaluate how they enhanced children's language, executive functions and attention, socioemotional skills, and early maths skills during an intensive 6-week intervention. Eighteen preschools including 28 units and 432 children were enrolled in a municipality close to Stockholm, Sweden. The children were between 4;0 and 6;0 years old and each preschool unit was randomly assigned to either of the interventions or to the control group. Background information on all children was collected via questionnaires completed by parents and preschools. Pre- and post-intervention testing consisted of a test battery including tests on language, executive functions, selective auditive attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills. The interventions consisted of 6 weeks of intensive practice of either a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA), for which group-based activities and interactional structures were the main focus, or an individual, digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm, which also included a set of self-regulation practices (DIL). All preschools were evaluated with the ECERS-3. If this intervention study shows evidence of a difference between group-based learning paradigms and individual training of specific skills in terms of

  19. Science as a second language: Analysis of Emergent Bilinguals performance and the impact of English language proficiency and first language characteristics on the Colorado measures of academic success for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Joanna K.

    In an age when communication is highly important and states across the nation, including Colorado, have adopted Common Core State Standards, the need for academic language is even more important than ever. The language of science has been compared to a second language in that it uses specific discourse patterns, semantic rules, and a very specific vocabulary. There is a need for educators to better understand how language impacts academic achievement, specifically concerning Emergent Bilinguals (EBs). Research has identified the need to study the role language plays in content assessments and the impact they have on EBs performance (Abedi, 2008b; Abedi, Hofestter & Lord, 2004; Abedi & Lord, 2001). Since language is the means through which content knowledge is assessed, it is important to analyze this aspect of learning. A review of literature identified the need to create more reliable and valid content assessments for EBs (Abedi, 2008b) and to further study the impact of English proficiency on EBs performance on standardized assessments (Solorzano, 2008; Wolf, & Leon, 2009). This study contributes to the literature by analyzing EBs performance on a state-level science content assessment, taking into consideration English language proficiency, receptive versus productive elements of language, and students' home language. This study further contributes by discussing the relationship between language proficiency, and the different strands of science (physical, life, and earth) on the state science assessment. Finally, this study demonstrates that home language, English language proficiency, and receptive and productive elements of language are predictive of EBs' achievement on the CMAS for science, overall and by strand. It is the blending of the social (listening and speaking) with the academic (reading and writing) that is also important and possibly more important.

  20. Can Financial Aid Help to Address the Growing Need for STEM Education? The Effects of Need-Based Grants on the Completion of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Courses and Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Long, Bridget Terry; Mabel, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Although workers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields earn above-average wages, the number of college graduates prepared for STEM jobs lags behind employer demand. A key question is how to recruit and retain college students in STEM majors. We offer new evidence on the role of financial aid in supporting STEM attainment.…

  1. Meeting the Needs of High School Science Teachers in English Language Learner Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonhee; McDonnough, Jacqueline T.

    2009-08-01

    This survey study explored high school science teachers’ challenges and needs specific to their growing English language learning (ELL) student population. Thirty-three science teachers from 6 English as a Second language (ESL)-center high schools in central Virginia participated in the survey. Issues surveyed were (a) strategies used by science teachers to accommodate ELL students’ special needs, (b) challenges they experienced, and (c) support and training necessary for effective ELL instruction. Results suggest that language barriers as well as ELL students’ lack of science foundational knowledge challenged teachers most. Teachers perceived that appropriate instructional materials and pedagogical training was most needed. The findings have implications for science teacher preservice and inservice education in regard to working with language minority students.

  2. Taking Math Anxiety out of Math Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Darla J.

    2007-01-01

    To take math anxiety out of math instruction, teachers need to first know how to easily diagnose it in their students and second, how to analyze causes. Results of a recent study revealed that while students believed that their math anxiety was largely related to a lack of mathematical understanding, they often blamed their teachers for causing…

  3. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This

  4. An investigation of mathematics and science instruction in English and Spanish for English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esquivel, Marina

    The contextual demands of language in content area are difficult for ELLS. Content in the native language furthers students' academic development and native language skills, while they are learning English. Content in English integrates pedagogical strategies for English acquisition with subject area instruction. The following models of curriculum content are provided in most Miami Dade County Public Schools: (a) mathematics instruction in the native language with science instruction in English or (b) science instruction in the native language with mathematics instruction in English. The purpose of this study was to investigate which model of instruction is more contextually supportive for mathematics and science achievement. A pretest and posttest, nonequivalent group design was used with 94 fifth grade ELLs who received instruction in curriculum model (a) or (b). This allowed for statistical analysis that detected a difference in the means of .5 standard deviations with a power of .80 at the .05 level of significance. Pretreatment and post-treatment assessments of mathematics, reading, and science achievement were obtained through the administration of Aprenda-Segunda Edicion and the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test. The results indicated that students receiving mathematics in English and Science in Spanish scored higher on achievement tests in both Mathematics and Science than the students who received Mathematics in Spanish and Science in English. In addition, the mean score of students on the FCAT mathematics examination was higher than their mean score on the FCAT science examination regardless of the language of instruction.

  5. Rocking Your Writing Program: Integration of Visual Art, Language Arts, & Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…

  6. Learning to Teach Inquiry: A Beginning Science Teacher of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Irasema; Luft, Julie A.; Wong, Sissy S.

    2013-01-01

    Early career science teachers are often assigned to classrooms with high numbers of English language learners (ELLs). For the underprepared early career science teacher, these circumstances are challenging. This study examines the changes in beliefs and practices of an early career science teacher who taught high numbers of ELLs in an urban…

  7. The place of native language in Science teaching and learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of limited English language proficiency on the learning of science is investigated for some Junior Secondary School (J.S.S.) pupils. Despite serious efforts put up by pupils to learn science, difficulties in speaking and writing English were factors that limited their performance in science. Two types of schools: an ...

  8. Maths and physics, a love story

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    Denis Guedj brings one of his plays to CERN. The writer and mathematician is working on a new novel in which LHC research figures prominently. In Denis Guedj’s plays, the number One is a self-absorbed character, Zero is not to be underestimated, and the Line Segment wants the Curve to straighten out. In his novels, mathematical entities come to life—and turn out to have exciting stories to tell. Denis Guedj is a mathematician and professor of the history of science and epistemology at the University of Paris VIII; over the years he has also indulged a personal passion for bringing maths to the stage. His novels and plays reach a broad public. Among his notable successes is a crime thriller called “The Parrot’s Theorem”, which has been translated into 20 languages. The popularity of his work owes much to the author’s refusal to be didactic. “If it works, it’s because I don’t try to teach maths,” he explains....

  9. Teaching Math to the Talented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Peterson, Paul E.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining America's productivity as a nation depends importantly on developing a highly qualified cadre of scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, and other professionals. To realize that objective requires a system of schooling that produces students with advanced math and science skills. To see how well schools in the United States do at…

  10. Impact of Integrated Science and English Language Arts Literacy Supplemental Instructional Intervention on Science Academic Achievement of Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jamar Terry

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design study was to determine if any differences existed in upper elementary school students' science academic achievement when instructed using an 8-week integrated science and English language arts literacy supplemental instructional intervention in conjunction…

  11. Disciplinary Literacy from a Speech-Language Pathologist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehren, Barbara J.; Murza, Kimberly A.; Malani, Melissa D.

    2012-01-01

    Disciplinary literacy is an increasingly popular focal area in adolescent literacy. In disciplinary literacy, the discourse features of specific knowledge domains (e.g., literature, history, science, and math) assume major importance in understanding and constructing meaning in each discipline. Because language plays a significant role in…

  12. The Language of "Ciencia": Translanguaging and Learning in a Bilingual Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, Luis E.

    2018-01-01

    Much attention is now given to academic language, particularly in content areas such as science, amid persistent achievement disparities between students classified as English Language Learners, and more recently, Long Term English Learners, and their English-proficient peers. This attention has fueled debate about the precise features of such…

  13. Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-01-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…

  14. Measuring and Comparing Academic Language Development and Conceptual Understanding via Science Notebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this quantitative study measured and compared the academic language development and conceptual understanding of fifth-grade economically disadvantaged English language learners (ELL), former ELLs, and native English-speaking (ES) students as reflected in their science notebook scores. Using an instrument they developed, the authors…

  15. Weaving Together Science and English: An Interconnected Model of Language Development for Emergent Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores third-grade science and language instruction for emergent bilinguals designed through a framework of planning, lessons, and assessment in an interconnected model including content, linguistic features, and functions. Participants were a team of language specialist, classroom teacher, and researcher who designed…

  16. Teaching Life Sciences to English Second Language Learners: What Do Teachers Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Johanna G.

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has eleven official languages and legally learners receive tuition in their mother tongue until the end of Grade 3. From then on teachers are required to teach through the medium of English or Afrikaans. The implication is that the majority of learners in the senior secondary school phase study Life Sciences in their second language,…

  17. MARGINALIZATION OF DEPARTMENTS OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Winaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning should be focused on the social and cultural development of intellectual ability, and encourage the learner’s comprehension and knowledge in order to produce intelligent and educated society. From the data collected from Public Senior High School 1 Denpasar and Dwijendra Senior High School Denpasar, it was found that the departments of social sciences and languages were seriously marginalized, indicated by the time allocated for social sciences and languages. The time allocated for Natural Sciences such as chemistry, physics, and biology averaged three hours a week. The additional ‘extra’ time allocated for Natural Sciences made the overall time allocated for them double the overall time allocated for Social Sciences such as economics, history sociology, and geography. Furthermore, the time allocated for one of them was one hour a week. The knowledge presented by the books of Natural Sciences was highly “instrumentalist-positivistic”; unlike the books of social sciences which only provided academic normative information. The modernity contained in “instrumentative positivism” was the philosophy which gave more priority to practical things and hard work with financial success as the main criterion. It was concluded that the marginalization of the departments of social sciences and languages in Public Senior High School 1 Denpasar and Dwijendra Senior High School Denpasar resulted from modernism, the culture of image, and the image that natural sciences were more advantageous than social sciences and languages.

  18. Discourse in science communities: Issues of language, authority, and gender in a life sciences laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conefrey, Theresa Catherine

    Government-sponsored and private research initiatives continue to document the underrepresentation of women in the sciences. Despite policy initiatives, women's attrition rates each stage of their scientific careers remain higher than those of their male colleagues. In order to improve retention rates more information is needed about why many drop out or do not succeed as well as they could. While broad sociological studies and statistical surveys offer a valuable overview of institutional practices, in-depth qualitative analyses are needed to complement these large-scale studies. This present study goes behind statistical generalizations about the situation of women in science to explore the actual experience of scientific socialization and professionalization. Beginning with one reason often cited by women who have dropped out of science: "a bad lab experience," I explore through detailed observation in a naturalistic setting what this phrase might actually mean. Using ethnographic and discourse analytic methods, I present a detailed analysis of the discourse patterns in a life sciences laboratory group at a large research university. I show how language accomplishes the work of indexing and constituting social constraints, of maintaining or undermining the hierarchical power dynamics of the laboratory, of shaping members' presentation of self, and of modeling social and professional skills required to "do science." Despite the widespread conviction among scientists that "the mind has no sex," my study details how gender marks many routine interactions in the lab, including an emphasis on competition, a reinforcement of sex-role stereotypes, and a conversational style that is in several respects more compatible with men's than women's forms of talk.

  19. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY: The Office... considered public records. Title of Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance...) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department is requesting a new APR because of...

  20. Math at home adds up to achievement in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Talia; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Maloney, Erin A; Peterson, Lori; Gregor, Courtney; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-10-09

    With a randomized field experiment of 587 first-graders, we tested an educational intervention designed to promote interactions between children and parents relating to math. We predicted that increasing math activities at home would increase children's math achievement at school. We tested this prediction by having children engage in math story time with their parents. The intervention, short numerical story problems delivered through an iPad app, significantly increased children's math achievement across the school year compared to a reading (control) group, especially for children whose parents are habitually anxious about math. Brief, high-quality parent-child interactions about math at home help break the intergenerational cycle of low math achievement. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Four and twenty blackbirds : How transcoding ability mediates the relationship between visuospatial working memory and math in a language with inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, S.H.G.; Klaiber, J.D.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2017-01-01

    Writing down spoken number words (transcoding) is an ability that is predictive of math performance and related to working memory ability. We analysed these relationships in a large sample of over 25,000 children, from kindergarten to the end of primary school, who solved transcoding items with a

  2. Math Achievement and Self-Efficacy of Linguistically and Ethnically Diverse High School Students: Their Relationships with English Reading and Native Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The under-preparation in math at the high school and college levels, as well as the low participation of ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in STEM fields are concerning because their preparation for work in these areas is essential for the U.S. to remain competitive in the innovative knowledge economy. While there is now a…

  3. Gender Compatibility, Math-Gender Stereotypes, and Self-Concepts in Math and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and…

  4. Lenguaje y Ciencias (Language and Sciences), Vol. 17, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Ernesto, Ed.

    This issue contains three articles in Spanish, with abstracts in English, dealing with the following topics: (1) technical and scientific language; (2) some types of misrenderings by students in translating from English to Spanish and implications for language instruction; and (3) some theoretical aspects of the formation of technical terms in…

  5. The Impact of Language Factors on Learner Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, C. H.; Rogers, S. C.; Harvey, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    South African learner achievement remains poor, despite large investment in schooling over the last two decades. Literature and research findings offer no single explanation or solution. In this article, the authors explored the relative contribution of specific language factors such as the role of home- and school-language equivalence, cultural…

  6. Stable measures of number sense accuracy in math learning disability: Is it time to proceed from basic science to clinical application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Starling-Alves, Isabella; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Wood, Guilherme; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2015-12-01

    Math learning disability (MLD) or developmental dyscalculia is a highly prevalent and persistent difficulty in learning arithmetic that may be explained by different cognitive mechanisms. The accuracy of the number sense has been implicated by some evidence as a core deficit in MLD. However, research on this topic has been mainly conducted in demographically selected samples, using arbitrary cut-off scores to characterize MLD. The clinical relevance of the association between number sense and MLD remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed at assessing the stability of a number sense accuracy measure (w) across five experimental sessions, in two clinically defined cases of MLD. Stable measures of number sense accuracy estimate are required to clinically characterize subtypes of MLD and to make theoretical inferences regarding the underlying cognitive mechanisms. G. A. was a 10-year-old boy with MLD in the context of dyslexia and phonological processing impairment and his performance remained steadily in the typical scores range. The performance of H. V., a 9-year-old girl with MLD associated with number sense inaccuracy, remained consistently impaired across measurements, with a nonsignificant tendency to worsen. Qualitatively, H. V.'s performance was also characterized by greater variability across sessions. Concomitant clinical observations suggested that H. V.'s difficulties could be aggravated by developing symptoms of mathematics anxiety. Results in these two cases are in line with the hypotheses that at least two reliable patterns of cognitive impairment may underlie math learning difficulties in MLD, one related to number sense inaccuracy and the other to phonological processing impairment. Additionally, it indicates the need for more translational research in order to examine the usefulness and validity of theoretical advances in numerical cognition to the clinical neuropsychological practice with MLD. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese

  7. Using Educative Assessments to Support Science Teaching for Middle School English-language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Cory A.; Allexsaht-Snider, Martha; Suriel, Regina; Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Choi, Youn-jeng; Bouton, Bobette; Baker, Melissa

    2013-03-01

    Grounded in Hallidayan perspectives on academic language, we report on our development of an educative science assessment as one component of the language-rich inquiry science for English-language learners teacher professional learning project for middle school science teachers. The project emphasizes the role of content-area writing to support teachers in diagnosing their students' emergent understandings of science inquiry practices, science content knowledge, and the academic language of science, with a particular focus on the needs of English-language learners. In our current school policy context, writing for meaningful purposes has received decreased attention as teachers struggle to cover large numbers of discrete content standards. Additionally, high-stakes assessments presented in multiple-choice format have become the definitive measure of student science learning, further de-emphasizing the value of academic writing for developing and expressing understanding. To counter these trends, we examine the implementation of educative assessment materials—writing-rich assessments designed to support teachers' instructional decision making. We report on the qualities of our educative assessment that supported teachers in diagnosing their students' emergent understandings, and how teacher-researcher collaborative scoring sessions and interpretation of assessment results led to changes in teachers' instructional decision making to better support students in expressing their scientific understandings. We conclude with implications of this work for theory, research, and practice.

