WorldWideScience

Sample records for science including anatomy

  1. Distal radioulnar joint: functional anatomy, including pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, J R; Langer, M F; Berger, R A

    2017-05-01

    The distal radioulnar joint allows the human to rotate the forearm to place the hand in a desired position to perform different tasks, without interfering with the grasping function of the hand. The ulna is the stable part of the forearm around which the radius rotates; the stability of the distal radioulnar joint is provided by the interaction between ligaments, muscles and bones. The stabilizing structures are the triangular fibrocartilage complex, the ulnocarpal ligament complex, the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon and tendon sheath, the pronator quadratus, the interosseous membrane and ligament, the bone itself and the joint capsule. The purpose of this review article is to present and illustrate the current understanding of the functional anatomy and pathomechanics of this joint.

  2. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Scholarships for a science in crisis: the JAE as sponsor for macroscopic anatomy (1912-1931)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Morgado, Raúl

    2010-01-01

    Beside the creation of national research institutions, the patronage work of the JAE (through scholarships and recognition given to Spanish scientists in the first third of the 20th century) was important in opening the door to the silver age of Spanish science. In the morphologic sciences, macroscopic anatomy was an almost closed science and in crisis with regard to the microscopic sciences and embryology. Despite this setting, the JAE chose to promote this science, importing European anatomical pedagogy and including the technologies and philosophy of the new dynamic anatomy under way on the continent. In this paper, we analyze the grantholders listed in the JAE archives and the studies that they published by them. We conclude that the utilization of these grants played an important role in promoting the international exchange necessary for the reform of a science in crisis, with anatomical pedagogy and technology being the major protagonists of this renewal.

  4. Integration of Medical Imaging Including Ultrasound into a New Clinical Anatomy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscova, Michelle; Bryce, Deborah A.; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Young, Noel

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a new clinical anatomy curriculum with integrated medical imaging component was introduced into the University of Sydney Medical Program. Medical imaging used for teaching the new curriculum included normal radiography, MRI, CT scans, and ultrasound imaging. These techniques were incorporated into teaching over the first two years of the…

  5. Restructuring a basic science course for core competencies: an example from anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jeremy K; Lachman, Nirusha; Camp, Christopher L; Chen, Laura P; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    Medical schools revise their curricula in order to develop physicians best skilled to serve the public's needs. To ensure a smooth transition to residency programs, undergraduate medical education is often driven by the six core competencies endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME): patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, interpersonal skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. Recent curricular redesign at Mayo Medical School provided an opportunity to restructure anatomy education and integrate radiology with first-year gross and developmental anatomy. The resulting 6-week (120-contact-hour) human structure block provides students with opportunities to learn gross anatomy through dissection, radiologic imaging, and embryologic correlation. We report more than 20 educational interventions from the human structure block that may serve as a model for incorporating the ACGME core competencies into basic science and early medical education. The block emphasizes clinically-oriented anatomy, invites self- and peer-evaluation, provides daily formative feedback through an audience response system, and employs team-based learning. The course includes didactic briefing sessions and roles for students as teachers, leaders, and collaborators. Third-year medical students serve as teaching assistants. With its clinical focus and competency-based design, the human structure block connects basic science with best-practice clinical medicine.

  6. Homepage to distribute the anatomy learning contents including Visible Korean products, comics, and books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2018-03-01

    The authors have operated the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr) to provide the learning contents of anatomy. From the homepage, sectioned images, volume models, and surface models-all Visible Korean products-can be downloaded. The realistic images can be interactively manipulated, which will give rise to the interest in anatomy. The various anatomy comics (learning comics, comic strips, plastination comics, etc.) are approachable. Visitors can obtain the regional anatomy book with concise contents, mnemonics, and schematics as well as the simplified dissection manual and the pleasant anatomy essay. Medical students, health allied professional students, and even laypeople are expected to utilize the easy and comforting anatomy contents. It is hoped that other anatomists successively produce and distribute their own informative contents.

  7. Homepage to distribute the anatomy learning contents including Visible Korean products, comics, and books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun

    2018-01-01

    The authors have operated the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr) to provide the learning contents of anatomy. From the homepage, sectioned images, volume models, and surface models—all Visible Korean products—can be downloaded. The realistic images can be interactively manipulated, which will give rise to the interest in anatomy. The various anatomy comics (learning comics, comic strips, plastination comics, etc.) are approachable. Visitors can obtain the regional anatomy book with concise contents, mnemonics, and schematics as well as the simplified dissection manual and the pleasant anatomy essay. Medical students, health allied professional students, and even laypeople are expected to utilize the easy and comforting anatomy contents. It is hoped that other anatomists successively produce and distribute their own informative contents. PMID:29644104

  8. Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, ‘openness’ and ‘conscientiousness’ were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with ‘negative affectivity’ showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there

  9. Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, 'openness' and 'conscientiousness' were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with 'negative affectivity' showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there is a

  10. The Effectiveness of Virtual and Augmented Reality in Health Sciences and Medical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Raikos, Athanasios; Stirling, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Although cadavers constitute the gold standard for teaching anatomy to medical and health science students, there are substantial financial, ethical, and supervisory constraints on their use. In addition, although anatomy remains one of the fundamental areas of medical education, universities have decreased the hours allocated to teaching gross…

  11. [Teaching human anatomy to the graduation course in Health Sciences of the Lisbon University: five years of a new educational experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Ivo A; Gonçalves Ferreira, Ana D; Gonçalves Ferreira, António J

    2013-01-01

    The authors make the balance of the first five years of teaching Anatomy to the Licensure in Health Sciences, of Lisbon University. Were studied 408 students, enrolled in the Curricular Unit of Anatomy (mandatory subject of the 1st semester) and 29 in the Curricular Unit of Neuroanatomy (optional subject of the 6th semester). It was performed the statistical analysis by Anova and t Student test. There was an annual growing influx of students enrolled in Curricular Unit of Anatomy, a stable number in Neuroanatomy and clear predominance of female students; ratio teacher / student variable between 1/9 and 1/17 in Anatomy and 1/8 in Neuroanatomy; high number of initial dropouts (15.69%) in Anatomy; approval levels of 95.93% in Anatomy and Neuroanatomy 100%; trend of improvement in the last two years, with statistical significance in the Curricular Unit of Anatomy (p = 0.0001) and equal academic performance of students of both genders; satisfaction scores of students of Anatomy, Good = 71% and Very Good = 8%; in Neuroanatomy, unanimous classification by students = Very Good. It was a very positive learning experience. The authors propose: the study of the causes and prevention of early dropout of incoming students, improving the ratio teacher / student, possible extension to a 2nd semester of the Curricular Unit of Anatomy and improving facilities that are already underway and includes the refurbishment and modernization of the anatomical theater of the Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon.

  12. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  13. Anatomy of the story: Narratives of mortuary science learners and graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose Luis

    Using the anatomy of the story as a framework (Guajardo & Guajardo, 2010), this qualitative study reports the narratives of nine Mortuary Science learners and graduates from an accredited two-year Mortuary Science program in Texas. The research questions are: (1) What can we learn from the narratives of Mortuary Science learners and graduates? (2) What are the learning journeys of nine individuals currently enrolled or graduated from an accredited two-year Mortuary Science program? (3) What challenges and successes have they experienced during their residence in the program, their internship, and the process of obtaining a license? Data collected for the study include platicas (conversational interviews), artifacts, documents, and the researcher's analytic journal. Data analysis was multilayered and included several phases. First, MAXQDA software served to code the data using a priory codes (navel, heart, mind, hands, and legs) as the study framework. Next, the coded data were retrieved into a separate Word document to code it again for triangulation purposes. Narrative analysis techniques (story as data collection and data analysis) were at the center of reporting study findings to be faithful to storytelling and the anatomy of the story framework. This dissertation is divided into four main parts plus Appendix. Part I, Anatomy of the story, presents the research questions and the guidelines for the anatomy of the story to guide the reader on what to expect in this dissertation. Part II, Visualizing the main characters of the story, provides a rich description of the study participants---the navel. Part III, The main elements of the story, presents the heart, mind, hands, and legs of the story in separate sections. Part IV, Stories harvested for new beginnings, discusses the main learning product of analyzing the collective story of learners and graduates. The Appendix section of the dissertation includes important pieces explaining the elements that are expected

  14. Patient specific anatomy: the new area of anatomy based on computer science illustrated on liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick; Marescaux, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, medical imaging has brought a new revolution: internal anatomy of a patient could be seen without any invasive technique. This revolution has highlighted the two main limits of current anatomy: the anatomical description is physician dependent, and the average anatomy is more and more frequently insufficient to describe anatomical variations. These drawbacks can sometimes be so important that they create mistakes but they can be overcome through the use of 3D patient-specific surgical anatomy. In this article, we propose to illustrate such improvement of standard anatomy on liver. We first propose a general scheme allowing to easily compare the four main liver anatomical descriptions by Takasaki, Goldsmith and Woodburne, Bismuth and Couinaud. From this general scheme we propose four rules to apply in order to correct these initial anatomical definitions. Application of these rules allows to correct usual vascular topological mistakes of standard anatomy. We finally validate such correction on a database of 20 clinical cases compared to the 111 clinical cases of a Couinaud article. Out of the 20 images of the database, we note a revealing difference in 14 cases (70%) on at least one important branch of the portal network. Only six cases (30%) do not present a revealing difference between both labellings. We also show that the right portal fissure location on our 20 cases defined between segment V and VI of our anatomical definition is well correlated with the real position described by Couinaud on 111 cases, knowing that the theoretical position was only found in 46 cases out of 111, i.e., 41.44% of cases with the non-corrected Couinaud definition. We have proposed a new anatomical segmentation of the liver based on four main rules to apply in order to correct topological errors of the four main standard segmentations. Our validation clearly illustrates that this new definition corrects the large amount of mistakes created by the current

  15. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  16. Sinus Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  17. The effectiveness of virtual and augmented reality in health sciences and medical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Raikos, Athanasios; Stirling, Allan

    2017-11-01

    Although cadavers constitute the gold standard for teaching anatomy to medical and health science students, there are substantial financial, ethical, and supervisory constraints on their use. In addition, although anatomy remains one of the fundamental areas of medical education, universities have decreased the hours allocated to teaching gross anatomy in favor of applied clinical work. The release of virtual (VR) and augmented reality (AR) devices allows learning to occur through hands-on immersive experiences. The aim of this research was to assess whether learning structural anatomy utilizing VR or AR is as effective as tablet-based (TB) applications, and whether these modes allowed enhanced student learning, engagement and performance. Participants (n = 59) were randomly allocated to one of the three learning modes: VR, AR, or TB and completed a lesson on skull anatomy, after which they completed an anatomical knowledge assessment. Student perceptions of each learning mode and any adverse effects experienced were recorded. No significant differences were found between mean assessment scores in VR, AR, or TB. During the lessons however, VR participants were more likely to exhibit adverse effects such as headaches (25% in VR P virtual and augmented reality as means to supplement lesson content in anatomical education. Anat Sci Educ 10: 549-559. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Teaching professionalism in science courses: Anatomy to zoology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C. Macpherson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical professionalism is reflected in attitudes, behaviors, character, and standards of practice. It is embodied by physicians who fulfill their duties to patients and uphold societies’ trust in medicine. Professionalism requires familiarity with the ethical codes and standards established by international, governmental, institutional, or professional organizations. It also requires becoming aware of and responsive to societal controversies. Scientific uncertainty may be used to teach aspects of professionalism in science courses. Uncertainty about the science behind, and the health impacts of, climate change is one example explored herein that may be used to teach both professionalism and science. Many medical curricula provide students with information about professionalism and create opportunities for students to reflect upon and strengthen their individually evolving levels of professionalism. Faculties in basic sciences are rarely called upon to teach professionalism or deepen medical students understanding of professional standards, competencies, and ethical codes. However they have the knowledge and experience to develop goals, learning objectives, and topics relevant to professionalism within their own disciplines and medical curricula. Their dedication to, and passion for, science will support basic science faculties in designing innovative and effective approaches to teaching professionalism. This paper explores topics and formats that scientists may find useful in teaching professional attitudes, skills, and competencies in their medical curriculum. It highlights goals and learning objectives associated with teaching medical professionalism in the basic sciences.

  19. Teaching professionalism in science courses: anatomy to zoology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl C

    2012-02-01

    Medical professionalism is reflected in attitudes, behaviors, character, and standards of practice. It is embodied by physicians who fulfill their duties to patients and uphold societies' trust in medicine. Professionalism requires familiarity with the ethical codes and standards established by international, governmental, institutional, or professional organizations. It also requires becoming aware of and responsive to societal controversies. Scientific uncertainty may be used to teach aspects of professionalism in science courses. Uncertainty about the science behind, and the health impacts of, climate change is one example explored herein that may be used to teach both professionalism and science. Many medical curricula provide students with information about professionalism and create opportunities for students to reflect upon and strengthen their individually evolving levels of professionalism. Faculties in basic sciences are rarely called upon to teach professionalism or deepen medical students understanding of professional standards, competencies, and ethical codes. However they have the knowledge and experience to develop goals, learning objectives, and topics relevant to professionalism within their own disciplines and medical curricula. Their dedication to, and passion for, science will support basic science faculties in designing innovative and effective approaches to teaching professionalism. This paper explores topics and formats that scientists may find useful in teaching professional attitudes, skills, and competencies in their medical curriculum. It highlights goals and learning objectives associated with teaching medical professionalism in the basic sciences. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  1. Teaching Anatomy: need or taste?

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejad, Masoume Soleymani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Anatomy is one of the core sections of Basic Medical Sciences. Given the central role of anatomy, the development of medical knowledge and reach new horizons in science is not possible without relying on anatomy. Since in the anatomy science, students are familiar with the basic terms of medical language, the anatomy's hard to know and have a negative attitude towards this course. With these conditions, anatomy professors have an important role in providing incentives...

  2. Clinton administration budget includes mixed bag for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The $1,766 trillion federal budget proposal that the Clinton Administration rolled out on February 1—which promises to protect Social Security and Medicare and work within mandated budget caps—generally provides favorable news for federally funded science research and development.Within the 17% ($592 billion) of the federal budget earmarked for discretionary spending, the Administration's budget proposal increases funding for nondefense research and development for the seventh year in a row. This includes increased funding for a number of science accounts and money for a series of new science initiatives.

  3. Back to the future with hands-on science: students' perceptions of learning anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Amy Nicole Burne; McAllister, Margaret

    2008-09-01

    This article examines student perceptions of learning related to anatomy and physiology in a bachelor of nursing program. One strategy to teach the sciences is simulated learning, a technology that offers exciting potential. Virtual environments for laboratory learning may offer numerous benefits: teachers can convey information to a larger group of students, reducing the need for small laboratory classes; less equipment is required, thus containing ongoing costs; and students can learn in their own time and place. However, simulated learning may also diminish access to the teacher-student relationship and the opportunity for guided practice and guided linking of theory with practice. Without this hands-on experience, there is a risk that students will not engage as effectively, and thus conceptual learning and the development of critical thinking skills are diminished. However, student perceptions of these learning experiences are largely unknown. Thus, this study examined students' perceptions of anatomy and physiology laboratory experiences and the importance they placed on hands-on experience in laboratory settings.

  4. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  5. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  6. Planning for Planetary Science Mission Including Resource Prospecting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the...

  7. Effective methods of teaching and learning in anatomy as a basic science: A BEME systematic review: BEME guide no. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losco, C Dominique; Grant, William D; Armson, Anthony; Meyer, Amanda J; Walker, Bruce F

    2017-03-01

    Anatomy is a subject essential to medical practice, yet time committed to teaching is on the decline, and resources required to teach anatomy is costly, particularly dissection. Advances in technology are a potential solution to the problem, while maintaining the quality of teaching required for eventual clinical application. To identify methods used to teach anatomy, including those demonstrated to enhance knowledge acquisition and retention. PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, Academic OneFile, ProQuest, SAGE journals and Scopus were search from the earliest entry of each database to 31 August 2015. All included articles were assessed for methodological quality and low quality articles were excluded from the study. Studies were evaluated by assessment scores, qualitative outcomes where included as well as a modified Kirkpatrick model. A total of 17,820 articles were initially identified, with 29 included in the review. The review found a wide variety of teaching interventions represented in the range of studies, with CAI/CAL studies predominating in terms of teaching interventions, followed by simulation. In addition to this, CAI/CAL and simulation studies demonstrated better results overall compared to traditional teaching methods and there is evidence to support CAI/CAL as a partial replacement for dissection or a valuable tool in conjunction with dissection. This review provides evidence in support of the use of alternatives to traditional teaching methods in anatomy, in particular, the use of CAI/CAL with a number of high quality, low risk of bias studies supporting this.

  8. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  9. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  10. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 50th anniversary editorial board commentary: anatomy, basic sciences, and genetics--then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mark P; Cooper, Gregory M; Marazita, Mary L

    2014-05-01

    To celebrate the 50th year of the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal we look back to where we started in 1964 and where we are now, and we speculate about directions for the future in a "Then and Now" editorial series. This editorial examines changing trends and perspectives in anatomical, basic science, and genetic studies published in this 50-year interval. In volume 1 there were 45 total papers, seven (16%) of which were peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: four in anatomy, three in craniofacial biology, and none in genetics. In contrast, in volume 50, of 113 articles there were 47 (42%) peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: 30 in anatomy, five in craniofacial biology, and 12 in genetics. Topical analysis of published manuscripts then and now reveal that similar topics in anatomy and craniofacial biology are still being researched today (e.g., phenotypic variability, optimal timing of surgery, presurgical orthopedics, bone grafting); whereas, most of the more recent papers use advanced technology to address old questions. In contrast, genetic publications have clearly increased in frequency during the last 50 years, which parallels advances in the field during this time. However, all of us have noticed that the more "cutting-edge" papers in these areas are not being submitted for publication to the journal, but instead to discipline-specific journals. Concerted efforts are therefore indicated to attract and publish these cutting-edge papers in order to keep the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal in the forefront of orofacial cleft and craniofacial anomaly research and to provide a valuable service to American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association members.

  11. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  12. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  13. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  14. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  15. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  16. Trends in performance indicators of neuroimaging anatomy research publications: a bibliometric study of major neuroradiology journal output over four decades based on web of science database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Louise; Massoud, Tarik F

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative, qualitative, and innovative application of bibliometric research performance indicators to anatomy and radiology research and education can enhance cross-fertilization between the two disciplines. We aim to use these indicators to identify long-term trends in dissemination of publications in neuroimaging anatomy (including both productivity and citation rates), which has subjectively waned in prestige during recent years. We examined publications over the last 40 years in two neuroradiological journals, AJNR and Neuroradiology, and selected and categorized all neuroimaging anatomy research articles according to theme and type. We studied trends in their citation activity over time, and mathematically analyzed these trends for 1977, 1987, and 1997 publications. We created a novel metric, "citation half-life at 10 years postpublication" (CHL-10), and used this to examine trends in the skew of citation numbers for anatomy articles each year. We identified 367 anatomy articles amongst a total of 18,110 in these journals: 74.2% were original articles, with study of normal anatomy being the commonest theme (46.7%). We recorded a mean of 18.03 citations for each anatomy article, 35% higher than for general neuroradiology articles. Graphs summarizing the rise (upslope) in citation rates after publication revealed similar trends spanning two decades. CHL-10 trends demonstrated that more recently published anatomy articles were likely to take longer to reach peak citation rate. Bibliometric analysis suggests that anatomical research in neuroradiology is not languishing. This novel analytical approach can be applied to other aspects of neuroimaging research, and within other subspecialties in radiology and anatomy, and also to foster anatomical education. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT): A Discipline-Specific Rubric for Utilizing Bloom's Taxonomy in the Design and Evaluation of Assessments in the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2015-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy is a resource commonly used to assess the cognitive level associated with course assignments and examination questions. Although widely utilized in educational research, Bloom's taxonomy has received limited attention as an analytical tool in the anatomical sciences. Building on previous research, the Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT)…

  18. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  19. Teaching medical anatomy: what is the role of imaging today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, Bruno; Oldrini, Guillaume; Walter, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Medical anatomy instruction has been an important issue of debate for many years and imaging anatomy has become an increasingly important component in the field, the role of which has not yet been clearly defined. The aim of the paper was to assess the current deployment of medical imaging in the teaching of anatomy by means of a review of the literature. A systematic search was performed using the electronic database PubMed, ScienceDirect and various publisher databases, with combinations of the relevant MeSH terms. A manual research was added. In most academic curricula, imaging anatomy has been integrated as a part of anatomical education, taught using a very wide variety of strategies. Considerable variation in the time allocation, content and delivery of medical imaging in teaching human anatomy was identified. Given this considerable variation, an objective assessment remains quite difficult. In most publications, students' perceptions regarding anatomical courses including imaging anatomy were investigated by means of questionnaires and, regardless of the method of teaching, it was globally concluded that imaging anatomy enhanced the quality and efficiency of instruction in human anatomy. More objective evaluation based on an increase in students' performance on course examinations or on specific tests performed before and after teaching sessions showed positive results in numerous cases, while mixed results were also indicated by other studies. A relative standardization could be useful in improving the teaching of imaging anatomy, to facilitate its assessment and reinforce its effectiveness.

  20. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  1. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  2. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  3. Improving academic performance of sport and exercise science undergraduate students in gross anatomy using a near-peer teaching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ricardo Borges; Campos, Mário Hebling; Santos, Douglas de Assis Teles; Xavier, Isabela Cristina Maioni; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Andrade, Marília Santos; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2018-04-16

    Peer and near-peer teaching programs are common in medical undergraduate courses. However, there are no studies that have investigated the effectiveness of a near-peer teaching program on the academic performance of undergraduate students pursuing sport and exercise science coursework. This study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of such a program for students who participated in a course on the functional anatomy of the locomotor apparatus. A total of 39 student participants were divided into two groups: students in one group voluntarily attended at least one session of a near-peer teaching program, and students in the other group attended no sessions. The final grade (range 0-100%) was recorded and used as an indicator of academic performance. The final grade of students who attended the near-peer teaching program (69.5 ± 16.0%) was 38.7% higher (P = 0.002, d = 1.06) than those who did not (50.1 ± 20.4%). When the academic performance of the same students was evaluated in another course (exercise physiology) that did not offer a near-peer teaching program, there were no significant differences between the groups (students who attended or did not attend the near-peer teaching program). A significant positive association was found between near-peer teaching program frequency and the number of students approved and not approved in the course (P = 0.041). A significant difference (P = 0.001) was found in the attendance at regular classes between the group who participated in the near-peer teaching program (median: 62 hours; IQR [interquartile ranges]: 4.0 hours) and those who did not (median: 58 hours; IQR: 4.0 hours). Gender was not a moderating factor on academic performance or near-peer teaching program attendance. These results highlight the effectiveness of a near-peer teaching program on the academic performance of students from a sport and exercise science degree program while enrolled in an anatomy course. Anat Sci Educ.

  4. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  5. NASA faked the moon landing--therefore, (climate) science is a hoax: an anatomy of the motivated rejection of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Oberauer, Klaus; Gignac, Gilles E

    2013-05-01

    Although nearly all domain experts agree that carbon dioxide emissions are altering the world's climate, segments of the public remain unconvinced by the scientific evidence. Internet blogs have become a platform for denial of climate change, and bloggers have taken a prominent role in questioning climate science. We report a survey of climate-blog visitors to identify the variables underlying acceptance and rejection of climate science. Our findings parallel those of previous work and show that endorsement of free-market economics predicted rejection of climate science. Endorsement of free markets also predicted the rejection of other established scientific findings, such as the facts that HIV causes AIDS and that smoking causes lung cancer. We additionally show that, above and beyond endorsement of free markets, endorsement of a cluster of conspiracy theories (e.g., that the Federal Bureau of Investigation killed Martin Luther King, Jr.) predicted rejection of climate science as well as other scientific findings. Our results provide empirical support for previous suggestions that conspiratorial thinking contributes to the rejection of science. Acceptance of science, by contrast, was strongly associated with the perception of a consensus among scientists.

  6. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  7. Applied peritoneal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.R.; Planche, K.

    2013-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is a complex anatomical structure with multiple attachments and connections. These are better understood with reference to the embryological development of this region. Armed with this knowledge, the diagnosis and assessment of a wide range of common intra-abdominal diseases becomes straightforward. This article will review and simplify the terminology, complex embryological development, and anatomy of the peritoneum, peritoneal attachments, and the reflections forming the peritoneal boundaries. Normal anatomy will be described using schematic diagrams with corresponding computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, including CT peritoneograms. The relevance of intra- and extra-peritoneal anatomy to common pathological processes will be demonstrated

  8. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Castillo-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT, to provide a snapshot of podiatry students’ basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n=247 correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n=7 incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times or the navicular (6 times. Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies.

  9. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  10. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  13. Computed Tomography-Enhanced Anatomy Course Using Enterprise Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Hila; Cohen, Haim; Medlej, Bahaa; Kornreich, Liora; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Rapid changes in medical knowledge are forcing continuous adaptation of the basic science courses in medical schools. This article discusses a three-year experience developing a new Computed Tomography (CT)-based anatomy curriculum at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, including describing the motivations and reasoning for the…

  14. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  15. Improvement on a science curriculum including experimental demonstration of environmental radioactivity for secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsubara, Shizuo; Aiba, Yoshio; Eriguchi, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Saburo; Takeyama, Tetsuji.

    1988-01-01

    A science curriculum previously prepared for teaching environmental radioactivity was modified on the basis of the results of trial instructions in secondary schools. The main subject of the revised curriculum is an understanding of the natural radioactivity through the experimental demonstration about air-borne β and γ ray emitters. The other subjects included are the radioactive decay, the biological effects of radiation, the concept of risk-benefit balance (acceptable level) and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radiation. The work sheets and reference data prepared as learning materials are in two levels corresponding to the ability of students for this curriculum. (author)

  16. The Human Anatomy Teacher-Scholar: Meeting the Expectations of Educational Outcomes Research, Course Content Innovation, and Textbook Innovation for Educational Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Christine Marie

    2009-01-01

    A human anatomy teacher-scholar is a scholar whose area of expertise includes content knowledge of the anatomical sciences (gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and/or neuroanatomy) and whose research interests and focus are centered in medical educational outcomes. The projects described in this dissertation represent endeavors I engaged in to…

  17. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  18. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  19. Data Stewardship in the Ocean Sciences Needs to Include Physical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-02-01

    Across the Ocean Sciences, research involves the collection and study of samples collected above, at, and below the seafloor, including but not limited to rocks, sediments, fluids, gases, and living organisms. Many domains in the Earth Sciences have recently expressed the need for better discovery, access, and sharing of scientific samples and collections (EarthCube End-User Domain workshops, 2012 and 2013, http://earthcube.org/info/about/end-user-workshops), as has the US government (OSTP Memo, March 2014). iSamples (Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences) is a Research Coordination Network within the EarthCube program that aims to advance the use of innovative cyberinfrastructure to support and advance the utility of physical samples and sample collections for science and ensure reproducibility of sample-based data and research results. iSamples strives to build, grow, and foster a new community of practice, in which domain scientists, curators of sample repositories and collections, computer and information scientists, software developers and technology innovators engage in and collaborate on defining, articulating, and addressing the needs and challenges of physical samples as a critical component of digital data infrastructure. A primary goal of iSamples is to deliver a community-endorsed set of best practices and standards for the registration, description, identification, and citation of physical specimens and define an actionable plan for implementation. iSamples conducted a broad community survey about sample sharing and has created 5 different working groups to address the different challenges of developing the internet of samples - from metadata schemas and unique identifiers to an architecture for a shared cyberinfrastructure to manage collections, to digitization of existing collections, to education, and ultimately to establishing the physical infrastructure that will ensure preservation and access of the physical samples. Repositories that curate

  20. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C.

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Anatomy of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Helen E; Sanjeevan, Kalavampara V; Hutson, John M

    2005-10-01

    We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports), histology and immunohistochemistry. We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available. An extensive review of the current and historical literature was done. The studies reviewed included dissection and microdissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction, histology and immunohistochemical studies. The clitoris is a multiplanar structure with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and via extensive supporting tissue to the mons pubis and labia. Centrally it is attached to the urethra and vagina. Its components include the erectile bodies (paired bulbs and paired corpora, which are continuous with the crura) and the glans clitoris. The glans is a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure that is the only external manifestation of the clitoris. All other components are composed of erectile tissue with the composition of the bulbar erectile tissue differing from that of the corpora. The clitoral and perineal neurovascular bundles are large, paired terminations of the pudendal neurovascular bundles. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami to meet each other and pass along the superior surface of the clitoral body supplying the clitoris. The neural trunks pass largely intact into the glans. These nerves are at least 2 mm in diameter even in infancy. The cavernous or autonomic neural anatomy is microscopic and difficult to define consistently. MRI complements dissection studies and clarifies the anatomy. Clitoral pharmacology and histology appears to parallel those of penile tissue, although the clinical impact is vastly different. Typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris lack detail and

  2. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  3. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were…

  4. Korea's Contribution to Radiological Research Included in Science Citation Index Expanded, 1986-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Baek, Sora; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Hyun; Ju, Young Su

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate scientific papers published by Korean radiologists in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge-Web of Science (SCIE) database was searched for all articles published by Korean radiologists, in SCIE radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. We performed the analysis by typing 'Korea' and 'radiol' in the address section and selecting the subject area of 'Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging' with the use of the general search function of the software. Analyzed parameters included the total number of publications, document types, journals, and institutions. In addition, we analyzed where Korea ranks, compared to other countries, in terms of the number of published articles. All these data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Overall, 4974 papers were published by Korean radiologists, in 99 different SCIE journals, between 1986 and 2010, of which 4237 (85.2%) were article-type papers. Of the total 115395 articles, worldwide, published in radiology journals, Korea's share was 3.7%, with an upward trend over time (p < 0.005). The journal with the highest number of articles was the American Journal of Roentgenology (n 565, 13.3%). The institution which produced the highest number of publications was Seoul National University (n = 932, 22.0%). The number of scientific articles published by Korean radiologists in the SCIE radiology journals has increased significantly between 1986 and 2010. Korea was ranked 4th among countries contributing to radiology research during the last 5 years.