  8. Urban school leadership for elementary science education: Meeting the needs of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Maricela H.

    Science education reform and state testing accountability call upon principals to become instructional leaders in science. Specifically, elementary school principals must take an active role in science instruction to effectively improve science education for all students including English Language Learners. As such, the research questioned posed in this study centered on How are elementary school principals addressing the academic needs of Latino Spanish-speaking English language learners within science education? This study employed a qualitative research design to identify the factors contributing to the exemplary performance in science, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), for English Language Learner students in three high poverty bilingual elementary schools based on a multiple case study. As part of the data collection process, interviews were conducted with three school principals, three science academic support teachers, and two 5th grade bilingual teachers. Additionally, observations were acquired through school principal shadowing. The findings revealed four attributes necessary for effective instructional leadership in science education. First, Positive School Culture was defined as the core that linked the other three instructional leadership attributes and thus increased their effectiveness. Second, Clear Goals and Expectations were set by making science a priority and ensuring that English language learners were transitioning from Spanish to English instruction by the fifth grade. Third, Critical Resourcing involved hiring a science academic support teacher, securing a science classroom on campus, and purchasing bilingual instructional materials. Fourth, principal led and supported Collaboration in which teachers met to discuss student performance based data in addition to curriculum and instruction. These research findings are vital because by implementing these best practices of elementary school principals, educators

  9. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  10. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  11. Questions as a tool for bridging science and everyday language games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown how students can shift between different ways of communicating about natural phenomena. The point of departure in this text is that school science comprises science ways to communicate as well as everyday ways to communicate. In school science activities transitions, from for example everyday ways to explain to science ways to explain, occur and the purpose of this paper is to show what role questions play in these transitions. Data consists of video observations of a group of 24 students, 15 years of age, doing their ordinary school science work without my interference in their planning. Relevant conversations including questions were transcribed. The analysis was made by examining the establishment of relations between utterances in the transcribed conversations. Relations that bridge science and everyday language games are described in the results. Questions that were formulated in an everyday language game illustrate the difficulties of making transitions to a science language game. Without teacher guidance, students' questions are potential promoters for making the topic drift and to develop into something totally different from the topic as planned by the teacher. However, questions promote transitions to an everyday language game. These can be used by teachers for example to adjust an everyday explanation and guide students in making science knowledge useful in daily life.

  12. A Study of the Experience of Female African-American Seventh Graders in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Afterschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Beverley Fiona

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine what inspires or leads seventh-grade African-American girls toward an interest in STEM, to characterize and describe the context of an out-of-school STEM learning environment, explore the impact on the seventh- grade African-American girls who participated in the program as it relates to individual STEM identity, and identify personal and academic experiences of seventh-grade African- American girls that contribute to the discouragement or pursuit of science and math-related academic pathways and careers. Notable findings in this study included the following: 1. Participants were interested in STEM and able to identify both external and internal influences that supported their involvement and interest in STEM activities. External influences expanded and elevated exposure to STEM experiences. 2. The MJS program provided an opportunity for participants to overcome challenges related to science and math knowledge and skills in school. 3. The MJS program increased levels of interest in STEM for the participants. 4. All participants increased their capacity to demonstrate increased knowledge in STEM content as a result of the learning experiences within the MJS program, and participants transferred this knowledge to experiences outside of the program including school. 5. The STEM learning environment provided multiple opportunities for participants to meet high expectation and access to engaging activities within a supportive, well-managed setting. 6. The MJS program participants demonstrated behaviors related to building a STEM identity through the components described by Carlone and Johnson (2007), including recognition-internal and external acknowledgement of being a STEM person; competence-demonstrating an understanding of STEM content; and performance-publically exhibiting STEM knowledge and skills. The findings in this study suggested that African-American seventh-grade girls interested in STEM are inspired

  13. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  14. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math de...

  15. Advanced Math Equals Career Readiness. Math Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The equation is simple: No matter their background, students who take challenging math courses in high school get better jobs and earn more money throughout their entire lives. This paper stresses that: (1) Higher-level math opens doors for any and all postsecondary programs and keeps it open for advancement beyond entry-level jobs; and (2)…

  16. What Types of Instructional Shifts Do Students Experience? Investigating Active Learning in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Classes across Key Transition Points from Middle School to the University Level

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Akiha; Kenneth Akiha; Emilie Brigham; Emilie Brigham; Brian A. Couch; Justin Lewin; Justin Lewin; Marilyne Stains; MacKenzie R. Stetzer; MacKenzie R. Stetzer; Erin L. Vinson; Erin L. Vinson; Michelle K. Smith; Michelle K. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Despite the need for a strong Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) workforce, there is a high attrition rate for students who intend to complete undergraduate majors in these disciplines. Students who leave STEM degree programs often cite uninspiring instruction in introductory courses, including traditional lecturing, as a reason. While undergraduate courses play a critical role in STEM retention, little is understood about the instructional transitions students encounter upon m...

  17. Teaching Math Their Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Teachers at a K-8 urban school in Phoenix, Arizona, worked to develop an effective math program that generated student interest and positive self-esteem. They eventually set aside classroom and large enclosed porch area to house math manipulative lab, where children could learn new concepts at concrete level. Results are excitement about math and…

  18. Solving America's Math Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdor, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Concern about students' math achievement is nothing new, and debates about the mathematical training of the nation's youth date back a century or more. In the early 20th century, American high-school students were starkly divided, with rigorous math courses restricted to a college-bound elite. At midcentury, the "new math" movement sought,…

  19. Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.

  20. Locating the global: culture, language and science education for indigenous students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    2005-02-01

    The international literature suggests the use of indigenous knowledge (IK) and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) contexts in science education to provide motivation and self-esteem for indigenous students is widespread. However, the danger of alienating culture (as knowledge) from the language in which the worldview is embedded seems to have been left out of the philosophical and pedagogical debates surrounding research and comment in the field. This paper argues that one of the main ways in which indigenous knowledge systems will survive and thrive is through the establishment of programmes taught through indigenous languages so that a dialectal relationship between language and knowledge is established that continues to act as the wellspring. The article concludes by reviewing the situation in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous population, Maori, and the recent science education initiatives in te reo Maori (Maori language).

  1. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Teachers' Perspectives on a Professional Development Intervention to Improve Science Instruction Among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Adamson, Karen; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime; Lewis, Scott; Thornton, Constance; Leroy, Kathryn

    2008-02-01

    Our 5-year professional development intervention is designed to promote elementary teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and practices in teaching science, along with English language and mathematics for English Language Learning (ELL) students in urban schools. In this study, we used an end-of-year questionnaire as a primary data source to seek teachers’ perspectives on our intervention during the first year of implementation. Teachers believed that the intervention, including curriculum materials and teacher workshops, effectively promoted students’ science learning, along with English language development and mathematics learning. Teachers highlighted strengths and areas needing improvement in the intervention. Teachers’ perspectives have been incorporated into our on-going intervention efforts and offer insights into features of effective professional development initiatives in improving science achievement for all students.

  3. Language and science: products and processes of signification in the educational dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dodman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Global changes such as urbanisation, new ways of travelling, new information and communication technologies are causing radical changes in the relationships between human beings and the environment we are both a part of and depend on. Relationships which – according to a multiplicity of researches in various fields – are crucially important. Science education and the language of science risk exacerbating a tendency towards objectifying nature and inhabiting a virtual reality, thereby rendering ever more tenuous the dialogue between people and the natural world. This article examines two approaches to science and language – as products or as processes – and suggests how awareness of the dynamic relationship between language and knowledge can help restore that vital dialogue.

  4. Maths in Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Patricia Byrne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a prison maths teacher.

  5. Language Preservation: the Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.

    2009-12-01

    Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the

  6. Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-12-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and development of culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by these learners' cultural preference or profile. Pilot-study using interviews and focus group discussions with natives of Pangasinan and document analysis were conducted to identify the culture, practices, and traditions integrated in the lesson development. Comparison of experimental participants' pretest and posttest results on science attitude measure showed significant statistical difference. Appraisal of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data deduced from post implementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries showed the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study revealed that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts enabled students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  7. Exploring the Impact of Culture- and Language-Influenced Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-02-01

    "Culture," a set of principles that trace and familiarize human beings within their existential realities, may provide an invisible lens through which reality could be discerned. Critically explored in this study is how culture- and language-sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude toward science. Their cultural preference or profile defined their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning processes. The culture- and language-influenced curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by Pangasinan learners' cultural preference or profile. Results of the experimental participants' pretest and posttest on science attitude measure, when compared, showed significant statistical difference. Assessment of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data gathered from postimplementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries indicated the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study yielded that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning processes of physics concepts allowed students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  8. Beneath the Numbers: A Review of Gender Disparities in Undergraduate Education across Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    This focused collection explores inequalities in the experiences of women in physics. Yet, it is important for researchers to also be aware of and draw insights from common patterns in the experiences of women across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Here, we review studies on gender disparities across college…

  9. Preserving Food by Drying. A Math/Science Teaching Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Cynthia; And Others

    This manual presents a design for teaching science principles and mathematics concepts through a sequence of activities concentrating on weather, solar food dryers, and nutrition. Part I focuses on the effect of solar energy on air and water, examining the concepts of evaporation, condensation, radiation, conduction, and convection. These concepts…

  10. The Role of Teacher Morale and Motivation on Students' Science and Math Achievement: Findings from Singapore, Japan, Finland and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazaoglu, Ilkay; Aztekin, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is one of the factors that affect the realization of the teaching objectives, motivation and academic achievement of student. This study aimed to answer to the question "How is the relation between the students' academic (sciences and mathematics) achievement and teachers' morale/motivation in Singapore, Japan, Finland and…

  11. "Finding the Joy in the Unknown": Implementation of STEAM Teaching Practices in Middle School Science and Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Herro, Dani

    2016-01-01

    In response to a desire to strengthen the economy, educational settings are emphasizing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum and programs. Yet, because of the narrow approach to STEM, educational leaders continue to call for a more balanced approach to teaching and learning, which includes the arts, design, and…

  12. Exploring Counseling Services and Their Impact on Female, Underrepresented Minority Community College Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Elizabeth

    The economic future of the United States depends on developing a workforce of professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (Adkins, 2012; Mokter Hossain & Robinson, 2012). In California, the college population is increasingly female and underrepresented minority, a population that has historically chosen to study majors other than STEM. In California, community colleges provide a major inroad for students seeking to further their education in one of the many universities in the state. The recent passage of Senate Bill 1456 and the Student Success and Support Program mandate increased counseling services for all California community college students (California Community College Chancellors Office, 2014). This dissertation is designed to explore the perceptions of female, underrepresented minority college students who are majoring in an area of science, technology, engineering and math, as they relate to community college counseling services. Specifically, it aims to understand what counseling services are most effective, and what community college counselors can do to increase the level of interest in STEM careers in this population. This is a qualitative study. Eight participants were interviewed for the case study, all of whom are current or former community college students who have declared a major in a STEM discipline. The semi-structured interviews were designed to help understand what community college counselors can do to better serve this population, and to encourage more students to pursue STEM majors and careers. Through the interviews, themes emerged to explain what counseling services are the most helpful. Successful STEM students benefited from counselors who showed empathy and support. Counselors who understood the intricacies of educational planning for STEM majors were considered the most efficacious. Counselors who could connect students with enrichment activities, such as internships, were highly valued, as were counseling

  13. Teacher Identity and Self-efficacy Development in an Alternative Licensure Program for Middle and High School Math and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert J.

    This mixed-method case study focused on the phenomenon of the transition from student to teacher. The educational system in the United States is constantly shifting to provide the correct number of teachers for our nations' schools. There is no simple formula for this process and occasionally an area of need arises that is not being met. Recently, the demand for science and math teachers in the K-12 system has outpaced the supply of new teachers (Business-Higher Education Forum, 2011). To complicate the problem further, teachers are leaving the field in record numbers both through retirement and attrition (National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 2007). Particularly hard hit are poor rural schools with low-performing students, such as the schools of Appalachia (Barley, 2009; Goodpaster, Adedokun, & Weaver, 2012). Out of this need, alternative licensure programs for teachers have developed. The alternative teacher-training program studied in this research is the Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowship (WWTF) website, "The Woodrow Wilson Ohio Teaching Fellowship seeks to attract talented, committed individuals with backgrounds in the STEM fields---science, technology, engineering, and mathematics---into teaching in high-need Ohio secondary schools" (para. 2) . The researcher was interested in the formation of teacher identity and self-efficacy as these constructs have been shown to manifest in highly effective teachers that are likely to remain in the field of teaching (Beaucamp & Thomas 2009; Klassen, Tze, Betts, & Gordon, 2010). The research method included in-depth interviews, mixed with pretest/posttest administrations of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy 2001) given during the teacher-training period and again following the first year of professional teaching. Results from both the TSES and the interviews indicate that the participants had a successful transition into teaching. They both felt and demonstrated that

  14. On the Diversity of Linguistic Data and the Integration of the Language Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta D’Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An integrated science of language is usually advocated as a step forward for linguistic research. In this paper, we maintain that integration of this sort is premature, and cannot take place before we identify a common object of study. We advocate instead a science of language that is inherently multi-faceted, and takes into account the different viewpoints as well as the different definitions of the object of study. We also advocate the use of different data sources, which, if non-contradictory, can provide more solid evidence for linguistic analysis. Last, we argue that generative grammar is an important tile in the puzzle.

  15. Science as a Common Language in a Globalised World - Scientific Collaboration Promoting Progress, Building Bridges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2003-01-01

    International scientific collaboration and co-operation can accelerate the progress of science, help build bridges between diverse societies, and foster the development of science and technology in non-industrialised countries. This is possible because science is a common language (although the progress of science is often influenced by non-scientific factors). I shall describe examples of the role that scientific collaboration can play in bridge building and in conflict resolution. I shall then present a proposal for "Bridge Building Fellowships" which would contribute to strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries by helping to stem the brain drain and providing a basis for collaborations with scientists in industrialised countries.

  16. Collaborative online projects for English language learners in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Knox, Carolyn; Rivas, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    This paper summarizes how collaborative online projects (COPs) are used to facilitate science content-area learning for English Learners of Hispanic origin. This is a Mexico-USA partnership project funded by the National Science Foundation. A COP is a 10-week thematic science unit, completely online, and bilingual (Spanish and English) designed to provide collaborative learning experiences with culturally and linguistically relevant science instruction in an interactive and multimodal learning environment. Units are integrated with explicit instructional lessons that include: (a) hands-on and laboratory activities, (b) interactive materials and interactive games with immediate feedback, (c) animated video tutorials, (d) discussion forums where students exchange scientific learning across classrooms in the USA and in Mexico, and (e) summative and formative assessments. Thematic units have been aligned to U.S. National Science Education Standards and are under current revisions for alignment to the Common Core State Standards. Training materials for the teachers have been integrated into the project website to facilitate self-paced and independent learning. Preliminary findings of our pre-experimental study with a sample of 53 students (81 % ELs), distributed across three different groups, resulted in a 21 % statistically significant points increase from pretest to posttest assessments of science content learning, t( 52) = 11.07, p = .000.

  17. La maison des mathématiques

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc...

  18. Reaching Across the Hemispheres with Science, Language, Arts and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Zicus, S.; Miller, A.; Baird, A.; Page, G.

    2009-12-01

    Twelve Alaskan elementary and middle school classes (grades 3-8) partnered with twelve Australian middle school classes, with each pair using web-based strategies to develop a collaborative ice-mystery fictional book incorporating authentic polar science. Three professional development workshops were held, bringing together educators and polar scientists in two IPY education outreach projects. The Alaska workshop provided an opportunity to bring together the North American teachers for lessons on arctic and antarctic science and an earth system science program Seasons and Biomes measurement protocols, as well as methods in collaborative e-writing and art in Ice e-Mysteries: Global Student Polar e-books project. Teachers worked with University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and Australian scientists to become familiar with Arctic science research, science artifacts and resources available at UAF and the University of Alaska Museum of the North. In Australia, teachers received a similar project training through the Tasmania Museum and Art Gallery (TMAG) Center for Learning and Discovery on Antarctic science and the University of Tasmania. The long-distance collaboration was accomplished through Skype, emails and a TMAG supported website. A year later, Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere teacher partners met in a joint workshop in Tasmania, to share their experiences, do project assessments and propose activities for future collaborations. The Australian teachers received training on Seasons and Biomes scientific measurements and the Alaskan teachers, on Tasmanian vegetation, fauna and indigenous culture, Antarctic and Southern ocean studies. This innovative project produced twelve e-polar books written and illustrated by students; heightened scientific literacy about the polar regions and the earth system; increased awareness of the environment and indigenous cultures; stronger connections to the scientific community; and lasting friendships. It also resulted in

  19. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  20. College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…

  1. Classroom Learning Environment and Gender: Do They Explain Math Self-Efficacy, Math Outcome Expectations, and Math Interest during Early Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite initiatives to increase and broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, women remain underrepresented in STEM. While U.S. girls and women perform as well as, if not better, than boys and men in math, research results indicate that there are significant declines in girls' math self-efficacy,…

  2. The language of science and communication with Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Grace F.

    2011-11-01

    "There are in fact two things, science and opinion; the former begets knowledge, the latter, ignorance." So stated Hippocrates back in 400 C.E. Today we find ourselves in a tug of war between science and opinion as we try to fashion a path forward on many important societal issues, including the use of science in addressing the water, energy, and climate change issues that are growing in importance. Our job in Congress is making sure we use the knowledge gained from asking questions and apply the responses properly in the decision-and policy-making processes. While that all sounds good in theory, the application is at best cumbersome, often leaving us with more questions than answers.

  3. 77 FR 21089 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Application for Grants Under the Upward Bound Math and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Upward Bound Math and Science Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. SUMMARY: The Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) program provides grants to institutions of higher... for success in a program of postsecondary education that lead to careers in math and science. DATES...

  4. Gardening for Homonyms: Integrating Science and Language Arts to Support Children's Creative Use of Multiple Meaning Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Melissa J.; Rye, James Andrew; Forinash, Melissa; Minor, Alana

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum integration can increase the presence of science at the elementary level. The purpose of this article is to share how two second-grade teachers have integrated language arts content as a part of science-language arts instruction in a garden-based learning context. One application was a teacher-designed "Gardening for Homonyms"…

  5. Information in the Language Sciences: Proceedings of the Conference Held at Warrenton, Virginia, March 4-6, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robert R., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 22 papers from the Conference on Information in the Language Sciences held in Warrenton, Va., in 1966, sponsored by the Center for Applied Linguistics, stresses three themes: general trends, information needs of the languages sciences, and system design. Discussions attempt to formulate modern rational approaches to the complex…

  6. Enhancing Literacy Practices in Science Classrooms through a Professional Development Program for Canadian Minority-Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Léonard P.; Gueye, Ndeye R.

    2016-01-01

    'Literacy in the Science Classroom Project" was a three-year professional development (PD) program supporting minority-language secondary teachers' use of effective language-based instructional strategies for teaching science. Our primary objective was to determine how teacher beliefs and practices changed over time and how these were enacted…

  7. A Case Study of German Language Core Journals for Characterizing Citation Patterns in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Shan Chi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication practices in the social sciences are characterized by the use of heterogeneous publication channels and a stronger national focus (Nederhof, 2006; Hicks & Wang, 2011. At the same time the use of bibliometric indicators in research evaluation promotes journal articles in international peer reviewed journals as the main style of publishing research results. The question emerges to which extent this changes publication practices in these disciplines. In our contribution we address this question and present results of a case study which investigates publication and referencing patterns of core German language journals in sociology and political science. Based on an explorative analysis of reference lists we describe patterns and changes of the parameters of the knowledge base of these journals. The analysis of the results in this study shows that with a total of 67% in the sociology and 76% in the political science the core German journals predominantly refer to non-journal publications. Besides, the share of non-source publications basically remains constant in the time period 2000-2009, and the share of references to source journals is the same in both disciplines. The difference between sociology and political science is: publications in the German language sociology journals have more references to monographs (46% than publications in the German language political science journals (38%, but these political science journals reference to other non-source publications (38% much more than sociology (21%.

  8. Bridging the language gap: Exploring science teachers' dual role as teachers of content and English literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne C.

    Responsibility for educating English language learners is increasingly falling on the shoulders of content specialists at the secondary level, as students are mainstreamed into classes. Therefore, providing these students an opportunity to achieve academic success depends largely on the quality of mainstream instruction (Cornell, 1995). Most teachers receive little or no preparation in how to work with English language learners. In my study, I address the instructional issues confronting three white, monolingual English-speaking middle school science teachers who must meet the demands of an increasing English language learner population. Specifically, this study explores teacher beliefs and enactment of reform-oriented science and sheltered instructional approaches to develop English language learners scientific and English literacy skills. I also explore the relationships that exist between these two dynamics in an effort to determine the extent to which teachers take on a dual role as teachers promoting English language and science proficiency. Using a participant observation case study method and my adaptation of Schwab's commonplaces heuristic, I analyzed the relationship between teacher beliefs, milieu, subject matter, and enactment in bridging the language gap in the science classroom for English language learners. The most noteworthy finding of this study was the significant role of milieu in enacting lessons that bridge the language gap and foster the development of English language learners science and English literacy skills. The findings suggest that greater attention be given to helping teachers establish a relationship-driven classroom milieu. You can provide all kinds of courses or professional learning experiences to improve teachers' instructional practices, but they must also recognize the importance of establishing relationships with their students; the coursework they take will not supplant the need to foster a warm and safe environment for all

  9. Language Use in a Multilingual Class: a Study of the Relation Between Bilingual Students' Languages and Their Meaning-Making in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal, Zeynep; Jakobson, Britt; Molander, Bengt-Olov; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examine how bilingual students in elementary school use their languages and what this means for their meaning-making in science. The class was multilingual with students bilingual in different minority languages and the teacher monolingual in Swedish. The analysis is based on a pragmatic approach and the theory of translanguaging. The science content was electricity, and the teaching involved class instruction and hands-on activities in small groups. The findings of the study are divided into two categories, students' conversations with the teacher and student's conversations with each other. Since the class was multilingual, the class instruction was carried out in Swedish. Generally, when the conversations were characterised by an initiation, response and evaluation pattern, the students made meaning of the activities without any language limitations. However, when the students, during whole class instruction, were engaged in conversations where they had to argue, discuss and explain their ideas, their language repertoire in Swedish limited their possibilities to express themselves. During hands-on activities, students with the same minority language worked together and used both of their languages as resources. In some situations, the activities proceeded without any visible language limitations. In other situations, students' language repertoire limited their possibilities to make meaning of the activities despite being able to use both their languages. What the results mean for designing and conducting science lessons in a multilingual class is discussed.

  10. Lenguaje y Ciencias (Language and Sciences), Vol. 17, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Ernesto, Ed.

    This issue contains two articles in Spanish and three in English on the following topics: the practical presentation of English for Special Purposes (ESP) materials in science programs at the National University of Trujillo, "notional syllabus" and "discourse analysis" in relation to ESP materials, extra-linguistic principles in explaining…

  11. Plastic Language for Plastic Science: The Rhetoric of Comrade Lysenko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Paul M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the rhetoric of Lysenkoism in Soviet Russia from the 1920s to about 1960 as an overt attempt to redefine science. Discusses the rhetorical dimensions of Lysenkoist discourse from the perspective of the rhetorical theories of Aristotle, Burke, Weaver, Bakhtin, Habermas, and Foucault. Reviews two historical commentaries on Lysenkoism. (SG)

  12. An Informed Approach to Improving Quantitative Literacy and Mitigating Math Anxiety in Undergraduates Through Introductory Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette, K.; McCarthy, D.

    2012-08-01

    Current trends in the teaching of high school and college science avoid numerical engagement because nearly all students lack basic arithmetic skills and experience anxiety when encountering numbers. Nevertheless, such skills are essential to science and vital to becoming savvy consumers, citizens capable of recognizing pseudoscience, and discerning interpreters of statistics in ever-present polls, studies, and surveys in which our society is awash. Can a general-education collegiate course motivate students to value numeracy and to improve their quantitative skills in what may well be their final opportunity in formal education? We present a tool to assess whether skills in numeracy/quantitative literacy can be fostered and improved in college students through the vehicle of non-major introductory courses in astronomy. Initial classroom applications define the magnitude of this problem and indicate that significant improvements are possible. Based on these initial results we offer this tool online and hope to collaborate with other educators, both formal and informal, to develop effective mechanisms for encouraging all students to value and improve their skills in basic numeracy.

  13. Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C

    2010-02-02

    People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.

  14. Exploring the Impact of Culture- and Language-Influenced Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-01-01

    "Culture," a set of principles that trace and familiarize human beings within their existential realities, may provide an invisible lens through which reality could be discerned. Critically explored in this study is how culture- and language-sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude toward science.…

  15. Teaching Language and Content: Instructor Strategies in a Bilingual Science Class at a Chinese University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoping; Smith, Sara W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research analyzes instructional strategies used to integrate the learning of content and English as a foreign language in a bilingual physics class at a university in Shanghai, China. It examines how the instructor handles meaning and form of new English science vocabulary in concept-focused physics lectures and the strategies he used…

  16. From Metacognition to Whole Language: The Spectrum of Literacy in Elementary School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    This paper considers the integration of reading and writing into elementary science teaching by way of the implications of two leading theories pertaining to literacy: metacognitive theory and whole language theory. Discussion of the implications of metacognition includes attention to the issue of helping to overcome readers' nonscientific…

  17. Teaching Science Through the Language of Students in Technology-Enhanced Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Kihyun

    2015-02-01

    This study examines whether and how tapping into students' everyday language in a web-based learning environment can improve all students' science learning in linguistically heterogeneous classrooms. A total of 220 fifth-grade English Language Learners (ELLs) and their non-ELL peers were assigned to either an everyday English approach condition or a textbook approach condition, and completed technology-enhanced instruction focusing on respiration and photosynthesis. Students in the everyday English approach condition were taught the concepts in everyday, conversational English before content-specific scientific terms were introduced, while students in the textbook approach condition were taught the same concepts and vocabulary simultaneously. The results show that the everyday English approach was significantly more effective in helping both ELLs and non-ELL students develop a coherent understanding of abstract concepts related to photosynthesis and respiration. Students in the everyday English approach condition were also better able to link content-specific terms to their understanding of the concepts. These findings show the potential advantage of using students' everyday English as a resource to make science more accessible to linguistically diverse students in mainstream classrooms. By integrating students' everyday language in science instruction, it is possible for all students including ELLs to acquire both the content and language of science.

  18. Testing the Theory of Successful Intelligence in Teaching Grade 4 Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Jarvin, Linda; Birney, Damian P.; Naples, Adam; Stemler, Steven E.; Newman, Tina; Otterbach, Renate; Parish, Carolyn; Randi, Judy; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed whether prior successes with educational interventions grounded in the theory of successful intelligence could be replicated on a larger scale as the primary basis for instruction in language arts, mathematics, and science. A total of 7,702 4th-grade students in the United States, drawn from 223 elementary school classrooms in…

  19. A Study of the Programming Languages Used in Information Systems and in Computer Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jack; Russell, Barbara; Pollacia, Lissa F.; Tastle, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper researches the computer languages taught in the first, second and third programming courses in Computer Information Systems (CIS), Management Information Systems (MIS or IS) curricula as well as in Computer Science (CS) and Information Technology (IT) curricula. Instructors teaching the first course in programming within a four year…

  20. Learning to write in science: A study of English language learners' writing experience in sixth-grade science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yang

    Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood

  1. The Relationship between Student's Quantitative Skills, Application of Math, Science Courses, and Science Marks at Single-Sex Independent High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, David

    2012-01-01

    For independent secondary schools who offer rigorous curriculum to attract students, integration of quantitative skills in the science courses has become an important definition of rigor. However, there is little research examining students' quantitative skills in relation to high school science performance within the single-sex independent school…

  2. Benefiting Female Students in Science, Math, and Engineering: The Nuts and Bolts of Establishing a WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Diana; Witucki, Laurie; Blumreich, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale and the step by step process for setting up a WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) learning community at one institution. Background information on challenges for women in science and engineering and the benefits of a learning community for female students in these major areas are described. Authors discuss…

  3. Science concept learning by English as second language junior secondary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Pui-Kwong; Lucas, Keith B.; Burke, Ed V.

    1995-03-01

    Recent Chinese migrant students from Taiwan studying science in two Australian secondary schools were found to explain the meanings of selected science concept labels in English by translating from Chinese. The research strategy involved interviewing the students concerning their recognition and comprehension of the science concept labels firstly in Chinese and then in English. Mean recognition and comprehension scores were higher in Chinese than in English, with indications that Chinese language and science knowledge learnt in Chinese deteriorated with increasing time of residence in Australia. Rudimentary signs of the students being able to switch between Chinese and English knowledge bases in science were also found. Implications for teaching science to ESL students and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  4. Site Index | About IASc | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    History · Memorandum of Association · Role of the Academy · Statutes ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences · Resonance – Journal of Science Education · Sadhana ... Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  5. Language -- the barrier and the bridge between science and public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, T

    2001-08-01

    What does modern science tell people? That life is ultimately DNA, and DNA is genes, and genes are just so many bits of Lego, little building blocks manipulated by Nature for 3.8 thousand billion years, rather economically, so that much the same genes pop up in a nematode worm, a fruit fly, a lettuce, and a thriller writer. And that genes can be transferred from one species, or genus, or phylum, or even one kingdom to another. That is why there is unease, and newspapers reflect that unease, they do not create it. By helping people confront that unease, they probably help people come to terms with it. In the course of history, people have felt pretty uneasy about blood transfusion, heart transplants, test tube babies, and AIDS, and over the years, have calmed down considerably about each, to the advantage of both society and science. It will be the same for the human genome project, in a while.

  6. Maths in Prison

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Patricia Byrne

    2015-01-01

    I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a ...