  5. Including plasma and fusion topics in the science education in school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    Yutori education (more relaxed education policy) started with the revision of the Courses of Study to introduce 'five-day week system' in 1989, continued with the reduction of the content of school lessons by 30% in 1998, and ended with the introduction of the New Courses of Study in 2011. Focusing on science education, especially in the topics of plasma and nuclear fusion, the modality of the education system in Japan is discussed considering the transition of academic performance based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in comparison with the examples in other countries. Particularly, the issues with high school textbooks are pointed out from the assessment of current textbooks, and the significance and the need for including the topic of 'plasma' in them are stated. Lastly, in order to make the general public acknowledged with plasma and nuclear fusion, it is suggested to include them also in junior high school textbooks, by briefly mentioning the terms related to plasma, solar wind, aurora phenomenon, and nuclear fusion energy. (S.K.)

  6. Teaching Basic Science Content via Real-World Applications: A College-Level Summer Course in Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul; Miller, Allison; Carson, Brian; Hermanson, John

    2018-01-01

    Learning and retaining science content may be increased by applying the basic science material to real-world situations. Discussing cases with students during lectures and having them participate in laboratory exercises where they apply the science content to practical situations increases students' interest and enthusiasm. A summer course in…

  7. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  8. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  9. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, P.; Bates, N.

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the anal canal is complex but well demonstrated by MRI. Understanding the anatomy is a prerequisite for determining the true site and the extent of pathology, especially for surgical workup. In this article, the MRI anatomy of the anal canal has been displayed using highlighted MRI images and line diagrams. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  12. A Comparison of Fourth-Year Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Gross Lower and Upper Limb Anatomy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mancha, Juan-Antonio; Castillo-López, José Manuel; Munuera-Martinez, Pedro V; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María; Polo-Padillo, Juan; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and compare the knowledge of fourth-year medicine, physiotherapy (PT), nursing, and podiatry students in carpal and tarsal bone anatomy. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Based on a nonprobability convenience sampling, 177 fourth-year students (117 women and 60 men, mean age of 23.16 ± 3.82 years) from the podiatry (n = 39), nursing (n = 26), PT (n = 73), and medicine (n = 39) schools at a large Spanish university were included. Measurements were taken of their gross anatomy knowledge by means of the carpal and the tarsal bone tests. Students were asked to identify all carpal and tarsal bones in an illustration of the bony skeleton of both regions and were given a maximum of 5 minutes per test. Of a total of 15 bones to be labeled, the PT (11.07 ± 3.30) and podiatry (9.36 ± 2.93) students had the highest rate of correct answers compared with the medicine (6.13 ± 3.27) and nursing (4.04 ± 3.72) undergraduates. When assessing academic degrees and test scores, significant differences were observed between PT and podiatry participants vs those from the medicine and nursing schools (P students from the PT and podiatry programs correctly identified a higher number of carpal and tarsal bones than students from the nursing and medicine schools. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Thomas Bartholin, theological anatomy in the 17th century --religion and science in Danish history of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mønster-Kjaer, Inge

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly accepted, that the Reformation heavily influenced scientific thinking in Europe. But in many historical accounts, this effect is presented as a fundamental break at the beginning of the 16th century with previous ideas and methods. In this view, scientists turned their back on explanations based on religion and began deliberately and determinedly to pull society away from the church. After studying Bartholin's writings, particularly some of the less well known texts such as his treatises on biblical medicine, I have come to the conclusion, that he in fact saw himself primarily as a theologian. For him anatomy was merely a tool, and so it had been for scientist all over Europe from its gradual evolvement as a field of study from Antiquity to the Renaissance. It had been a tool to illustrate the greatness and perfection of God's Creation in artistic ways, a tool to prove sanctity, a tool to establish causes of death in both judicial and medical contexts etc.

  14. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  15. `INCLUDING' Partnerships to Build Authentic Research Into K-12 Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Lev, E.; Newton, R.; Xu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Opportunities for authentic research experiences have been shown effective for recruiting and retaining students in STEM fields. Meaningful research experiences entail significant time in project design, modeling ethical practice, providing training, instruction, and ongoing guidance. We propose that in order to be sustainable, a new instructional paradigm is needed, one that shifts from being top-weighted in instruction to a distributed weight model. This model relies on partnerships where everyone has buy-in and reaps rewards, establishing broadened networks for support, and adjusting the mentoring model. We use our successful Secondary School Field Research Program as a model for this new paradigm. For over a decade this program has provided authentic geoscience field research for an expanding group of predominantly inner city high school youth from communities underrepresented in the sciences. The program has shifted the balance with returning participants now serving as undergraduate mentors for the high school student `researchers', providing much of the ongoing training, instruction, guidance and feedback needed. But in order to be sustainable and impactful we need to broaden our base. A recent NSF-INCLUDES pilot project has allowed us to expand this model, linking schools, informal education non-profits, other academic institutions, community partners and private funding agencies into geographically organized `clusters'. Starting with a tiered mentoring model with scientists as consultants, teachers as team members, undergraduates as team leaders and high school students as researchers, each cluster will customize its program to reflect the needs and strengths of the team. To be successful each organization must identify how the program fits their organizational goals, the resources they can contribute and what they need back. Widening the partnership base spreads institutional commitments for research scientists, research locations and lab space

  16. Various Political and Social Challenges Including Wars and Displacement in Empowering Women and Girls in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Narli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor gender ratio in science and engineering has been a global concern, despite growing number of female scientists in the world. Women’s empowerment in science is key to achieve human progress and dignity and directly related to accomplishing SDG 16: "Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels". What are the challenges that hinder women and girls’ progress in science? Added to several challenges discussed below, wars and displaced population create obstacles for female education and women’s advancement in science and technology. There are some challenges that have prevailed for the last two decades (e.g. economic insecurity and new challenges that are the results of the new forms wars, civil wars and extremism (e.g., large scale armed conflicts that involves state and non-state actors which have produced large numbers of displaced women in the Middle East who lost their jobs and isolated elsewhere, many young displaced females and refugees and who have no access to formal education and who face health risks in conflict and displacement settings, and new forms of gender discrimination produced by religious extremism.......

  17. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  18. The anatomy workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen-Ansert, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an atlas of human anatomy presented in the form of line drawings, many of which correspond to imaging planes used in ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). The book is organized into 17 sections, each covering a specific structure or organ system. Large, uncluttered drawings are labeled for identification of structures of interest. Many illustrations include captions consisting of comments explaining major divisions within organs, specific anatomic relationships and landmarks, and pertinent vascular anatomy. Most organs are first depicted in isolation or in relation to important adjacent organs or blood vessels and are rendered as if viewed from anterior, posterior, inferior, or superior perspectives. The organs are demonstrated again in serial transverse, saggital, and coronal sections, each accompanied by a drawing of a body in anatomic position denoting the plane of the section

  19. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  20. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers

  1. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    In this report we review the range of teaching resources and strategies used in anatomy education with the aim of coming up with suggestions about the best teaching practices in this area. There is much debate about suitable methods of delivering anatomical knowledge. Competent clinicians, particularly surgeons, need a deep understanding of anatomy for safe clinical procedures. However, because students have had very limited exposure to anatomy during clinical training, there is a concern that medical students are ill-prepared in anatomy when entering clerkships and residency programs. Therefore, developing effective modalities for teaching anatomy is essential to safe medical practice. Cadaver-based instruction has survived as the main instructional tool for hundreds of years, however, there are differing views on whether full cadaver dissection is still appropriate for a modern undergraduate training. The limitations on curricular time, trained anatomy faculty and resources for gross anatomy courses in integrated or/and system-based curricula, have led many medical schools to abandon costly and time-consuming dissection-based instruction in favour of alternative methods of instruction including prosection, medical imaging, living anatomy and multimedia resources. To date, no single teaching tool has been found to meet curriculum requirements. The best way to teach modern anatomy is by combining multiple pedagogical resources to complement one another, students appear to learn more effectively when multimodal and system-based approaches are integrated. Our review suggests that certain professions would have more benefit from certain educational methods or strategies than others. Full body dissection would be best reserved for medical students, especially those with surgical career intentions, while teaching based on prosections and plastination is more suitable for dental, pharmacy and allied health science students. There is a need to direct future research

  2. Student Performance in and Perceptions of a High Structure Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Justin F.

    2016-01-01

    Human anatomy has usually been taught in a didactic fashion in colleges and universities. However, recent calls from United States governmental agencies have called for the transformation of undergraduate life sciences education to include active learning in the classroom. In addition, high structure courses have been shown to increase student…

  3. Including Media in Field Research and Becoming Part of the Science Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are two primary strategies that I have pursued over the last decade to engage the media, policy makers, and public; after two decades of typical scientific publication methods. An effective method to engage the media with our ongoing 32 year glacier field research program has been to invite media members to join us in the field. From climate videographers to traditional reporters we have had a member of the media with us in nine of the last ten field seasons; two in 2015. The resulting stories have led to several awards for the journalists and an ongoing relationship with our research program. The second part of this science research communication strategy is to have readily available material on specific topics for the media to utilize; this requires social media outreach. The primary outlet media find is the AGU Blog: From a Glacier's Perspective. This blog pubishes two articles a week on a specific glacier's response to climate change. The blog yields on average a media contact on every fourth blog post in 2015. The contacts revolve around specific local glacier information published on the blog. The goal of each blog post is to tell a story about how each glacier is impacted by climate change.

  4. ["...such refuges are the collections and museums, which represent the current aspects of science, and prepare for its future". Social aspects of anatomy and the collections of the Vienna medical faculty, 1790 - 1840].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenauer, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises out of my research which I have been conducting in the context of my dissertation project. It explores the relationship between teaching, research and collecting practices in Viennese anatomy during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. In a time in which Viennese medicine tried to reinvent itself through both the creation of a new curriculum and several other institutional measures the practice of establishing comparative and human anatomical collections can be seen as a strategic key field of action. By concentrating on scientific journals, popular texts, catalogues, correspondences and specimens this paper aims at revealing specific social systems which must be understood as parts of the 'social history' of Viennese anatomy. By looking closely at these social aspects of anatomical teaching and research, this work tries to contribute to recent discussions addressed by historians of science and medicine.

  5. A framework for employing femtosatellites in planetary science missions, including a proposed mission concept for Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Tracie Renea Conn

    Over the past 15 years, there has been a growing interest in femtosatellites, a class of tiny satellites having mass less than 100 grams. Research groups from Peru, Spain, England, Canada, and the United States have proposed femtosat designs and novel mission concepts for them. In fact, Peru made history in 2013 by releasing the first - and still only - femtosat tracked from LEO. However, femtosatellite applications in interplanetary missions have yet to be explored in detail. An interesting operations concept would be for a space probe to release numerous femtosatellites into orbit around a planetary object of interest, thereby augmenting the overall data collection capability of the mission. A planetary probe releasing hundreds of femtosats could complete an in-situ, simultaneous 3D mapping of a physical property of interest, achieving scientific investigations not possible for one probe operating alone. To study the technical challenges associated with such a mission, a conceptual mission design is proposed where femtosats are deployed from a host satellite orbiting Titan. The conceptual mission objective is presented: to study Titan's dynamic atmosphere. Then, the design challenges are addressed in turn. First, any science payload measurements that the femtosats provide are only useful if their corresponding locations can be determined. Specifically, what's required is a method of position determination for femtosatellites operating beyond Medium Earth Orbit and therefore beyond the help of GPS. A technique is presented which applies Kalman filter techniques to Doppler shift measurements, allowing for orbit determination of the femtosats. Several case studies are presented demonstrating the usefulness of this approach. Second, due to the inherit power and computational limitations in a femtosatellite design, establishing a radio link between each chipsat and the mothersat will be difficult. To provide a mathematical gain, a particular form of forward error

  6. Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. ... Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology, - Embryology ...

  7. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  8. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  9. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1973: Chronology of science, technology and policy. [including artificial satellites, space probes, and manned space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A brief chronological account is presented of key events of the year in aerospace sciences. Dates, actions, hardware, persons, scientific discoveries are recorded along with plans, decisions, achievements and preliminary evaluations of results. Samples of public reaction and social impact are included. Sources are identified and an index is provided to aid in tracing related events through the year. The index also serves as a glossary of acronyms and abbreviations.

  10. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Youngster's Science Festival' in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Hayashi, Toshio; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    'Youngster's Science Festival' has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students' interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the 'Radiation Fair' survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer's image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks. (author)

  12. Improving learning of anatomy with reusable learning objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of modern educational technologies is useful for learning, durability, sociability, and upgrading professionalism. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of reusable learning objects on improving learning of anatomy. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Fourteen (reusable learning objects RLO from different parts of anatomy of human body including thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were prepared for medical student in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The length of the time for RLO was between 11-22 min. Because their capacities were low, so they were easy to use with cell phone or MP4. These materials were available to the students before the classes. The mean scores of students in anatomy of human body group were compared to the medical students who were not used this method and entered the university in 2008. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher to evaluate the effect of RLO and on, content, interest and motivation, participation, preparation and attitude. Result: The mean scores of anatomy of human body of medical student who were entered the university in 2009 have been increased compare to the students in 2008, but this difference was not significant. Based on the questionnaire data, it was shown that the RLO had a positive effect on improving learning anatomy of human body (75.5% and the effective relationship (60.6%. The students were interested in using RLO (74.6%, some students (54.2% believed that this method should be replaced by lecture. Conclusion: The use of RLO could promote interests and effective communication among the students and led to increasing self-learning motivation.

  13. Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M

    2012-12-01

    stated in the literature, A. mexicanum has a muscle coracoradialis that has both a well developed proximal fleshy belly and a distal long and thin tendon, supporting the idea that this muscle very likely corresponds to at least part of the amniote biceps brachii. Our observations also: (i) confirmed that the flexores digitorum minimi, interphalangeus digiti 3, pronator quadratus and palmaris profundus 1 are present as distinct muscles in A. mexicanum, supporting the idea that the latter muscle does not correspond to the pronator accessorius of reptiles; (ii) confirmed that the so-called extensor antebrachii radialis is present as a distinct muscle in this species and, importantly, indicated that this muscle corresponds to the supinator of other tetrapods; (iii) showed that, contrary to some other urodeles, including some other Ambystoma species, there is no distinct muscle epitrochleoanconeus in A. mexicanum and; (iv) showed that the ulnar and radial bundles of the abductor et extensor digiti 1 correspond to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus of other tetrapods, respectively. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  14. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  15. Are Your Students Ready for Anatomy and Physiology? Developing Tools to Identify Students at Risk for Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultice, Amy; Witham, Ann; Kallmeyer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    High failure rates in introductory college science courses, including anatomy and physiology, are common at institutions across the country, and determining the specific factors that contribute to this problem is challenging. To identify students at risk for failure in introductory physiology courses at our open-enrollment institution, an online…

  16. Relevance of human anatomy in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mirapeix, Rosa-M; Mompeo-Corredera, Blanca; Sañudo-Tejero, Jose-Ramón

    2010-12-20

    the aim of this study has been to evaluate the relevance of gross human anatomy in daily clinical practice and to compare it to that of other basic sciences (biochemistry, bioethics, cytohistology, microbiology, pharmacology, physiology, psychology). a total of 1250 questionnaires were distributed among 38 different medical speciality professionals. Answers were analyzed taking into account speciality (medical, surgery and others), professional status (training physician or staff member) and professional experience. the response rate was 42.9% (n=536). Gross human anatomy was considered the most relevant basic discipline for surgical specialists, while pharmacology and physiology were most relevant for medical specialists. Knowledge of anatomy was also considered fundamental for understanding neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. In undergraduate programmes, the most important focuses in teaching anatomy were radiological, topographical and functional anatomy followed by systematic anatomy. In daily medical practice anatomy was considered basic for physical examination, symptom interpretation and interpretation of radiological images. When professional status or professional experience was considered, small variations were shown and there were no significant differences related to gender or community. our results underline the relevance of basic sciences (gross anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology) in daily professional activity. Evidence-based studies such as ours, lend greater credibility and objectivity to the role of gross anatomy in the undergraduate training of health professionals and should help to establish a more appropriate curriculum for future professionals. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Normal CT anatomy of the calcaneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Gyu; Kang, Heung Sik

    1986-01-01

    Normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus with multiplanar CT examination was studied in 5 volunteers as the background for interpretation of various abnormalities. Major 3 sectional anatomy including plantar, coronal, sagittal and additional tuberosity planes are described. With CT examination of the calcaneus, 1. More detailed anatomy of 3 facets of subtalar joint (anterior, middle, and posterior facet) can be well visualized. 2. Its clinical applications in the tarsal trauma, tarsal coalition, subtalar infection, degenerative arthritis, club foot, pes planus and tarsal tumor could provide much more information's, which not obtained by conventional radiographic studies.

  18. Neutron anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone.

  19. Neutron anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone

  20. Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides reliable definitions of sports science and medicine terms. It provides an invaluable reference book for anyone interested in the captivating subject of sport. PURPOSE This dictionary aims to include almost every sports science, anatomy, physiology, biomechanical, injuries description, and psychological term as related to sports medicine and science and support the explanations by illustrations wherever necessary. AUDIEN...

  1. Analysis of scientific papers included in the sciences citation index expanded written by South korean plastic surgeons: 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ju Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lim, So-Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap Sung; Shin, Myoung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to analyze scientific papers published by South Korean plastic surgeons in journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), and to evaluate the publication and research activities of Korean plastic surgeon. We conducted a survey of SCIE papers in the field of plastic surgery published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010 using Web of Science software. We further analyzed these results according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution, and type of papers. We also compared the total number of citations to published scientific papers. We analyzed the rank of South Korea among other countries in representative journals. Overall, 667 papers were published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010. The number of publications increased dramatically from 2003 (n=31) to 2010 (n=139). Subsequently, the ten most productive Korean medical colleges were identified. All published papers received 2,311 citations and the citation to paper ratio was 3.49. The rank of Korea among other countries in terms of the number of published papers remained in the top 10 during the recent 10 years. Publication output of Korean plastic surgeon over the last 10 years showed a remarkable growth in terms of quantity and quality. Currently, Korea is among the top six countries in representative plastic surgery journals. Korean plastic surgeons have played a central role in this progress, and it is anticipated that they will continue to do so in the future.

  2. Dissecting the role of sessional anatomy teachers: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Danielle; Fogg, Quentin A; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2017-12-04

    Worldwide there is a growing reliance on sessional teachers in universities. This has impacted all disciplines in higher education including medical anatomy programs. The objective of this review was to define the role and support needs of sessional anatomy teachers by reporting on the (1) qualifications, (2) teaching role, (3) training, and (4) performance management of this group of educators. A systematic literature search was conducted on the 27 July 2017 in Scopus, Web of Science, and several databases on the Ovid, ProQuest and EBSCOhost platforms. The search retrieved 5,658 articles, with 39 deemed eligible for inclusion. The qualifications and educational distance between sessional anatomy teachers and their students varied widely. Reports of cross-level, near-peer and reciprocal-peer teaching were identified, with most institutes utilizing recent medical graduates or medical students as sessional teachers. Sessional anatomy teachers were engaged in the full spectrum of teaching-related duties from assisting students with cadaveric dissection, to marking student assessments and developing course materials. Fourteen institutes reported that training was provided to sessional anatomy teachers, but the specific content, objectives, methods and effectiveness of the training programs were rarely defined. Evaluations of sessional anatomy teacher performance primarily relied on subjective feedback measures such as student surveys (n = 18) or teacher self-assessment (n = 3). The results of this systematic review highlight the need for rigorous explorations of the use of sessional anatomy teachers in medical education, and the development of evidence-based policies and training programs that regulate and support the use of sessional teachers in higher education. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  4. 75 FR 16514 - Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,045] Bayer Material Science... January 8th, 2010, applicable to workers of Bayer Material Science, LLC, formally known as Sheffield... polycarbonate film products. Information shows that Bayer Material Science, LLC was formally known as Sheffield...

  5. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  6. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  7. Korea's Contribution to Radiological Research Included in Science Citation Index Expanded, 1986-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Baek, Sora; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon [Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun; Ju, Young Su [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate scientific papers published by Korean radiologists in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge-Web of Science (SCIE) database was searched for all articles published by Korean radiologists, in SCIE radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. We performed the analysis by typing 'Korea' and 'radiol' in the address section and selecting the subject area of 'Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging' with the use of the general search function of the software. Analyzed parameters included the total number of publications, document types, journals, and institutions. In addition, we analyzed where Korea ranks, compared to other countries, in terms of the number of published articles. All these data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Overall, 4974 papers were published by Korean radiologists, in 99 different SCIE journals, between 1986 and 2010, of which 4237 (85.2%) were article-type papers. Of the total 115395 articles, worldwide, published in radiology journals, Korea's share was 3.7%, with an upward trend over time (p < 0.005). The journal with the highest number of articles was the American Journal of Roentgenology (n 565, 13.3%). The institution which produced the highest number of publications was Seoul National University (n = 932, 22.0%). The number of scientific articles published by Korean radiologists in the SCIE radiology journals has increased significantly between 1986 and 2010. Korea was ranked 4th among countries contributing to radiology research during the last 5 years.

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students.

  9. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  10. Out of the dissecting room: news media portrayal of human anatomy teaching and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan de Bere, Sam; Petersen, Alan

    2006-07-01

    Radical changes in medical research and education have recently led to a number of innovative developments in terms of how human anatomy is represented and understood. New ways of introducing medical students to anatomy (including living anatomies and virtual simulations) have provoked widespread debate, with discussion of their relative merits compared to more traditional approaches that use cadaveric dissection. Outside the field of medicine, in the wider public sphere, the practice of anatomical study may often seem mysterious. The dissemination of news on anatomy, we contend, is central to the question of how medical researchers and educators engage with the public. Our analysis of news media coverage in the UK demonstrates that news-making, by giving prominence to certain facts, themes and images, serves to mask issues about anatomy and its practices that need debate. We examine the ways in which news media, through processes of selection and the 'framing' of issues, may perform an agenda-setting role. We draw attention to the use of positive 'awe and amazement' frames including 'miracles of modern science', 'medical heroes', and 'gifts of life', alongside more negative 'guts and gore' coverage including 'Frankenstein', 'Brave New World' and 'Rape of the Body' frames that concentrate on high profile scandals associated with the use and misuse of human bodies, tissues and parts. We also highlight the selective use of commentaries from members of the medical profession, which are more prevalent in positive 'awe and amazement' stories than in stories with negative coverage. We conclude by arguing for greater collaboration between journalists on the one hand, and medical educators and researchers on the other, in the making of news in order to provide portrayals of anatomy which bear a closer relationship to the everyday reality of professional work.

  11. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  12. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  13. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  14. Anatomy of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the anatomy and function of the brain system for memory in humans and animal models are reviewed from the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego and the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

  15. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual ...

  16. Is a Team-based Learning Approach to Anatomy Teaching Superior to Didactic Lecturing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Naghme; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Noorafshan, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is used in the medical field to implement interactive learning in small groups. The learning of anatomy and its subsequent application requires the students to recall a great deal of factual content. The aims of this study were to evaluate the students' satisfaction, engagement and knowledge gain in anatomy through the medium of TBL in comparison to the traditional lecture method. This study, carried out from February to June 2012, included 30 physical therapy students of the Shiraz University of Medical Science, School of Rehabilitation Sciences. Classic TBL techniques were modified to cover lower limb anatomy topics in the first year of the physical therapy curriculum. Anatomy lectures were replaced with TBL, which required the preparation of assigned content, specific discussion topics, an individual self-assessment test (IRAT) and the analysis of discussion topics. The teams then subsequently retook the assessment test as a group (GRAT). The first eight weeks of the curriculum were taught using traditional didactic lecturing, while during the second eight weeks the modified TBL method was used. The students evaluated these sessions through a questionnaire. The impact of TBL on student engagement and educational achievement was determined using numerical data, including the IRAT, GRAT and final examination scores. Students had a higher satisfaction rate with the TBL teaching according to the Likert scale. Additionally, higher scores were obtained in the TBL-based final examination in comparison to the lecture-based midterm exam. The students' responses showed that the TBL technique could be used alone or in conjunction with traditional didactic lecturing in order to teach anatomy more effectively.

  17. MR imaging of brain surface structures: Surface anatomy scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, K.; Koga, S.; Asahina, M.; Kanno, T.; Asahina, K.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of brain surface anatomy, including cortical sulci and veins, relative to cerebral and cerebellar lesions is an important subject for surgeons. Until now, no imaging modality existed that allowed direct visualization of brain surface anatomy. A new MR imaging technique (surface anatomy scanning) was developed to visualize brain surface structures. The technique uses a spin-echo pulse sequence with long repetition and echo times, thick sections and a surface coil. Cortical sulci, fissures, veins, and intracranial lesions were clearly identified with this technique. Initial clinical results indicate that surface anatomy scanning is useful for lesion localization and for detailed evaluation of cortical and subcortical lesions

  18. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  19. An untold story: The important contributions of Muslim scholars for the understanding of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Malak A; Ziermann, Janine M; Diogo, Rui

    2017-06-01

    It is usually assumed that Galen is one of the fathers of anatomy and that between the Corpus Galenicum and the Renaissance there was no major advance in anatomical knowledge. However, it is also consensually accepted that Muslim scholars had the intellectual leadership from the 8th/9th to 13th centuries, and that they made remarkable progresses in numerous scientific fields including medicine. So, how is it possible that they did not contribute to advance human anatomy during that period? According to the dominant view, Muslim scholars exclusively had a passive role: their transmission of knowledge from the Greeks to the West. Here, we summarize, for the first time in a single paper, the studies of major Muslim scholars that published on human anatomy before Vesalius. This summary is based on analyses of original Arabic texts and of more recent publications by anatomists and historians, and on comparisons between the descriptions provided by Galen and by these Muslim scholars. We show that Arabic speakers and Persians made important advances in human anatomy well before Vesalius. The most notable exception concerns the muscular system: strikingly, there were apparently neither advances made by Muslims nor by Westerners for more than 1000 years. Unbiased discussions of these and other related issues, and particularly of the mainly untold story about the major contributions of Muslim scholars to anatomy, are crucial to our knowledge of the history of anatomy, biology and sciences, and also of our way of thinking, biases, and prejudices. Anat Rec, 300:986-1008, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  1. Anatomy learning styles and strategies among Jordanian and Malaysian medical students: the impact of culture on learning anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Mustafa, Intisar G; Hoja, Ibrahim M

    2013-07-01

    The study aims to investigate anatomy learning styles and strategies of Jordanian and Malaysian medical students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology. The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Students' responses for the questionnaire were numerically coded, and the results were analyzed to reveal statistically significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students. The results showed that Jordanian medical students were less interested in using cadavers in learning anatomy than Malaysian medical students. However, similar to their Malaysian counterparts, they prefer to employ other tools to learn anatomy like plastinated models and Internet-based resources. In addition to the aforementioned tools, Malaysian students were more interested in using cross-sectional images and making their own revision cards. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students were more interested in learning anatomy through clinical cases, and by system rather than by region. Moreover, it was revealed that Jordanian medical students learn anatomy more efficiently when they formulate a general view of a particular topic. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students also relied on reciting definitions and memorizing facts to learn anatomy. The study also reported significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students' perspectives on learning anatomy. The findings of the study suggest that Jordanian and Malaysian medical students posses different cultures of learning. Jordanian anatomy instructors need to consider these different learning cultures when they prepare their instructional methods and teaching materials to fulfill the educational needs of their culturally diverse students.

  2. Short communication: Characteristics of student success in an undergraduate physiology and anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwazdauskas, F C; McGilliard, M L; Corl, B A

    2014-10-01

    Several factors affect the success of students in college classes. The objective of this research was to determine what factors affect success of undergraduate students in an anatomy and physiology class. Data were collected from 602 students enrolled in the Agriculture and Life Sciences (ALS) 2304 Animal Physiology and Anatomy course from 2005 through 2012. The data set included 476 females (79.1%) and 126 males (20.9%). Time to complete exams was recorded for each student. For statistical analyses, students' majors were animal and poultry sciences (APSC), agricultural sciences, biochemistry, biological sciences, dairy science, and "other," which combined all other majors. All analyses were completed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Gender, major, matriculation year, major by year interaction, gender by year interaction, and time to complete the exam affected final course grade. The significant gender effect was manifested in the final grade percentage of 75.9 ± 0.4 for female students compared with 72.3 ± 0.6 for male students. Junior males had final course grades comparable with those of females, but sophomore and senior males had lower final course grades than other combinations. Biology majors had a final grade of 82.4 ± 0.6 and this grade was greater than all other majors. Students classified as "other" had a final score of 74.4 ± 0.8, which was greater than agricultural science majors (69.5 ± 0.9). The APSC grade (72.6 ± 0.5) was higher than the agricultural science majors. Junior students had significantly greater final grades (76.1 ± 0.5) than sophomores (73.3 ± 0.6) and seniors (72.9 ± 0.9). All biology students had greater final grades than all other majors, but biochemistry juniors had greater final course grades than APSC, agricultural science, and dairy science juniors. "Other" seniors had greater final course grades than agricultural science seniors. The regression for time to complete the exam was

  3. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  4. Medical Students' Perspective on Current and Future Training in Anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, C.P.R.; Koppes, D.M.; Kuijk, S.M.J. Van; Popeijus, H.E.; Lamers, W.H.; Gorp, T. Van; Futterer, J.J.; Kruitwagen, R.; Notten, K.J.B.