  7. Maths in Prison

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Catherine; Carr, Michael

    2015-01-01

    I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a p...

  8. Getting Manipulative about Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Janet K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Math manipulatives that are made from inexpensive, common items help students understand basic mathematics concepts. Learning activities using Cheerios, jellybeans, and clay as teaching materials are suggested. (DF)

  9. GRE math tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three GRE Math Tests! The GRE math section is not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to ""beat"" the section. But GRE math is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your math score will improve--significantly! The GRE cannot be ""beaten."" But it can be mastered--through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the problems in this book are designed to prompt you to think like a test writer. For example, you will find ""Duals."" These are pairs of similar problems in which only one prop

  10. Beneath the numbers: A review of gender disparities in undergraduate education across science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This focused collection explores inequalities in the experiences of women in physics. Yet, it is important for researchers to also be aware of and draw insights from common patterns in the experiences of women across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Here, we review studies on gender disparities across college STEM on measures that have been correlated with retention. These include disparities in academic performance, engagement, self-efficacy, belonging, and identity. We argue that observable factors such as persistence, performance, and engagement can inform researchers about what populations are disadvantaged in a STEM classroom or program, but we need to measure underlying mechanisms to understand how these inequalities arise. We present a framework that helps connect larger sociocultural factors, including stereotypes and gendered socialization, to student affect and observable behaviors in STEM contexts. We highlight four mechanisms that demonstrate how sociocultural factors could impact women in STEM classrooms and majors. We end with a set of recommendations for how we can more holistically evaluate the experiences of women in STEM to help mitigate the underlying inequities instead of applying a quick fix.

  11. Dr Math at your service

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author explains how the Dr Math service works; how tutors are recruited to act as Dr Math; and how school pupils can reach Dr Math for help with their mathematics homework....

  12. Elementary teachers' knowledge and practices in teaching science to English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santau, Alexandra O.

    Efforts to improve education---more concretely science education---by creating fundamental shifts in standards for students and teachers have been launched by educators and policy makers in recent years. The new standards for science instruction address improvements in student learning, program development, assessment, and professional development for teachers, with the goal to prepare US students for the academic demands of the 21st century. The study examined teachers' knowledge and practices in science instruction with English language learning (ELL) students. It also examined relationships among key domains of science instruction with ELL students, as well as profiles of teaching practices. The four domains included: (1) teachers' knowledge of science content, (2) teaching practices to promote scientific understanding, (3) teaching practices to promote scientific inquiry, and (4) teaching practices to support English language development during science instruction. The study was part of a larger 5-year research and development intervention aimed at promoting science and literacy achievement of ELL students in urban elementary schools. The study involved 32 third grade, 21 fourth grade, and 17 fifth grade teachers participating in the first-year implementation of the intervention. Based on teachers' questionnaire responses, classroom observation ratings, and post-observation interviews, results indicated that (1) teachers' knowledge and practices were within the bounds of the intervention, but short of reform-oriented practices and (2) relationships among the four domains existed, especially at grade 5. These findings can provide insights for professional development and future research, along with accountability policies.

  13. Exploring culture, language and the perception of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Dawn

    2002-01-01

    One dimension of early Canadian education is the attempt of the government to use the education system as an assimilative tool to integrate the First Nations and Me´tis people into Euro-Canadian society. Despite these attempts, many First Nations and Me´tis people retained their culture and their indigenous language. Few science educators have examined First Nations and Western scientific worldviews and the impact they may have on science learning. This study explored the views some First Nations (Cree) and Euro-Canadian Grade-7-level students in Manitoba had about the nature of science. Both qualitative (open-ended questions and interviews) and quantitative (a Likert-scale questionnaire) instruments were used to explore student views. A central hypothesis to this research programme is the possibility that the different world-views of two student populations, Cree and Euro-Canadian, are likely to influence their perceptions of science. This preliminary study explored a range of methodologies to probe the perceptions of the nature of science in these two student populations. It was found that the two cultural groups differed significantly between some of the tenets in a Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Cree students significantly differed from Euro-Canadian students on the developmental, testable and unified tenets of the nature of scientific knowledge scale. No significant differences were found in NSKS scores between language groups (Cree students who speak English in the home and those who speak English and Cree or Cree only). The differences found between language groups were primarily in the open-ended questions where preformulated responses were absent. Interviews about critical incidents provided more detailed accounts of the Cree students' perception of the nature of science. The implications of the findings of this study are discussed in relation to the challenges related to research methodology, further areas for investigation, science

  14. Impact of University Lecturers' Intervention in School MathTeaching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some schools in the neighbourhood of Sefako MakgathoHealth Sciences University (SMU) in South Africa persistentlyyielded poor mathematics results in the past years. Thiswas of concern since maths is the main subject for manyopportunities, including admissiontoSMUstudy programmes.Some SMU maths lecturers ...

  15. Mobilizing the Forgotten Army: Improving Undergraduate Math and Science Education through Professional Development of Graduate Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerton, Jordan

    Evidence-based best practices for improving undergraduate STEM education abound. Unfortunately, these practices have not been widely adopted, in part because typical dissemination efforts are mediated in a top-down fashion and fail to obtain critical buy-in from key local stakeholders. Here, we present a novel framework to increase nationwide uptake of STEM-education best practices through grassroots propagation of Professional Development programs for Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTA-PD). Our model pays special attention to overcoming resistance to change by soliciting, from the very start, critical buy-in from departmental chairs, faculty, and GTAs who have direct control over and responsibility for instruction. A key component of our approach involves an annual National GTA Workshop where faculty-GTA leadership teams from many different Physics and Chemistry departments come together to develop best-practices-based GTA-PD improvement plans for their own departments while guided by a core group of nationally recognized expert practitioners in GTA-PD and STEM education. As a pre-condition for participation, each department chair must pledge to facilitate implementation of their leadership team's plan; additional and ongoing support is provided by the core group of experts, together with other teams from the workshop cohort. Our initial pilot efforts point to success via enthusiastic buy-in within each STEM department due to the potential for immediate positive impacts on both undergraduate instruction and the long term research productivity of GTAs. In the future, longitudinal data on the progress of the GTA-PD programs will be gathered and analyzed to provide guidance for improving the success of future GTA-PD programs. Financial support provided by the Research Corporation for Science Advancement and the American Chemical Society.

  16. Interface between psychoanalysis and speech language and hearing sciences: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinalva Neves Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to verify the Brazilian and international scientific productions by correlating Speech Language and Hearing Sciences and Psychoanalysis. A literature review was performed using the databases BVS, Scielo, Scopus and PubMed. The used descriptors were “Fonoaudiologia”, “Psicanálise”, “Comunicação”, “Speech Therapy”, “Psychoanalysis” and “Communication”, identifying 65 full articles between the years 1980 and 2015. The analysis was performed using a “Protocol for article classification”. It was verified that Original Articles are the most published type, SCOPUS and BVS being the most common databases. There is a predominance of articles in the Portuguese language, followed by English, French and German. Several specialties of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences presented interface with Psychoanalysis, especially Language and Neuropsychology. The studies were published mainly in Psychology journals, also found in the area of audiology and interdisciplinary area. This review showed the psychoanalytic interference in speech language and hearing clinic, highlighting the need for further studies correlating both areas that may contribute to the work of these professionals and, consequently, enable an improvement in the quality of life of psychic subjects.

  17. New fellows | Announcements | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; S K Bhowmik, Indian Institute of Technology, ... Souvik Mahapatra, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai; Prabal K Maiti, Indian ... Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  18. Promotive and Corrosive Factors in African American Students' Math Beliefs and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A; Marchand, Aixa D; McKellar, Sarah E; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2016-06-01

    Framed by expectancy-value theory (which posits that beliefs about and the subjective valuation of a domain predict achievement and decision-making in that domain), this study examined the relationships among teacher differential treatment and relevant math instruction on African American students' self-concept of math ability, math task value, and math achievement. These questions were examined by applying structural equation modeling to 618 African American youth (45.6 % female) followed from 7th to 11th grade in the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. While controlling for gender and prior math achievement, relevant math instruction promoted and teacher differential treatment corroded students' math beliefs and achievement over time. Further, teacher discrimination undermined students' perceptions of their teachers, a mediating process under-examined in previous inquiry. These findings suggest policy and practice levers to narrow opportunity gaps, as well as foster math achievement and science, technology, engineering and math success.

  19. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  20. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina J Casad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children’s math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA. Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and for boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents’ math anxiety in the effects of children’s math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents’ math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  1. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  2. Research and Teaching: The Pairing of a Science Communications and a Language Course to Enrich First-Year English Language Learners' Writing and Argumentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ashley J.; Shaw, Amber; Fox, Joanne A.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how English-language learners' writing evolved during a first-year seminar in science course aimed at developing students' argumentation skills. We highlight how a science communications course was paired with a weekly academic English course in the context of a highly coordinated and enriched first-year experience program…

  3. Lyrical language and nursing discourse: can science be the tool of love?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, William K

    2002-04-01

    Lyricism is a quality of discourse expressing intensely personal feeling or emotion. It is historically associated with romanticism, which involves the imagination and emotions, the use of autobiographical material, the exaltation of a common humanity, and an appreciation of nature. The language of a science conveys the meaning, significance, and utility of concepts among scholars, practitioners, and the general public. It is incumbent upon nurses to attempt to represent in our disciplinary language the realities lived by people, that is, to apprehend, describe, and explain the full breadth and diversity of human phenomena, guided by the discipline-wide focus on the wholeness of the human being. The language of objectivistic science cannot do this. Even in contemporary qualitative research there are limitations in achieving such a representation. This column therefore calls for greater attention to lyrical discourse in nursing science and outlines the potential benefits in nursing theory development, research, and practice. Encouragement of lyrical discourse in nursing science is consistent with the contemporary movement toward a dialogical rationality. It is posited that, if the ethos of nursing is rooted in love of humanity, lyrical discourse may be one way for nursing to pursue its mission to serve humankind.

  4. The influence of experiencing success in math on math anxiety, perceived math competence, and math performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; Louwerse, J.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Ven, S.H.G.; Klinkenberg, S.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a

  5. Barron's SAT math workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Leff MS, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    This completely revised edition reflects all of the new questions and question types that will appear on the new SAT, scheduled to be administered in Spring 2016. Includes hundreds of revised math questions and answer explanations, math strategies, test-taking tips, and much more.

  6. String Math 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The series of String-Math conferences has developed into a central event on the interface between mathematics and physics related to string theory, quantum field theory and neighboring subjects. The conference will take place from July 24-28 in the main building of Hamburg university. The String-Math conference is organised by the University of Hamburg jointly with DESY Hamburg.

  7. The Influence of Experiencing Success in Math on Math Anxiety, Perceived Math Competence, and Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Louwerse, Jolien; Straatemeier, Marthe; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Klinkenberg, Sharon; Van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a computer-adaptive program. A total of 207 children (grades 3-6)…

  8. GRE math workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Madore, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Reflective of the current GRE, this third edition includes a description of the General Math Exam explaining structure, questions types, and scoring, strategies for problem solving, two full-length math sample sections structured to reflect the actual exam, answers thoroughly explained, and more.

  9. Causal effects on child language development: A review of studies in communication sciences and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Clare R; Nulty, Karissa L; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; DeThorne, Laura S

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed recent studies published across key journals within the field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD) to survey what causal influences on child language development were being considered. Specifically, we reviewed a total of 2921 abstracts published within the following journals between 2003 and 2013: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools (LSHSS); American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (AJSLP); Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (JSLHR); Journal of Communication Disorders (JCD); and the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders (IJLCD). Of the 346 eligible articles that addressed causal factors on child language development across the five journals, 11% were categorized as Genetic (37/346), 83% (287/346) were categorized as Environmental, and 6% (22/346) were categorized as Mixed. The bulk of studies addressing environmental influences focused on therapist intervention (154/296=52%), family/caregiver linguistic input (65/296=22%), or family/caregiver qualities (39/296=13%). A more in-depth review of all eligible studies published in 2013 (n=34) revealed that family/caregiver qualities served as the most commonly controlled environmental factor (e.g., SES) and only 3 studies explicitly noted the possibility of gene-environment interplay. This review highlighted the need to expand the research base for the field of CSD to include a broader range of environmental influences on child language development (e.g., diet, toxin exposure, stress) and to consider more directly the complex and dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental effects. Readers will be able to highlight causal factors on child language development that have been studied over the past decade in CSD and recognize additional influences worthy of consideration. In addition, readers will become familiar with basic tenets of developmental systems theory, including the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors

  10. Productive failure in learning math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Manu

    2014-06-01

    When learning a new math concept, should learners be first taught the concept and its associated procedures and then solve problems, or solve problems first even if it leads to failure and then be taught the concept and the procedures? Two randomized-controlled studies found that both methods lead to high levels of procedural knowledge. However, students who engaged in problem solving before being taught demonstrated significantly greater conceptual understanding and ability to transfer to novel problems than those who were taught first. The second study further showed that when given an opportunity to learn from the failed problem-solving attempts of their peers, students outperformed those who were taught first, but not those who engaged in problem solving first. Process findings showed that the number of student-generated solutions significantly predicted learning outcomes. These results challenge the conventional practice of direct instruction to teach new math concepts and procedures, and propose the possibility of learning from one's own failed problem-solving attempts or those of others before receiving instruction as alternatives for better math learning. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Framing new research in science literacy and language use: Authenticity, multiple discourses, and the Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2004-11-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework in the form of a model on which to base research in scientific literacy and language use. The assumption guiding the framework is that scientific literacy is comprised of the abilities to think metacognitively, to read and write scientific texts, and to apply the elements of a scientific argument. The framework is composed of three theoretical constructs: authenticity, multiple discourses, and Bhabha's Third Space. Some of the implications of the framework are that students need opportunities to (a) use scientific language in everyday situations; (b) negotiate readily among the many discourse genres of science; and (c) collaborate with teachers and peers on the meaning of scientific language. These ideas are illustrated with data excerpts from contemporary research studies. A set of potential research issues for the future is posed at the end of the article.

  12. Using the instructional congruence model to change a science teacher's practices and English language learners' attitudes and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Hania Moussa

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.