    2018-01-01

    Gaining sufficient knowledge of anatomy is an important part of medical education. Factors that influence how well students learn anatomical structures include available sources, learning time and study assistance. This study explores the attitude of medical students with regard to studying anatomy

  5. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  6. Henry Gray's Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-04-01

    Little is generally known of Henry Gray, the author of Gray's Anatomy, and even less of his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter, who played a vital role in the dissections and illustrations leading to the production of the first volume in 1859. This essay attempts to sketch briefly the salient, know aspects of these two men and their divergent careers. It traces succinctly the subsequent fate of the unique anatomy book that has influenced and instructed almost every student of medicine. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The relationship between student engagement with online content and achievement in a blended learning anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Whitburn, Laura Y; Zacharias, Anita; Byrne, Graeme; Hughes, Diane L

    2017-12-13

    Blended learning has become increasingly common in higher education. Recent findings suggest that blended learning achieves better student outcomes than traditional face-to-face teaching in gross anatomy courses. While face-to-face content is perceived as important to learning there is less evidence for the significance of online content in improving student outcomes. Students enrolled in a second-year anatomy course from the physiotherapy (PT), exercise physiology (EP), and exercise science (ES) programs across two campuses were included (n = 500). A structural equation model was used to evaluate the relationship of prior student ability (represented by grade in prerequisite anatomy course) and final course grade and whether the relationship was mediated by program, campus or engagement with the online elements of the learning management system (LMS; proportion of documents and video segments viewed and number of interactions with discussion forums). PT students obtained higher grades and were more likely to engage with online course materials than EP and ES students. Prerequisite grade made a direct contribution to course final grade (P learning outcomes in a blended anatomy course can be predicted the by level of engagement with online content. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Is the decline of human anatomy hazardous to medical education/profession?--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajani; Shane Tubbs, R; Gupta, Kavita; Singh, Man; Jones, D Gareth; Kumar, Raj

    2015-12-01

    The continuous decrease in teaching time, the artificially created scarcity of competent anatomical faculties and a reduced allocation of resources have brought about the decline of anatomy in medical education. As a result of this, anatomical knowledge and the standard of medical education have fallen with consequences including safety in clinical practice. The aim of the present study is to analyze this declining phase of anatomy and its impact on medical education and to consider corrective measures. This article expresses comparative viewpoints based on a review of the literature. Anatomy enables doctors to master the language of medical science so they can communicate with patients, the public and fellow doctors and diagnose and treat diseases successfully in all medical fields. No medical specialist or expert can master their field without adequate knowledge of human anatomy. The shrinkage of anatomical schedules, inadequate faculties and declining allocation of resources is therefore unfortunate. These factors produce stress in both student and faculty creating gaps in anatomical knowledge that means insufficient skill is developed to practice medicine safely. This decline is hazardous not only to the medical profession but also to society. Reforms consisting of balanced rescheduling of medical curricula and optimum resource allocation have been proposed to improve the standard of education of doctors.

  9. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  10. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  11. TANZANIA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE VOLUME 35, 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Department of Anatomy/Histology, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences ... immunoreactivity in the pyloric mucosa of the rat stomach. The immunoreactive elements included the endocrine cells, mast cells and mucosal nerve fibers in the lamina propria. The .... pancreatic secretion via a vagal cholinergic pathway ...

  12. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  13. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  14. "Digit anatomy": a new technique for learning anatomy using motor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice the movements which express (1) the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches, (2) the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and their branches, and formation of the portal vein, (3) the heart and the coronary arteries, and (4) the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses. A feedback survey showed that digit anatomy was helpful for the students not only in memorizing anatomical structures but also in understanding their functions. Out of 40 students, 34 of them who learned anatomy with the help of digit anatomy were "very satisfied" or "generally satisfied" with this new teaching method. Digit anatomy that was used to express the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches was more helpful than those representing other structures. Although the movements of digit anatomy are expected to be remembered longer than the exact meaning of each movement, invoking the motor memory of the movement may help to make relearning of the same information easier and faster in the future. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  16. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  17. Innovative taught MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunie, Lauren; Livingstone, Daniel; Rea, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    A relatively new, fully accredited MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy, is now offered through a joint collaboration with the Laboratory of Human Anatomy, University of Glasgow and the Digital Design Studio, Glasgow School of Art. This degree combines training in digital technologies and intensive human anatomy training as a result of a long-standing successful partnership between these two esteemed institutes. The student also has to complete a research dissertation which encompasses both the digital perspective and a related medical, dental, surgical, veterinary (comparative anatomy) or life science specialty to enhance development in the digital field for a variety of specialties. This article discusses the background in development of this degree, the course structure and the career prospects and destinations for graduates of this unique degree programme.

  18. History of cardiac anatomy: a comprehensive review from the Egyptians to today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Youssef, Pamela; Gielecki, Jerzy; Walocha, Jerzy; Natsis, Kostantinos; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-04-01

    The nature, function, and anatomy of the heart have been extensively studied since 3500 B.C. Greek and Egyptian science developed a basic understanding of the heart, although this was primarily related to religious beliefs. During the Hippocratic era, Hippocrates and his colleagues developed a more scientific and less religious understanding of the cardiovascular system. The post-Hippocratic era was characterized by more advanced descriptions of the location, structure, and function of the heart. The Alexandrian, Roman, Medieval Islamic, and European eras included turning points in the history of cardiac anatomy. Subsequently, after the structure and function of the heart were established, its connection with the lungs was investigated. Description of the pulmonary circulation was followed by the discovery of the conductive system and innervation of the heart. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Historical development of modern anatomy education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools at the beginning of Meiji era were diverse, both in regard to their founders and their methods of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organize medical education at the medical school of the University of Tokyo. The anatomical education at the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei, who returned from the study in Germany. At the first meeting of Japanese Association ofAnatomists in 1893 [Meiji 26], the Japanese anatomy teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the University of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomy department. Before 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationalities were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books based on the lectures by German teachers at the University of Tokyo were published. The anatomy books after 1887 [Meiji 20] were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 [Meiji 38], the original Japanese anatomy books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. In the Meiji 10s the anatomy teachers and anatomy textbooks spread from the University of Tokyo to the medical schools in Japan as the number of medical schools increased temporally. In the Meiji 20s the five national and three public medical schools in addition to the University of Tokyo provided substantial anatomy education including dissection course. Even in the early Meiji 20s these medical schools supplied only half of the newly licensed doctors, and the others were supplied through the national examination after preparatory education at private medical schools without opportunity of substantial anatomy education including dissection course.

  20. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  1. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M

    2012-01-01

    The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in evolutionary, developmental and regenerative studies, particularly because it can reconstitute a fully functional and complete forelimb/hindlimb. Surprisingly, there is no publication that describes all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of this species or provides a comparative framework between these muscles and those of other model organisms and of modern humans. In the present paper we describe and illustrate all these muscles in A. mexicanum and provide the first report about the myology of adults of a model organism that is based on analyses and dissections of both wildtype animals and transgenic animals that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in muscle fibers. On the one hand, the inclusion of GFP-transgenic animals allows us to show the muscles as more commonly seen, and thus easier to understand, by current developmental and regenerative biologists. On the other hand, by including wildtype and GFP-transgenic animals and by visualizing these latter animals with and without a simultaneous transmission laser light, we were able to obtain a more complete and clearer understanding of the exact limit of the fleshy and tendinous parts of the muscles and their specific connections with the skeletal elements. This in turn allowed us to settle some controversies in previous anatomical and comparative studies. As most developmental, regenerative and evolutionary biologists are interested in comparing their observations of A. mexicanum with observations in other model organisms, and ultimately in using this information to increase the understanding of human evolution and medicine, we also provide tables showing the homologies between the pectoral and forelimb muscles of axolotls, of model organisms such as mice, frogs and chicken, and of Homo sapiens. An example illustrating the outcomes of using our methodology and of our observations is that they revealed that, contrary to what is often

  3. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. An atlas of radiological anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a wealth of radiologic images of normal human anatomy; plain radiographs, contrast-enhanced radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans. There are 18 pages of magnetic resonance (MR) images, most on the brain and spinal cord, so that there are only two pages on MR imaging of the heart and two pages on abdominal and pelvic MR imaging. Twelve pages of ultrasound (US) images are included. This book has the radiologic image paired with an explanatory drawing; the image is on the left with a paragraph or two of text, and the drawing is on the right with legends. This book includes images of the brain and spinal cord obtained with arteriography, venography, myelography, encephalography, CT, and MR imaging

  5. Learning of Musculoskeletal Ligament Stress Testing in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David A.; Youdas, James W.; Hollman, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Human anatomy in physical therapy programs is a basic science course serving as a foundation for subsequent clinical courses. Integration of anatomy with a clinical emphasis throughout a curriculum provides opportunities for reinforcement of previously learned material. Considering the human cadaver laboratory as a fixed cost to our program, we…

  6. Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course: A Collaboration between Anatomists and Orthopedic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFriez, Curtis B.; Morton, David A.; Horwitz, Daniel S.; Eckel, Christine M.; Foreman, K. Bo; Albertine, Kurt H.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge for new residents and senior residents preparing for board examinations is refreshing their knowledge of basic science disciplines, such as human gross anatomy. The Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Utah School of Medicine has for many years held an annual Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course during the summer months…

  7. Is Student Knowledge of Anatomy Affected by a Problem-Based Learning Approach? A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of anatomy is critical for students on many health science courses. It has been suggested that a problem-based approach to learning anatomy may result in deficits in foundation knowledge. The aim of this review is to compare traditional didactic methods with problem-based learning methods for obtaining anatomy…

  8. The use of brainstorming for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, S; Giacobini-Robecchi, M G

    2002-10-15

    Interactive teaching techniques have been used mainly in clinical teaching, with little attention given to their use in basic science teaching. With the aim of partially filling this gap, this study outlines an interactive approach to teaching anatomy based on the use of "brainstorming." The results of the students' critique of the teaching techniques are also included. Seventy-five students from the first-year nursing curriculum were tested by a structured questionnaire after three brainstorming sessions. The overall response to these sessions was very positive, indicating that students perceived this interactive technique as both interesting and useful. Furthermore, this approach may provide a useful strategy when learning the clinical courses of the upcoming academic years. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  12. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.H.; Rao, K.C.V.G.

    1987-01-01

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  13. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2017-06-01

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ 10: 235-241. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  15. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  16. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  17. Improved dissection efficiency in the human gross anatomy laboratory by the integration of computers and modern technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Rustin E; Aschenbrenner, John E; Wordinger, Robert J; Roque, Rouel S; Sheedlo, Harold J

    2004-05-01

    The need to increase the efficiency of dissection in the gross anatomy laboratory has been the driving force behind the technologic changes we have recently implemented. With the introduction of an integrated systems-based medical curriculum and a reduction in laboratory teaching hours, anatomy faculty at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) developed a computer-based dissection manual to adjust to these curricular changes and time constraints. At each cadaver workstation, Apple iMac computers were added and a new dissection manual, running in a browser-based format, was installed. Within the text of the manual, anatomical structures required for dissection were linked to digital images from prosected materials; in addition, for each body system, the dissection manual included images from cross sections, radiographs, CT scans, and histology. Although we have placed a high priority on computerization of the anatomy laboratory, we remain strong advocates of the importance of cadaver dissection. It is our belief that the utilization of computers for dissection is a natural evolution of technology and fosters creative teaching strategies adapted for anatomy laboratories in the 21st century. Our strategy has significantly enhanced the independence and proficiency of our students, the efficiency of their dissection time, and the quality of laboratory instruction by the faculty. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Gross anatomy education for South African undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, Dorothy A; Roos, Ronel; Olivier, Benita; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-16

    Eight faculties in South Africa offer undergraduate physiotherapy training with gross anatomy included as a basis for clinical practice. Little information exists about anatomy education for this student body. A 42-question peer-reviewed survey was distributed to physiotherapy gross anatomy course coordinators in all the eight faculties. Seven coordinators from six (75%) of the universities responded. Two respondents' data from the same university were pooled. Collected data show that staff qualifications and experience varied widely and high to average staff to student ratios exist between faculties. Direct anatomy teaching duration was 12.3 (SD ±5.2) weeks per semester. Total number of weeks in courses per faculty was 27.6 (SD ±5.7) varying widely between institutions. Calculable direct contact anatomy hours ranged between 100 and 308 with a mean of 207.6 (SD ±78.1). Direct contact hours in lectures averaged 3.9 (SD ±1.6) per week and the average direct contact hours in practical sessions were 3.5 (SD ±1.8) per week. Dissection, prosection, plastinated models, surface anatomy, and e-learning were available across faculties. Ancillary modalities such as vertical integration and inter-professional learning were in use. All faculties had multiple-choice questions, spot tests, and short examination questions. Half had viva-voce examinations and one had additional long questions assessment. Students evaluated teaching performance in five faculties. Four faculties were reviewing anatomy programs to consider implementing changes to anatomy curriculum or pedagogy. The findings highlighted disparity between programs and also identified the need for specific guidelines to develop a unified South African gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Biomedical Science, Unit I: Respiration in Health and Medicine. Respiratory Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology; The Behavior of Gases; Introductory Chemistry; and Air Pollution. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text deals with the human respiratory system and its relation to the environment. Topics include the process of respiration, the relationship of air to diseases of the respiratory system, the chemical and physical properties of gases, the impact on air quality of human activities and the effect of this air pollution on health.…

  20. Teaching the Anatomy of a Scientific Journal Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Clayman, Karen; Busch, Allison K.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    To promote inquiry-based learning, the authors integrate the anatomy of a scientific journal article into their secondary science curriculum. In this article, they present three classroom activities used to teach students about the function and format of scientific journal articles. The first focuses on journal article figures, the second on…

  1. Panel 2: Anatomy (Eustachian Tube, Middle Ear, and Mastoid-Anatomy, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Cuneyt M; Luntz, Michal; Takahashi, Haruo; Ghadiali, Samir N; Swarts, J Douglas; Teixeira, Miriam S; Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Yehudai, Noam; Kania, Romain; Poe, Dennis S

    2017-04-01

    Objective In this report, we review the recent literature (ie, past 4 years) to identify advances in our understanding of the middle ear-mastoid-eustachian tube system. We use this review to determine whether the short-term goals elaborated in the last report were achieved, and we propose updated goals to guide future otitis media research. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Medline. Review Methods The panel topic was subdivided, and each contributor performed a literature search within the given time frame. The keywords searched included middle ear, eustachian tube, and mastoid for their intersection with anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and pathology. Preliminary reports from each panel member were consolidated and discussed when the panel met on June 11, 2015. At that meeting, the progress was evaluated and new short-term goals proposed. Conclusions Progress was made on 13 of the 20 short-term goals proposed in 2011. Significant advances were made in the characterization of middle ear gas exchange pathways, modeling eustachian tube function, and preliminary testing of treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction. Implications for Practice In the future, imaging technologies should be developed to noninvasively assess middle ear/eustachian tube structure and physiology with respect to their role in otitis media pathogenesis. The new data derived from these structure/function experiments should be integrated into computational models that can then be used to develop specific hypotheses concerning otitis media pathogenesis and persistence. Finally, rigorous studies on medical or surgical treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction should be undertaken.

  2. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  4. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  5. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  6. The peritoneum - anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribarova, V.

    2017-01-01

    The peritoneum is a large and complex serous membrane The peritoneal spaces and the natural flow of peritoneal fluid determine the route of spread of the disease processes within the abdominal cavity. The goal of this article is to review the normal peritoneal anatomy and the role of the imaging in the diagnostic of the disease processes. Among the imaging methods, the computed tomography at greater extent allows the accurate examination of the complex anatomy of the peritoneal cavity and to assess the extent of the pathological processes affecting it. Key words: Peritoneal Anatomy. Imaging. CT [bg

  7. Learning styles and strategies preferences of Iranian medical students in gross anatomy courses and their correlations with gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Moravveji, Alireza; Nikzad, Hossein; Mehrabadi, Vahid; Naderian, Homayoun

    2017-12-01

    The learning approaches can help anatomy teachers design a suitable curriculum in harmony with their students' learning styles. The research objective is to evaluate gross anatomy learning styles and strategies preferences of Iranian medical students at Kashan University of Medical Sciences (KAUMS). This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was carried out on 237 Iranian medical students. The students answered questions on approaches to learning anatomy and expressed opinions about learning anatomy in medical curriculum. The data were analyzed to disclose statistically significant differences between male and female students. Iranian male and female students were interested in learning anatomy using notes, plastic models, pictures and diagrams, clinical context, dissection and prosection of cadavers; however, they rarely used cross-sectional images and web-based resources. Both groups of medical students used region and system in learning anatomy. However, there existed some striking differences, particularly in having difficulty in studying anatomy using cadaveric specimens, using books alone, and learning it in small groups. Male students were less interested in learning with cadavers than female counterparts. However, female students were more interested in learning anatomy in small groups. This study suggests that instructors should design gross anatomy curriculum based on limitations of using dissection of cadaver in Iranian universities, emphasis on the applied anatomy, and learning of gross anatomy in small groups.

  8. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi

  9. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  10. Ligament of the head of femur: A comprehensive review of its anatomy, embryology, and potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Vivek; Woodley, Stephanie J; Nicholson, Helen D

    2016-03-01

    The functional significance of the ligament of the head of femur (LHF), or ligamentum teres has often been debated. Having gained recent attention in clinical practice, it is suggested to partly provide some mechanical stability to the hip joint. However, the anatomy of this ligament is not well studied. This paper systematically reviews the anatomy of the LHF with the aim of exploring our current understanding of this structure and identifying any gaps in knowledge regarding its morphology and function. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Scopus databases was undertaken and relevant data extracted, analyzed. A total of 69 references were obtained, that included 53 full text articles, three published abstracts, and 13 textbooks. Many publications related to clinical studies (n = 11) rather than gross anatomy (n = 7), with one report on variation of the LHF. Considerable inconsistency in the naming and description of the LHF morphology was observed. Variable attachment sites were reported except for the acetabular notch, transverse acetabular ligament, and the femoral fovea. Presence and patency of the ligamental arteries supplying the head of the femur and their exact location were variably described and were often incomplete. The LHF is believed to be taught in extreme hip adduction, but there is little evidence to support this. In conclusions, further investigation of the anatomy of the LHF is recommended, particularly to clarify its mechanical role, innervation, and vascular contribution to the developing and adult femur, so to better inform clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Out of the dissection room. An experience of outdoor practical sessions for animal anatomy education

    OpenAIRE

    ParésCasanova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Practical exercises are an essential component of anatomy education, so anatomy sessions including dissection are essentialfor animal anatomy courses. In Spain there are not difficulties in obtaining farm animal corpses for educational purposes(although some sanitary laws restrict it in certain cases) neither in general ethical constraints. From 2009 we have been doingoutdoor animal dissection for 1st level students of the “Animal Health and Science” degree course of the University of Lleidai...

  12. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Resident perceptions of anatomy education: a survey of medical school alumni from two different anatomy curricula and multiple medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Gest, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents were compared in old curriculum (OC) and new curriculum (NC) groups, surgical specialty (SS) and nonsurgical specialty (NS) groups, and subgroups of SS and NS were compared for differences between OC and NC. Mean response scores were compared using independent samples T-tests. As a single population (n = 110), respondents felt their anatomy education prepared them well for residency, that a more robust anatomy curriculum would be helpful, that dissection was important to their residency preparation, and that a 4th year anatomy elective was effective in expanding their anatomy education and preparing them for residency. No significant difference existed between OC and NC groups, neither as a whole nor as SS and NS subgroups. The SS group felt dissection was more important to their residency preparation than the NS group (P = 0.001) and that a more robust anatomy curriculum would have better prepared them for residency (P = 0.001). Thirty percent of SS respondents who did not take a 4th year elective commented that they wish they had. Fourth year anatomy electives were highly valued by residents, and respondents felt that they should be offered to students as a way of revisiting anatomy following the 1st year of clinical training. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  15. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  16. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners.

  17. Analysis of scientific papers in the field of radiology and medical imaging included in Science Citation Index expanded and published by Turkish authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Erhan; Karçaaltincaba, Muşturay

    2010-09-01

    We aimed to analyze scientific papers published by Turkish authors in "radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging" journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded and compared the number of published scientific papers from Turkey and other countries. We retrospectively searched all papers published by Turkish authors between 1945 and 2008 by using Web of Science software. We performed the analysis by typing "Turkey" in the address section and all radiology and medical imaging journals in the source title section using the general search function of the software. We further analyzed these results by using "analyze" function of the software according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution and type of papers. We also calculated total number of citations to published scientific papers using citation report function. We analyzed the rank of Turkey among other countries in terms of the number of published papers. Overall, 4,532 papers were published between 1945 and 2008. The first paper was published in 1976. Number of publications increased dramatically from 1976 (n = 1) to 2008 (n = 383). The top 5 journals publishing papers from Turkish authors were European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (n = 328), Clinical Nuclear Medicine (n = 296), European Journal of Radiology (n = 289), European Radiology (n = 207) and Journal of Clinical Ultrasound (n = 186). All published papers received 18,419 citations and citation to paper ratio was 4.06. The rank of Turkey among other countries in terms of published papers improved during the last 25 years. Number of papers from Turkey published in radiology and medical imaging journals has increased at the start of the new millennium. Currently, Turkey is among the top 12 countries when the number of scientific papers published in radiology journals is taken into consideration.

  18. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  19. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  20. Integrating Radiology and Anatomy Teaching in Medical Education in the UK--The Evidence, Current Trends, and Future Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptonstall, N B; Ali, T; Mankad, K

    2016-04-01

    This review article presents the current evidence of the importance of integrating radiology and anatomy in medical education in the UK, a recommendation by a number of key anatomy, education, and radiology organizations. Current evidence highlights that on average only 5% of total teaching time in medical education is dedicated to radiology. Often, radiology teaching does not adequately fulfill students' learning needs and potentially leaves them underprepared for medical practice. Benefits of integrating radiology and anatomy include improved clinical application of anatomy, an increase in student's interest in anatomy, and ultimately improved radiological interpretation. Various modalities exist for the integration of radiology and anatomy, facilitated by the vast portability of radiological images. It appears that combining radiological resources with traditional anatomy teaching methodology in a blended approach is most beneficial. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [The physical therapy undergraduate students' responses to the gross human anatomy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahara, Reiko; Kawashiro, Yukiko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Mori, Chisato; Kohno, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    Instruction in gross human anatomy is one of the important items in the subject for co-medical students of the physical therapist course. The physical therapy undergraduate students are required to have a solid understanding of the structure and formation of the human body. Therefore, their good-understanding of the course on the gross human anatomy and their experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory (observation practice) are acquired to improve their knowledge of the human body. To clarify the student responses to the gross human anatomy course including the gross human anatomy laboratory, several questionnaires were administered to the freshman physical therapy undergraduate student for two years. We found that more than 80% of the students, who felt a negative attitude for gross human anatomy before the course started, had a positive attitude about the gross human anatomy after going through the course. The experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory increased the students' activity of learning and they thought more about the dignity of being human after the course than before viewing. In addition, the results suggested that the multiple experiences of the gross human anatomy course are useful for the physical therapy undergraduate students to improve the quality of their understanding of the human body.

  2. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  3. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  4. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  5. Student Enrollment in a Supplement Course for Anatomy and Physiology Results in Improved Retention and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy and Physiology I (A&P 1) has one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates on campus. To increase academic success, a course to supplement A&P 1 (Supplement) was developed and taught by anatomy and physiology faculty. Primary goals for the Supplement included (1) early identification of students at risk for failing or withdrawal;…

  6. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK; Tully, Brent R.

    2016-01-01

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted

  8. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  9. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  10. Educational Impact of Digital Visualization Tools on Digital Character Production Computer Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Langeveld, Mark Christensen

    2009-01-01

    Digital character production courses have traditionally been taught in art departments. The digital character production course at the University of Utah is centered, drawing uniformly from art and engineering disciplines. Its design has evolved to include a synergy of computer science, functional art and human anatomy. It gives students an…

  11. External and internal anatomy of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L F; Sousa Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; da Costa, W F; Pécora, J D

    1996-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 628 extracted, mandibular first and second molars was studied. The external anatomy was studied by measuring each tooth and by observing the direction of the root curvatures from the facial surface. The internal anatomy of the pulp cavity was studied by a method of making the teeth translucent.

  12. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  13. Interactive videodisk atlas of knee anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnery, K.W.; Woods, J.W.; Glenn, W.F.; Rauschning, W.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive, computer-assisted atlas of knee anatomy has been developed. MR and CT images from normal volunteers and cryomicrotomed anatomic images were recorded on a laser viodeodisk. Computer software allows movement through the knee and correlation of radiographic images in the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes. Computer graphics are superimposed on the videodisk images. A high-resolution color graphics, touch-screen monitor is included in the computer system. Learning modules allow for rapid identification of specific structure by touching their location on the screen. Computer-created testing modules are available that provide for self-assessment

  14. The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Ella; Hendry, Charles; Alistair, Farley

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Accessory structures, such as nails and hair are also considered. Although many diseases of the skin exist, two common conditions--psoriasis and decubitus ulcers--are described in this article.

  15. Padua: the renaissance of human anatomy and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Giancarlo; Trincia, Giuseppe

    2004-10-01

    The city and University of Padua have a long tradition and a great reputation in anatomic studies, dating from the founding of the university in the year 1222. We present a historical review of the study of human anatomy, for which Padua was a most important center. The background for the development of this culture was represented by the scientific freedom and political wisdom of the Serenissima Republic of Venice, a liberal and tolerant state in the midst of a feudal, imperial, and pontifical Europe. During the second half of the 15th century, the flourishing trade and cultural, social, and political life of Venice attracted a great number of scientists and students from all over Europe who contributed to the establishment of Padua as an international center for culture and the sciences. Vesalio, Fabrizio d'Acquapendente, and Giovanni Battista Morgagni represent milestones in the history of anatomy as well as in medicine and surgery. History shows that anatomy and surgery evolved together, just as anatomy of the nervous system and neurosurgery developed in tandem. The tradition of neurosurgery in Padua is considered one the most important schools in Italy.

  16. Innovative activities for teaching anatomy of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinder-Meredith, Amy E

    2010-01-01

    Courses in anatomy have traditionally relied on lectures and cadaver dissection laboratories. In speech and hearing sciences, there tends to be less access to cadavers than in medical schools and other allied health professions. It is more typical to use anatomical models, diagrams and lecture slides. Regardless of the resources available, anatomy is a subject that lends itself to hands-on learning. This article briefly reviews teaching methods and describes a variety of innovative activities to enhance learning of anatomical concepts and clinical relevance of anatomy for speech production. Teaching strategies and activities were developed to capitalize on students' multimodal learning preferences as revealed by responses to a survey administered to 49 undergraduates in the beginning of an anatomy of speech production course. At the end of the semester, students completed a second survey. A five-point Likert scale was used to assess the usefulness of each activity as a learning tool or level of clinical relevance and the level of enjoyability. The responses were overwhelmingly positive with level of usefulness and level of clinical relevance rated higher on average than the level of enjoyment.

  17. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  18. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SUSHRUTA TO ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-08

    Aug 8, 2005 ... Learning anatomy through the dissected ... practice. Sushruta was the first person who had established the ... graduate had to obtain the permission of the ... importance to neuroembryology in the Sarira- .... Faculty of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy, and held at the Royal College of Physicians.

  19. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  20. Stem anatomy variation in cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.N. Foulger; J. Hacskaylo

    1968-01-01

    Investigations of mineral nutrient-tree growth relationships have dealt mainly with associations involving foliage composition, root formation, or volume production of wood. Few studies have been concerned with changes in wood anatomy associated with element deficiency. In 1949 Davis reported that calcium deficiency was accompanied by a reduction of primary tissue and...

  1. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  2. Comparative wood anatomy of Bonnetiaceae, Theaceae and Guttiferae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baretta-Kuipers, Tine

    1976-01-01

    A description of the xylem anatomy of the genera Archytaea, Ploiarium, Bonnetia, Neblinaria, Neotatea, Caraipa, Haploclathra, Mahurea, Marila, Kielmeyera, and Asteropeia is given. All these genera except Asteropeia, were included in the family of the Bonnetiaceae by Maguire (1972). He considered the

  3. Introductory Anatomy and Physiology in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…

  4. Anatomy of lead poisoning | Duru | Research Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most heavy ...

  5. Arthroscopic Wrist Anatomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    .... Arthroscopy of the wrist is now a primary method of evaluating and treating many intra-articular wrist conditions including triangular fibrocartilage complex tears, chondral injuries, distal radius...

  6. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  7. DARE: Unesco Computerized Data Retrieval System for Documentation in the Social and Human Sciences (Including an Analysis of the Present System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasarhelyi, Paul

    The new data retrieval system for the social sciences which has recently been installed in the UNESCO Secretariat in Paris is described in this comprehensive report. The computerized system is designed to facilitate the existing storage systems in the circulation of information, data retrieval, and indexing services. Basically, this report…

  8. History of teaching anatomy in India: from ancient to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tony George

    2013-01-01

    Safe clinical practice is based on a sound knowledge of the structure and function of the human body. Thus, knowledge of anatomy has been an essential tool in the practice of healthcare throughout the ages. The history of anatomy in India traces from the Paleolithic Age to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Vedic Times, the Islamic Dynasties, the modern Colonial Period, and finally to Independent India. The course of the study of anatomy, despite accompanying controversies and periods of latencies, has been fascinating. This review takes the reader through various periods of Indian medicine and the role of anatomy in the field of medical practice. It also provides a peek into the modern system of pedagogy in anatomical sciences in India. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Problem-based learning in regional anatomy education at Peking University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Weiguang; Qin, Lihua; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shuyong; Gu, Jin; Zhou, Changman

    2010-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to medical schools around the world and has increasingly become a popular pedagogical technique in Asian countries since 1990. Gross anatomy is a fundamental basic science course in virtually all medical training programs, and the methods used to teach it are under frequent scrutiny and revision. Students often struggle with the vast collection of new terms and complex relationships between structures that they must learn. To help students with this process, our department teaches separate systemic and regional anatomy courses, the latter in a PBL format. After three years of using PBL in our regional anatomy course, we have worked out a set of effective instructions that we would like to share with other medical schools. We report here evidence that our clinical PBL approach stimulates students' interest in learning and enhances anatomy education in a way that can foster better practices in our future medical work force. (c) 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Student Perceived Value of Anatomy Pedagogy, Part I: Prosection or Dissection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Wisco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of three annual surveys of David Geffen School of Medicine (DGSOM at UCLA students and UCR/UCLA Thomas Haider Program in Biomedical Sciences students were administered from 2010 to 2012 to ascertain student perceptions of which anatomy pedagogy—prosection or dissection—was most valuable to them during the first year of preclinical medical education and for the entire medical school experience in general. Students were asked, “What value does gross anatomy education have in preclinical medical education?” We further asked the students who participated in both prosection and dissection pedagogies, “Would you have preferred an anatomy curriculum like the Summer Anatomy Dissection during your first year in medical school instead of prosection?” All students who responded to the survey viewed anatomy as a highly valued part of the medical curriculum, specifically referring to four major themes: Anatomy is (1 the basis for medical understanding, (2 part of the overall medical school experience, (3 a bridge to understanding pathology and physiology, and (4 the foundation for clinical skills. Students who participated in both prosection and dissection pedagogies surprisingly and overwhelmingly advocated for a prosection curriculum for the first year of medical school, not a dissection curriculum. Time efficiency was the dominant theme in survey responses from students who learned anatomy through prosection and then dissection. Students, regardless of whether interested in surgery/radiology or not, appreciated both pedagogies but commented that prosection was sufficient for learning basic anatomy, while dissection was a necessary experience in preparation for the anatomical medical specialties. This suggests that anatomy instruction should be integrated into the clinical years of medical education.

  11. Clinically related anatomy for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Boyer, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of CT and MR imaging, delineation of malignancies and the shaping of radiation treatment fields have become much more precise. Treatment planning in more than one transverse plane is more widely practiced as the use of sophisticated computers grow. These developments emphasize the need for the physicist to have a basic knowledge of human anatomy. This course is designed to familiarize the clinical physicist with the gross anatomy and topographic landmarks used by the physician in planning three-dimensional radiation treatment volumes. The significance of the various anatomic structures and their related lymphatics in the spread of disease is discussed. Emphasis is placed on disease entities that pose particular problems due to overlying or nearby healthy structures at risk

  12. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology in the female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, S

    1997-12-01

    Important differences in male and female cardiovascular anatomy and physiology may account for many of the gender differences seen in various cardiac disease states. Predominant influences on female disease manifestations include (1) women's smaller body size, hence smaller hearts and smaller coronary vessels and (2) women's fluctuating levels of estrogen throughout their lifespan. Understanding these critical anatomic and physiologic differences allows the clinician to better predict and plan care for women. For example, knowing that women generally have a smaller body surface area than men allows one to better understand why men have higher creatine kinase (CK) values than do women--an important distinction when interpreting these values in the acute care setting. The fact that women's hearts and coronary vessels are generally smaller than men's also helps one understand why women have a higher in-hospital mortality than men post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (see article by Allen in this issue for more detailed information on revascularization). These are only a few examples of the many opportunities that acute care nurses have to integrate their knowledge of anatomy and physiology into proactive planning for their female cardiac patients.

  13. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  14. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger...

  15. Roentgenologic anatomy of dog arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, J.; Hlava, A.; Bavor, J.

    1984-01-01

    In catheter methods in dogs the knowledge of the roentgenologic anatomy of blood vessels is very important. Because of lacking in such roentgenologic anatomic schemes 5 arterial schemes in relation to the skeleton were elaborated. The system of arteries was divided into five regions: chest, head and neck in submentooccipital and lateral projection, abdomen and pelvis. The schemes comprise 75 of the main arteries of the dog. (author)

  16. Leaf surface anatomy in some woody plants from northeastern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H.G.; Balboa, P.C.R.; Kumari, A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on leaf surface anatomy of woody plants and its significance are rare. The present study was undertaken in the Forest Science Faculty Experimental Research Station, UANL, Mexico, with objectives to determine the variability in leaf surface anatomy in the woody plants of the Tamaulipan thornscrub and its utility in taxonomy and possible adaptation to the prevailing semiarid conditions. The results show the presence of large variability in several leaf anatomical traits viz., waxy leaf surface, type of stomata, its size, and distribution. The species have been classified on the basis of various traits which can be used in species delimitation and adaptation to the semiarid condition such as waxy leaf surface, absence sparse stomata on the leaf surface, sunken stomata. The species identified as better adapters to semi-arid environments on the basis of the presence and absence of stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surface viz., Eysenhardtia texana, Parkinsonia texana, Gymnosperma glutinosum, Celtis laevigata, Condalia hookeri and Karwinskia humboldtiana. (author)

  17. Scoping Review on Research on Food conducted in the Faculty of Social Sciences. Including other Institutions in the Norwich Research Park and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Wilsher, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Executive summary The scoping review was commissioned to examine what research on food has been conducted in the Faculty of Social Sciences (SSF) at the University of East Anglia (UEA) since 2005. The aim of the report is to facilitate collaborative research between SSF and the rest of the Norwich Research Park (NRP), in particular, the Institute of Food Research (IFR). However, it is important to contextualise this beyond the NRP as the Eastern Academic Research Consortium (EARC) provides fu...

  18. A fresh look at the anatomy and physiology of equine mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Padraic M; du Toit, Nicole; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    There have been many significant and interesting developments in equine dental anatomy during the past 20 years that are of major clinical significance in better understanding the physiology of equine mastication, the etiopathogenesis of some dental disorders, and their safe treatment. The many recent significant developments include descriptions of the enamel infolding of cheek teeth and of infundibular anatomy, including the frequent absence of cementum infilling in many infundibulae, which can lead to infundibular caries. Many important developments in equine dental anatomy are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ∼ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement ‘I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional’. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933

  20. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  1. Study skills in anatomy and physiology: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R; Barger, J Bradley; Schutte, Audra F

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical students study differently for different classes?" Study skills surveys were given to United States medical students at an allopathic medical school and an osteopathic medical school. Students were surveyed near the end of their first year gross anatomy course and again near the end of their first year physiology course. Survey items included Likert scale and open-ended questions about study habits and basic demographic information. The survey responses were correlated with each student's final grade percentages in the courses. Analysis revealed that the four most common study habits were reviewing lecture notes, taking practice examinations, completing learning exercises, and making drawings and diagrams. The two surveys (anatomy and physiology) from each individual were also compared to see if students reported different study habits in anatomy versus physiology. A negative correlation was found between changing study habits between courses and final anatomy grade percentages. Additional analyses suggest that those students who do change their study habits between courses are increasing the number of study strategies that they attempt. This increase in the number of study strategies attempted may not allow the student to reach the same depth of understanding as their colleagues who utilize fewer strategies. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Endoscopic anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey C; Bromwich, Matthew; Roth, Kathy; Matic, Damir B

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic repair of orbital blow-out fractures could become a predictable and efficient treatment alternative to traditional methods. However, maxillary sinus endoscopy provides a complex and disorienting view of the orbital floor. To be a useful and consistent technique for providing access to the orbital floor, specific knowledge of maxillary endoscopic anatomy is required. The purpose of the study was to provide an anatomic description of the orbital floor via the endoscopic approach. Objectives include defining consistent landmarks for use in endoscopic repair of orbital floor fractures. Using 0- and 30-degree rigid endoscopes, 6 fresh cadavers (12 maxillary sinuses) were examined via a standard Caldwell-Luc approach. Computed tomographic scans, plastic molds, and digital images were used to compare observable averages within bony anatomy. Potential bony landmarks were correlated with soft-tissue anatomy in fresh specimens. The maxillary ostium, orbital floor, and lateral ethmoid air cells were visualized, and their structures were described. Observations were made in relation to the anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus, including fracture pattern and force transmission pathways. An "orbitomaxillary" sinus bony thickening was identified and described for the first time. This study provides the basis for further refinement of surgical technique and opens the door for future clinical trials using endoscopic repair.

  3. The Translucent Cadaver: An Evaluation of the Use of Full Body Digital X-Ray Images and Drawings in Surface Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Greyling, Linda Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    It has been noted by staff at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University that medical students neglect the study of surface anatomy during dissection. This study reports on the novel use of Lodox[R] Statscan[R] images in anatomical education, particularly the teaching of surface anatomy. Full body digital X-ray images (Lodox Statscan)…

  4. Anatomy of Cyberterrorism: Is America Vulnerable?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    ... it means. It also presents a model to understand the anatomy of cyberterrorism, describing some real-world cyber events, assesses cyberterrorist capabilities, and finally makes specific recommendations...

  5. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  6. The anatomy of forearm free flap phalloplasty for transgender surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Dennis, M; Holland, J; Terrell, M; Loukas, M; Schober, J

    2018-03-01

    Transgender surgeries are becoming more frequent and visual interpretation of anatomy is essential for both surgeons and patients. Since the forearm free flap phalloplasty was introduced in 1984, it has been known to provide reliable cosmetic and functional results for transitioning men compared with phalloplasty by different flaps. Surgical text descriptions were enhanced by the creation of new anatomic illustrations. The forearm free flap consists of the anterior forearm skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia containing the radial artery as the perforator and its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves are demonstrated in relation to the surgically derived flap. Song's forearm free flap phalloplasty requires two surgical stages with a three-month interval between the stages: prelamination of a neourethra and construction of a neophallus. The neophallus created by forearm flap phalloplasty is reported to achieve acceptable aesthetical and psychological satisfaction, appropriate size and shape, and satisfying sexual intercourse. Despite increasing experiences in gender confirming surgery with modifications made by many authors, urethral complications including fistula and/or stricture formation are the leading causes of reoperation. The poor esthetic outcome of the forearm donor site and a decrease in rigidity of the neophallus are the main limitations. Illustrations of anatomy help inform surgical choice and understanding of risks and benefits by patients. The anatomy of the free forearm flap phalloplasty supports creation of a neophallus for transsexual anatomy revision. Clin. Anat. 31:145-151, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1=5.63 and p=.02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  8. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F (1) = 5.63 and p = .02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  9. Student performance in a flipped classroom dental anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinan, S; Riedy, C A; Park, S E

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess dental student learning in a dental anatomy module between traditional lecture and flipped classroom cohorts. Two cohorts of predoctoral dental students (N = 70 within each cohort) participated in a dental anatomy module within an Introduction to the Dental Patient (IDP) course ([traditional/lecture cohort: academic year (AY) 2012, 2013] and [flipped classroom cohort: AY 2014, 2015]). For the dental anatomy module, both cohorts were evaluated on pre-clinical tooth waxing exercises immediately after each of five lectures and tooth identification after all lectures were given. Additionally, the cohorts' performance on the overall IDP course examination was compared. The flipped classroom cohort had statistically significant higher waxing scores (dental anatomy module) than students in the traditional classroom. There was no statistically significant difference for tooth identification scores and the overall IDP course examination between the traditional vs flipped approach cohorts. This is due to the latter two assessments conducted at the end of the course gave all students enough time to review the lecture content prior to the assessment resulting in similar scores for both cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort promoted students' individual learning and resulted in improved students' performance on immediate evaluation but not on the end of the course evaluation. Redesign of courses to include a new pedagogical approach should be carefully implemented and evaluated for student's educational success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Life into Space: Space Life Sciences Experiments, Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, 1991-1998, Including Profiles of 1996-1998 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kenneth (Editor); Etheridge, Guy (Editor); Callahan, Paul X. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    We have now conducted space life sciences research for more than four decades. The continuing interest in studying the way living systems function in space derives from two main benefits of that research. First, in order for humans to engage in long-term space travel, we must understand and develop measures to counteract the most detrimental effects of space flight on biological systems. Problems in returning to the conditions of Earth must be kept to a manageable level. Second, increasing our understanding of how organisms function in the absence of gravity gives us new understanding of fundamental biological processes. This information can be used to improve human health and the quality of life on Earth.

  11. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  12. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  13. SnapAnatomy, a computer-based interactive tool for independent learning of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.

  14. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  15. Exploring anatomy and physiology using iPad applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tandra R; Cooperstein, Deborah F

    2017-11-07

    This study examined the use of iPads with anatomy applications (apps) in the laboratory sections of the largest undergraduate course at the university, Anatomy and Physiology, serving more than 300 students. The majority of these students were nursing, exercise science/physical education and biology majors. With a student survey (student opinion) and student practicum grades as metrics, this study determined whether the introduction of this novel mobile technology improved student grades and aided the students in learning the course material. The results indicated that students' grades improved with the introduction of the iPads, and 78% of the students reported that the iPads facilitated their ability to learn the course material. There was a positive association between frequency of app use and standardized mastery of the course material, as students who used the apps more frequently scored higher and indicated that they felt as though they had learned the material more comprehensively. Owning or having an iPad at home did not have a significant effect on the learning of the material. The general consensus by students was that iPad anatomy apps should be used frequently to better develop student understanding of the course material. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. [Imaging evaluation on adaptability of proximal humeral anatomy after shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Youxing; Tang, Kanglai; Yuan, Chengsong; Tao, Xu; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Bo; Guo, Yupeng

    2015-03-24

    Modern shoulder prosthesis has evolved through four generations. And the fourth generation technology has a core three-dimensional design of restoring 3D reconstruction of proximal humeral anatomy. Thus a new shoulder prosthesis is developed on the basis of the technology of 3D prosthesis. Assessment of whether shoulder prosthesis can restore individualized reconstruction of proximal humeral anatomy is based on the adaptability of proximal humeral anatomy. To evaluate the adaptability of proximal humeral anatomy through measuring the parameters of proximal humeral anatomy after shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis and compare with normal data. The parameters of proximal humeral anatomy were analyzed and evaluated for a total of 12 cases undergoing shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis. The relevant anatomical parameters included neck-shaft angle (NSA), retroversion angle (RA), humeral head height (HH) and humeral head diameter (HD). And the anatomical parameters were compared with the data from normal side. All underwent shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis. The postoperative parameters of proximal humeral anatomy were compared with those of normal side. And the difference of NSA was 0.05). Individualized shoulder prosthesis has excellent adaptability to shoulder. All core parameters are freely adjustable and specification models may be optimized. With matching tools, individualized shoulder prosthesis improves the accuracy and reliability in shoulder replacement.

  17. [Juan Valverde de Amusco c. 1525-1588 and his vocation for anatomy in the Hispano-Italian Renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mansilla, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The XVIth century witnessed a glorious period in the progress of some of the basic medical sciences among which anatomy stands out. One of the well-known figures involved in the development of this subject was Juan Valverde de Amusco, a notable Spanish scientist. This research shows the most relevant data currently known on his life, sociocultural environment and his celebrated treaty on anatomy titled: "Historia de la composición del cuerpo humano". (History of the human body).

  18. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  19. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  20. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  1. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  2. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy accepts for publication manuscripts of high standard containing reports of original scientific research in the morphology, mechanical functioning and development of man and animals. The scope the journal embraces articles of human and comparative anatomy, embryology ...

  3. The h index of the presidents of the American Psychological Association (APA through journal articles included in the Web of Science database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Buela-Casal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio descriptivo analiza los índices h de los presidentes de la American Psychological Association (APA desde 1940 hasta la actualidad. El índice h se calcula teniendo en cuenta el número de artículos publicados en las revistas de la Web of Science (WOS y las citas recibidas por los mismos en dicha base de datos. No se estableció un periodo de búsqueda y, por tanto, se analizaron todos los resultados incluidos en la WOS. El número total de resultados analizados fue de 16.676, de los cuales 3.734 fueron de los presidentes de la APA. Los resultados se presentan en forma de ranking y ponen de manifiesto que Albert Bandura y Alan Kazdin son los presidentes con un índice h más elevado, y en entre estos y los demás existe una diferencia considerable. Los resultados hacen especular que el criterio de productividad en artículos científicos no fue el criterio más importante para presidir esta institución.

  4. Does simulation-based training facilitate the integration of human anatomy with surgery? A report of a novel Surgical Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, K; Denisow-Pietrzyk, M; Pietrzyk, Ł; Maciejewski, R; Torres, A

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of gross anatomy, as a basic core subject, is fundamental for medical students and essential to medical practitioners, particularly for those intending a surgical career. However, both medical students and clinical teachers have found a significant gap in teaching basic sciences and the transition into clinical skills. The authors present a Surgical Anatomy Course developed to teach the anatomical basis of surgical procedures with particular emphasis on laparo-scopic skills while incorporating medical simulation. An evaluation of the students' satisfaction of the Surgical Anatomy Course was completed using a mix of multiple choice and open-ended questions, and a six-point Likert Scale. Questions were asked about the students' perceived improvement in surgical and laparoscopic skills. Manual skills were assessed using a laparoscopic simulator. Both evaluation of the course structure and the general impression of the course were positive. Most students believed the course should be an integral part of a modern curriculum. The course supported the traditional surgical classes and improved anatomical knowledge and strengthened students' confidentiality and facilitated understanding and taking surgical rotations. A medical course combining the practical learning of anatomy and surgical-based approaches will bring out the best from the students. Medical students positively evaluated the Surgical Anatomy Course as useful and benefi-cial regarding understanding anatomical structure and relationship necessary for further surgical education. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 279-285).

  5. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  6. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  7. Anatomy as the Backbone of an Integrated First Year Medical Curriculum: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other first year basic science courses (Biochemistry, Physiology, and Neurobiology) as we progressed toward an integrated curriculum. A team, consisting of the course directors, a curriculum coordinator and the Associate Dean for Educational and Faculty Affairs, was assembled to build the new curriculum. For the initial phase, the original course titles were retained but the lecture order was reorganized around the Human Morphology topic sequence. The material from all four courses was organized into four sequential units. Other curricular changes included placing laboratories and lectures more consistently in the daily routine, reducing lecture time from 120 to 90 minute blocks, eliminating unnecessary duplication of content, and increasing the amount of independent study time. Examinations were constructed to include questions from all courses on a single test, reducing the number of examination days in each block from three to one. The entire restructuring process took two years to complete, and the revised curriculum was implemented for the students entering in 2007. The outcomes of the restructured curriculum include a reduction in the number of contact hours by 28%, higher or equivalent subject examination average scores, enhanced student satisfaction, and a first year curriculum team better prepared to move forward with future integration. PMID:21538939

  8. The use of thoracoscopy to enhance medical students′ interest and understanding of thoracic anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A AlNassar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a video-based educational tool designed for teaching thoracic anatomy and to examine whether this tool would increase students′ stimulation and motivation for learning anatomy. Methods: Our video-based tool was developed by recording different thoracoscopic procedures focusing on intraoperative live thoracic anatomy. The tool was then integrated into a pre-existing program for first year medical students (n = 150, and included cadaver dissection of the thorax and review of clinical problem scenarios of the respiratory system. Students were guided through a viewing of the videotape that demonstrated live anatomy of the thorax (15 minutes and then asked to complete a 5-point Likert-type questionnaire assessing the video′s usefulness. Apart from this, a small group of entirely different set of students was divided into two groups, one group to view the 15-minute video presentation of thoracoscopy and chest anatomy and the other group to attend a 15-minute lecture of chest anatomy using radiological images. Both groups took a 10-item pretest and post-test multiple choice questions examination to assess short-term knowledge gained. Results: Of 150 medical students, 119 completed the questionnaires, 88.6% were satisfied with the thoracoscopic video as a teaching tool, 86.4% were satisfied with the quality of the images, 69.2% perceived it to be beneficial in learning anatomy, 96.2% increased their interest in learning anatomy, and 88.5% wanted this new teaching tool to be implemented to the curriculum. Majority (80.7% of the students increased their interest in surgery as a future career. Post-test scores were significantly higher in the thoracoscopy group (P = 0.0175. Conclusion: Incorporating live surgery using thoracoscopic video presentation in the gross anatomy teaching curriculum had high acceptance and satisfaction scores from first year medical students. The video increased students′ interest in learning, in clinically

  9. Perceptions among Occupational and Physical Therapy Students of a Nontraditional Methodology for Teaching Laboratory Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. Jackson; Denham, Bryan E.; Dinolfo, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to assess the perceptions of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) students regarding the use of computer-assisted pedagogy and prosection-oriented communications in the laboratory component of a human anatomy course at a comprehensive health sciences university in the southeastern United States. The…

  10. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  11. Contributing Factors to Student Success in Anatomy and Physiology: Lower outside Workload and Better Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Hannum, Lynn; Gupta, Sat

    2004-01-01

    A study of students of a traditional two-semester Anatomy and Physiology class was made to determine factors that contributed to success in the coursework. The test established a co-relation between the amount of study in mathematics and science done previously in school and final grades in the subject.

  12. Human anatomy nomenclature rules for the computer age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Paul E; Baud, Robert; Sprumont, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Information systems are increasing in importance in biomedical sciences and medical practice. The nomenclature rules of human anatomy were reviewed for adequacy with respect to modern needs. New rules are proposed here to ensure that each Latin term is uniquely associated with an anatomical entity, as short and simple as possible, and machine-interpretable. Observance of these recommendations will also benefit students and translators of the Latin terms into other languages. Clin. Anat. 30:300-302, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Arthroscopic knee anatomy in young achondroplasia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Duque Orozco, M.; Record, N. C.; Rogers, K. J; Bober, M. B.; Mackenzie, W. G.; Atanda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Methods Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. Results A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Conclusion Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported. PMID:28828058

  14. Pectoralis major tears: anatomy, classification, and diagnosis with ultrasound and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Department of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Smith, Jay [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Anatomy, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Dahm, Diane L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Accurate characterization of pectoralis major tears is important to guide management. Imaging evaluation with ultrasound and MR imaging can be difficult given the complex regional anatomy. In addition, recent literature has redefined the anatomy of the distal pectoralis major. The purpose of this study is to review pectoralis major injuries taking into account new anatomic descriptions using ultrasound and MR imaging, including cadaveric dissection, surgically produced pectoralis tears, and clinical pectoralis tendon tear with surgical correlation. (orig.)

  15. Pectoralis major tears: anatomy, classification, and diagnosis with ultrasound and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavaras, Mary M.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Smith, Jay; Dahm, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate characterization of pectoralis major tears is important to guide management. Imaging evaluation with ultrasound and MR imaging can be difficult given the complex regional anatomy. In addition, recent literature has redefined the anatomy of the distal pectoralis major. The purpose of this study is to review pectoralis major injuries taking into account new anatomic descriptions using ultrasound and MR imaging, including cadaveric dissection, surgically produced pectoralis tears, and clinical pectoralis tendon tear with surgical correlation. (orig.)

  16. KELAINAN BANGUN ANATOMIS KUKU KUDA KOLEKSI LABORATORIUM ANATOMI FKH IPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemaz A Dewangga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to observe the anatomical structure of horse hooves collected from the Laboratory of Anatomy FKH IPB. Twenty five hoof specimens, consisting of ten fore hooves and fifteen hind hooves were used as research materials. The external morphology such as color, angle, structure and condition of the hoof wall were described. The observation on external morphology showed that the hooves have two basic colors, black and white. Generally, all of the hoof specimens showed abnormalities in such aspect as angle, structure and condition of the wall. The structures of fore hoof and hind hoof from this study are classified into 8 categories, they are: flat foot, flared foot, knol hoef, fever rings, sand crack, club foot, contracted foot and bull nosed foot.

  17. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  18. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences, Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    during the past fiscal year include 45 ovario- hysterectomles, one caesarean section, one fracture repair, one patent ductus arteriosus repair, one...Following closure of the thoracotomy, SOD was down by 60% and VQJ was> 80% of control levels. SOD and VQO did not relate to each other in a parallel...tions. Two patents were applied for, one for the Electronic Debubbler Circuit and one for the Improved Flow Cell. A paper on this latest

  19. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    feature of this RD and D-Programme is that we also present our programme for social science research, which was requested by several reviewing bodies in connection with the review of RD and D-Programme 2001. Finally, the programmes for alternative methods, decommissioning and other long-lived waste are also described in this RD and D-Programme. In the review statement regarding RD and D-Programme 2001 which SKI submitted to the Government in March 2002, the Inspectorate called for a report that would explain more clearly SKB's plans for the remainder of the nuclear fuel programme. As a reason for this request, SKI said that the competent authorities will need to know which regulatory reviews are anticipated over the next ten years and the extent to which these reviews depend on each other. Such a report is appended to this RD and D-Programme. It is our hope that the above structure and perspective provide a clear picture of how far the technology development work has come and what factors are most important for safety in the deep repository.

  20. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    new feature of this RD and D-Programme is that we also present our programme for social science research, which was requested by several reviewing bodies in connection with the review of RD and D-Programme 2001. Finally, the programmes for alternative methods, decommissioning and other long-lived waste are also described in this RD and D-Programme. In the review statement regarding RD and D-Programme 2001 which SKI submitted to the Government in March 2002, the Inspectorate called for a report that would explain more clearly SKB's plans for the remainder of the nuclear fuel programme. As a reason for this request, SKI said that the competent authorities will need to know which regulatory reviews are anticipated over the next ten years and the extent to which these reviews depend on each other. Such a report is appended to this RD and D-Programme. It is our hope that the above structure and perspective provide a clear picture of how far the technology development work has come and what factors are most important for safety in the deep repository.

  1. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    feature of this RD and D-Programme is that we also present our programme for social science research, which was requested by several reviewing bodies in connection with the review of RD and D-Programme 2001. Finally, the programmes for alternative methods, decommissioning and other long-lived waste are also described in this RD and D-Programme. In the review statement regarding RD and D-Programme 2001 which SKI submitted to the Government in March 2002, the Inspectorate called for a report that would explain more clearly SKB's plans for the remainder of the nuclear fuel programme. As a reason for this request, SKI said that the competent authorities will need to know which regulatory reviews are anticipated over the next ten years and the extent to which these reviews depend on each other. Such a report is appended to this RD and D-Programme. It is our hope that the above structure and perspective provide a clear picture of how far the technology development work has come and what factors are most important for safety in the deep repository

  2. Normal computed tomographic anatomy of the cisterns and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manelfe, C.; Bonafe, A.

    1980-01-01

    This study, based on the normal CT anatomy of the cisterns investigated with Metrizamide, aims at attempting to find out with accuracy which plane of section is the most suitable for the investigation of each group of cisterns (posterior fossa, mesencephalon, suprasellar). Moreover we felt it necessary to include our study the normal appearance of the cranial nerves as their normal CT anatymy - optic nerves expected - is not well known yet. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. The systematic wood anatomy of the Moraceae (Urticales) IV. Genera of the tribe Moreae with urticaceous stamens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the genera of the tribe Moreae with urticaceous stamens, viz. Broussonetia, Madura s.l. (including Cardiogyne, Chlorophora, and Cudrania), Malaisia, Milicia, Morus, Olmedia, Pachytrophe, Plecospermum, Sloetiopsis, Streblus s.l. (including Paratrophis, Phyllochlamys,

  4. The Clinical anatomy of the physical examination of the abdomen: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Voin, Vlad; Topale, Nitsa; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-01

    Physical examination of the abdomen is an essential skill. Knowledge of its clinical anatomy and application is vital for making diagnoses. Misinterpretation of anatomy during examination can have serious consequences. This review addresses understanding of the anatomy, methodology, and complications of abdominal physical examination. It includes particular reference to modern technology and investigations. Physical examination is performed for diagnostic purposes. However, the art of physical examination is declining as more and more clinicians rely on newer technology. This can have regrettable consequences: negligence, waste of time and resources, and deterioration of clinical skills. With a sound knowledge of clinical anatomy, and realization of the importance of physical examination of the abdomen, clinician, and patients alike can benefit. Clin. Anat. 30:352-356, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  6. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... a questionnaire regarding their self-efficacy and motivation, presence in the virtual room, experiences with Hololens teaching, and how they used the quizzes. In addition, students answered a test with the same 20 questions used in the app and three additional transfer questions new to students. Finally, students......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  7. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  8. Anatomy of the Platysma Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67.7%), followed by the subcutaneous tissue of the subclavicular and acromial regions (22.6%) and pectoralis (9.7%). The platysma ascended upward and medially (68.5%) or ascended from the clavicle to the face (31.5%). The platysma most commonly inserted on the cheek skin (57.5%), followed by the cutaneous muscles around the mouth (18.6%), the mandibulocutaneous ligament or zygoma (18.6%), and the parotid fascia or periosteum of the mandible (5.3%). The platysma was most commonly innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (38.2%) or the cervical branch and mandibular branch of the facial nerve (60.5%), followed by the cervical plexus (0.6%), the cervical motor nucleus (0.6%), and the glossopharyngeal nerve (0.1%). The most common action of the platysma was drawing the lips inferiorly (83.3%) or posteriorly (12.9%). Four papers classified the platysma into subtypes; however, these classification strategies used arbitrary standards.Further studies will be necessary to establish the thickness of the platysma and to characterize age-related changes of the platysma.