  13. Language of Science as a Bridge to Native American Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N.; Kingfisher, J.; Treuer, A.; Grant, G.; Ciotti, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the Western tradition, words and vocabulary encapsulate much of how knowledge enters the public discourse, and is passed from one generation to the next. Much of Native American knowledge is passed along in an oral tradition. Chants and ceremonies contain context and long-baseline data on the environment (geology, climate, and astronomy) that may even surpasses the lifespan of a single individual. For Native American students and researchers, the concept of ‘modern research and science education’ may be wrapped up into the conundrum of assimilation and loss of cultural identification and traditional way of life. That conundrum is also associated with the lack of language and vocabulary with which to discuss 'modern research.' Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language - and need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. One strategy for making science education relevant to Native American learners is identifying appropriate terms that cross the cultural divide. More than just words and vocabulary, the thought processes and word/concept relationships can be quite different in the native cultures. The U.S. Rosetta Project has worked to identify words associated with Western 'STEM' concepts in three Native American communities: Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA’s contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone, inspiration for the mission’s name, is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Steps taken so far include identification and presentation of online astronomy, geology, and physical science vocabulary terms in the native language, identification of teachers and classrooms - often in

  14. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  15. English language learners with learning disabilities interacting in a science class within an inclusion setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Vivian Luz

    In today's schools there are by far more students identified with learning disabilities (LD) than with any other disability. The U.S. Department of Education in the year 1997--98 reported that there are 38.13% students with LD in our nations' schools (Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Of those, 1,198,200 are considered ELLs with LD (Baca & Cervantes. 1998). These figures which represent an increase evidence the need to provide these students with educational experiences geared to address both their academic and language needs (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz, & Garcia, 1995). English language learners with LD must be provided with experiences in the least restrictive environment (LRE) and must be able to share the same kind of social and academic experiences as those students from the general population (Etscheidt & Bartlett, 1999; Lloyd, Kameenui, & Chard, 1997) The purpose of this research was to conduct a detailed qualitative study on classroom interactions to enhance the understanding of the science curriculum in order to foster the understanding of content and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). This study was grounded on the theories of socioconstructivism, second language acquisition, comprehensible input, and classroom interactions. The participants of the study were fourth and fifth grade ELLS with LD in a science elementary school bilingual inclusive setting. Data was collected through observations, semi-structured interviews (students and teacher), video and audio taping, field notes, document analysis, and the Classroom Observation Schedule (COS). The transcriptions of the video and audio tapes were coded to highlight emergent patterns on the type of interactions and language used by the participants. The findings of the study intend to provide information for teachers of ELLs with LD about the implications of using classroom interactions point to

  16. Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Disciplines: A Cross Institutional Analysis of their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Tanya

    Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on

  17. Why and How Do Parents Decide to Send Their Children to the Interdistrict School Choice Program at the Magnet Program for Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kevin S.

    The New Jersey Interdistrict School Choice Program allows parents to send their students to schools outside of their local school district. Determining why parents send their students to choice schools is important to school leaders who are trying to attract new students, as well as those who are trying to retain their current students. This study examined the reasons why parents decided to send their students to the Magnet Program for Math and Science (MP4M&S), a school choice program in a suburban school district in northwest New Jersey, during the 2015- 2016 school year. A large volume of research has focused on school choice programs in urban and poor communities. This study addressed the gap in the research by focusing on an affluent suburban school district. This mixed methods study focused on three areas, why parents choose to send their students to the MP4M&S, what criteria they used to make their decision, and where they got their information. Research shows that these three areas of focus can be influenced by parental level of education, socioeconomic status, geographic location, academic rigor, school quality, and school environment. Parents from different groups, based upon their out-of-district status, were interviewed. The information from the interviews was used to focus a survey that was given to the families of all 137 students in the MP4M&S during the 2015-2016 school year. The results of this study show that parents found the academic focus, academic rigor, the school environment, the original research project, the activity offerings, and the economics involved in attending the program to be important attractors. The study also found that the Information Nights, the school website, and interactions with members of the MP4M&S community to be important sources of information. Finally, the study found that there were few differences between in and out-of-district parents when assigning importance to both the attractors and the sources in the study

  18. The Teleodynamics of Language, Culture, Technology and Science (LCT&S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Logan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Logan [1] in his book The Extended Mind developed the hypothesis that language, culture, technology and science can be treated as organisms that evolve and reproduce themselves. This idea is extended by making use of the notion of teleodynamics that Deacon [2] introduced and developed in his book Incomplete Nature to explain the nature of life, sentience, mind and a self that acts in its own interest. It is suggested that language, culture, technology and science (LCT&S like living organisms also act in their own self-interest, are self-correcting and are to a certain degree autonomous even though they are obligate symbionts with their human hosts. Specifically, it will be argued that LCT&S are essentially teleodynamic systems, which Deacon defines as “self-creating, self-maintaining, self-reproducing, individuated systems [2] (p. 325”.

  19. Examination of Science and Math Course Achievements of Vocational High School Students in the Scope of Self-Efficacy and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Mehmet; Geban, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to predict physics, chemistry, and biology and math course achievements of vocational high school students according to the variables of student self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, state anxiety and trait anxiety. Study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the students of a vocational high school…

  20. Differential Performance by English Language Learners on an Inquiry-Based Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2012-10-01

    The performance of English language learners (ELLs) has been a concern given the rapidly changing demographics in US K-12 education. This study aimed to examine whether students' English language status has an impact on their inquiry science performance. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis was conducted with regard to ELL status on an inquiry-based science assessment, using a multifaceted Rasch DIF model. A total of 1,396 seventh- and eighth-grade students took the science test, including 313 ELL students. The results showed that, overall, non-ELLs significantly outperformed ELLs. Of the four items that showed DIF, three favored non-ELLs while one favored ELLs. The item that favored ELLs provided a graphic representation of a science concept within a family context. There is some evidence that constructed-response items may help ELLs articulate scientific reasoning using their own words. Assessment developers and teachers should pay attention to the possible interaction between linguistic challenges and science content when designing assessment for and providing instruction to ELLs.

  1. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  2. MATH77 - A LIBRARY OF MATHEMATICAL SUBPROGRAMS FOR FORTRAN 77, RELEASE 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    MATH77 is a high quality library of ANSI FORTRAN 77 subprograms implementing contemporary algorithms for the basic computational processes of science and engineering. The portability of MATH77 meets the needs of present-day scientists and engineers who typically use a variety of computing environments. Release 4.0 of MATH77 contains 454 user-callable and 136 lower-level subprograms. Usage of the user-callable subprograms is described in 69 sections of the 416 page users' manual. The topics covered by MATH77 are indicated by the following list of chapter titles in the users' manual: Mathematical Functions, Pseudo-random Number Generation, Linear Systems of Equations and Linear Least Squares, Matrix Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Matrix Vector Utilities, Nonlinear Equation Solving, Curve Fitting, Table Look-Up and Interpolation, Definite Integrals (Quadrature), Ordinary Differential Equations, Minimization, Polynomial Rootfinding, Finite Fourier Transforms, Special Arithmetic , Sorting, Library Utilities, Character-based Graphics, and Statistics. Besides subprograms that are adaptations of public domain software, MATH77 contains a number of unique packages developed by the authors of MATH77. Instances of the latter type include (1) adaptive quadrature, allowing for exceptional generality in multidimensional cases, (2) the ordinary differential equations solver used in spacecraft trajectory computation for JPL missions, (3) univariate and multivariate table look-up and interpolation, allowing for "ragged" tables, and providing error estimates, and (4) univariate and multivariate derivative-propagation arithmetic. MATH77 release 4.0 is a subroutine library which has been carefully designed to be usable on any computer system that supports the full ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 language. It has been successfully implemented on a CRAY Y/MP computer running UNICOS, a UNISYS 1100 computer running EXEC 8, a DEC VAX series computer running VMS, a Sun4 series computer running Sun

  3. English as an international language of science and its effect on Nordic terminology: the view of scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Anna Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with attitudes to English as an international language of science among Nordic scientists. It reports on a questionnaire completed by 200+ physicists, chemists and computer scientists at universities in five Nordic countries: Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. The purpose is two-fold: First, it investigates if claims made primarily by representatives of the national language councils about a lack of local language terminology are corroborated by scientists...

  4. SAT math prep course

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for SAT Math Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the math section of the new SAT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. Features: * Comprehensive Review: Twenty-three chapters provide complete review of SAT math. * Practice: Includes 164 examples and more than 500 exercises! Arranged from easy to medium to hard to very hard. * Diagnostic Test: The diagnostic test measures your strengths and weaknesses and directs you to areas you need to study more. * Performance: If your target is a 700+ score, this is the book!

  5. More math into Latex

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    2007-01-01

    For close to two decades, Math into Latex has been the standard introduction and complete reference for writing articles and books containing mathematical formulas. In this fourth edition, the reader is provided with important updates on articles and books. An important new topic is discussed: transparencies (computer projections). Key features of More Math into Latex, 4th edition: Installation instructions for PC and Mac users; An example-based, visual approach and a gentle introduction with the Short Course; A detailed exposition of multiline math formulas with a Visual Guide; A unified appr

  6. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in State Science Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, Maria O.

    Psychometricians and test developers evaluate standardized tests for potential bias against groups of test-takers by using differential item functioning (DIF). English language learners (ELLs) are a diverse group of students whose native language is not English. While they are still learning the English language, they must take their standardized tests for their school subjects, including science, in English. In this study, linguistic complexity was examined as a possible source of DIF that may result in test scores that confound science knowledge with a lack of English proficiency among ELLs. Two years of fifth-grade state science tests were analyzed for evidence of DIF using two DIF methods, Simultaneous Item Bias Test (SIBTest) and logistic regression. The tests presented a unique challenge in that the test items were grouped together into testlets---groups of items referring to a scientific scenario to measure knowledge of different science content or skills. Very large samples of 10, 256 students in 2006 and 13,571 students in 2007 were examined. Half of each sample was composed of Spanish-speaking ELLs; the balance was comprised of native English speakers. The two DIF methods were in agreement about the items that favored non-ELLs and the items that favored ELLs. Logistic regression effect sizes were all negligible, while SIBTest flagged items with low to high DIF. A decrease in socioeconomic status and Spanish-speaking ELL diversity may have led to inconsistent SIBTest effect sizes for items used in both testing years. The DIF results for the testlets suggested that ELLs lacked sufficient opportunity to learn science content. The DIF results further suggest that those constructed response test items requiring the student to draw a conclusion about a scientific investigation or to plan a new investigation tended to favor ELLs.

  7. Sweet Science for ALL! Supporting Inquiry-Based Learning through M&Ms Investigation for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngjin; Higgins, Teresa; Harding-DeKam, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a series of inquiry-based lessons that provide English language learners (ELLs) with opportunities to experience science and engineering practices with conceptual understanding as well as to develop their language proficiency in elementary classrooms. The four-lesson sequence models how various types of instructional…

  8. Principals in Partnership with Math Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…

  9. A Study of Perceptions of Math Mindset, Math Anxiety, and View of Math by Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocker, Tami

    2017-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine whether instruction in growth math mindset led to change in perceptions of 18-22-year-old at-risk students in math mindset, math anxiety, and view of math. The experimental curriculum was created by the researcher with the guidance of experts in mathematics and education and focused on the impact of brain…

  10. Best Practices for Implementing Inquiry-Based Science Instruction for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Erica

    This applied dissertation was designed to provide better access to current information to link literacy and science. Students frequently used literacy skills to gather information and communicate understanding of scientific concepts to others. Science became applicable through the tools associated with literacy. There was a need for instruction that integrated language development with science content. This research focused on revealing the instructional trends of English language learners science teachers in the United Arab Emirates. The researcher introduced the questionnaire surveys in the form of a professional development session. The participants were asked to complete the questionnaire concurrently with the descriptive presentation of each component of the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model. Completing the SIOP Checklist Survey provided data on the type of constructivist strategies (best practices) teachers were utilizing and to what degree of fidelity the strategies were being implemented. Teachers were encouraged to continue to use these services for curriculum enrichment and as an additional source for future lesson plans. An analysis of the data revealed authentic learning as the most common best practice used with the most fidelity by teachers. The demographic subgroup, teaching location, was the only subgroup to show statistical evidence of an association between teaching location and the use of problem-based learning techniques in the classroom. Among factors that influenced the degree of teacher fidelity, teachers' expectation for student achievement had a moderate degree of association between the use of scaffolding techniques and co-operative learning.

  11. Listening to middle-school Spanish-speaking English language learners: A qualitative study of their perspectives of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Ferrao, Julio E.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding and explanation of the science achievement gap between Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) and their mainstream peers. The sample of purposefully selected participants (N = 23) included students representing eight Spanish-speaking countries who attended three middle schools (grades 6th-8th), 11 boys and 12 girls, with different years of schooling in the United States, English proficiency levels, and science achievement levels. Data gathering strategies included individual interviews with participants, classroom observations, and analysis of secondary data sources on students' English language proficiency and science achievement. Data interpretation strategies using a critical-interpretive perspective consisted of coding and narrative analysis, including analyses of excerpts and case studies. Two major findings emerge from the study: (1) An inverse relation between participants' number of years of exposure to science learning in an English-only learning environment and their science achievement levels; and (2) specific participant-identified problems, such as learning the science vocabulary, writing in science, the use of mathematics in science, and the lack of sense making in the science classroom. Key recommendations comprise: (1) Acknowledging the value of dual language education; (2) supporting the science-literacy connection; (3) ensuring high-quality science through research-informed instructional strategies; and (4) assessing ELLs' science achievement.

  12. The place of human values in the language of science: Kuhn, Saussure, and structuralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaty, B M; Inui, T S

    1991-12-01

    The current paradigm in medicine generally distinguishes between genetic and environmental causes of disease. Although the word "paradigm" has become a commonplace, the theories of Thomas Kuhn have not received much attention in the journals of medicine. Kuhn's structuralist method differs radically from the daily activities of the scientific method itself. Using linguistic theory, this essay offers a structuralist reading of Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Our purpose is to highlight the similarities between these structuralist models of science and language. In part, we focus on the logic that enables Kuhn to assert the priority of perception over interpretation in the history of science. To illustrate some of these issues, we refer to the distinction between environmental and genetic causes of disease. While the activity of scientific research results in the revision of concepts in science, the production of significant differences that shape our knowledge is in part a social and linguistic process.

  13. “Second Language Writing” Publications in Web of Science: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beril T. Arik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several indicators that distinguish an academic discipline, including journals, conferences, and graduate programs. One of them is the presence of academic publications in well-regarded citation indices such as Web of Science (WoS. This study explored the bibliometric characteristics of publications on “second language writing” (SLW covered in the Social Sciences Citation Index and the Arts & Humanities Citation Index of WoS. We found that, while the first appeared in 1992 with a steady increase in recent years, there were a total of 266 SLW publications, mostly in the linguistics research area (92%, in the WoS between 1900 and 2013. The publications included articles, book reviews, and bibliographies written by 1.64 authors per publication, suggesting a low level of collaborations among SLW scholars. They cited 31.44 publications and received citations from 5.90 publications on average. An average SLW title had 2.49 different words and a total of 10.85 words, with an abstract of about five sentences and about six keywords and diverse topics including second language writing, writing, academic writing, error correction, and plagiarism. Our findings will be of value to second language writing scholars, graduate students, and practitioners for examining the status of their field.

  14. Science education as a pathway to teaching language literacy: a critical book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, Science Education as a Pathway to Teaching Language Literacy, edited by Alberto J. Rodriguez. This volume is a timely collection of essays in which the authors bring to attention both the successes and challenges of integrating science instruction with literacy instruction (and vice versa). Although several themes in the book merit further attention, a central unifying issue throughout all of the chapters is the task of designing instruction which (1) gives students access to the dominant Discourses in science and literacy, (2) builds on students' lived experiences, and (3) connects new material to socially and culturally relevant contexts in both science and literacy instruction— all within the high stakes testing realities of teachers and students in public schools. In this review, I illustrate how the authors of these essays effectively address this formidable challenge through research that `ascends to the concrete'. I also discuss where we could build on the work of the authors to integrate literacy and science instruction with the purpose of `humanizing and democratizing' science education in K-12 classrooms.

  15. Speech Errors as a Window on Language and Thought: A Cognitive Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia M.L. Bencini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We are so used to speaking in our native language that we take this ability for granted. We think that speaking is easy and thinking is hard. From the perspective of cognitive science, this view is wrong. Utterances are complex things, and generating them is an act of linguistic creativity, in the face of the computational complexity of the task. On occasion, utterance generation goes awry and the speaker’s output is different from the planned utterance, such as a speaker who says “Fancy getting your model renosed!” when “fancy getting your nose remodeled” was intended. With some notable exceptions (e.g. Fromkin 1971 linguists have not taken speech error data to be informative about speakers’ linguistic knowledge or mental grammars. The paper strives to put language production errors back onto the linguistic data map. If errors involve units such as phonemes, syllables, morphemes and phrases, which may be exchanged, moved around or stranded during spoken production, this shows that they are both representational and processing units. If similar units are converged upon via multiple methods (e.g. native speaker judgments, language corpora, speech error corpora, psycholinguistic experiments those units have stronger empirical support. All other things being equal, theories of language that can account for both representation and processing are to be preferred.