  9. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  11. OXFORD DICTIONARY OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides reliable definitions of sports science and medicine terms. It provides an invaluable reference book for anyone interested in the captivating subject of sport. PURPOSE This dictionary aims to include almost every sports science, anatomy, physiology, biomechanical, injuries description, and psychological term as related to sports medicine and science and support the explanations by illustrations wherever necessary. AUDIENCE As a comprehensive dictionary of sports science and medicine, it will be of particular help to medical specialists and general practitioners, as well as students of PE, coaches, and athletes who need to understand the anatomical structures and physiological processes which affect athletic performance. Any member of public interested in health and fitness; exercise and sport or wants to understand what the obscure terms mean, like jogger's nipple, social loafing, and Zatopek phenomenon will also benefit from this book. FEATURES The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine features terms in A to Z fashion at all the major areas of sports science and medicine including: anatomy, physiology/exercise physiology, biomechanics, training principles and techniques, nutrition, sports psychology and sociology, sports injuries and rehabilitation. A team of prominent contributors and advisers put together this dictionary in the first edition. The third edition includes around 8000 cross-referenced terms which have been updated or added since the first edition. There are plenty of illustrations wherever appropriate to make the terms easily understandable. ASSESSMENT A must-have dictionary for all medics practising in sports and exercise medicine, as well as students of medicine, physical education, nursing and physiotherapy. Even coaches, trainers, biomechanical experts; in fact anyone who has a special interest in this area will find this dictionary useful.

  12. Anatomy and function of the hypothenar muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquella, John A; Levine, Pam

    2012-02-01

    The hypothenar eminence is the thick soft tissue mass located on the ulnar side of the palm. Understanding its location and contents is important for understanding certain aspects of hand function. Variation in motor nerve distribution of the hypothenar muscles makes surgery of the ulnar side of the palm more challenging. To avoid injury to nerve branches, knowledge of these differences is imperative. This article discusses the muscular anatomy and function, vascular anatomy, and nerve anatomy and innervation of the hypothenar muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  14. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  15. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  16. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  17. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  18. [August Schummer (1902-1977): breaking ground for new corrosion casting anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmerhaus, B

    2002-12-01

    About 70 years ago, when the so-called polymeric science succeeded in producing synthetic materials and making it available to industrial manufacturing, August Schummer intuitively recognized and reconnoitred the use of these new materials for corrosion casting anatomy. Through the employment of this method, which was named after him, an epoch-making step was achieved in the anatomy of corrosion casting. In the year that followed there has been a very successful progress in the exploration of blood vessels right through into the capillaries of the organs. On the occasion of the 100th birthday of August Schummer (born 13th of December 1902 in Sălişte near Hermannstadt, died 1st of March 1977 in Giessen), former Professor of Veterinary Anatomy at the Universität Giessen, we commemorate the life and work of this exceptionally talented and passionate anatomist.

  19. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE FEEDING APPARATUS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in body size and jaw force are thought to reduce competition for food between ...... through the water and prey is taken by surprise or actively pursued (Van ..... differences in limb and axial anatomy probably exist among the four South African.

  20. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  1. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like ... white). Soft tissue, such as the eye, is gray. The maxillary sinus of adults has a volume ...

  2. Cochlear anatomy: CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a brief overview of the normal cochlear anatomy with CT and MR images in order to allow a more complete identification of the pathological findings in patients with perceptive hipoacusia. (author)

  3. Ecological anatomy of some hydrophytes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... tissues and counter stained in Aniline Blue to increase contrast. Sections were viewed with microscope equipped with the ocular eye-piece at 100 x magnification. .... the relationship between anatomy, ecology and evolution.

  4. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  5. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  6. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  7. Radiological anatomy of the groin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.C. van den; Valois, J.C. de; Go, P.M.N.Y.H.; Rosenbusch, G.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the anatomy of the inguinal region, and to discuss the value of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of groin hernias. After description of the gross anatomy of the groin, attention is focused on the anatomic features of conventional herniography, US, CT, and MRI. Advantages, disadvantages, and accuracy of each technique is discussed briefly. (orig.)

  8. External and internal anatomy of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerisoli, D M; de Souza, R A; de Sousa Neto, M D; Silva, R G; Pécora, J D

    1998-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 269 third molars (155 maxillary and 114 mandibular) were studied. The teeth were measured, classified according to their root number and shape and the internal anatomy was observed by the use of diaphanization. A great anatomical variability was found, with the presence of up to 5 roots in maxillary third molars and 3 roots in mandibular third molars. The number of root canals followed the same pattern.

  9. Renal anatomy as applied to uroradiologic interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.C.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.; Miller, R.P.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Through the experience at the University of Minnesota with over 650 stone removals and over 1,000 percutaneous nephrostomies and ureteral manipulations, the authors developed an approach to the urinary system that has minimized their complication rate and maximized their successes. The exhibit demonstrates the salient anatomic relationships of the kidney with respect to urologic interventions. The kidney's position within the body, lobar anatomy, arterial anatomy, relationship to the ribs and pleura, and relationship to adjacent organs are shown

  10. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771): father of pathologic anatomy and pioneer of modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) was an Italian anatomist who introduced the anatomo-clinical concept in medicine and established anatomy as the instrument to identify the seat and etiology of any disease. He was professor of anatomy at the prestigious University of Padua for more than 50 years. His first documented text in anatomy, Adversaria Anatomica was published in three volumes between 1706 and 1719. His accurate anatomical descriptions of human organs enhanced his reputation as the most famous anatomist of Europe during that period. Morgagni published the most important work of his life, the masterpiece in pathologic anatomy, De Sedibus, in 1761. The text is based on his pathologic observations from about 700 autopsy dissections of patients whom he had treated during their lifetime. De Sedibus provides the reader with a precise correlation between the anatomo-pathologic findings at post-mortem and the clinical symptoms of a disease observed during a lifetime. Morgagni's ability to integrate and synthesize information set him apart from his contemporaries, and his anatomo-clinical method was a major breakthrough in the history of medicine as it helped physicians to diagnose a disease, analyse the prognosis of that disease and prepare a management protocol for the same. His achievements led to the emergence of pathologic anatomy as an exact science and with him began modern medicine.

  11. Learning surgically oriented anatomy in a student-run extracurricular club: an education through recreation initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahnoor M; Bodrogi, Andrew; Cristea, Octav; Johnson, Marjorie; McAlister, Vivian C

    2012-01-01

    Didactic and laboratory anatomical education have seen significant reductions in the medical school curriculum due, in part, to the current shift from basic science to more clinically based teaching in North American medical schools. In order to increase medical student exposure to anatomy, with clinical applicability, a student-run initiative called surgically oriented anatomy prosectors (SOAP) club was created within the extracurricular program at the Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. SOAP invites surgeons and residents from various surgical specialties to demonstrate, on a cadaver, a surgical procedure of their choosing. During the demonstration, the anatomy, as it relates to the surgical procedure, is discussed. The students then break into smaller groups to examine the relevant anatomy on the cadavers, during which time the discussion is broadened. The group continues the conversation in a social environment with refreshments. SOAP is one of the most popular extracurricular clubs with 65% of first and second year medical students registered as members. The high demand for SOAP, along with the positive participant feedback, may be due to its utilization of the principle of education through recreation, which seeks to provide opportunities for learning seamlessly throughout all facets of life. It also demonstrates the desire, amongst certain medical students, to learn applied anatomy, particularly within a surgical context. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. The development, assessment and validation of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karen Benn

    1996-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, validating and utilizing VR as a human anatomy training medium. Current anatomy instruction is primarily in the form of lectures and usage of textbooks. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three-dimensional, unlike the one-dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two-dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality allows one to step through the computer screen into a 3-D artificial world. The primary objective of this project is to produce a virtual reality application of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver that can be taken back to the classroom. The hypothesis is that an immersive learning environment affords quicker anatomic recognition and orientation and a greater level of retention in human anatomy instruction. The goal is to augment not replace traditional modes of instruction.

  13. A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Tobias; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Gratzke, Christian; Kaouk, Jihad; Kutikov, Alexander; Macchi, Veronica; Mottrie, Alexandre; Porpiglia, Francesco; Porter, James; Rogers, Craig G; Russo, Paul; Thompson, R Houston; Uzzo, Robert G; Wood, Christopher G; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-12-01

    A detailed understanding of renal surgical anatomy is necessary to optimize preoperative planning and operative technique and provide a basis for improved outcomes. To evaluate the literature regarding pertinent surgical anatomy of the kidney and related structures, nephrometry scoring systems, and current surgical strategies for partial nephrectomy (PN). A literature review was conducted. Surgical renal anatomy fundamentally impacts PN surgery. The renal artery divides into anterior and posterior divisions, from which approximately five segmental terminal arteries originate. The renal veins are not terminal. Variations in the vascular and lymphatic channels are common; thus, concurrent lymphadenectomy is not routinely indicated during PN for cT1 renal masses in the setting of clinically negative lymph nodes. Renal-protocol contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is used for standard imaging. Anatomy-based nephrometry scoring systems allow standardized academic reporting of tumor characteristics and predict PN outcomes (complications, remnant function, possibly histology). Anatomy-based novel surgical approaches may reduce ischemic time during PN; these include early unclamping, segmental clamping, tumor-specific clamping (zero ischemia), and unclamped PN. Cancer cure after PN relies on complete resection, which can be achieved by thin margins. Post-PN renal function is impacted by kidney quality, remnant quantity, and ischemia type and duration. Surgical renal anatomy underpins imaging, nephrometry scoring systems, and vascular control techniques that reduce global renal ischemia and may impact post-PN function. A contemporary ideal PN excises the tumor with a thin negative margin, delicately secures the tumor bed to maximize vascularized remnant parenchyma, and minimizes global ischemia to the renal remnant with minimal complications. In this report we review renal surgical anatomy. Renal mass imaging allows detailed delineation of the

  14. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  15. Normal distal pulmonary vein anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the pulmonary veins (PVs, especially their myocardial sleeves play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Understanding the PV anatomy is crucial for the safety and efficacy of all procedures performed on PVs. The aim of this study was to present normal distal PV anatomy and to create a juxtaposition of all PV ostium variants.Methods. A total of 130 randomly selected autopsied adult human hearts (Caucasian were examined. The number of PVs ostia was evaluated and their diameter was measured. The ostium-to-last-tributary distance and macroscopic presence of myocardial sleeves were also evaluated.Results. Five hundred forty-one PV ostia were identified. Four classical PV ostia patterns (two left and two right PVs were observed in 70.8% of all cases. The most common variant was the classical pattern with additional middle right PV (19.2%, followed by the common ostium for the left superior and the inferior PVs (4.44%. Mean diameters of PV ostia (for the classical pattern were: left superior = 13.8 ± 2.9 mm; left inferior = 13.3 ± 3.4 mm; right superior = 14.3 ± 2.9 mm; right inferior = 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. When present, the additional middle right PV ostium had the smallest PV ostium diameter in the heart (8.2 ± 4.1 mm. The mean ostium-to-last-tributary (closest to the atrium distances were: left superior = 15.1 ± 4.6 mm; left inferior = 13.5 ± 4.0 mm; right superior = 11.8 ± 4.0 mm; right inferior = 11.0 ± 3.7 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes in ostia diameters and ostium-to-last-tributary distances.Conclusion. Only 71% of the cases have four standard pulmonary veins. The middle right pulmonary vein is present in almost 20% of patients. Presented data can provide useful information for the clinicians during interventional procedures or radiologic examinations of PVs.

  16. Temporomandibular Joint Anatomy Assessed by CBCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Caruso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Since cone beam computed tomography (CBCT has been used for the study of craniofacial morphology, the attention of orthodontists has also focused on the mandibular condyle. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize the recent 3D CBCT images of mandibular condyle. Material and Methods. The eligibility criteria for the studies are (a studies aimed at evaluating the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint; (b studies performed with CBCT images; (c studies on human subjects; (d studies that were not clinical case-reports and clinical series; (e studies reporting data on children, adolescents, or young adults (data from individuals with age ≤ 30 years. Sources included PubMed from June 2008 to June 2016. Results. 43 full-text articles were initially screened for eligibility. 13 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. 11 articles were finally included in qualitative synthesis. The main topics treated in the studies are the volume and surface of the mandibular condyle, the bone changes on cortical surface, the facial asymmetry, and the optimum position of the condyle in the glenoid fossa. Conclusion. Additional studies will be necessary in the future, constructed with longitudinal methodology, especially in growing subjects. The limits of CBCT acquisitions are also highlighted.

  17. Are your students ready for anatomy and physiology? Developing tools to identify students at risk for failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultice, Amy; Witham, Ann; Kallmeyer, Robert

    2015-06-01

    High failure rates in introductory college science courses, including anatomy and physiology, are common at institutions across the country, and determining the specific factors that contribute to this problem is challenging. To identify students at risk for failure in introductory physiology courses at our open-enrollment institution, an online pilot survey was administered to 200 biology students. The survey results revealed several predictive factors related to academic preparation and prompted a comprehensive analysis of college records of >2,000 biology students over a 5-yr period. Using these historical data, a model that was 91% successful in predicting student success in these courses was developed. The results of the present study support the use of surveys and similar models to identify at-risk students and to provide guidance in the development of evidence-based advising programs and pedagogies. This comprehensive approach may be a tangible step in improving student success for students from a wide variety of backgrounds in anatomy and physiology courses. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  18. 2016 High School Honors Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum Investigation for College Board Advanced Placement Classification Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Siebold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Four sections of senior Honors Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P students are representative of sixty-five nations. These classes participated in a yearlong investigation pursuant of innovative learning, and grading modalities to introduce a 21st century curriculum for A&P to become a College Board Advanced Placement (AP course. All enrollees began the year by taking a self-assessment based on Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences. This data was evaluated for the design of learning approaches identifying student uniqueness that could better implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, and present State of Tennessee Human Anatomy and Physiology Learning Standards laying the groundwork to write the AP curriculum. Component curriculum rubrics were used, and modified to enable students to self-evaluate their performance in certain areas. Students participated in teams represented as Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 'Intern Teams' investigating various diseases. The students, also, researched health equity, and disparity issues from variables based on survey questions they designed that could affect the health care treatment of patients suffering from their investigated disease. They then proposed a 2016 CDC Educational Campaign revamping public health education for the disease, including brochure, and public service announcement (PSA.

  19. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  20. Exploring the changing learning environment of the gross anatomy lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Regehr, Glenn; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of virtual models and prosected specimens in the context of the gross anatomy lab. In 2009, student volunteers from an undergraduate anatomy class were randomly assigned to study groups in one of three learning conditions. All groups studied the muscles of mastication and completed identical learning objectives during a 45-minute lab. All groups were provided with two reference atlases. Groups were distinguished by the type of primary tools they were provided: gross prosections, three-dimensional stereoscopic computer model, or both resources. The facilitator kept observational field notes. A prepost multiple-choice knowledge test was administered to evaluate students' learning. No significant effect of the laboratory models was demonstrated between groups on the prepost assessment of knowledge. Recurring observations included students' tendency to revert to individual memorization prior to the posttest, rotation of models to match views in the provided atlas, and dissemination of groups into smaller working units. The use of virtual lab resources seemed to influence the social context and learning environment of the anatomy lab. As computer-based learning methods are implemented and studied, they must be evaluated beyond their impact on knowledge gain to consider the effect technology has on students' social development.

  1. Science and Criminal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Presents a science activity that integrates the disciplines of anatomy, physiology, genetics, and forensics in which students act as detectives unraveling evidence at a murder crime scene. This project is designed to enhance student interest by providing immediate application of these disciplines. (DKM)

  2. What Do the Public Know about Anatomy? Anatomy Education to the Public and the Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam M.; Diggle, Peter; Wessels, Quenton

    2018-01-01

    Public knowledge of the anatomical "self" is lacking and evidence points towards a growing need for anatomy education to the wider public. The public were offered the opportunity to learn human anatomy and complete an anatomical knowledge survey afterwards. Sixty-three participants volunteered to attempt to place 20 anatomical structures…

  3. Felix Vicq d'Azyr: anatomy, medicine and revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2007-02-01

    Félix Vicq d'Azyr was born in 1748 in the small town of Valognes, Normandy. He studied medicine in Paris but he was particularly impressed by the lectures given at the Jardin du Roi by the comparative anatomist Louis Daubenton and the surgeon Antoine Petit. In 1773, Vicq d'Azyr initiated a series of successful lectures on human and animal anatomy at the Paris Medical School, from which he received his medical degree in 1774. He was elected the same year at the Academy of Sciences at age 26, thanks to his outstanding contributions to comparative anatomy. Vicq d'Azyr became widely known after his successful management of a severe cattle plague that occurred in the southern part of France in 1774, an event that led to the foundation of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1778. As Permanent Secretary of this society, Vicq d'Azyr wrote several eulogies that were models of eloquence and erudition and worth him a seat at the French Academy in 1788. Vicq d'Azyr published in 1786 a remarkable anatomy and physiology treatise: a large in-folio that contained original descriptions illustrated by means of nature-sized, colored, human brain figures of a quality and exactitude never attained before. In 1789, Vicq d'Azyr was appointed physician to the Queen Marie-Antoinette and, in 1790, he presented to the Constituent Assembly a decisive plan to reform the teaching of medicine in France. Unfortunately, Vicq d'Azyr did not survive the turmoil of the French Revolution; he died at age 46 on June 20, 1794.

  4. Anatomy of an online misinformation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Shao

    Full Text Available Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network.

  5. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [de

  6. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  7. [Anatomy and pathogenesis of diverticular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, T; Böttner, M

    2014-04-01

    Although diverticular disease is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal disorders the pathogenesis is not yet sufficiently clarified. The aim is to define the anatomy and pathogenesis of diverticular disease considering the risk factors and description of structural and functional alterations of the bowel wall. This article gives an appraisal of the literature, presentation and evaluation of classical etiological factors, analysis and discussion of novel pathogenetic concepts. Colonic diverticulosis is defined as an acquired out-pouching of multiple and initially asymptomatic pseudodiverticula through muscular gaps in the colon wall. Diverticular disease is characterized by diverticular bleeding and/or inflammatory processes (diverticulitis) with corresponding complications (e.g. abscess formation, fistula, covered and open perforation, peritonitis and stenosis). Risk factors for diverticular disease include increasing age, genetic predisposition, congenital connective tissue diseases, low fiber diet, high meat consumption and pronounced overweight. Alterations of connective tissue cause a weakening of preformed exit sites of diverticula and rigidity of the bowel wall with reduced flexibility. It is assumed that intestinal innervation disorders and structural alterations of the musculature induce abnormal contractile patterns with increased intraluminal pressure, thereby promoting the development of diverticula. Moreover, an increased release of pain-mediating neurotransmitters is considered to be responsible for persistent pain in chronic diverticular disease. According to the present data the pathogenesis of diverticular disease cannot be attributed to a single factor but should be considered as a multifactorial event.

  8. Anatomy of an online misinformation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xinwen; Flammini, Alessandro; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca

    2018-01-01

    Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network. PMID:29702657

  9. Anatomy of an online misinformation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chengcheng; Hui, Pik-Mai; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xinwen; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca

    2018-01-01

    Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network.

  10. Bronchial arteries: anatomy, function, hypertrophy, and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Kunin, Jeffrey R; Wible, Brandt C

    2015-01-01

    The two main sources of blood supply to the lungs and their supporting structures are the pulmonary and bronchial arteries. The bronchial arteries account for 1% of the cardiac output but can be recruited to provide additional systemic circulation to the lungs in various acquired and congenital thoracic disorders. An understanding of bronchial artery anatomy and function is important in the identification of bronchial artery dilatation and anomalies and the formulation of an appropriate differential diagnosis. Visualization of dilated bronchial arteries at imaging should alert the radiologist to obstructive disorders that affect the pulmonary circulation and prompt the exclusion of diseases that produce or are associated with pulmonary artery obstruction, including chronic infectious and/or inflammatory processes, chronic thromboembolic disease, and congenital anomalies of the thorax (eg, proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery). Conotruncal abnormalities, such as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, are associated with systemic pulmonary supply provided by aortic branches known as major aortopulmonary collaterals, which originate in the region of the bronchial arteries. Bronchial artery malformation is a rare left-to-right or left-to-left shunt characterized by an anomalous connection between a bronchial artery and a pulmonary artery or a pulmonary vein, respectively. Bronchial artery interventions can be used successfully in the treatment of hemoptysis, with a low risk of adverse events. Multidetector computed tomography helps provide a vascular road map for the interventional radiologist before bronchial artery embolization. RSNA, 2015

  11. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI, CT and mCT to create advanced representation of animal anatomy, including bones, inner organs...... and blood vessels in a variety of animals, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and spiders. The images have a similar quality to most traditional anatomical drawings and are presented together with interactive movies of the anatomical structures, where the object can be viewed from different...

  12. The Sphenopalatine Ganglion: Anatomy, Pathophysiology, and Therapeutic Targeting in Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew S; Robertson, Carrie E; Kaplan, Eugene; Ailani, Jessica; Charleston, Larry; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Berliner, Randall; Rosen, Noah L; Duarte, Robert; Vidwan, Jaskiran; Halker, Rashmi B; Gill, Nicole; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2016-02-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has attracted the interest of practitioners treating head and face pain for over a century because of its anatomical connections and role in the trigemino-autonomic reflex. In this review, we discuss the anatomy of the SPG, as well as what is known about its role in the pathophysiology of headache disorders, including cluster headache and migraine. We then address various therapies that target the SPG, including intranasal medication delivery, new SPG blocking catheter devices, neurostimulation, chemical neurolysis, and ablation procedures. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  13. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  14. A three-year prospective longitudinal cohort study of medical students' attitudes toward anatomy teaching and their career aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Aneel; Boutefnouchet, Tarek; Yong, Xu; Abrahams, Peter; Joplin, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Today's medical students are faced with numerous learning needs. Continuously developing curricula have reduced time for basic science subjects such as anatomy. This study aimed to determine the students' views on the relevance of anatomy teaching, anatomical knowledge, and the effect these have on their career choices. A Likert scale questionnaire was distributed to second year medical students [response rate 91% (n = 292/320)]. The same questionnaire was subsequently distributed to the cohort three years later when they were final year students [response rate 37% (n = 146/392)]. Students in both the cohorts of study agreed strongly that clinically correlated anatomical teaching was relevant to clinical practice (92% and 86% of second and final year respondents, respectively) and helped them during their clinical placements (73% and 92%, respectively). Only 28% of the second year and 31% of the final year students agreed that their anatomy teaching prepared them to interpret clinical images (P = 0.269). Only 14% of the final year students felt confident in their knowledge of anatomy. Of the final year students, 30% felt that they had enough opportunity to scrub in the operating room. Nearly half of those students who would consider surgery as a career (19%) think that they will eventually become surgeons (11%). This data suggests that modern anatomy curriculum should focus on clinical correlations and clinical image interpretation. Students would value more opportunities to participate in surgeries. Vertical integration of anatomy teaching throughout the full medical course may be useful. Copyright 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. The use of porcine corrosion casts for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlova, Lada; Liska, Vaclav; Mirka, Hynek; Tonar, Zbynek; Haviar, Stanislav; Svoboda, Milos; Benes, Jan; Palek, Richard; Emingr, Michal; Rosendorf, Jachym; Mik, Patrik; Leupen, Sarah; Lametschwandtner, Alois

    2017-09-01

    In teaching and learning human anatomy, anatomical autopsy and prosected specimens have always been indispensable. However, alternative methods must often be used to demonstrate particularly delicate structures. Corrosion casting of porcine organs with Biodur E20 ® Plus is valuable for teaching and learning both gross anatomy and, uniquely, the micromorphology of cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, and urogenital systems. Assessments of casts with a stereomicroscope and/or scanning electron microscope as well as highlighting cast structures using color coding help students to better understand how the structures that they have observed as two-dimensional images actually exist in three dimensions, and students found using the casts to be highly effective in their learning. Reconstructions of cast hollow structures from (micro-)computed tomography scans and videos facilitate detailed analyses of branching patterns and spatial arrangements in cast structures, aid in the understanding of clinically relevant structures and provide innovative visual aids. The casting protocol and teaching manual we offer can be adjusted to different technical capabilities and might also be found useful for veterinary or other biological science classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical And Surgical Anatomy Of Lumbar Hernia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Souza Sanders

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar hernia is defined as the presence of failure in the transverse fascia or in the aponeurosis of the transverse abdominal muscle that results in the extrusion of intra or extra peritoneal organs through the discontinuity of the postero lateral abdominal wall. The aim of this study was to conduct a methodical review of the anatomy of the hernia form grynfelt dated from 2006 to 2017. For this, we performed a bibliographic review by means of electronic databases like SciELO, PubMed, Science Direct, LILACS and Bireme to get better approach to the subject. It has been found that the lumbar hernia is a disease little known by doctors whose diagnostics are often performed in the wrong way and for surgical correction needs a good anatomical knowledge. Lumbar hernias, although rare, must be taken into account, since ischemia of herniated intestinal segments can lead to the death of the patient, especially in the elderly. Knowledge about the anatomy of the lumbar region is of vital importance because it makes surgery safe and reduces risks of complications and recidivating of the hernia.

  17. The Integrated Clinical Anatomy Program at Alfaisal University: An Innovative Model of Teaching Clinically Applied Functional Anatomy in a Hybrid Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqinuddin, Ahmed; Ikram, Muhammad Faisal; Zafar, Muhammad; Eldin, Nivin Sharaf; Mazhar, Muhammad Atif; Qazi, Sadia; Shaikh, Aftab Ahmed; Obeidat, Akef; Al-Kattan, Khaled; Ganguly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of specialty. It is essential for physicians to be able to perform a variety of tasks, including performing invasive procedures, examining radiological images, performing a physical examination of a patient, etc. Medical students have to be prepared for such tasks, and we…

  18. In memory of professor Czesław Niżankowski, Head of the Department of Anatomy, Wroclaw Medical University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacała, Ryszard R; Wronecki, Krzysztof; Kacała, Arkadiusz; Domagała, Zygmunt; Porwolik, Michał

    2018-03-20

    Professor Czesław Niżankowski was an academic teacher and researcher at several universities; head of the Department of Anatomy at Wroclaw Medical University (1966-1982); and head of the Department of Biological Sciences at the Wrocław School of Physical Education (since 1972 University School of Physical Education in Wrocław), as well as the chancellor there. He contributed greatly to the development of morphological sciences, supervising many doctoral and post-doctoral works. He dedicated considerable time to the preparation of anatomical specimens of lungs, hearts and organs of the gastrointestinal tract. At the Museum of Anatomy, there are over 100 specimens of lungs prepared using the forced air technique improved by Professor Niżankowski, along with specimens of the bronchial tree and vascular system prepared using a corrosive technique. Professor Niżankowski was an active member of scientific societies in Wrocław and in other cities in Poland. For his accomplishments, he received a number of ministerial and state awards, including the Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta, and was granted an honorary doctorate by Wroclaw Medical University.

  19. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  20. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Application of flipped classroom pedagogy to the human gross anatomy laboratory: Student preferences and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, Timothy R; Borcherding, Nicholas C; Harris, Jennie; Hoffmann, Darren S

    2017-12-28

    To improve student preparedness for anatomy laboratory dissection, the dental gross anatomy laboratory was transformed using flipped classroom pedagogy. Instead of spending class time explaining the procedures and anatomical structures for each laboratory, students were provided online materials to prepare for laboratory on their own. Eliminating in-class preparation provided the opportunity to end each period with integrative group activities that connected laboratory and lecture material and explored clinical correlations. Materials provided for prelaboratory preparation included: custom-made, three-dimensional (3D) anatomy videos, abbreviated dissection instructions, key atlas figures, and dissection videos. Data from three years of the course (n = 241 students) allowed for analysis of students' preferences for these materials and detailed tracking of usage of 3D anatomy videos. Students reported spending an average of 27:22 (±17:56) minutes preparing for laboratory, similar to the 30 minutes previously allocated for in-class dissection preparation. The 3D anatomy videos and key atlas figures were rated the most helpful resources. Scores on laboratory examinations were compared for the three years before the curriculum change (2011-2013; n = 242) and three years after (2014-2016; n = 241). There was no change in average grades on the first and second laboratory examinations. However, on the final semi-cumulative laboratory examination, scores were significantly higher in the post-flip classes (P = 0.04). These results demonstrate an effective model for applying flipped classroom pedagogy to the gross anatomy laboratory and illustrate a meaningful role for 3D anatomy visualizations in a dissection-based course. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A. Susanne; Durward, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  4. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R.; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissec...

  5. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations

  6. Anatomy, normal variants, and basic biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the anatomy and basic functions of the foot and ankle important to physicians involved in imaging procedures, clinical medicine, and surgery. New radiographic techniques especially magnetic resonance imaging, provide more diagnostic information owing to improved tissue contrast and the ability to obtain multiple image planes (axial, sagittal, coronal, oblique). Therefore, a thorough knowledge of skeletal and soft tissue anatomy is even more essential. Normal variants must also be understood in order to distinguish normal from pathologic changes in the foot and ankle. A basic understanding of biomechanics is also essential for selecting the proper diagnostic techniques

  7. Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Kirmi, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The meninges are an important connective tissue envelope investing the brain. Their function is to provide a protective coating to the brain and also participate in the formation of blood-brain barrier. Understanding their anatomy is fundamental to understanding the location and spread of pathologies in relation to the layers. It also provides an insight into the characteristics of such pathologies when imaging them. This review aims to describe the anatomy of the meninges, and to demonstrate the imaging findings of specific features.

  8. Atlas of regional anatomy of the brain using MRI. With functional correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamraz, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The volume provides a unique review of the essential topographical anatomy of the brain from an MRI perspective, correlating high-quality anatomical plates with the corresponding high-resolution MRI images. The book includes a historical review of brain mapping and an analysis of the essential reference planes used for the study of the human brain. Subsequent chapters provide a detailed review of the sulcal and the gyral anatomy of the human cortex, guiding the reader through an interpretation of the individual brain atlas provided by high-resolution MRI. The relationship between brain structure and function is approached in a topographical fashion with analysis of the necessary imaging methodology and displayed anatomy. The central, perisylvian, mesial temporal and occipital areas receive special attention. Imaging of the core brain structures is included. An extensive coronal atlas concludes the book. (orig.)

  9. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  10. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  11. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  12. Medical Students' Perception of Problem Areas in Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ranges of problems were extensive; neuro-anatomy in gross anatomy, slide review in histology, and cardiovascular embryology were amongst the most highlighted areas of concern. Most students attributed the problems in gross anatomy to difficulty with accessing the area during dissection and inability to grasp the ...

  13. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr

    2013-01-01

    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  14. Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning in an Introductory Anatomy and Physiology Course with a Diverse Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL), a pedagogical technique initially developed for college chemistry courses, has been implemented for 2 yr in a freshman-level anatomy and physiology course at a small private college. The course is populated with students with backgrounds ranging from no previous college-level science to junior and…

  15. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) with reference to other anserine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B. J. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh (United States); Smith, S. A.

    1991-03-15

    he purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) as a representative of the avian Order Anseriformes. The head, body, wing, and pelvic limb of three adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate normal anatomy. Selected views of other anseriform species were included to illustrate certain anatomical features unique to those species.

  16. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) with reference to other anserine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    he purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) as a representative of the avian Order Anseriformes. The head, body, wing, and pelvic limb of three adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate normal anatomy. Selected views of other anseriform species were included to illustrate certain anatomical features unique to those species

  17. Commentary: the importance of musculoskeletal medicine and anatomy in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Charles S; Ahn, Christine S

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools in the United States have continued to demonstrate deficiencies in musculoskeletal education. In response to the findings of numerous studies and to the objectives of the U.S. Bone and Joint Decade (an international collaborative movement sanctioned by the United Nations and the World Health Organization for the purpose of promoting awareness of musculoskeletal disease), several institutions, including Harvard Medical School, have reassessed the preclinical musculoskeletal curriculum at their respective medical schools. A cross-sectional survey at Harvard in 2004 found that students lacked clinical confidence in dealing with the musculoskeletal system. In addition, only one quarter of the graduating class of medical students passed a nationally validated exam in basic musculoskeletal competency. In 2005, 33 total hours of musculoskeletal medicine were added to the musculoskeletal blocks of the preclinical anatomy, pathophysiology, and physical examination courses. Alongside this movement toward more musculoskeletal education, there has been continued debate over the relevance and cost-effectiveness of cadaveric and surface anatomy labs. With the advent of advanced imaging technology, some argue that dissection anatomy is outdated and labor-intensive, whereas three-dimensional images are more accessible and time-effective for today's students. However, knowledge of anatomy is a critical foundation to learning musculoskeletal medicine. Thus, making room for more musculoskeletal curriculum time by cutting out cadaveric anatomy labs may ultimately be counterproductive.

  18. Multidetector CT angiography in living donor renal transplantation: accuracy and discrepancies in right venous anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S; Emre, S; Arvelakis, A; Asch, W; Bia, M; Formica, R; Israel, G

    2011-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography is a reliable technique for assessing pre-operative renal anatomy in living kidney donors. The method has largely evolved into protocols that eliminate dedicated venous phase and instead utilize a combined arterial/venous phase to delineate arterial and venous anatomy simultaneously. Despite adoption of this protocol, there has been no study to assess its accuracy. To assess whether or not MDCT angiography compares favorably to intra-operative findings, 102 donors underwent MDCT angiography without a dedicated venous phase with surgical interpretation of renal anatomy. Anatomical variants included multiple arteries (12%), multiple veins (7%), early arterial bifurcation (13%), late venous confluence (5%), circumaortic renal veins (5%), retroaortic vein (1%), and ureteral duplication (2%). The sensitivity and specificity of multiple arterial anomalies were 100% and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of multiple venous anomalies were 92% and 98%, respectively. The most common discrepancy was noted exclusively in the interpretation of right venous anatomy as it pertained to the renal vein/vena cava confluence (3%). MDCT angiography using a combined arterial/venous contrast-enhanced phase provides suitable depiction of renal donor anatomy. Careful consideration should be given when planning a right donor nephrectomy whether the radiographic interpretation is suggestive of a late confluence. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  20. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  1. Drawing method can improve musculoskeletal anatomy comprehension in medical faculty student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joewono, Muliani; Karmaya, I Nyoman Mangku; Wirata, Gede; Yuliana; Widianti, I Gusti Ayu; Wardana, I Nyoman Gede

    2018-03-01

    The Chinese philosophy of Confucianism said "What I heard I forgot, what I see, I remember, what I do, I understand." During this time, most of the teaching and learning process relies on viewing and listening modalities only. As a result, much information does not last long in memory as well as the material understanding achieves became less deep. In studying anatomy science, drawing is one of effective important methods because it is an integration of ideas and knowledge of vision thereby increasing comprehension and learning motivation of college students. The purpose of this research is to know the musculoskeletal anatomy comprehension by drawing learning method in Medical Faculty student. This research uses observational analytic design with the cross-sectional design. Total sampling was done to the entire student of Physiotherapy Study Program in 2012, 2013, and 2014, Medical Faculty of Udayana University. The average value of musculoskeletal anatomy of the student in 2012, 2013, and 2014 sequentially are 31.67, 33.57, and 45.00, respectively. Normality test with Shapiro-Wilk and homogeneity with Levene's test showed normal results and homogeneous. One-way ANOVA test between groups showed a significant result that is 11.00 ( P drawing method can improve the musculoskeletal anatomy comprehension in Medical Faculty student.

  2. A plea for the use of drawing in human anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavert, Philippe; Bouchaïb, J; Duparc, F; Kahn, J L

    2012-10-01

    Descriptive human anatomy constitutes one of the main parts of the educational program of the first part of the medical studies. Professors of anatomy have to take into account the exponential evolution of the techniques of morphological and functional exploration of the patients, and the trend to open more and more the contents of the lectures of anatomy to clinical considerations. Basically, teaching requires a series of descriptive and educational media to set up, in front of the student, the studied structures and so to build the human body. More generally, lectures in morphological sciences try to develop three types of knowledge: declarative, procedural, and conditional. Traditionally in France "basic or first" anatomy is taught in amphitheater and in big groups by building each structure or region on a blackboard with colored chalk that allows a relief stake of certain structures and builds in two dimensions a three-dimensional organization. Actually, the blackboard is and stays for us an excellent media of non-verbal expression.

  3. DIDACTIC MODEL AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL APPLIED IN TEACHING OF CELL ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemisa Amorim da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The didactic models have a prominent role in the chemical and physical education. However, the use of this tool is still little explored in science teaching. In this article, we present a didactic proposal based on the use of representational didactic models to complement the teaching of cellular anatomy. The methodology was tested and evaluated by students of the seventh grade of elementary school in a public school in Tefe, Amazonas. Structured questionnaires were used to assess the perception of knowledge about cellular anatomy, difficulties in understanding the concepts and the importance of using didactic models for learning. The percentage of correct answers in the pre-test ranged from 15% to 54%, while the post-test, this rate was much higher, between 77% to 100%. The percentage of inadequate responses in the pretest demonstrates that traditional teaching activities are not efficient for the promotion of long-term knowledge. In contrast, high levels of correct answers in the post-test suggest that the incorporation of leisure activity - able to arouse curiosity, interest and active participation of students - complements effectively the teaching of anatomy Mobile. With this activity we observed that the educational model is a feasible strategy for effective understanding of the cytological aspects of plant and animal cells. Keywords: Alternative methods; Elementary School; cell anatomy.

  4. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  5. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  6. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  8. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  9. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax of small East African goats as a reference for clinical use. Radiography of the thorax was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 healthy small East African goats. Right lateral (RL), left lateral (LL), dorsoventral (DV) and ventrodorsal ...

  10. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  11. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  12. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  13. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  14. The functional anatomy of the ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, A. S.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    To obtain a new insight into the anti-reflux mechanism of the ureterovesical junction by studying the topographical anatomy of the juxta- and intravesical ureter and its relationship to the surrounding bladder musculature. Fresh pig bladders were fixed, frozen and serially sectioned. Enzyme

  15. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  17. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures

  18. The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-03-01

    Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default network is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external environment. Analysis of connectional anatomy in the monkey supports the presence of an interconnected brain system. Providing insight into function, the default network is active when individuals are engaged in internally focused tasks including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and conceiving the perspectives of others. Probing the functional anatomy of the network in detail reveals that it is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems. The medial temporal lobe subsystem provides information from prior experiences in the form of memories and associations that are the building blocks of mental simulation. The medial prefrontal subsystem facilitates the flexible use of this information during the construction of self-relevant mental simulations. These two subsystems converge on important nodes of integration including the posterior cingulate cortex. The implications of these functional and anatomical observations are discussed in relation to possible adaptive roles of the default network for using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions, and maximize the utility of moments when we are not otherwise engaged by the external world. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the default network for understanding mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease.

  19. A digital database of wrist bone anatomy and carpal kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas C; Crisco, Joseph J; Trafton, Theodore G; Leventhal, Evan L

    2007-01-01

    The skeletal wrist consists of eight small, intricately shaped carpal bones. The motion of these bones is complex, occurs in three dimensions, and remains incompletely defined. Our previous efforts have been focused on determining the in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the normal and abnormal carpus. In so doing we have developed an extensive database of carpal bone anatomy and kinematics from a large number of healthy subjects. The purpose of this paper is to describe that database and to make it available to other researchers. CT volume images of both wrists from 30 healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were acquired in multiple wrist positions throughout the normal range of wrist motion. The outer cortical surfaces of the carpal bones, radius and ulna, and proximal metacarpals were segmented and the 3-D motion of each bone was calculated for each wrist position. The database was constructed to include high-resolution surface models, measures of bone volume and shape, and the 3-D kinematics of each segmented bone. The database does not include soft tissues of the wrist. While there are numerous digital anatomical databases, this one is unique in that it includes a large number of subjects and it contains in vivo kinematic data as well as the bony anatomy.

  20. Anatomy studies for an artificial heart. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, R.J.; Nose, Y.

    1977-12-01

    In the interval from February of 1972 through December of 1977, studies were conducted relating to the anatomical feasibility of implanting a total artificial heart system. These studies included both the calf as an experimental animal as well as the ultimate human recipient of the artificial heart system. Studies with the calf included definition of the thoracic anatomy relative to the size, shape, and vascular connections for implanting the blood pump. To test the animal's tolerance to an implanted engine system, mockups of the thermal converter were implanted chronically in various locations within the calf. No problems developed in retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal implants ranging from 8 to 15 months. A study to determine accelerations experienced by an abdominally implanted thermal converter was performed in calves. Under the most severe conditions, accelerations of a maximum of 34 Gs were experienced. The largest effort was devoted to defining the human anatomy relative to implanting an artificial heart in the thorax. From a number of data sources, including cadavers as well as living patients, a quantitative, statistical analysis of the size and shape of the male thorax was obtained. Finally, an in vivo study of a functional intrathoracic compliance bag in a calf demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  1. Use of synchrotron tomography to image naturalistic anatomy in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, John J.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    Understanding the morphology of anatomical structures is a cornerstone of biology. For small animals, classical methods such as histology have provided a wealth of data, but such techniques can be problematic due to destruction of the sample. More importantly, fixation and physical slicing can cause deformation of anatomy, a critical limitation when precise three-dimensional data are required. Modern techniques such as confocal microscopy, MRI, and tabletop x-ray microCT provide effective non-invasive methods, but each of these tools each has limitations including sample size constraints, resolution limits, and difficulty visualizing soft tissue. Our research group at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) studies physiological processes in insects, focusing on the dynamics of breathing and feeding. To determine the size, shape, and relative location of internal anatomy in insects, we use synchrotron microtomography at the beamline 2-BM to image structures including tracheal tubes, muscles, and gut. Because obtaining naturalistic, undeformed anatomical information is a key component of our studies, we have developed methods to image fresh and non-fixed whole animals and tissues. Although motion artifacts remain a problem, we have successfully imaged multiple species including beetles, ants, fruit flies, and butterflies. Here we discuss advances in biological imaging and highlight key findings in insect morphology.

  2. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  3. Pagan symbols associated with the female anatomy in the Medici Chapel by Michelangelo Buonarroti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campos, Deivis; Oxley Da Rocha, Andrea; De Oliveira Lemos, Rodrigo; Malysz, Tais; Antonio Bonatto-Costa, João; Pereira Jotz, Geraldo; Pinto De Oliveira Junior, Lino; Da Costa Oliveira, Miriam

    2017-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that many works of art from the Renaissance period contain hidden symbols and codes that could have religious, mathematical and/or pagan significance and even anatomical allusions. In this context, the present manuscript offers new evidence that the great genius of anatomy, Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564), included pagan symbols associated with female anatomy in the funerary monuments found in the Sagrestia Nuova/Medici Chapel (1519-1533) in Florence, Italy. The interpretation of the symbols provided in this study will interest those with a passion for the history of anatomy. Clin. Anat. 30:572-577, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The benefits of the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website for the design of cardiac devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne H; Quill, Jason L; Bateman, Michael G; Eggen, Michael D; Howard, Stephen A; Goff, Ryan P; Howard, Brian T; Quallich, Stephen G; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes how the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website can be used to improve cardiac device design throughout the process of development. The Atlas is a free-access website featuring novel images of both functional and fixed human cardiac anatomy from over 250 human heart specimens. This website provides numerous educational tutorials on anatomy, physiology and various imaging modalities. For instance, the 'device tutorial' provides examples of devices that were either present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of the vasculature, blood volumes and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of various heart specimens. The website shares library images, video clips and computed tomography and MRI DICOM files in honor of the generous gifts received from donors and their families.

  5. MR imaging of the finger tendons: Normal anatomy and commonly encountered pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, Dina; Stanley, Anthony; Gentili, Amilcare; Hughes, Tudor; Chung, Christine B.

    2005-01-01

    MR imaging has emerged as a powerful tool in the evaluation of soft tissue structures such as the tendons of the hand and finger due to its excellent soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging capabilities. In the finger and hand, perhaps more than in any other location in the body, a detailed and intimate understanding of anatomy is crucial for lesion localization, directing clinical management and predicting long-term prognosis. These issues are of paramount importance to both the clinician and imager, both faced with the challenge of the complex anatomy and pathology associated with these delicate structures. The anatomy of the finger including intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, retinacular structures, and tendons will be discussed. The MR imaging features of common lesions of the tendons of the hand and finger will be reviewed

  6. The radiographic anatomy of the normal ovine digit, the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jennifer S; Singer, Ellen R; Devaney, Jane; Oultram, Joanne W H; Walby, Anna J; Lester, Bridie R; Williams, Helen J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a detailed, accessible set of reference images of the normal radiographic anatomy of the ovine digit up to and including the metacarpo/metatatarsophalangeal joints. The lower front and hind limbs of 5 Lleyn ewes were radiographed using portable radiography equipment, a digital image processer and standard projections. Twenty images, illustrating the normal radiographic anatomy of the limb were selected, labelled and presented along with a detailed description and corresponding images of the bony skeleton. These images are aimed to be of assistance to veterinary surgeons, veterinary students and veterinary researchers by enabling understanding of the normal anatomy of the ovine lower limb, and allowing comparison with the abnormal.

  7. Vascular Anatomy in Laparoscopic Colectomy for Right Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jae; Park, Sung Chan; Kim, Min Jung; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2016-08-01

    The vascular anatomy in the right colon varies; however, related studies are rare, especially on the laparoscopic vascular anatomy of living patients. The purpose of this study was to describe vascular variations around the gastrocolic trunk, middle colic vein, and ileocolic vessels in laparoscopic surgery for right-sided colon cancer. This is a retrospective descriptive study of patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy for right colon cancer. The study was conducted at a single tertiary institution in Korea. Consecutive patients with right colon cancer who underwent laparoscopic right colectomy using the cranial-to-caudal approach (N = 116) between January 2014 and April 2015 were included. Three colorectal surgeons took photographs and videos of the vascular anatomy during each laparoscopic right colectomy, and these were analyzed for vascular variations. We classified venous variations around the gastrocolic trunk into 2 types (3 subtypes), type 1 (n = 92 (79.3%)), defined as 1 or 2 colic veins draining into the gastrocolic trunk, and type II (n = 24 (20.7%)), defined as having no gastrocolic trunk. We also investigated the tributaries of the superior mesenteric vein. One, 2, and 3 middle colic veins were found in 86 (74.1%), 26 (22.4%), and 4 patients (3.5%). The right colic vein drained directly into the superior mesenteric vein in 22 patients (19.0%). All of the patients had a single ileocolic vein draining into the superior mesenteric vein and a single ileocolic artery from the superior mesenteric artery. The right colic artery from the superior mesenteric artery was present in 38 patients (32.7%). The ileocolic artery passed the superior mesenteric vein anteriorly or posteriorly in 58 patients (50%) each. Unlike cadaver or radiological studies, we could not clarify the complete vessel paths. We classified vascular anatomic variations in laparoscopic colectomy for right colon cancer, which could be helpful for colorectal surgeons.

  8. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  9. A Technique to Define Extrahepatic Biliary Anatomy Using Robotic Near-Infrared Fluorescent Cholangiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Ajay V; Kunda, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    Bile duct injury is a rare but serious complication of minimally invasive cholecystectomy. Traditionally, intraoperative cholangiogram has been used in difficult cases to help delineate anatomical structures, however, new imaging modalities are currently available to aid in the identification of extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIFC) using indocyanine green (ICG).1-5 The objective of the study was to evaluate if this technique may aid in safe dissection to obtain the critical view. Thirty-five consecutive multiport robotic cholecystectomies using NIFC with ICG were performed using the da Vinci Firefly Fluorescence Imaging System. All patients received 2.5 mg ICG intravenously at the time of intubation, followed by patient positioning, draping, and establishment of pneumoperitoneum. No structures were divided until the critical view of safety was achieved. Real-time toggling between NIFC and bright-light illumination was utilized throughout the case to define the extrahepatic biliary anatomy. ICG was successfully administered to all patients without complication, and in all cases the extrahepatic biliary anatomy was able to be identified in real-time 3D. All procedures were completed without biliary injury, conversion to an open procedure, or need for traditional cholangiography to obtain the critical view. Specific examples of cases where x-ray cholangiography or conversion to open was avoided and NIFC aided in safe dissection leading to the critical view are demonstrated, including (1) evaluation for aberrant biliary anatomy, (2) confirmation of non-biliary structures, and (3) use in cases where the infundibulum is fused to the common bile duct. NIFC using ICG is demonstrated as a useful technique to rapidly identify and aid in the visualization of extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Techniques that selectively utilize this technology specifically in difficult cases where the anatomy is unclear are demonstrated in order

  10. Quantification of human upper extremity nerves and fascicular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Natalie A; Tyler, Dustin J

    2017-09-01

    In this study we provide detailed quantification of upper extremity nerve and fascicular anatomy. The purpose is to provide values and trends in neural features useful for clinical applications and neural interface device design. Nerve cross-sections were taken from 4 ulnar, 4 median, and 3 radial nerves from 5 arms of 3 human cadavers. Quantified nerve features included cross-sectional area, minor diameter, and major diameter. Fascicular features analyzed included count, perimeter, area, and position. Mean fascicular diameters were 0.57 ± 0.39, 0.6 ± 0.3, 0.5 ± 0.26 mm in the upper arm and 0.38 ± 0.18, 0.47 ± 0.18, 0.4 ± 0.27 mm in the forearm of ulnar, median, and radial nerves, respectively. Mean fascicular diameters were inversely proportional to fascicle count. Detailed quantitative anatomy of upper extremity nerves is a resource for design of neural electrodes, guidance in extraneural procedures, and improved neurosurgical planning. Muscle Nerve 56: 463-471, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  12. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus; Funktionelle Anatomie und Biomechanik des Karpus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [German] Die Handwurzel ist ein komplexes Mosaik von Skelettelementen mit einer Vielzahl von Gelenken und einem differenzierten Ligamentsystem. Die gegensaetzlichen Anforderungen aus hoher Belastungsstabilitaet und hoher Bewegungsfreiheit werden durch folgende Funktionsprinzipien realisiert: Die proximale Handwurzelreihe ist ein mobiles Glied, das zwischen die fixen Elemente des Unterarms und der distalen Reihe interponiert ist. Mit ''variabler Geometrie'' passt die proximale Reihe ihre Form entsprechend den aktuellen Raum- und Krafterfordernissen an. Am Handgelenk kommt es zu kombinierten Bewegungen in 2 Raumebenen, wobei die Radialduktion mit einer Flexion und die Ulnarduktion mit einer Extension kombiniert sind. In der Kombination mit den Umwendbewegungen im distalen Radioulnargelenk sowie den karpalen Abduktions- und Flexions

  13. A Preliminary Survey of Professionalism Teaching Practices in Anatomy Education among Indian Medical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical…

  14. The functional anatomy of the neck and forelimbs of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomy of the neck and forelimb of Chrysochloris asiatica is described and illustrated. The sequence of events during digging and modifications for fossorial action are described. Modifications include the appearance of a third bone in the forearm; the shortening and fusion of bones in the manus; enlarged processes ...

  15. Ecological trends in the wood anatomy of Vaccinioideae (Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Luteyn, J.L.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The ecological wood anatomy of 128 vaccinioid wood samples (including 115 species, 35 genera), collected between 39°S and 60°N latitude and 10 m to 3400 m altitude is studied. Several wood anatomical features within the subfamily, viz. tangential vessel diameter, average length of tracheary

  16. Elementary Anatomy: Activities Designed to Teach Preschool Children about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…

  17. Class Teacher Candidates' Skill of Saying No in Relation to Components of Moral Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ferat; Ersoy, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The ability to say no when faced with demands with possible moral consequences becomes a problem that must be addressed in terms of morality in all of its dimensions, including in terms of the concept of character. "Character" can be defined from different perspectives, and within the framework of moral anatomy. For…

  18. Flipping a Dental Anatomy Course: A Retrospective Study Over Four Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Bakr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flipped classrooms have been successfully used to increase student engagement and support student learning in a range of educational fields, including health education. These advantages for student learning supported implementation of the flipped classroom in introductory sciences and preclinical courses in dental education. We report on a 4-year retrospective study which compared two methods of delivery of a first-year dental anatomy course. The first method used the traditional method, consisting of face to face contact teaching hours, which was compared to a partial flipped classroom, where lecture contact was maintained but practical classes were flipped. A series of online videos demonstrating different practical tasks such as wax carving and tooth identification. An online digital library and online quizzes for self-reflected learning were developed and trialled. Students’ Evaluations of Course (SEC and students’ overall performance in practical and theoretical assessments were used to evaluate the impact on student engagement and success, respectively, after implementation of the modified course offerings. This study evidences the success of the transition to a partially flipped course design. Careful design and consideration of implementation of the flipped classroom method in dental education are recommended to ensure that there is reliable availability of online resources and dedicated teaching staff for construction of resources and delivery of relevant in-class activities.

  19. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  20. Anatomy-based inverse optimization in high-dose-rate brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Comparison of incidence of acute genitourinary toxicity between anatomy-based inverse optimization and geometric optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Shirai, Katsuyuki; Shioya, Mariko; Nakano, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the advantages of anatomy-based inverse optimization (IO) in planning high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 114 patients who received HDR brachytherapy (9 Gy in two fractions) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) were analyzed. The dose distributions of HDR brachytherapy were optimized using geometric optimization (GO) in 70 patients and by anatomy-based IO in the remaining 44 patients. The correlation between the dose-volume histogram parameters, including the urethral dose and the incidence of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity, was evaluated. Results: The averaged values of the percentage of volume receiving 80-150% of the prescribed minimal peripheral dose (V 8 -V 15 ) of the urethra generated by anatomy-based IO were significantly lower than the corresponding values generated by GO. Similarly, the averaged values of the minimal dose received by 5-50% of the target volume (D 5 -D 5 ) obtained using anatomy-based IO were significantly lower than those obtained using GO. Regarding acute toxicity, Grade 2 or worse acute GU toxicity developed in 23% of all patients, but was significantly lower in patients for whom anatomy-based IO (16%) was used than in those for whom GO was used (37%), consistent with the reduced urethral dose (p <0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that anatomy-based IO is superior to GO for dose optimization in HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer

  1. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls.

  2. Distributed retrieval practice promotes superior recall of anatomy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L; Perez, Jose; Linderholm, Tracy

    2017-07-01

    Effortful retrieval produces greater long-term recall of information when compared to studying (i.e., reading), as do learning sessions that are distributed (i.e., spaced apart) when compared to those that are massed together. Although the retrieval and distributed practice effects are well-established in the cognitive science literature, no studies have examined their additive effect with regard to learning anatomy information. The aim of this study was to determine how the benefits of retrieval practice vary with massed versus distributed learning. Participants used the following strategies to learn sets of skeletal muscle anatomy: (1) studying on three different days over a seven day period (SSSS 7,2,0 ), (2) studying and retrieving on three different days over a seven day period (SRSR 7,2,0 ), (3) studying on two different days over a two day period (SSSSSS 2,0 ), (4) studying and retrieving on two separate days over a two day period (SRSRSR 2,0 ), and (5) studying and retrieving on one day (SRx6 0 ). All strategies consisted of 12 learning phases and lasted exactly 24 minutes. Muscle information retention was assessed via free recall and using repeated measures ANOVAs. A week after learning, the recall scores were 24.72 ± 3.12, 33.88 ± 3.48, 15.51 ± 2.48, 20.72 ± 2.94, and 12.86 ± 2.05 for the SSSS 7,2,0 , SRSR 7,2,0 , SSSSSS 2,0 , STSTST 2,0 , and SRx6 0 strategies, respectively. In conclusion, the distributed strategies produced significantly better recall than the massed strategies, the retrieval-based strategies produced significantly better recall than the studying strategies, and the combination of distributed and retrieval practice generated the greatest recall of anatomy information. Anat Sci Educ 10: 339-347. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Overview of radiological anatomy and topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the examination of the most common radiographs of the body that will be encountered by the x-ray operator. The discussion of the radiograph begins with a review of the anatomy and functions of the region. This is followed by a description of the normal anatomy that is imaged in the radiographs. The subjects discussed are follows - Skeleton; Axial Skeleton, Skull: functions, radiographic appearance. Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage (Sternum and Ribs), The Chest Radiograph, Appendicular Skeleton, Shoulder Girdle and Upper Arm. Radiological Appearance of the Elbow, Radiological Appearance of the Wrist and Hand, Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs, Innominate (hip bones) Radiological Appearance of the Pelvis, Lower Extremities, Joints, Classification, Radiological Appearance of the Knee, Radiological Appearance of the Ankle and Foot, Systems and Cavities of the Body, Cranial Cavity, Thoracic Cavity, Abdominal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity

  4. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  5. Pocket atlas of MRI body anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; May, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a guide to the anatomy of extracranial organs as seen in magnetic resonance images. This collection of 96 magnetic resonance images, accompanied by explanatory line drawings, covers all the major organs of the body- shoulder and humerus; elbow and forearm; hand and wrist; chest; abdomen; pelvis; thigh; knee; calf; and ankle. The images are displayed in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes, enabling radiologists to quickly review coronal and sagittal anatomy as it applies to routine MRI practice. Special emphasis is placed on the extremities, where spatial resolution, coronal and sagittal planes, and soft tissue contrast provide important anatomic detail. Each MRI image is carefully labeled - using numbers with legends at the top of the page - to highlight key anatomic features. Where applicable, special parameters and positioning are noted below the images. Accompanying each image is a line drawing demonstrating the level and plane of the image.