  16. User interfaces for computational science: A domain specific language for OOMMF embedded in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Marijan; Pepper, Ryan A.; Fangohr, Hans

    2017-05-01

    Computer simulations are used widely across the engineering and science disciplines, including in the research and development of magnetic devices using computational micromagnetics. In this work, we identify and review different approaches to configuring simulation runs: (i) the re-compilation of source code, (ii) the use of configuration files, (iii) the graphical user interface, and (iv) embedding the simulation specification in an existing programming language to express the computational problem. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches and discuss their implications on effectiveness and reproducibility of computational studies and results. Following on from this, we design and describe a domain specific language for micromagnetics that is embedded in the Python language, and allows users to define the micromagnetic simulations they want to carry out in a flexible way. We have implemented this micromagnetic simulation description language together with a computational backend that executes the simulation task using the Object Oriented MicroMagnetic Framework (OOMMF). We illustrate the use of this Python interface for OOMMF by solving the micromagnetic standard problem 4. All the code is publicly available and is open source.

  17. User interfaces for computational science: A domain specific language for OOMMF embedded in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Beg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulations are used widely across the engineering and science disciplines, including in the research and development of magnetic devices using computational micromagnetics. In this work, we identify and review different approaches to configuring simulation runs: (i the re-compilation of source code, (ii the use of configuration files, (iii the graphical user interface, and (iv embedding the simulation specification in an existing programming language to express the computational problem. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches and discuss their implications on effectiveness and reproducibility of computational studies and results. Following on from this, we design and describe a domain specific language for micromagnetics that is embedded in the Python language, and allows users to define the micromagnetic simulations they want to carry out in a flexible way. We have implemented this micromagnetic simulation description language together with a computational backend that executes the simulation task using the Object Oriented MicroMagnetic Framework (OOMMF. We illustrate the use of this Python interface for OOMMF by solving the micromagnetic standard problem 4. All the code is publicly available and is open source.

  18. How the Montessori Upper Elementary and Adolescent Environment Naturally Integrates Science, Mathematics, Technology, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John

    2016-01-01

    John McNamara shares his wisdom and humbly credits Camillo Grazzini, Jenny Höglund, and David Kahn for his growth in Montessori. Recognizing more than what he has learned from his mentors, he shares the lessons he has learned from his students themselves. Math, science, history, and language are so integrated in the curriculum that students…

  19. A Correlational Study of Graphic Organizers and Science Achievement of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, William Gordon

    English language learners (ELLs) demonstrate lower academic performance and have lower graduation and higher dropout rates than their non-ELL peers. The primary purpose of this correlational quantitative study was to investigate the relationship between the use of graphic organizer-infused science instruction and science learning of high school ELLs. Another objective was to determine if the method of instruction, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language proficiency (ELP) were predictors of academic achievement of high school ELLs. Data were gathered from a New York City (NYC) high school fall 2012-2013 archival records of 145 ninth-grade ELLs who had received biology instruction in freestanding English as a second language (ESL) classes, followed by a test of their learning of the material. Fifty-four (37.2%) of these records were of students who had learned science by the conventional textbook method, and 91 (62.8%) by using graphic organizers. Data analysis employed the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software for multiple regression analysis, which found graphic organizer use to be a significant predictor of New York State Regents Living Environment (NYSRLE) test scores (p < .01). One significant regression model was returned whereby, when combined, the four predictor variables (method of instruction, SES, gender, and ELP) explained 36% of the variance of the NYSRLE score. Implications of the study findings noted graphic organizer use as advantageous for ELL science achievement. Recommendations made for practice were for (a) the adoption of graphic organizer infused-instruction, (b) establishment of a protocol for the implementation of graphic organizer-infused instruction, and (c) increased length of graphic organizer instructional time. Recommendations made for future research were (a) a replication quantitative correlational study in two or more high schools, (b) a quantitative quasi-experimental quantitative study to

  20. A rights-based approach to science literacy using local languages: Contextualising inquiry-based learning in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia

    2017-06-01

    This article addresses the importance of teaching and learning science in local languages. The author argues that acknowledging local knowledge and using local languages in science education while emphasising inquiry-based learning improve teaching and learning science. She frames her arguments with the theory of inquiry, which draws on perspectives of both dominant and non-dominant cultures with a focus on science literacy as a human right. She first examines key assumptions about knowledge which inform mainstream educational research and practice. She then argues for an emphasis on contextualised learning as a right in education. This means accounting for contextualised knowledge and resisting the current trend towards de-contextualisation of curricula. This trend is reflected in Zanzibar's recent curriculum reform, in which English replaced Kiswahili as the language of instruction (LOI) in the last two years of primary school. The author's own research during the initial stage of the change (2010-2015) revealed that the effect has in fact proven to be counterproductive, with educational quality deteriorating further rather than improving. Arguing that language is essential to inquiry-based learning, she introduces a new didactic model which integrates alternative assumptions about the value of local knowledge and local languages in the teaching and learning of science subjects. In practical terms, the model is designed to address key science concepts through multiple modalities - "do it, say it, read it, write it" - a "hands-on" experiential combination which, she posits, may form a new platform for innovation based on a unique mix of local and global knowledge, and facilitate genuine science literacy. She provides examples from cutting-edge educational research and practice that illustrate this new model of teaching and learning science. This model has the potential to improve learning while supporting local languages and culture, giving local languages their

  1. Teacher change in beliefs and practices in science and literacy instruction with English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    2004-01-01

    This study examined patterns of change in beliefs and practices as elementary teachers learned to establish instructional congruence, a process of mediating academic disciplines with linguistic and cultural experiences of diverse student groups. The study focused on six bilingual Hispanic teachers working with fourth-grade, mostly Hispanic students. The results indicated that teacher learning and change occurred in different ways in the areas of science instruction, students' language and culture, English language and literacy instruction, and integration of these areas in establishing instructional congruence. The results also indicated that establishing instructional congruence was a gradual and demanding process requiring teacher reflection and insight, formal training, and extensive support and sharing. Implications for further research in promoting achievement for all students are discussed.

  2. Responsibility and the physical body. Paul Ricoeur on analytical philosophy of language, cognitive science, and the task of phenomenological hermeneutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dierckxsens, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 573-593 ISSN 0031-8256 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : analytical philosophy * body * cognitive science * hermeneutics * phenomenology * philosophy of language * Ricoeur Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  3. Oral Academic Language by Design: Bilingual Pre-Service Teachers' Purposeful Infusion of Paired Strategies during Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Anderson, María G.; Alanis, Iliana

    2017-01-01

    This study explores ways in which university science courses can be infused with opportunities for pre-service teachers to design student student interactions that promote language development and content mastery. Participants included bilingual pre-service teachers enrolled in an elementary science approaches course and its school-based fieldwork…

  4. Think Scientifically: The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory's Elementary Science Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norden, Wendy M.

    2013-07-01

    The pressure to focus on math and reading at the elementary level has increased in recent years. As a result, science education has taken a back seat in elementary classrooms. The Think Scientifically book series provides a way for science to easily integrate with existing math and reading curriculum. This story-based science literature program integrates a classic storybook format with solar science concepts, to make an educational product that meets state literacy standards. Each story is accompanied by hands-on labs and activities that teachers can easily conduct in their classrooms with minimal training and materials, as well as math and language arts extensions. These books are being distributed through teacher workshops and conferences, and are available free at http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/epo/educators/thinkscientifically.php.

  5. Zur Rolle von Plansprachen im terminologiewissenschaftlichen Werk von Eugen Wuster (The Role of Planned Languages in Eugen Wuster's Work on Terminology Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Detlev

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between planned languages and specialized technical languages, with particular reference to Esperanto, and analyzes its significance for several aspects of Eugen Wuster's (the founder of terminology science) work. (Author/VWL)

  6. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  7. Extending Deacon’s Notion of Teleodynamics to Culture, Language, Organization, Science, Economics and Technology (CLOSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Logan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrence Deacon’s (2012 notion developed in his book Incomplete Nature (IN that living organisms are teleodynamic systems that are self-maintaining, self-correcting and self-reproducing is extended to human social systems. The hypothesis is developed that culture, language, organization, science, economics and technology (CLOSET can be construed as living organisms that evolve, maintain and reproduce themselves and are self-correcting, and hence are teleodynamic systems. The elements of CLOSET are to a certain degree autonomous, even though they are obligate symbionts dependent on their human hosts for the energy that sustains them.

  8. Questions de mathématiques élémentaires à l'usage des candidats aux écoles du Gouvernement, des aspirants au baccalauréat ès sciences et des élèves des établissements d'enseignement secondaire

    CERN Document Server

    Vuibert, Henry

    1879-01-01

    Questions de mathématiques élémentaires à l'usage des candidats aux écoles du Gouvernement, des aspirants au baccalauréat ès sciences et des élèves des établissements d'enseignement secondaire

  9. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  10. Math in Action. Hands-On, Minds-On Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra; Stupiansky, Nicholas G.

    1998-01-01

    Hands-on math must also involve students' minds in creative thinking. Math manipulatives must be used for uncovering, not just discovering. This paper presents guidelines for planning hands-on, minds-on math for elementary students. Suggestions include dialoging, questioning, integrating manipulatives and other tools, writing, and evaluating. (SM)

  11. The Relation between Teachers' Math Talk and the Acquisition of Number Sense within Kindergarten Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J. H.; Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between teachers' math talk and the acquisition of number sense within kindergarten classrooms. The mathematical language input provided by 35 kindergarten teachers was examined with 9 different input categories. The results of this study indicate that the role of each of these math talk…

  12. Problem Solvers: Teacher Leader Teams with Content Specialist to Strengthen Math Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrike, Sara; Connolly, Christine

    2015-01-01

    In early November 2013, the authors started talking about visiting the Hurley School, a dual-language school in Boston, Massachusetts. The Hurley School had spent considerable time transitioning to the Common Core State Standards on literacy, but little time addressing the shifts in math. They worried that math classes were no longer rigorous…

  13. An Annotated Math Lab Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussheim, Joan Yares

    1980-01-01

    A listing of mathematics laboratory material is organized as follows: learning kits, tape programs, manipulative learning materials, publications, math games, math lab library, and an alphabetized listing of publishers and/or companies offering materials. (MP)

  14. Business math for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Now, it is easier than ever before to understand complex mathematical concepts and formulas and how they relate to real-world business situations. All you have to do it apply the handy information you will find in Business Math For Dummies. Featuring practical practice problems to help you expand your skills, this book covers topics like using percents to calculate increases and decreases, applying basic algebra to solve proportions, and working with basic statistics to analyze raw data. Find solutions for finance and payroll applications, including reading financial statements, calculating wages and commissions, and strategic salary planning. Navigate fractions, decimals, and percents in business and real estate transactions, and take fancy math skills to work. You'll be able to read graphs and tables and apply statistics and data analysis. You'll discover ways you can use math in finance and payroll investments, banking and payroll, goods and services, and business facilities and operations. You'll learn ho...

  15. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Lyons

    Full Text Available Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs, math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula. Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

  16. When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs’ feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation – such as pain – about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one’s math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths. PMID:23118929

  17. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-01-01

    Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

  18. Reflective scientific sense-making dialogue in two languages: The science in the dialogue and the dialogue in the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Doris

    2004-11-01

    In this paper I focus on the transition from everyday to scientific ways of reasoning, and on the intertwined roles of meaning-making dialogue and science content as they contribute to scientific literacy. I refer to views of science, and how scientific understanding is advanced dialogically, by Hurd (Science Education, 1998, 82, 402-416), Brown (The Journal of Learning Sciences, 1992, 2(2), 141-178), Bruner (Acts of Meaning, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), Roth (In J. Brophy (Ed.), Social Constructivist Teaching: Affordances and Constraints (Advances in Research on Teaching Series, Vol. 9), New York: Elsevier/JAI, 2003), and Wells (Dialogic Inquiry: Towards a Sociocultural Practice and Theory of Education, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999). I argue that family collaborative dialogues in nonschool settings can be the foundations for scientific ways of thinking. I focus on the particular reflective family dialogues at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, when family members remembered and synthesized essential biological themes, centering on adaptation, from one visit to the next, in both Spanish and English. My approach is informed by sociocultural theory, with emphasis on the negotiations of meaning in the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978), as learners engage in joint productive activity (Tharp & Gallimore, Rousing Minds to Life: Teaching, Learning and Schooling in Social Context, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988). Over the past decades, researchers have discovered that observing social activity, conversation, and meaning-making in informal settings (Crowley & Callanan, 1997; Guberman, 2002; Rogoff, 2001; Vasquez, Pease-Alvarez, & Shannon, Pushing Boundaries: Language and Culture in a Mexicano Community, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994) has much to teach us regarding learning in general. To date there has been little research with Spanish-speaking families in informal learning settings and virtually none that

  19. Implicit Social Cognitions Predict Sex Differences in Math Engagement and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Brian A.; Smyth, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    Gender stereotypes about math and science do not need to be endorsed, or even available to conscious introspection, to contribute to the sex gap in engagement and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The authors examined implicit math attitudes and stereotypes among a heterogeneous sample of 5,139 participants.…

  20. Teaching science to English Language Learners: Instructional approaches of high school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Betty-Vinca N.

    Students who are English Language Learners (ELLs) form the fastest growing segment of the American school population. Prompted by the call for scientific literacy for all citizens, science educators too have investigated the intersection of language and science instruction of ELLs. However these studies have typically been conducted with elementary students. Few studies have explored how high school science teachers, particularly those who have not received any special training, approach science instruction of ELLs and what supports them in this endeavor. This was a qualitative case study conducted with five science teachers in one small urban high school that predominantly served ELLs. The purpose of this study was to examine instructional approaches used by teachers to make science accessible to ELLs and the factors that supported or inhibited them in developing their instructional approaches. This goal encompassed the following questions: (a) how teachers viewed science instruction of ELLs, (b) how teachers designed a responsive program to teach science to ELLs, (c) what approaches teachers used for curriculum development and instruction, (d) how teachers developed classroom learning communities to meet the needs of ELLs. Seven instructional strategies and five perceived sources of support emerged as findings of this research. In summary, teachers believed that they needed to make science more accessible for their ELL students while promoting their literacy skills. Teachers provided individualized attention to students to provide relevant support. Teachers engaged their students in various types of active learning lessons in social contexts, where students worked on both hands-on and meaning-making activities and interacted with their peers and teachers. Teachers also created classroom communities and learning spaces where students felt comfortable to seek and give help. Finally, teachers identified several sources of support that influenced their instructional

  1. Group Activities for Math Enthusiasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, J.; Milnikel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present three group activities designed for math students: a balloon-twisting workshop, a group proof of the irrationality of p, and a game of Math Bingo. These activities have been particularly successful in building enthusiasm for mathematics and camaraderie among math faculty and students at Kenyon College.

  2. Rural Alaska Science and Mathematics Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunk, Blanche R

    2005-01-01

    ... and progress in math and science education. The goal of this project was to develop and deliver, both on-site and through distance learning, a comprehensive program of developmental and college preparatory math and science courses at minority...