  6. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; DEJOUR, DAVID; GRASSI, ALBERTO; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; COLLE, FRANCESCA; RAGGI, FEDERICO; BENZI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

    2013-01-01

    The patellofemoral joint, due to its particular bone anatomy and the numerous capsuloligamentous structures and muscles that act dynamically on the patella, is considered one of the most complex joints in the human body from the biomechanical point of view. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been demonstrated to contribute 60% of the force that opposes lateral displacement of the patella, and MPFL injury results in an approximately 50% reduction in the force needed to dislocate the patella laterally with the knee extended. For this reason, recent years have seen a growing interest in the study of this important anatomical structure, whose aponeurotic nature has thus been demonstrated. The MPFL acts as a restraint during motion, playing an active role under conditions of laterally applied stress, but an only marginal role during natural knee flexion. However, it remains extremely difficult to clearly define the anatomy of the MPFL and its relationships with other anatomical structures. PMID:25606512

  7. Interoperability between phenotype and anatomy ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Oellrich, Anika; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-12-15

    Phenotypic information is important for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. A formal ontological representation of phenotypic information can help to identify, interpret and infer phenotypic traits based on experimental findings. The methods that are currently used to represent data and information about phenotypes fail to make the semantics of the phenotypic trait explicit and do not interoperate with ontologies of anatomy and other domains. Therefore, valuable resources for the analysis of phenotype studies remain unconnected and inaccessible to automated analysis and reasoning. We provide a framework to formalize phenotypic descriptions and make their semantics explicit. Based on this formalization, we provide the means to integrate phenotypic descriptions with ontologies of other domains, in particular anatomy and physiology. We demonstrate how our framework leads to the capability to represent disease phenotypes, perform powerful queries that were not possible before and infer additional knowledge. http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/PheneOntology.

  8. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning Science through Talking Science in Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…

  10. Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to measure the anatomy learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-09-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604-0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X 2  = 415.67, P education environment in Malaysia. A concerted collaboration should be initiated toward developing a valid universal tool that, using the methods outlined in this study, measures the anatomy education environment across different institutions and countries. Anat Sci Educ 10: 423-432. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ultrasonographic anatomy of reproductive female leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojean, Ophélie; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Masseau, Isabelle

    2018-02-19

    Captive leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) often present to the exotic clinic for gastrointestinal impactions, follicular stasis, or dystocia. To our knowledge, normal ultrasonographic anatomy of these lizards has not been described. The objectives of this prospective, anatomic, analytical study were to develop ultrasound techniques for this species and to describe the normal sonographic anatomy of the head, coelomic cavity, and tail. Eleven, healthy, female leopard geckos were included. A linear array 13-18 MHz transducer was used. Geckos were sedated and restrained in dorsal recumbency for coelomic structure examination and in ventral recumbency for head and tail examinations. Sagittal and transverse images were acquired and authors recorded qualitative and quantitative ultrasonographic characteristics of anatomic structures. The ventral surface of the lungs, liver, gallbladder, caudal vena cava, portal vein, ventral abdominal vein, aorta, ovarian follicles, fat bodies, tail, and brain were visualized in 10 of 11 individuals. In one individual, molt precluded ultrasonographic examination. The heart, kidneys, urinary bladder, spleen, and pancreas were not visualized. The digestive tract was observed in 10 individuals but was too small to be measured. Findings from the current study could be used as a reference for future studies of leopard geckos. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  13. Correlation of anatomy and function in medulla oblongata infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, C; Fink, G R; Möller-Hartmann, W; Nowak, D A

    2009-02-01

    A presentation of all aspects of the dorsolateral medulla oblongata syndrome is clinically very rare to find. In most cases patients present with fragmentary symptoms, e.g. ipsilateral axial lateropulsion, nystagmus, dysarthria, dysphagia or hemiataxia. However, the clinical presentation and lesion anatomy at the level of the medulla oblongata is still unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to correlate the functional deficit with structural MRI-data. We included thirteen patients (eight male, five female, mean age 65.5) with medulla oblongata infarction with clinically predominant ipsilateral axial lateropulsion and correlated clinical with structural deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion mapping demonstrated ipsilateral axial lateropulsion to result from lesions of the spinocerebellar tract, the inferior cerebellar peduncle or the inferior vestibular nucleus. Nystagmus was associated with lesions of the inferior vestibular nucleus, dissociated sensory loss with the spinothalamic tract and hemiataxia with the spinocerebellar tract. Correlating dysfunction and lesion anatomy is a promising approach to enhance our knowledge on medulla oblongata topography.

  14. Long head of biceps: from anatomy to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sarmento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long head of the biceps (LHB, tendinous structure of the proximal brachial biceps, has its well-known anatomy, which contrasts with its current functional characterization. Various forms of proximal anchor and intra–articular route, important for the correct interpretation of its contribution to the pathology of the shoulder as well as the treatment methodology, are described. Knowledge of its biomechanics results mainly from cadaveric studies that contradict each other. Already the few studies in vivo indicate a depressant and stabilizing action, anterior, for the humeral head. Its pathology is rarely isolated because it is almost always correlated with rotator cuff or labrum pathology. It can be divided into 3 major groups (inflammatory, instability and traumatic and subdivided according to its location. The anterior shoulder pain is the initial symptom of pathology of LHB Its perfect characterization is dependent on the associated injuries. Clinical tests are multiple and only their combination allows better sensitivity and specificity for LHB pathology. The arthro-MRI and dynamic ultrasound are able to increase proper diagnostic of the pathology of LHB. Treatment ranges from conservative and surgical. The latter includes the repair, tenotomy and tenodesis of LHB which can be performed by open or arthroscopic methodology. The author intends to review existing literature on all aspects related to the long head of the biceps from anatomy to treatment, presenting the latest results.

  15. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector.

  16. An anatomy memorial tribute: fostering a humanistic practice of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical students' first "patients" are the individuals who donate their bodies for laboratory dissection, and these first lessons of medicine serve as a model for the doctor-patient relationship. An Anatomy Memorial Tribute was initiated by students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine to honor these donors. Students and faculty shared music, art, and readings of original poetry and prose. The event facilitated dialogue about attitudes and feelings with regards to death and dying. Controversial issues included anonymity versus identification of donors and the appropriateness of professionals showing emotion in public. The feedback from both students and faculty participants in the event was overwhelmingly positive. Students wrote that the tribute provided a sense of closure for their dissection experience and reinvolved them in shaping their education; faculty indicated that it was appropriate. Memorial tributes are a first step toward fostering the personal growth and emotional preparation required for competent and compassionate patient care. To encourage a humanistic approach to medical education, faculty have the opportunity to participate in such tributes, facilitate sensitive use of language in the anatomy laboratory, and expand the broader medical school curriculum in relation to death and dying. Medical students may expand the concept of memorial tributes and enhance their professional growth in this area by sharing information, ideas, and experiences through national organizations such as the Humanistic Medicine Group of the American Medical Students Association. The capacity of physicians to effectively serve patients facing the end of life is particularly relevant in the setting of palliative medicine.

  17. Anatomy and histology of the transverse humeral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Brian J; Narvy, Steven J; Omid, Reza; Atkinson, Roscoe D; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The classic literature describes the transverse humeral ligament (THL) as a distinct anatomic structure with a role in biceps tendon stability; however, recent literature suggests that it is not a distinct anatomic structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross and microscopic anatomy of the THL, including a specific investigation of the histology of this ligament. Thirty frozen, embalmed cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the gross anatomy of the THL. Seven specimens were evaluated histologically for the presence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings. Two tissue layers were identified in the area described as the THL. In the deep layer, fibers of the subscapularis tendon were found to span the bicipital groove with contributions from the coracohumeral ligament and the supraspinatus tendon. Superficial to this layer was a fibrous fascial covering consisting of distinct bands of tissue. Neurohistology staining revealed the presence of free nerve endings but no mechanoreceptors. This study's findings demonstrate that the THL is a distinct structure continuous with the rotator cuff tendons and the coracohumeral ligament. The finding of free nerve endings in the THL suggests a potential role as a shoulder pain generator. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Congenital Heart Defects and Coronary Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are a well recognized feature of many cardiac malformations and have been catalogued in a number of reviews. This overview concentrates on 1) the interplay between congenital heart defects and coronary morphogenesis, examining how some of the embryology fits with the experiments of nature encountered in clinical practice; and 2) the influence of coronary anatomy on patient management. This overview uses, as examples, pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, ...

  19. The functional anatomy of forearm rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Vivien C.

    2009-01-01

    The elbow, forearm and wrist act as a unified structure to provide a stable, strong and highly mobile strut for positioning the hand in space and for conducting load-bearing tasks. An understanding of the relevant anatomy and biomechanics is important for the surgeon assessing and treating disorders of forearm function. This paper is concerned with illuminating the principles and concepts governing forearm rotation and load-bearing functions.

  20. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  1. The anatomy of Japan's postwar economic development.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Hsiung Yuan

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the anatomy of postwar Japanese economic development. It is illustrated by the reform and reconstruction era (1945-52) and those factors which caused the Japanese economy to grow during the 1953-73 period. Furthermore, on the basis of Japanese economic successes, the role of the Japanese in world affairs again became important. However, due to the world experiencing economic inflation and an oil shock after 1974, t...

  2. Radiological anatomy for FRCR. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Philip; Alvi, Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    The new FRCR part 1 Anatomy examination comprises 20 cases/images, with five questions about each. The cases are labelled 01 to 20 and the five questions are labelled (a) to (e). The authors have set out to emulate this format by gathering 200 cases which, from their experience, are representative of the cases on which candidates will be tested. The book consists of 10 tests with 20 cases each, and 5 stem questions each. The answers, along with an explanation and tips, accompany each test at the end of the chapter. This will help candidates to identify the level of anatomical knowledge expected by the Royal College of Radiologists. The aim of this book is not to replace the already available literature in radiological anatomy, but to complement it as a revision guide. Whereas radiological anatomy atlases and textbooks provide images with labels for every possible identifiable structure in an investigation, the cases in this book have only 5 labels, simulating the exam. (orig.)

  3. A radiographic study of pediatric ulnar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravino, Mattia; Oni, Julius K; Sala, Debra A; Chu, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The adult ulna has a unique bony architecture that has been described in the literature, but, to the best of our knowledge, the ulnar anatomy in children has not been described. We examined 75 anteroposterior (AP) and 64 lateral radiographs (29 were bilateral) of 50, 0.5- to 11-year-old, healthy children's forearms. On AP radiographs, the total ulnar length, the ulnar proximal angle, the ulnar distal angle, and the distance between each angle from the tip of the triceps insertion; and, on lateral radiographs, the ulnar length and bow deviation were measured. The correlation between age and radiographic measurements, differences based on sex, differences compared with adults' measurements, and interobserver/intraobserver reliability were assessed. Age had a very strong/strong positive correlation with length/distance measurements on both AP and lateral radiographs. Only AP ulnar distal angle was significantly different between sexes (females > males). Compared with the adult ulnar studies, the AP proximal angle in children is significantly smaller and the location of this angle is significantly more distal. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were very good for length/distance measurements on AP and lateral radiographs. The knowledge of pediatric ulnar anatomy could be helpful in the treatment of forearm deformities due to multiple hereditary exostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, and in the treatment of ulnar fractures, particularly in Monteggia variants, where restoration of the correct forearm anatomy is essential to obtain good clinical and functional results. Study of diagnostic test, Level II.

  4. Tinjauan Anatomi Layout Halaman Republika Epaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprayitno Suprayitno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Communities are increasingly familiar with Internet technology became one of the reasons for the rapid growth of digital newspaper in Indonesia. The ability of the media presents news in brief, fast, accessible and inexpensive form the basis of high growth of consumer interest in digital newspaper / electronic. Technological developments, triggering changes to the newspaper that had shaped the physical print later developed in digital form. In principle, newspaper print and digital newspapers contain messages or the same news, namely providing information to readers about the actual and weighted, as well as other light information that is entertainment. Review the anatomy of the digital newspaper layout is a study to trace and explore what and how the anatomy of a newspaper page layout, at least to provide information and understanding of the anatomy of the layouts in outline. Process layout in the digital version is no different from print media, which distinguishes its output only. In the process to any design layout of a medium, a designer is still expected to possess and master the basic principles such as layout hierarchy, emphasis, balance, and unity. 

  5. The availability of teaching–pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; Fonseca-Barreto, Ana Terra; Brito, Ciro José; Guerra, Danilo Ribeiro; Nunes-Mota, José Carlos; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy. PMID:24062622

  6. The availability of teaching-pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; Fonseca-Barreto, Ana Terra; Brito, Ciro José; Guerra, Danilo Ribeiro; Nunes-Mota, José Carlos; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy.

  7. An original micro-CT study and meta-analysis of the internal and external anatomy of maxillary molars - implications for endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Iwona M; Jarzębska, Anna; Skinningsrud, Bendik; Pękala, Przemysław A; Wroński, Sebastian; Iwanaga, Joe

    2018-05-07

    The aim of this work was to conduct a radiological micro-CT study and meta-analysis to determine the morphological features of the root canal anatomy of the maxillary molars. The radiological study included micro-CT scans of 110 maxillary first molars and 98 maxillary second molars. To identify articles eligible for inclusion in our meta-analysis, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were search comprehensively. The following data were extracted: study type (cadaveric, intraoperative or imaging), Vertucci types of canal configuration, presence/number of canals, roots, apical foramina, apical deltas, and inter-canal communications. The mesiobuccal root was the most variable with respect to canal configuration, type I being the most common configuration followed by type II and type IV. Type I was the most common canal configuration in the distobuccal and palatal root. Regarding the number of canals in the maxillary first and second molars, one canal was most prevalent in all roots of the three molars, except for the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar, in which two canals were most prevalent. The most prevalent number of roots in all maxillary molars was three. Knowledge of endodontic anatomy determines the parameters of root canal treatment and significantly affects the probability of success. It is therefore especially important to know the morphology of the root canal system in order to perform endodontic treatment correctly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    article/fulltext/jbsc/028/02/0181-0188 ... Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India; Department of Neurosurgery, CN Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India ...

  9. Anatomy during the Third Reich--the Institute of Anatomy at the University of Marburg, as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumüller, G; Grundmann, K

    2002-05-01

    A complete documentation of German anatomical science and its representatives during the period of national socialism has not been published as yet--contrary to the situation in other medical disciplines. Instead of German anatomists, American anatomists have occasionally addressed this issue during their meetings and have reported on special aspects, such as the use of Nazi symbols in anatomical textbooks and atlases (Pernkopf 1952) and the use of corpses of justice victims for anatomical research and student education. Also, the genesis of the atrocious collection of "racial" skulls, initiated along with the SS-institution of the "Ahnenerbe" by the anatomist August Hirt of Strasbourg (who ordered more than 90 inmates from concentration camps to be murdered in the gas chamber built in the concentration camp of Natzweiler-Struthof close to Strasbourg, Alsace) has been described by Frederic Kasten and others. A broader view of the patterns of behaviour and political actions and fates of contemporary scientists, ranging from dismissal to clandestine opportunism, affirmative cooperation and fanatic activism can be obtained by the analysis of the activities in research, medical education and academic positions of the following members of the Institute of Anatomy at the Philipp-University in Marburg: Ernst Göppert, Eduard Jacobshagen, Ernst-Theodor Nauck, Adolf Dabelow, Helmut Becher and Alfred Benninghoff, whose activities and fates differ in several respects and allow more general deductions. Also, the individual fates of a number of prosecuted Jewish anatomists (Wassermann, München; Poll, Hamburg), of devoted and active members of the Nazi party (Clara, Leipzig; Blotevogel, Breslau) and of criminal fanatics (Hirt, Strasbourg; Kremer, Münster) are briefly discussed. The present contribution is an attempt to initiate a more detailed study of all German departments of anatomy during the Hitler regime and to generate a public discussion among the younger generation of

  10. The Anatomy of a Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Herb

    1986-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn the physics of a musical note by learning how to synthesize sounds on a computer. Discusses ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, and release of a note) and includes a program (with listing) which students can use to examine ADSR on a Commodore 64 microcomputer. (JN)

  11. MO-DE-201-03: This course presents a review of radiologic anatomy and physiology as it applies to projection radiography, fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, U/S, and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of radiologic anatomy and physiology is critical for medical physicists. Many physicists are exposed to this topic only in graduate school, and knowledge is seldom formally evaluated or assessed after Part I of the ABR exam. Successful interactions with clinicians, including surgeons, radiologists, and oncologists requires that the medical physicist possess this knowledge. This course presents a review of radiologic anatomy and physiology as it applies to projection radiography, fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, U/S, and nuclear medicine. We will review structural anatomy, manipulation of tissue contrast, the marriage between anatomy and physiology, and explore how medical imaging exploits normal and pathological processes in the body to generate contrast. Learning Objectives: Review radiologic anatomy. Examine techniques to manipulate tissue contrast in radiology. Integrate anatomy and physiology in molecular imaging

  12. MO-DE-201-03: This course presents a review of radiologic anatomy and physiology as it applies to projection radiography, fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, U/S, and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahey, F.

    2015-06-15

    Fundamental knowledge of radiologic anatomy and physiology is critical for medical physicists. Many physicists are exposed to this topic only in graduate school, and knowledge is seldom formally evaluated or assessed after Part I of the ABR exam. Successful interactions with clinicians, including surgeons, radiologists, and oncologists requires that the medical physicist possess this knowledge. This course presents a review of radiologic anatomy and physiology as it applies to projection radiography, fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, U/S, and nuclear medicine. We will review structural anatomy, manipulation of tissue contrast, the marriage between anatomy and physiology, and explore how medical imaging exploits normal and pathological processes in the body to generate contrast. Learning Objectives: Review radiologic anatomy. Examine techniques to manipulate tissue contrast in radiology. Integrate anatomy and physiology in molecular imaging.

  13. SLAP lesions: Anatomy, clinical presentation, MR imaging diagnosis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Debra [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States); MedRay Imaging and Fraser Health Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)], E-mail: cbchung@ucsd.edu; Mohana-Borges, Aurea; Borso, Maya; Chung, Christine B. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    ABSTRACT: Superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) tears are an abnormality of the superior labrum usually centered on the attachment of the long head of the biceps tendon. Tears are commonly caused by repetitive overhead motion or fall on an outstretched arm. SLAP lesions can lead to shoulder pain and instability. Clinical diagnosis is difficult thus imaging plays a key diagnostic role. The normal anatomic variability of the capsulolabral complex can make SLAP lesions a diagnostic challenge. Concurrent shoulder injuries are often present including rotator cuff tears, cystic changes or marrow edema in the humeral head, capsular laxity, Hill-Sachs or Bankart lesion. The relevant anatomy, capsulolabral anatomic variants, primary and secondary findings of SLAP tears including MR arthrography findings, types of SLAP lesions and a practical approach to labral lesions are reviewed.

  14. Automatic anatomy recognition via multiobject oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 2D images. The anatomy recognition method described here consists of two main components: (a) multiobject generalization of OASM and (b) object recognition strategies. The OASM algorithm is generalized to multiple objects by including a model for each object and assigning a cost structure specific to each object in the spirit of live wire. The delineation of multiobject boundaries is done in MOASM via a three level dynamic programming algorithm, wherein the first level is at pixel level which aims to find optimal oriented boundary segments between successive landmarks, the second level is at landmark level which aims to find optimal location for the landmarks, and the third level is at the object level which aims to find optimal arrangement of object boundaries over all objects. The object recognition strategy attempts to find that pose vector (consisting of translation, rotation, and scale component) for the multiobject model that yields the smallest total boundary cost for all objects. The delineation and recognition accuracies were evaluated separately utilizing routine clinical chest CT, abdominal CT, and foot MRI data sets. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF and FPVF). The recognition accuracy was assessed (1) in terms of the size of the space of the pose vectors for the model assembly that yielded high delineation accuracy, (2) as a function of the number of objects and objects' distribution and size in the model, (3) in terms of the interdependence between delineation and recognition, and (4) in terms of the closeness of the optimum recognition result to the global optimum. When multiple objects are included in the model, the delineation accuracy in terms of TPVF can be improved to 97%-98% with a low FPVF of 0.1%-0.2%. Typically, a

  15. Islam and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * The Holy Quran and Science * Modem Science, A Greco- Islamic Legacy * The Decline of Sciences in Islam * The Limitations of Science * Faith and Science * The Present Picture of Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Renaissance of Sciences in Islam * Steps Needed for Building up Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Science Education * Science Foundations in Islam * Technology in Our Countries * Concluding Remarks * REFERENCES

  16. Sciences & Nature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Sciences & Nature, the Scientific Journal edited by the University of ... Subjects covered include agronomy, sciences of the earth, environment, biological, ...

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  18. Atlas of fetal sectional anatomy with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, G.; Mintz, M.C.; Crelin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Here is an atlas of sectional anatomy for the fetus featuring correlated anatomy and imaging, transverse coronal and sagittal views, a guide to development of the brain, cardiac anatomy in standard plans of study and, over 280 illustrations

  19. A meta-analysis of the educational effectiveness of three-dimensional visualization technologies in teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar; Violato, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Many medical graduates are deficient in anatomy knowledge and perhaps below the standards for safe medical practice. Three-dimensional visualization technology (3DVT) has been advanced as a promising tool to enhance anatomy knowledge. The purpose of this review is to conduct a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of 3DVT in teaching and learning anatomy compared to all teaching methods. The primary outcomes were scores of anatomy knowledge tests expressed as factual or spatial knowledge percentage means. Secondary outcomes were perception scores of the learners. Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria including 28 (78%) randomized studies. Based on 2,226 participants including 2,128 from studies with comparison groups, 3DVTs (1) resulted in higher (d = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.02-0.62) factual knowledge, (2) yielded significant better results (d = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.20-0.80) in spatial knowledge acquisition, and (3) produced significant increase in user satisfaction (d = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.12-0.44) and in learners' perception of the effectiveness of the learning tool (d = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.14-0.43). The total mean scores (out of five) and ±SDs for QUESTS's Quality and Strength dimensions were 4.38 (±SD 1.3) and 3.3 (±SD 1.7), respectively. The results have high internal validity, for the improved outcomes of 3DVTs compared to other methods of anatomy teaching. Given that anatomy teaching and learning in the modern medical school appears to be approaching a crisis, 3DVT can be a potential solution to the problem of inadequate anatomy pedagogy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Teaching science content in nursing programs in Australia: a cross-sectional survey of academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Melanie; Ralph, Nicholas; Cant, Robyn; Hillman, Elspeth; Chun Tie, Ylona

    2015-01-01

    Professional nursing practice is informed by biological, social and behavioural sciences. In undergraduate pre-registration nursing programs, biological sciences typically include anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, physics and pharmacology. The current gap in the literature results in a lack of information about the content and depth of biological sciences being taught in nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to establish what priority is given to the teaching of science topics in these programs in order to inform an understanding of the relative importance placed on this subject area in contemporary nursing education. This study employed a cross-sectional survey method. This paper reports on the first phase of a larger project examining science content in nursing programs. An existing questionnaire was modified and delivered online for completion by academics who teach science to nurses in these programs. This paper reports on the relative priority given by respondents to the teaching of 177 topics contained in the questionnaire. Of the relatively small population of academics who teach science to nursing students, thirty (n = 30) completed the survey. Findings indicate strong support for the teaching of science in these programs, with particular priority given to the basic concepts of bioscience and gross system anatomy. Of concern, most science subject areas outside of these domains were ranked as being of moderate or low priority. While the small sample size limited the conclusions able to be drawn from this study, the findings supported previous studies that indicated inadequacies in the teaching of science content in nursing curricula. Nevertheless, these findings have raised questions about the current philosophy that underpins nursing education in Australia and whether existing practices are clearly focused on preparing students for the demands of contemporary nursing practice. Academics responsible for the design and implementation of

  1. Ultrasound imaging in medical student education: Impact on learning anatomy and physical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Sokpoleak; Patel, Rita M; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound use has expanded dramatically among the medical specialties for diagnostic and interventional purposes, due to its affordability, portability, and practicality. This imaging modality, which permits real-time visualization of anatomic structures and relationships in vivo, holds potential for pre-clinical instruction of students in anatomy and physical diagnosis, as well as providing a bridge to the eventual use of bedside ultrasound by clinicians to assess patients and guide invasive procedures. In many studies, but not all, improved understanding of anatomy has been demonstrated, and in others, improved accuracy in selected aspects of physical diagnosis is evident. Most students have expressed a highly favorable impression of this technology for anatomy education when surveyed. Logistic issues or obstacles to the integration of ultrasound imaging into anatomy teaching appear to be readily overcome. The enthusiasm of students and anatomists for teaching with ultrasound has led to widespread implementation of ultrasound-based teaching initiatives in medical schools the world over, including some with integration throughout the entire curriculum; a trend that likely will continue to grow. Anat Sci Educ 10: 176-189. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Clinical anatomy e-cases: a five-year follow-up of learning analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Vivek; Butson, Russell; Blyth, Phil; Daniel, Ben

    2017-01-27

    This article explores the development and user experiences of a supplementary e-learning resource (clinical anatomy e-cases) for medical students, across a five-year teaching period. A series of online supplementary e-learning resources (the clinical anatomy e-cases) were developed and introduced to the regional and clinical anatomy module of the medicine course. Usage analytics were collected online from a cohort of third-year medical students and analysed to gain a better understanding of how students utilised these resources. Key results showed that the students used the supplementary learning resource during and outside regular teaching hours that includes a significant access during holidays. Analysis also suggested that the resources were frequently accessed during examination periods and during subsequent clinical study years (fourth or fifth years of medicine course). Increasing interest and positive feedback from students has led to the development of a further series of e-cases. Tailor-made e-learning resources promote clinical anatomy learning outside classroom hours and make supplementary learning a 24/7 task.

  3. Outcomes of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choke, Edward; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria; Loftus, Ian; McFarland, Robert; Loosemore, Thomas; Thompson, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. The principal anatomic contraindication to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVR) is an unfavorable proximal aortic neck. With increasing experience, a greater proportion of patients with unfavorable neck anatomy are being offered EVR. This study aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients with challenging proximal aortic neck anatomy. Methods. Prospectively collected data from 147 consecutive patients who underwent EVR between December 1997 and April 2005 were supplemented with a retrospective review of medical records and radiological images. Unfavorable anatomic features were defined as neck diameter >28 mm, angulation >60 deg., circumferential thrombus >50%, and length 30 days) (p = 0.57), distal type I endoleak (p = 0.40), type III endoleak (p 0.51), secondary interventions (p = 1.0), aneurysm sac expansion (p = 0.44), or 30 day mortality (p = 0.70). The good neck group had a significantly increased incidence of type II endoleak (p = 0.023). By multivariate analysis, the incidence of intraoperative adjunctive procedures was significantly increased in the presence of severe angulation (p = 0.041, OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.05-9.04). Conclusion. Patients with severely hostile proximal aortic neck anatomy may be treated with EVR, although severely angulated necks require additional intraoperative procedures. Early outcomes are encouraging and suggest that indications for EVR may be expanded to include patients with hostile neck anatomy

  4. Honoring our donors: a survey of memorial ceremonies in United States anatomy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Trahern W; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Many anatomy programs that incorporate dissection of donated human bodies hold memorial ceremonies of gratitude towards body donors. The content of these ceremonies may include learners' reflections on mortality, respect, altruism, and personal growth told through various humanities modalities. The task of planning is usually student- and faculty-led with participation from other health care students. Objective information on current memorial ceremonies for body donors in anatomy programs in the United States appears to be lacking. The number of programs in the United States that currently plan these memorial ceremonies and information on trends in programs undertaking such ceremonies remain unknown. Gross anatomy program directors throughout the United States were contacted and asked to respond to a voluntary questionnaire on memorial ceremonies held at their institution. The results (response rate 68.2%) indicated that a majority of human anatomy programs (95.5%) hold memorial ceremonies. These ceremonies are, for the most part, student-driven and nondenominational or secular in nature. Participants heavily rely upon speech, music, poetry, and written essays, with a small inclusion of other humanities modalities, such as dance or visual art, to explore a variety of themes during these ceremonies. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Evaluation of an innovative hands-on anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum to supplement graduate gross anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Kessler, Ross; Stowell, Jeffrey R

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) can enhance anatomy education, yet is incorporated into few non-medical anatomy programs. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of US training in gross anatomy for non-medical students in the United States. All 32 master's students enrolled in gross anatomy with the anatomy-centered ultrasound (ACUS) curriculum were recruited. Mean Likert ratings on pre- and post-course surveys (100% response rates) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACUS curriculum in developing US confidence, and gauge its impact on views of US. Post-course, students reported significantly higher (P education and to students' future careers remained positive after the course. End-of-semester quiz performance (91% response rate) provided data on educational outcomes. The average score was 79%, with a 90% average on questions about distinguishing tissues/artifacts, demonstrating positive learning outcomes and retention. The anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum significantly increased confidence with and knowledge of US among non-medical anatomy students with limited prior training. Non-medical students greatly value the contributions that US makes to anatomy education and to their future careers. It is feasible to enhance anatomy education outside of medical training by incorporating US. Anat Sci Educ 10: 348-362. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. The cranial anatomy of the neornithischian dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint A. Boyd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Though the dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus was first described in 1913 and is known from the relatively fossiliferous Lance and Hell Creek formations in the Western Interior Basin of North America, the cranial anatomy of this species remains poorly understood. The only cranial material confidently referred to this species are three fragmentary bones preserved with the paratype, hindering attempts to understand the systematic relationships of this taxon within Neornithischia. Here the cranial anatomy of T. neglectus is fully described for the first time based on two specimens that include well-preserved cranial material (NCSM 15728 and TLAM.BA.2014.027.0001. Visual inspection of exposed cranial elements of these specimens is supplemented by detailed CT data from NCSM 15728 that enabled the examination of otherwise unexposed surfaces, facilitating a complete description of the cranial anatomy of this species. The skull of T. neglectus displays a unique combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. The premaxillary and ‘cheek’ tooth morphologies are relatively derived, though less so than the condition seen in basal iguanodontians, suggesting that the high tooth count present in the premaxillae, maxillae, and dentaries may be related to the extreme elongation of the skull of this species rather than a retention of the plesiomorphic condition. The morphology of the braincase most closely resembles the iguanodontians Dryosaurus and Dysalotosaurus, especially with regard to the morphology of the prootic. One autapomorphic feature is recognized for the first time, along with several additional cranial features that differentiate this species from the closely related and contemporaneous Thescelosaurus assiniboiensis. Published phylogenetic hypotheses of neornithischian dinosaur relationships often differ in the placement of the North American taxon Parksosaurus, with some recovering a close relationship with Thescelosaurus and others with