  3. Determining the Correlation Between Language Scores Obtained by Medical Students in their University Entrance and Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Some professors and educators in the field of English language believe that the high grades attained by medical students in their Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE are mainly a result of the students prior fluency in the language before entering medical colleges; they are of the opinion that these grades are not necessarily a result of the combined effort of the English teachers and students in language courses at the university. This research aimsat determining the correlation between the level of fluency in English of medical students prior to university entrance and the grades obtained by them in their CMBSE after 3 terms of language courses at the university.Methods: Seven of the major and smaller universities of medical sciences were selected. The language scores of 2426 students admitted to these universities during the three academic years of 1999 to 2002 in both the National University Entrance Examination (NUEE and the Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE were obtained from their related universities and from the secretariat of the Council of Medical Basic Sciences Education respectively. The language scores of each studentobtained in both NUEE and CMBSE were then matched. The related SPSS software was used to assess the level of correlation between these two groups of language scores for the students of each university, for each academic year and semester and also the overall score for the three years.Results: Overall a positive and moderately significant correlation was found between the NUEE language scores and those of the CMBSE of the students of the universities studied (P<0/001; R=443%. The level of correlation for the various universities studied differed (Max. 69%, min.27%.A comparison of the means of these two groups of scores also confirmed this correlation.Conclusion: students’ grades The NUEE language score was not the only factor affecting the student’s CMBSE score

  4. Is Math Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning? The Role of Math Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L; Hart, Sara A; Lyons, Ian M; Thompson, Lee A; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. In the current studies, we aimed to address the lack of attention given to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math-learning literature by exploring the relations among math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. In two samples-young adolescent twins and adult college students-results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with high intrinsic math motivation and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing participants' nonsymbolic and symbolic number-estimation ability. These findings may help advance the understanding of mathematics-learning processes and provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics-learning experiences and mathematical skills. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Business Math without Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Ronald

    1980-01-01

    Describes a new course at Spokane Falls Community College which builds on and reviews basic business math and electronic calculator skills. Material is self-paced and includes work with metrics. Discusses student evaluation of the course and type of equipment used. (CT)

  6. Understand electrical and electronics maths

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    1993-01-01

    Understand Electrical and Electronics Maths covers elementary maths and the aspects of electronics. The book discusses basic maths including quotients, algebraic fractions, logarithms, types of equations and balancing of equations. The text also describes the main features and functions of graphs and the solutions to simpler types of electronics problems. The book then tackles the applications of polar coordinates in electronics, limits, differentiation and integration, and the applications of maths of rates of change in electronics. The activities of an electronic circuit; techniques of math

  7. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    History · Memorandum of Association · Role of the Academy · Statutes · Council · Raman Chair ... Elected: 1999 Section: Mathematical Sciences. Misra ... Address: Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka ... Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  8. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    History · Memorandum of Association · Role of the Academy · Statutes · Council · Raman Chair ... Elected: 2006 Section: Animal Sciences ... Address: Professor, National Centre for Biological Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bengaluru 560 065, Karnataka ... Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  9. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    History · Memorandum of Association · Role of the Academy · Statutes · Council · Raman Chair · Jubilee ... Elected: 1988 Section: Mathematical Sciences ... Address: Professor, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Emory University, 400 ... Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  10. Does science need a global language? English and the future of research

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, Scott L

    2013-01-01

    In early 2012, the global scientific community erupted with news that the elusive Higgs boson had likely been found, providing potent validation for the Standard Model of how the universe works. Scientists from more than one hundred countries contributed to this discovery-proving, beyond any doubt, that a new era in science had arrived, an era of multinationalism and cooperative reach. Globalization, the Internet, and digital technology all play a role in making this new era possible, but something more fundamental is also at work. In all scientific endeavors lies the ancient drive for sharing ideas and knowledge, and now this can be accomplished in a single tongue - English. But is this a good thing? In "Does Science Need a Global Language?", Scott L. Montgomery seeks to answer this question by investigating the phenomenon of global English in science, how and why it came about, the forms in which it appears, what advantages and disadvantages it brings, and what its future might be. He also examines the cons...

  11. Kahua A';o--A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Science and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, P. W.; Businger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Kahua A';o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 in lessons and professional development intended to increase participation of underrepresented Native Hawaiian students in earth science. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists (Steven Businger, Scott Rowland, Floyd McCoy, UG student Kelly Lance); Hawaiian translators (M. Puakea Nogelmeier, GRAs Kapomaikai Stone and Iasona Ellinwood); science educators (Pauline Chinn, graduate student Lindsey Spencer), utilize articles to develop place-based meteorology and geology curricula for middle school teachers. Articles are valuable to science and science education: Native Hawaiians are citizen scientists who recorded, interpreted, and communicated findings to potentially critical audiences, while dated, descriptive, eye witness reports provide data on events unrecorded by westerners. Articles reveal Hawaiian intellectual tradition placed great value on environmental knowledge. Moolelo (traditional stories) e.g., Kuapākaa (Nakuina, 1905), translated as The Wind Gourd of Laamaomao, tells of Kuapākaa controlling all the winds of Hawai';i by chanting their names--a metaphor for the power of knowledge of winds, rains and their patterns. In the moolelo of Kalapana, a boy hero challenges and defeats the king of Kauai to a life-and-death riddling contest (Nakuina, 1902). Maly's (2001) translation of a riddle involving 22 zones spanning mountaintop to deep-sea underscores the knowledge base informing sustainable practices. Articles provide insight into indigenous maps (Nogelmeier, personal communication) while riddling contests (Beckwith, 1940/1970) establish demonstrations of knowledge as central to power, identity, and status. Eight field-based lessons have been presented to formal and informal science educators, with teachers adapting lessons for 3rd-12th grade students. Graduate students Spencer, Stone

  12. Are Psychology Students Getting Worse at Math?: Trends in the Math Skills of Psychology Statistics Students across 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.; Kirk, Roger E.

    2017-01-01

    Statistics is an important subject in psychology and social science education. However, inadequate mathematical skills can pose a barrier to learning statistics. Some educators have suggested that students' math skills are declining. The present research examined trends in the math skills of psychology undergraduates across 21 years. Students…

  13. Tutoring math platform accessible for visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkowski, Michał Sebastian; Brzoza, Piotr Franciszek; Spinczyk, Dominik Roland

    2018-04-01

    There are many problems with teaching and assessing impaired students in higher education, especially in technical science, where the knowledge is represented mostly by structural information like: math formulae, charts, graphs, etc. Developing e-learning platform for distance education solves this problem only partially due to the lack of accessibility for the blind. The proposed method is based on the decomposition of the typical mathematical exercise into a sequence of elementary sub-exercises. This allows for interactive resolving of math exercises and assessment of the correctness of exercise solutions at every stage. The presented methods were prepared and evaluated by visually impaired people and students. The article presents the accessible interactive tutoring platform for math teaching and assessment, and experience in exploring it. The results of conducted research confirm good understanding of math formulae described according to elaborated rules. Regardless of the level of complexity of the math formulae the level of math formulae understanding is higher for alternative structural description. The proposed solution enables alternative descriptions of math formulae. Based on the research results, the tool for computer-aided interactive learning of mathematics adapted to the needs of the blind has been designed, implemented and deployed as a platform for on-site and online and distance learning. The designed solution can be very helpful in overcoming many barriers that occur while teaching impaired students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Math and ELA Meet at the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Nancy S.; Smith, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Math and English language arts seem such disparate content areas but the Common Core State Standards actually draw out their similarities in the teaching and learning process. Both require students to learn grit and perseverance; both ask students to use reasons or evidence to support arguments; both require precision; both require structures to…

  15. Into the Curriculum. Art: Whistler's Mother; Reading/Language Arts: Finding My Voice; Science: Where on My Tongue? Taste; Social Studies/Science: Volcanoes; Social Studies: Pompeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Mundell, Charlie

    2001-01-01

    Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, reading, language arts, science, and social studies. Describes library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up for each activity. (LRW)

  16. PERSISTENCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN NATURAL SCIENCES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr I Krupnov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of empirical study of the association between variables of persistence and academic achievement in foreign languages. The sample includes students of the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Natural Science at the RUDN University ( n = 115, divided into 5 subsamples, two of which are featured in the present study (the most and the least successful students subsamples. Persistence as a personality trait is studied within A.I. Krupnov’s system-functional approach. A.I. Krupnov’s paper-and-pencil test was used to measure persistence variables. Academic achievement was measured according to the four parameters: Phonetics, Grammar, Speaking and Political vocabulary based on the grades students received during the academic year. The analysis revealed that persistence displays different associations with academic achievement variables in more and less successful students subsamples, the general prominence of this trait is more important for unsuccessful students. Phonetics is the academic achievement variable most associated with persistence due to its nature, a skill one can acquire through hard work and practice which is the definition of persistence. Grammar as an academic achievement variable is not associated with persistence and probably relates to other factors. Unsuccessful students may have difficulties in separating various aspects of language acquisition from each other which should be taken into consideration by the teachers.

  17. Vico’s New Science: on mathesis universalis and heroic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicenzo Vitiello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Against the traditional interpretation of Vico as an anticartesian philosopher of civil society’s history, the first part of this essay depicts the New Science as an extension to the historical world of the mathesis universalis. This is proved by the axiomatic method present in the first Book(the so called Dignities and by the division in three ages —of gods, of heroes and of men— of the necessary historical order: Vico’s «eternal ideal history», above which the nations’ histories «pass by within time». The second part of the article deals with the «heroic language» and shows the limitations of this mathesis, unable to express —as Vico itself admits— through an abstract and reflexive language the first age of the world: the arousal from nature’s ingens sylva of the historical human kind. In this way, Vico restores history and historiography with all their problematic complexity.

  18. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey through Reflections on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study…

  19. The Roles of Teachers' Science Talk in Revealing Language Demands within Diverse Elementary School Classrooms: A Study of Teaching Heat and Temperature in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Yore, Larry D.

    2017-01-01

    This study of three science teachers' lessons on heat and temperature seeks to characterise classroom talk that highlighted the ways language is used and to examine the nature of the language demands revealed in constructing, negotiating, arguing and communicating science ideas. The transcripts from the entire instructional units for these…

  20. Improving Science and Literacy Learning for English Language Learners: Evidence from a Pre-service Teacher Preparation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jerome M.; Lyon, Edward G.; Stoddart, Trish; Mosqueda, Eduardo; Menon, Preetha

    2014-08-01

    This paper present findings from a pre-service teacher development project that prepared novice teachers to promote English language and literacy development with inquiry-based science through a modified elementary science methods course and professional development for cooperating teachers. To study the project's impact on student learning, we administered a pre and post assessment to students (N = 191) of nine first year elementary teachers (grades 3 through 6) who experienced the intervention and who taught a common science unit. Preliminary results indicate that (1) student learning improved across all categories (science concepts, writing, and vocabulary)—although the effect varied by category, and (2) English Language Learner (ELL) learning gains were on par with non-ELLs, with differences across proficiency levels for vocabulary gain scores. These results warrant further analyses to understand the extent to which the intervention improved teacher practice and student learning. This study confirms the findings of previous research that the integration of science language and literacy practices can improve ELL achievement in science concepts, writing and vocabulary. In addition, the study indicates that it is possible to begin to link the practices taught in pre-service teacher preparation to novice teacher practice and student learning outcomes.

  1. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  2. Positive Feedback From Male Authority Figures Boosts Women's Math Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Ward, Deborah E; Streamer, Lindsey

    2018-03-01

    People often search for cues in the environment to determine whether or not they will be judged or treated negatively based on their social identities. Accordingly, feedback from gatekeepers-members of majority groups who hold authority and power in a field-may be an especially important cue for those at risk of experiencing social identity threat, such as women in math settings. Across a series of studies, women who received positive ("Good job!") versus objective (score only) feedback from a male (vs. female) authority figure in math reported greater confidence; belonging; self-efficacy; more favorable Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) attitudes/identification/interest; and greater implicit identification with math. Men were affected only by the type of math feedback they received, not by the source of feedback. A meta-analysis across studies confirmed results. Together, these findings suggest that positive feedback from gatekeepers is an important situational cue that can improve the outcomes of negatively stereotyped groups.

  3. The Impact of Differentiated Instructional Materials on English Language Learner (ELL) Students' Comprehension of Science Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavathu, Marian; Zhou, George

    2012-01-01

    Through a qualitative research design, this article investigates the impacts of differentiated laboratory instructional materials on English language learners' (ELLs) laboratory task comprehension. The factors affecting ELLs' science learning experiences are further explored. Data analysis reveals a greater degree of laboratory task comprehension…

  4. Linking Science and Language Arts: A Review of the Literature Which Compares Integrated versus Non-Integrated Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Leslie U.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature published during the last 20 years that investigates the impact of approaches that describe themselves as integrating science and language arts on student learning and/or attitude at the elementary level. The majority of papers report that integrated approaches led to greater student…

  5. "Why in This Bilingual Classroom … Hablamos Más Español?" Language Choice by Bilingual Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma D.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative sociolinguistic research study examines Latino/a students' use of language in a science classroom and laboratory. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States that serves an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a 5th-grade bilingual (Spanish/English) class. The…

  6. Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Learners series was designed to deepen teacher's knowledge and provides instructional approaches and practices for supporting grades 6-12 ELLs as they meet the ambitious expectations of the CCSS for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. This…

  7. Argumentation Tasks in Secondary English Language Arts, History, and Science: Variations in Instructional Focus and Inquiry Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Cindy; Greenleaf, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    This study drew on observations of 40 secondary English language arts, history, and science lessons to describe variation in opportunities for students to engage in argumentation and possible implications for student engagement and learning. The authors focused their analysis on two broad dimensions of argumentation tasks: (1) "Instructional…

  8. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  9. Understanding Why Speech-Language Pathologists Rarely Pursue a PhD in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myotte, Theodore; Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Belin, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Masters-level speech-language pathologists in communication sciences and disorders (n = 122) completed a survey soliciting their reasons for not pursuing doctoral study. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution including one reflecting a lack of interest in doctoral study (Factor 2) and one reflecting practical financial concerns (Factor…

  10. String-math 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Morrison, David R

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference String-Math 2012, which was held July 16-21, 2012, at the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics, Universitat Bonn. This was the second in a series of annual large meetings devoted to the interface of mathematics and string theory. These meetings have rapidly become the flagship conferences in the field. Topics include super Riemann surfaces and their super moduli, generalized moonshine and K3 surfaces, the latest developments in supersymmetric and topological field theory, localization techniques, applications to knot theory, and many more. The contributors include many leaders in the field, such as Sergio Cecotti, Matthias Gaberdiel, Rahul Pandharipande, Albert Schwarz, Anne Taormina, Johannes Walcher, Katrin Wendland, and Edward Witten. This book will be essential reading for researchers and students in this area and for all mathematicians and string theorists who want to update themselves on developments in the math-string interface.

  11. Technical Math For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Schoenborn, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Technical Math For Dummies is your one-stop, hands-on guide to acing the math courses you’ll encounter as you work toward getting your degree, certifacation, or�license in the skilled trades. You’ll get easy-to-follow, plain-English guidance on mathematical formulas and methods that professionals use every day in the automotive, health, construction, licensed trades, maintenance, and other trades. You’ll learn how to apply concepts of algebra, geometry, and trigonometry and their formulas related to occupational areas of study. Plus, you’ll find out how to perform basic arithmetic

  12. Contact dynamics math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  13. All Students Need Advanced Mathematics. Math Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet explains that to thrive in today's world, all students will need to graduate with very strong math skills. That can only mean one thing: advanced math courses are now essential math courses. Highlights of this paper include: (1) Advanced math equals college success; (2) Advanced math equals career opportunity; and (3) Advanced math…

  14. Financial Statement Math

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    game tool Game Tool Interactive Media Element The purpose of this interactive exercise is to help you understand the math in the income statement and balance sheet., Give the proper mathematical computations in order to correctly prepare the income statement and the balance sheet.The exercise is divided into 3 parts: The income Statement, The Balance Sheet - Assets, The Balance Sheet - Liabilities, GB3050 Financial Reporting and Analysis

  15. The language of objects: Christian Jürgensen Thomsen's science of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-03-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern "scientific" archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited themselves to histories of texts and therefore abandoned the earliest human history. Instead, he proposed a new history of objects, which included the entire history of humankind. Thomsen's work as director of the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities in Copenhagen was especially important for this renewal. The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences, such as geology and comparative anatomy. From the 1840s, Thomsen's museum became a model for how the study of human artifacts could deliver scientific insights into human nature and the laws of human development.

  16. Math Description Engine Software Development Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.

  17. Socially situated activities and identities: Second-grade dual language students and the social construction of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Nadine

    Latina and Latino American students are among the lowest achievers in science, when compared to European and Asian American students, and are highly underrepresented in science careers. Studies suggested that a part of this problem is students' lack of access to science, due to their status as English language learners and their perceived status as deficient students. This study investigated the social construction of science in a second grade dual language urban classroom that offered bilingual students access to science, while positioning them as competent, capable learners. What participants valued in science was interpreted from their stated beliefs and attitudes, as well as their patterned ways of reading, writing, and talking. A bilingual European American teacher and three Latina and Latino focal students were observed over the course of 10 weeks, as they enacted a science unit, in English, on habitats. Science lessons were videotaped, documented with field notes, and transcribed. Interviews with the teacher and students were audiotaped and transcribed, and relevant curriculum documents, and teacher- and student-generated documents, copied. Gee's (1999) d/Discourse analysis system was applied to the transcripts of science lessons and interviews as a way to understand how participants used language to construct situated activities and identities in science. Curriculum documents were analyzed to understand the positioning of the teacher and students by identifying the situated activities and roles recommended. Students' nonfiction writing and published nonfiction texts were analyzed for linguistic structures, semantic relationships and conventions of science writing. Results indicated that the teacher drew on traditional and progressive pedagogical practices that shaped her and her students' science activities and situated identities. The teacher employed traditional talk strategies to build science themes, while students enacted their roles as compliant

  18. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A; Sokolowski, H Moriah; Lyons, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals' self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one's self - self-math overlap - may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated.

  19. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID

  20. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Necka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This nonverbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r=-.610. We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be

  1. Indigenous language use and primary science teaching in a post-colonial society: The case of Shona in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcajo, Susan Lori

    The historical legacy of colonialism in Zimbabwe is revealed in the continued use of the colonial language, English, in education. However, many teachers use the local language along with particular techniques to address this language gap so that children learn the content of the lessons, especially in the rural areas where access to modern conveniences and the school language outside of class is limited. This research examines the use of an indigenous language in an educational system in which content area curricula are administered in a second language. Three third grade classes in a rural Zimbabwean village were video recorded for three weeks each during the teaching of science. Lessons were transcribed and questions devised for the teachers and a small number of students in order to explore issues related to language use and scientific concept development. The lessons and interviews were reviewed in order to determine particular language usage in the indigenous Shona language and its local dialect, Ndau. The questions addressed were: (1) When and how does the teacher use Shona to explain scientific concepts? (2) When and how do children use Shona to discuss these concepts? (3) What is the relationship among cognition, the use of Shona in the classroom and the learning of science? Analysis of Shona language use in these lessons revealed that while Shona was most commonly used in single words for affection, to facilitate instruction, and to support the lesson, large segments of four sentences or more allowed for more culturally relevant teaching and the development of concepts which served the purpose of science learning through identification, description, explanation and the reaching of conclusions. Metalinguistic awareness and literacy were seen to be salient elements in the lessons, especially given the fact that only English is allowed to be written; that is, while the teacher often explained elements of the lessons orally, all writing on the board, in

  2. The Language Problem in Science and the Role of the International Language Esperanto. Esperanto Documents 38 A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendao, Ouyang; Sherwood, Bruce A.

    Two essays discuss the need for improved international transfer of scientific and technical information and propose the international language Esperanto for that purpose. "The Role of Esperanto" by Ouyang Wendao suggests that the burden of time and energy spent in translating scientific literature quickly and well and the difficulties of…

  3. Signing Earth Science: Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Whose First Language Is Sign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, J.; Hurdich, J.

    2014-12-01

    TERC and Vcom3D used the SigningAvatar® accessibility software to research and develop a Signing Earth Science Dictionary (SESD) of approximately 750 standards-based Earth science terms for high school students who are deaf and hard of hearing and whose first language is sign. The partners also evaluated the extent to which use of the SESD furthers understanding of Earth science content, command of the language of Earth science, and the ability to study Earth science independently. Disseminated as a Web-based version and App, the SESD is intended to serve the ~36,000 grade 9-12 students who are deaf or hard of hearing and whose first language is sign, the majority of whom leave high school reading at the fifth grade or below. It is also intended for teachers and interpreters who interact with members of this population and professionals working with Earth science education programs during field trips, internships etc. The signed SESD terms have been incorporated into a Mobile Communication App (MCA). This App for Androids is intended to facilitate communication between English speakers and persons who communicate in American Sign Language (ASL) or Signed English. It can translate words, phrases, or whole sentences from written or spoken English to animated signing. It can also fingerspell proper names and other words for which there are no signs. For our presentation, we will demonstrate the interactive features of the SigningAvatar® accessibility software that support the three principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and have been incorporated into the SESD and MCA. Results from national field-tests will provide insight into the SESD's and MCA's potential applicability beyond grade 12 as accommodations that can be used for accessing the vocabulary deaf and hard of hearing students need for study of the geosciences and for facilitating communication about content. This work was funded in part by grants from NSF and the U.S. Department of Education.

  4. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilia Maria Pires Sciarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. OBJECTIVE: To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. METHODS: A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. RESULTS: As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. CONCLUSION: Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  5. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Batigália, Fernando; Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza de

    2015-01-01

    In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  6. Knowledge, language and subjectivities in a discourse community: Ideas we can learn from elementary children about science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Lori Ann

    2000-10-01

    In light of continuing poor performance by American students in school science, feminists and sociocultural researchers have demonstrated that we need to look beyond content to address the science needs of all school children. In this study I examined issues of discourse norms, knowledge, language and subjectivities (meaning personal and social observations and characteristics) in elementary science. Over a two-year period, I used an interpretive methodological approach to investigate science experiences in two first-second and second grade classrooms. I first established some of the norms and characteristics of the discourse communities through case studies of new students attempting to gain entry to whole class conversations. I then examined knowledge, a central focus of science education addressed by a variety of theoretical approaches. In these classrooms students co-constructed and built knowledge in their whole class science conversations sometimes following convergent (similar knowledge) and, at other times, divergent (differing knowledge) paths allowing for broader discourse. In both paths, there was gendered construction of knowledge in which same gender students elaborated the reasoning of previous speakers. In conjunction with these analyses, I examined what knowledge sources the students used in their science conversations. Students drew on a variety of informal and formal knowledge sources including personal experiences, other students, abstract logic and thought experiments, all of which were considered valid. In using sources from both in and out of school, students' knowledge bases were broader than traditional scientific content giving greater access and richness to their conversations. The next analysis focused on students' use of narrative and paradigmatic language forms in the whole class science conversations. Traditionally, only paradigmatic language forms have been used in science classrooms. The students in this study used both narrative and

  7. S3QL: A distributed domain specific language for controlled semantic integration of life sciences data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lencastre Hermínia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The value and usefulness of data increases when it is explicitly interlinked with related data. This is the core principle of Linked Data. For life sciences researchers, harnessing the power of Linked Data to improve biological discovery is still challenged by a need to keep pace with rapidly evolving domains and requirements for collaboration and control as well as with the reference semantic web ontologies and standards. Knowledge organization systems (KOSs can provide an abstraction for publishing biological discoveries as Linked Data without complicating transactions with contextual minutia such as provenance and access control. We have previously described the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB as an efficient model for creating knowledge organization systems using Linked Data best practices with explicit distinction between domain and instantiation and support for a permission control mechanism that automatically migrates between the two. In this report we present a domain specific language, the S3DB query language (S3QL, to operate on its underlying core model and facilitate management of Linked Data. Results Reflecting the data driven nature of our approach, S3QL has been implemented as an application programming interface for S3DB systems hosting biomedical data, and its syntax was subsequently generalized beyond the S3DB core model. This achievement is illustrated with the assembly of an S3QL query to manage entities from the Simple Knowledge Organization System. The illustrative use cases include gastrointestinal clinical trials, genomic characterization of cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA and molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases. Conclusions S3QL was found to provide a convenient mechanism to represent context for interoperation between public and private datasets hosted at biomedical research institutions and linked data formalisms.

  8. Learner Outcomes in Science in South Africa: Role of the Nature of Learner Difficulties with the Language for Learning and Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2017-08-01

    Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in Research in Science Education, 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in Language and Education, 12(4), 243-254, 1998; Childs and O'Farell in Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 4(3), 233-247, 2003) have since been reported in literature. This article draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. The participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers) were drawn from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa. Data were obtained through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but face-to-face interviews with each physical science teacher. This study has revealed that in similar ways as have been reported in each of the studies so far, South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in a science context. The main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the `new' meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context. Interpretations of learner interview responses revealed that fewer difficulties would have been experienced by learners if science teachers generally explained the context meanings of the words as used during science teaching. The findings suggest that focusing on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of context on meanings of everyday words of the LOLT

  9. Advanced Math: Closing the Equity Gap. Math Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Minority and low-income students are less likely to have access to, enroll in and succeed in higher-level math courses in high school than their more advantaged peers. Under these circumstances, higher-level math courses function not as the intellectual and practical boost they should be, but as a filter that screens students out of the pathway to…

  10. Early Math Interest and the Development of Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Paige H.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Arnold, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Prior models suggest that math attitudes and ability might strengthen each other over time in a reciprocal fashion (Ma, 1997). The current study investigated the relationship between math interest and skill both concurrently and over time in a preschool sample. Analyses of concurrent relationships indicated that high levels of interest were…

  11. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  12. Early Science Instruction and Academic Language Development Can Go Hand in Hand. The Promising Effects of a Low-Intensity Teacher-Focused Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Lotte F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-11-01

    Early science instruction is important in order to lay a firm basis for learning scientific concepts and scientific thinking. In addition, young children enjoy science. However, science plays only a minor role in the kindergarten curriculum. It has been reported that teachers feel they need to prioritize language and literacy practices over science. In this paper, we investigate whether science lessons might be integrated with learning the language functional for school: academic language. The occurrence of scientific reasoning and sophisticated vocabulary in brief science lessons with 5-year-olds is evaluated. The aim of the study was twofold: first, to explore the nature of kindergarten science discourse without any researcher directions (pre-intervention observation). Second, in a randomized control trial, we evaluated the effect on science discourse of a brief teacher training session focused on academic language awareness. The science lessons focussed on air pressure and mirror reflection. Analyses showed that teachers from the intervention group increased their use of scientific reasoning and of domain-specific academic words in their science discourse, compared to the control group. For the use of general academic words and for lexical diversity, the effect was task-specific: these dependent measures only increased during the air pressure task. Implications of the study include the need to increase teachers' awareness of possibilities to combine early science instruction and academic language learning.

  13. Teachers and Counselors: Building Math Confidence in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Furner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics teachers need to take on the role of counselors in addressing the math anxious in today's math classrooms. This paper looks at the impact math anxiety has on the future of young adults in our high-tech society. Teachers and professional school counselors are encouraged to work together to prevent and reduce math anxiety. It is important that all students feel confident in their ability to do mathematics in an age that relies so heavily on problem solving, technology, science, and mathematics. It really is a school's obligation to see that their students value and feel confident in their ability to do math, because ultimately a child's life: all decisions they will make and careers choices may be determined based on their disposition toward mathematics. This paper raises some interesting questions and provides some strategies (See Appendix A for teachers and counselors for addressing the issue of math anxiety while discussing the importance of developing mathematically confident young people for a high-tech world of STEM.

  14. Math primer for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Cryer, CW

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics and engineering are inevitably interrelated, and this interaction will steadily increase as the use of mathematical modelling grows. Although mathematicians and engineers often misunderstand one another, their basic approach is quite similar, as is the historical development of their respective disciplines. The purpose of this Math Primer is to provide a brief introduction to those parts of mathematics which are, or could be, useful in engineering, especially bioengineering. The aim is to summarize the ideas covered in each subject area without going into exhaustive detail. Formula

  15. Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunah

    This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.

  16. The problem of early learning of foreign languages in Germanspeaking countries in modern pedagogical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kohut

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main aspects of early foreign language teaching in Germanspeakingcountries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland in modern Pedagogics. The meaningof the term “early teaching” is defined and the teaching of foreign languages for pre-schooland primary school children is analyzed.Key words: early teaching, foreign language education, primary school, system ofeducation, multicultural surrounding.

  17. How Latino/a bilingual students use their language in a fifth grade classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma R.

    This qualitative research study examines how Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in their homeroom classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school district located in the southwestern part of the United States. The school was chosen based on the criterion that the school is located in an area considered economically depressed, with a predominantly Latino student, school, and neighborhood population. The object of study was a fifth grade bilingual (Spanish/English) classroom where English was the means of instruction. Classroom interaction was examined from a sociolinguistics perspective. The study was descriptive in nature with the objective of analyzing the students' use of their linguistic resources while participating in science learning. The results of this study suggest that the students used their linguistic resources purposefully in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. In the same manner, it was observed the students' reliance on Spanish as a foundation to enhance their comprehension of the scientific concepts and the dynamics involved in the science lessons, with the purpose of making sense, and thus, to express their understanding (orally and in writing) using their linguistic resources, especially their English language, as it was expected from them. Further, the findings disclose the students' awareness of their own bilingualism, preference for speaking Spanish, and their conceptualization of English as the language to achieve academic success. It has also been observed how the pressure put upon the teacher and the students by the accountability system brings about an implicit bias against Spanish, causing the teacher to assume a paradoxical stance regarding the students' use of Spanish, and thereby, placing the students in an ambivalent position, that might affect, to a certain extent, how students use their Spanish language as a resource to

  18. Math Education at a Crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    With an enrollment of 550 students once a year the first year course Math1 at the Technical University of Denmark is one of the largest courses at university level in Denmark. Since its re-formation 6 years ago a number of interesting valuable assets concerning undergraduate math education...

  19. Math Learning Begins at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Sarah H.; Levine, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Children demonstrate gaps in the math knowledge that they possess by the time they begin school, and these gaps have been found to predict long-term outcomes not only in math but also in reading. Consequently, it is important to identify what accounts for these early differences and how they can be addressed to ensure that all children enter…

  20. From Mxit to Dr Math

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Laurie Butgereit, a researcher at the CSIR Meraka Institute, started to use Mxit as a communication channel to tutor her son in mathematics. Her son and a number of his friends logged in, and Dr Math was born. At the inception of Dr Math...