  7. A preliminary survey of professionalism teaching practices in anatomy education among Indian Medical Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-09-01

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a "hidden curriculum" regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students. An online survey was carried out among 102 anatomy faculty members across India requesting details about specific professionalism protocols and instructions regarding behavior in the dissection hall that are routinely given to preclinical students, as well as the importance that they placed on professional behavior. It was found that most faculty members regularly instruct students regarding expected behavior during the anatomy course, including dissection practices. These instructions stress attributes of professionalism like humanism, accountability, and honesty. However, there needs to be a more concentrated effort by educators to prohibit such unprofessional practices like dissection hall photography, and better information is required regarding biomedical waste disposal. Despite the absence of clear guidelines for professionalism teaching in medical education in India, the existing framework of anatomy education provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of professionalism to the first-year medical student. This opportunity may provide an early foundation for designing a professionalism-integrated curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 10: 433

  8. Student perceptions of independent versus facilitated small group learning approaches to compressed medical anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J D; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and balance both active learning and progression through laboratory objectives. In contrast, the emphasized independent learning (EIL) approach stresses elements from the "flipped classroom" educational model: prelaboratory preparation, independent laboratory learning, and limited tutor involvement. Quantitative (Likert-style questions) and qualitative data (independent thematic analysis of open-ended commentary) from a survey of students who had completed the preclerkship curriculum identified strengths from the EIL (promoting student collaboration and communication) and FAL (successful progression through objectives) approaches. However, EIL led to student frustration related to a lack of direction and impaired completion of objectives, whereas active learning opportunities in FAL were highly variable and dependent on tutor teaching style. A "hidden curriculum" was also identified, where students (particularly EIL and clerkship students) commonly compared their compressed anatomy education or their anatomy learning environment with other approaches. Finally, while both groups highly regarded the efficiency of prosection-based learning and expressed value for cadaveric-based learning, student commentary noted that the lack of grade value dedicated to anatomy assessment limited student accountability. This study revealed critical insights into small group learning in compressed anatomy education, including the need to balance student active learning opportunities with appropriate direction and feedback (including assessment). © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. The Visible Heart® project and free-access website 'Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzo, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    Pre- and post-evaluations of implantable cardiac devices require innovative and critical testing in all phases of the design process. The Visible Heart ® Project was successfully launched in 1997 and 3 years later the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website was online. The Visible Heart ® methodologies and Atlas website can be used to better understand human cardiac anatomy, disease states and/or to improve cardiac device design throughout the development process. To date, Visible ® Heart methodologies have been used to reanimate 75 human hearts, all considered non-viable for transplantation. The Atlas is a unique free-access website featuring novel images of functional and fixed human cardiac anatomies from >400 human heart specimens. Furthermore, this website includes education tutorials on anatomy, physiology, congenital heart disease and various imaging modalities. For instance, the Device Tutorial provides examples of commonly deployed devices that were present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including: leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings, leadless pacemakers and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of vasculature, blood volumes, and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of various heart specimens. A new section allows the user to interact with various heart models. Visible Heart ® methodologies have enabled our laboratory to reanimate 75 human hearts and visualize functional cardiac anatomies and device/tissue interfaces. The website freely shares all images, video clips and CT/MRI DICOM files in honour of the generous gifts received from donors and their families. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Evaluating dissection in the gross anatomy course: Correlation between quality of laboratory dissection and students outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy learned by active exploration through dissection has many proven benefits including improvement of anatomic knowledge. Decreased laboratory time may affect the quality of dissection and ultimately lower student performance in anatomy translating to lower knowledge acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of students' dissection in teams correlates with their performance in the gross anatomy course. Quality of dissections for each team enrolled in a gross anatomy course at Mayo Medical School was evaluated biweekly using a five-point rubric based on course learning objectives. Assessment of anatomic knowledge was based on sequential laboratory practice practical examination scores, achievements on daily audience response system (ARS) quizzes, and final practical, written, and National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examinations. Twelve teams comprising 48 students were included in the study. There was a positive correlation between dissection quality and practice practical examination score (R = 0.83) and a negative correlation between dissection quality and ARS quizzes (R = -0.985). Dissection teams with a passing score on their dissection evaluations (>70%) performed better on their final examinations. Based on an end of course survey, students agreed that dissection evaluations should continue to be a part of the course. This study showed that better quality of dissection was associated with higher scores on practice practical examinations, final practical, written, and NBME examinations. The study demonstrated a positive correlation between dissection evaluations, accompanied by formative feedback during the course, and higher scores on final course assessments. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. The anatomy of group dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David F

    2014-04-01

    The dysfunction of the radiology group has 2 components: (1) the thinking component-the governance structure of the radiology group; how we manage the group; and (2) the structural component-the group's business model and its conflict with the partner's personal business model. Of the 2 components, governance is more important. Governance must be structured on classic, immutable business management principles. The structural component, the business model, is not immutable. In fact, it must continually change in response to the marketplace. Changes in the business model should occur only if demanded or permitted by the marketplace; instituting changes for other reasons, including personal interests or deficient knowledge of the deciders, is fundamentally contrary to the long-term interests of the group and its owners. First, we must learn basic business management concepts to appreciate the function and necessity of standard business models and standard business governance. Peter Drucker's The Effective Executive is an excellent primer on the subjects of standard business practices and the importance of a functional, authorized, and fully accountable chief executive officer. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. "Anatomy lesson of Frederik Ruysch" of 1670: a tribute to Ruysch's contributions to lymphatic anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, Frank F. A.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Frederick Ruysch was one of the most prominent Dutch physicians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For more than 65 years, he was the Praelector Anatomiae (Lecturer of Anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons. During his career, he conducted many dissections at the guild's theatre to

  13. A reappraisal of pediatric thoracic surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nicholas J; Morreau, Jonty; Sugunesegran, Ramanen; Taghavi, Kiarash; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2017-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of surface anatomy is fundamental to safe clinical practice. A paucity of evidence in the literature regarding thoracic surface anatomy in children was identified. The associations between surface landmarks and internal structures were meticulously analyzed by reviewing high quality computed tomography (CT) images of 77 children aged from four days to 12 years. The results confirmed that the sternal angle is an accurate surface landmark for the azygos-superior vena cava junction in a plane through to the level of upper T4 from birth to age four, and to lower T4 in older children. The concavity of the aortic arch was slightly below this plane and the tracheal and pulmonary artery bifurcations were even lower. The cardiac apex was typically at the 5 th intercostal space (ICS) from birth to age four, at the 4 th ICS and 5 th rib in 4-12 year olds, and close to the midclavicular line at all ages. The lower border of the diaphragm was at the level of the 6 th or 7 th rib at the midclavicular line, the 7 th ICS and 8 th rib at the midaxillary line, and the 11 th thoracic vertebra posteriorly. The domes of the diaphragm were generally flatter and lower in children, typically only one rib level higher than its anterior level at the midclavicular line. Diaphragm apertures were most commonly around the level of T9, T10, and T11 for the IVC, esophagus and aorta, respectively. This is the first study to provide an evidence-base for thoracic surface anatomy in children. Clin. Anat. 30:788-794, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) in intracranial tumours: comparison with surgical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, M.; Uozumi, T.; Kiya, K.; Arita, K.; Kurisu, K.; Onda, J.; Satoh, H.; Ikawa, F.; Yukawa, O.; Migita, K.; Hada, H.; Katada, K.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of surface anatomy scanning (SAS) in intracranial tumours, comparing it with surgical findings. We examined 31 patients with brain tumours preoperatively. The tumours included 16 meningiomas, 8 gliomas, 4 metastases and 3 others. SAS clearly demonstrated the tumours, allowing them to be distinguished from the structures of the brain surface, including oedema, except in cases of metastasis. SAS clearly demonstrated large cortical veins. SAS is useful for three-dimensional delineation of the brain surface before surgery. (orig.)

  16. The anatomy and physiology of the ocular motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Anja K E; Leigh, R John

    2011-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of abnormal eye movements depends upon knowledge of the purpose, properties, and neural substrate of distinct functional classes of eye movement. Here, we summarize current concepts of the anatomy of eye movement control. Our approach is bottom-up, starting with the extraocular muscles and their innervation by the cranial nerves. Second, we summarize the neural circuits in the pons underlying horizontal gaze control, and the midbrain connections that coordinate vertical and torsional movements. Third, the role of the cerebellum in governing and optimizing eye movements is presented. Fourth, each area of cerebral cortex contributing to eye movements is discussed. Last, descending projections from cerebral cortex, including basal ganglionic circuits that govern different components of gaze, and the superior colliculus, are summarized. At each stage of this review, the anatomical scheme is used to predict the effects of lesions on the control of eye movements, providing clinical-anatomical correlation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of pelvic floor anatomy with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Pringle, K.C.; Bergman, R.A.; Yuh, W.T.C.; Smith, W.C.; Franken, E.A. Jr.; Schreiber, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging allows direct diagnostic imaging of the anorectal sphincter. This report reviews the normal anatomy of the musculature of the pelvic floor as demonstrated by MR imaging with emphasis on its relationship to the rectum and anal canal correlating with cadaver dissection. Anatomic landmarks routinely depicted by MR imaging include the levator ani, striated muscle complex, superficial transverse perineal muscle, and the urogenital diaphragm. The following abnormalities of the sphincteric musculature were also studied: hindgut duplication, hypoplasia, both abnormal and normal placement of the rectum after surgical procedures for anorectal anomalies, rectal inflammation, and displacement of the musculature by mass lesions. MR imaging plays an important role for the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of pelvic floor pathology

  18. Interprofessional education and the basic sciences: Rationale and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jill E

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) aims to improve patient outcomes and the quality of care. Interprofessional learning outcomes and interprofessional competencies are now included in many countries' health and social care professions' accreditation standards. While IPE may take place at any time in health professions curricula it tends to focus on professionalism and clinical topics rather than basic science activities. However generic interprofessional competencies could be included in basic science courses that are offered to at least two different professional groups. In developing interprofessional activities at the preclinical level, it is important to define explicit interprofessional learning outcomes plus the content and process of the learning. Interprofessional education must involve interactive learning processes and integration of theory and practice. This paper provides examples of IPE in anatomy and makes recommendations for course development and evaluation. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Miller, Bruce [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopaedics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  20. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands. (orig.) [de

  1. An imaging atlas of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The atlas presents pictures obtained by the various imaging techniques, showing the normal anatomy of the various body regions in healthy adults. The pictures are the major information given, accompanying texts are reduced to captions giving the Latin names of important anatomic details or a brief introduction each to the fundamental characteristics of the imaging methods used, as e.g. angiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The atlas is a key source of reference and a guide in interpreting radiographs. The material is arranged in chapters according to the body regions of interest: Head, neck, brain; spine and spinal cord; upper extremities; thorax; abdomen; pelvis; lower extremities. (UWA) [de

  2. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A.; Miller, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  3. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  4. Improved understanding of human anatomy through self-guided radiological anatomy modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew W; Smith, Sandy G; Ross, Callum F; Straus, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    To quantifiably measure the impact of self-instructed radiological anatomy modules on anatomy comprehension, demonstrated by radiology, gross, and written exams. Study guides for independent use that emphasized structural relationships were created for use with two online radiology atlases. A guide was created for each module of the first year medical anatomy course and incorporated as an optional course component. A total of 93 of 96 eligible students participated. All exams were normalized to control for variances in exam difficulty and body region tested. An independent t-test was used to compare overall exam scores with respect to guide completion or incompletion. To account for aptitude differences between students, a paired t-test of each student's exam scores with and without completion of the associated guide was performed, thus allowing students to serve as their own controls. Twenty-one students completed no study guides; 22 completed all six guides; and 50 students completed between one and five guides. Aggregate comparisons of all students' exam scores showed significantly improved mean performance when guides were used (radiology, 57.8% [percentile] vs. 45.1%, P < .001; gross, 56.9% vs. 46.5%, P = .001; written, 57.8% vs. 50.2%, P = .011). Paired comparisons among students who completed between one and five guides demonstrated significantly higher mean practical exam scores when guides were used (radiology, 49.3% [percentile] vs. 36.0%, P = .001; gross, 51.5% vs. 40.4%, P = .005), but not higher written scores. Radiological anatomy study guides significantly improved anatomy comprehension on radiology, gross, and written exams. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The availability of teaching–pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão JA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available José Aderval Aragão,1,5 Ana Terra Fonseca-Barreto,2 Ciro José Brito,1,3 Danilo Ribeiro Guerra,1 José Carlos Nunes-Mota,4 Francisco Prado Reis5 1Master's Degree Program in Physical Education, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 2School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 3Department of Physical Education, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 4Department of Morphology, (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 5School of Medicine, Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil Abstract: Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy. Keywords: educational assessments, gross anatomy, dissection, education medical undergraduate, anatomic models

  6. Distance Education Teaching Methods and Student Responses in the Animal Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Jada Quinome

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of this dissertation is to observe whether or not an Anatomy & Physiology Distance Education (DistEd) course offered in the Animal Science Department will prove to be valuable in the learning process for students. Study 1 was conducted to determine whether gross anatomy of animals could be taught effectively at the…

  7. An Update on the Status of Anatomical Sciences Education in United States Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Curricular changes continue at United States medical schools and directors of gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses continue to adjust and modify their offerings. Developing and supplying data related to current trends in anatomical sciences education is important if informed decisions are going to…

  8. Medical Education in the Anatomical Sciences: The Winds of Change Continue to Blow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    At most institutions, education in the anatomical sciences has undergone several changes over the last decade. To identify the changes that have occurred in gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses, directors of these courses were asked to respond to a survey with questions pertaining to total course…

  9. A Passion for Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Explains the process of developing the unit "Building an Aquarium" and introduces four hands-on activities which include teaching students how to read a metric ruler, observing and illustrating an aquatic plant, learning fish anatomy, and learning animal behavior. (YDS)

  10. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  11. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  12. The anatomy lessons of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, F.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mandatory lessons in anatomy, taught by the praelector anatomiae (lecturer in anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, were an important part of the surgical training starting in the 16th century. We describe how surgeons were trained approximately 350 years ago at the Surgeons’ Guild. The role

  13. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  14. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  15. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  16. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  17. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different

  18. The mouse-human anatomy ontology mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Terry F; de Coronado, Sherri; Fragoso, Gilberto; Sioutos, Nicholas; Kadin, James A; Ringwald, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of the Mouse-Human Anatomy Project (MHAP) was to facilitate the mapping and harmonization of anatomical terms used for mouse and human models by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The anatomy resources designated for this study were the Adult Mouse Anatomy (MA) ontology and the set of anatomy concepts contained in the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt). Several methods and software tools were identified and evaluated, then used to conduct an in-depth comparative analysis of the anatomy ontologies. Matches between mouse and human anatomy terms were determined and validated, resulting in a highly curated set of mappings between the two ontologies that has been used by other resources. These mappings will enable linking of data from mouse and human. As the anatomy ontologies have been expanded and refined, the mappings have been updated accordingly. Insights are presented into the overall process of comparing and mapping between ontologies, which may prove useful for further comparative analyses and ontology mapping efforts, especially those involving anatomy ontologies. Finally, issues concerning further development of the ontologies, updates to the mapping files, and possible additional applications and significance were considered. DATABASE URL: http://obofoundry.org/cgi-bin/detail.cgi?id=ma2ncit.

  19. Comparative leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.T.; Baas, P.

    1973-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum is described in detail. Separation of the two genera as effectuated by Hou (1963) is supported by differences in vascular anatomy of the distal end of the petiole, which is invariably more complex in Lophopetalum than in Kokoona. Other differential

  20. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea,

  1. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  2. Anatomy of the female reproductive system of Rusa deer ( Rusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis). The anatomy of female reproductive system is described using seven uniparous hinds, aged between four and eight years. The various reproductive structures were studied via ...

  3. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  4. The normal anatomy of the pulmonary hili on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.

    1982-01-01

    The diagnosis of abnormalities in the hili by computed tomography may be difficult. A thorough knowledge of normal cross-sectional anatomy is necessary. The hilar anatomy on cross sections is described in detail and illustrated by appropriate cuts. (orig.) [de

  5. Effects of steal-prone anatomy on intraoperative myocardial ischemia. The SPI Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J M; Hollenberg, M; O'Kelly, B F; Kao, A; Mangano, D T

    1992-11-01

    Our study objective was to determine whether the presence of steal-prone anatomy conferred an increased risk in the development of intraoperative myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery steal of collateral blood flow has been demonstrated for many vasodilators, including isoflurane, the most commonly used inhalational anesthetic agent in the United States. It has been postulated that patients with steal-prone anatomy (total occlusion of one coronary artery that is supplied distally by collateral flow from another coronary artery with a > or = 50% stenosis) may be particularly at risk for the development of intraoperative myocardial ischemia when an anesthetic with a vasodilator property is being administered. We evaluated the risk of myocardial ischemia under isoflurane anesthesia (vs. a high dose narcotic technique using sufentanil) using continuous intraoperative electrocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography in patients with and without steal-prone anatomy undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Sixty-two (33%) of the 186 patients had steal-prone anatomy: in 5 (8%) the collateral-supplying vessel was > or = 50% to 69% stenosed, in 24 (39%) it was > or = 70% to 89% stenosed and in 33 (53%) it was > or = 90% stenosed. The incidence of ischemia (transesophageal echocardiography or intraoperative electrocardiography, or both) was similar in patients with and without steal-prone coronary anatomy (18 [29%] of 62 patients vs. 39 [31%] of 124 patients, p = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = -0.13 to 0.17). The incidence of intraoperative ischemia was similar in patients who received isoflurane or sufentanil anesthesia (20 [32%] of 62 patients vs. 37 [30%] of 124 patients, p = 0.87). The incidence of tachycardia and hypotension was low (increases in heart rate = 9.8%, and decreases in systolic blood pressure = 10.8% of total monitoring time during the prebypass period compared with preoperative baseline values). The incidence of adverse cardiac outcome was

  6. Mitos da didática das ciências acerca dos motivos para incluir a Natureza da Ciência no ensino das ciências Science Education myths about the reasons to include the Nature of Science in science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Acevedo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Em certas situações, a Didática das Ciências transmite como mitos algumas crenças que não estão suficientemente sustentadas pela investigação que ela própria produz. Este artigo mostra dois desses mitos relacionados com os motivos que se costumam apontar para incluir a Natureza da Ciência no ensino das ciências, como sejam a suposta relação entre a prática docente e as crenças sobre a Natureza da Ciência, e a crença de que a sua compreensão é um fator chave na hora de tomar melhores decisões cívicas em questões tecnocientíficas de interesse social. A análise que se apresenta realizou-se mediante a revisão de diversos resultados de investigações procedentes da própria Didática das Ciências e também da Psicologia das Decisões. A conclusão aponta para considerar que outros fatores influenciam mais, tornando muito menos lineares essas hipotéticas relações do que alguns especialistas pensam e mais complexa a problemática abordada.In some situations Science Education transmits as myths various beliefs as myths that are not enough sustained by the research in its own domain. This paper shows two of these myths related to the reasons usually pointed in orderfor includinge the Nature of Science in science teaching:, such as the supposed relationship between the educational practice and the beliefs about the Nature of Science, and also the belief that its understanding of the Nature of Science is a key factor in when making better civicdecisions as citizens in technical socioscientific oscientific issues. with social interest The analysis was carried out by means of athe review of several results from the own Science Education Research, and also from the Psychology of Decisions. The conclusion seems to be clear: other factors are of a greater influence, making those hypothetical relations much less linear than some experts wcould think, and making the questions much more complex. the presented question.

  7. Japanese Neurosurgeons and Microsurgical Anatomy: A Historical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHIMA, Toshio; KAWASHIMA, Masatou; MATSUSHIMA, Ken; WANIBUCHI, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Research in microneurosurgical anatomy has contributed to great advances in neurosurgery in the last 40 years. Many Japanese neurosurgeons have traveled abroad to study microsurgical anatomy and played major roles in advancing and spreading the knowledge of anatomy, overcoming their disadvantage that the cadaver study has been strictly limited inside Japan. In Japan, they initiated an educational system for surgical anatomy that has contributed to the development and standardization of Japanese neurosurgery. For example, the Japanese Society for Microsurgical Anatomy started an annual educational meeting in the middle of 1980s and published its proceedings in Japanese every year for approximately 20 years. These are some of the achievements that bring worldwide credit to Japanese neurosurgeons. Not only should Japanese neurosurgeons improve their educational system but they should also contribute to the international education in this field, particularly in Asia. PMID:25797782

  8. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anatomy and function: PET-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, Sami; Saraste, Antti; Ukkonen, Heikki; Knuuti, Juhani

    2010-05-01

    CT coronary angiography and perfusion PET form an attractive combination to study coronary artery lesions and their consequences in patients with coronary artery disease. Whereas CT provides non-invasive assessment of coronary lumen and wall, PET perfusion is a reliable method for the evaluation of myocardial flow. CT, although very capable of ruling out significant coronary artery disease, is less than satisfactory in assessing the actual significance of the detected lesions. PET imaging, despite its excellent sensitivity, fails to describe the exact anatomy of the epicardial vessels. By fusing image data from these two modalities, lesions can be accurately correlated with their physiological or anatomical counterparts. Hybrid PET-CT devices, now in wide clinical use, allow such fusion in a one-stop-shop study. Although still seeking its place in clinical scenarios, growing evidence suggests that hybrid PET-CT imaging of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion can accurately - and non-invasively - assess the existence and degree of coronary artery disease.

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Perceptions of cadaveric dissection in anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Saima; Nazir, Ghazala; Iram, Samia; Mohammad, Malik; Umair; Qari, Iftikhar Hussain; Mohammad, Shaheen

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy professors world over are lamenting about medical students' lack of interest in dissections and its diminishing utilisation in medical studies. The objective of our study was to find out the reasons why some of the Pakistani medical students were avoiding dissections. We conducted this study in 5 medical colleges of Pakistan from Dec 2010-Oct 2011. Questionnaires were prepared and administered to more than 500 Pakistani medical students, at least 6 months after their first cadaver dissecting session. Mostly 1st and 2nd year medical students participated in this study. Around 43% students have actually performed dissections in some form, whereas around 57% had never touched the cadaver. Further evaluation of these results revealed that out of 57% of students, 45% avoided dissection due to bad smell of formaldehyde, 37% due to moral/ethical grounds, 22% due to low motivation and respect of human body, 19.4% due to anxiety, 18.6% due to religious reason, 16% due to fear, asthma and emotional reaction, 9.4% due to toxic chemical, 8.6% due to laziness and 7% due to nightmares. In spite of availability of required number of cadavers in all 5 medical colleges and a clear realisation amongst the students that dissecting cadaver is an effective way of learning anatomy; majority of students were not very keen and had therefore not performed dissection even once.

  12. Comparisons between the attitudes of medical and dental students toward the clinical importance of gross anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowo-Ofayoku, Anthony; Moxham, Bernard John

    2014-10-01

    Marked changes are occurring within both the medical and dental curricula and new ways of teaching the basic sciences have been devised and traditional methods (e.g., dissection for gross anatomy and of bench-based animal preparations for physiology) are increasingly no longer the norm. Although there is much anecdotal evidence that students are not in favor of such changes, there is little evidence for this based on quantitative analyses of students' attitudes. Using Thurstone and Chave attitude analyses, we assessed the attitudes of first year medical and dental students at Cardiff University toward gross anatomy and physiology in terms of their perceived clinical importance. In addition, we investigated the appropriateness ("fitness for purpose") of teaching methodologies used for anatomy and physiology. The hypotheses tested recognized the possibility that medical and dental students differed in their opinions, but that they had a preference to being taught gross anatomy through the use of dissection and had no preference for physiology teaching. It was found that both medical and dental students displayed positive attitudes toward the clinical relevance of gross anatomy and that they preferred to be taught by means of dissection. Although both medical and dental students displayed positives attitudes toward the clinical relevance of physiology, this was greater for the medical students. Both medical and dental students showed a preference for being taught physiology through didactic teaching in small groups but the medical students also appreciated being taught by means of practicals. Overall, this study highlights the expectations that students have for the basic science foundation teaching within their professional training and signals a preference for being taught experientially/practically. Differences were discerned between medical and dental students that might reflect the direct association between systems physiology and pathophysiology and the

  13. Designing Anatomy Program in Modern Medical Curriculum: Matter of Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Košta, Vana; Poljičanin, Ana; Čarić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. Methods TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman ρ test. Results The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman ρ = 0.83, P = 0.015) and TA (Spearman ρ = 0.73, P = 0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Conclusion Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence. PMID:19260144

  14. The Use of Three Dimensional Printed Interactive Models and a Digital Anatomy Case Study to Improve Medical Student Understanding of Pelvic and Perineal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Laura de Jesus

    The anatomy of the pelvis and perineum is especially complex for novice students. In the Language of Medicine Module (Gross Anatomy and Embryology), medical students are expected to learn a high volume of material in a short time. The study of these regions is especially challenging due to the limited visibility of structures and difficulty of dissection. Understanding of the spatial relationships of the pelvic and perineal structures is important to acquire the foundational knowledge for future clinical application. Traditional methods such as dissection, prosected specimens, peer teaching, and radiological images are used at UT Health San Antonio to teach these regions. Emerging three dimensional technologies applied in computer based models and printed physical models serve as alternative ways to teach Anatomy. This study examines the effectiveness of adding two active learning methods that use these technologies to teach the anatomy of the pelvis and perineum in the Language of Medicine module, as assessed by exam performance and a satisfaction survey. The learning methods included female pelvic and perineal printed models with simulated anatomical contents made with arts and crafts material, and a digital anatomy case study using BodyVizRTM. In 2016, 220 medical students in four groups (A-D) rotated between demonstrations on prosected cadavers and interactive sessions with each 3D learning tool. Student exam performance was assessed as the percentage of points obtained on select written and practical exam questions relevant to the anatomy of the pelvis and perineum. Across four years, practical exam performance for all relevant pelvic and perineal tags (structures tagged with a string or pin) shows a consistent decline of averages from 2013 (83%) to 2015 (75.7%). This decline was slightly reversed in 2016 (76.6%) following the integration of the 3D learning tools. The analysis of the obturator internus muscle tag, a tag included in the practical exams across

  15. When Students Struggle with Gross Anatomy and Histology: A Strategy for Monitoring, Reviewing, and Promoting Student Academic Success in an Integrated Preclinical Medical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortsch, Michael; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Gross anatomy and histology are now often taught as parts of an integrated medical or dental curriculum. Although this puts these foundational basic sciences into a wider educational context, students may not fully appreciate their importance as essential components of their medical education and may not develop a sufficient level of competency,…

  16. Learning Anatomy through Thiel- vs. Formalin-Embalmed Cadavers: Student Perceptions of Embalming Methods and Effect on Functional Anatomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M. A.; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience…

  17. Achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex and abnormal pulmonary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Michael B; Taylor, Megan; Heinle, Robert; Mackenzie, William

    2012-09-01

    Achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia are two of the most common forms of skeletal dysplasia. They are both caused by activating mutations in FGFR3 and are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Our patient was born to parents with presumed achondroplasia, and found on prenatal testing to have p.G380R and p.N540K FGFR3 mutations. In addition to having typical problems associated with both achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia, our patient had several atypical findings including: abnormal lobulation of the lungs with respiratory insufficiency, C1 stenosis, and hypoglycemia following a Nissen fundoplication. After his reflux and aspiration were treated, the persistence of the tachypnea and increased respiratory effort indicated this was not the primary source of the respiratory distress. Our subsequent hypothesis was that primary restrictive lung disease was the cause of his respiratory distress. A closer examination of his chest circumference did not support this conclusion either. Following his death, an autopsy found the right lung had 2 lobes while the left lung had 3 lobes. A literature review demonstrates that other children with achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex have been described with abnormal pulmonary function and infants with thanatophoric dysplasia have similar abnormal pulmonary anatomy. We hypothesize that there may be a primary pulmonary phenotype associated with FGFR3-opathies, unrelated to chest size which leads to the consistent finding of increased respiratory signs and symptoms in these children. Further observation of respiratory status, combined with the macroscopic and microscopic analysis of pulmonary branching anatomy and alveolar structure in this patient population will be important to explore this hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Functional anatomy of the sleep-wakefulness cycle: wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando; de Andrés, Isabel; Garzón, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is a necessary, diverse, periodic, and an active condition circadian and homeostatically regulated and precisely meshed with waking time into the sleep-wakefulness cycle (SWC). Photic retinal stimulation modulates the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts as the pacemaker for SWC rhythmicity. Both the light period and social cues adjust the internal clock, making the SWC a circadian, 24-h period in the adult human. Bioelectrical and behavioral parameters characterize the different phases of the SWC. For a long time, lesions and electrical stimulation of brain structures, as well as connection studies, were the main methods used to decipher the foundations of the functional anatomy of the SWC. That is why the first section of this review presents these early historical studies to then discuss the current state of our knowledge based on our understanding of the functional anatomy of the structures underlying the SWC. Supported by this description, we then present a detailed review and update of the structures involved in the phase of wakefulness (W), including their morphological, functional, and chemical characteristics, as well as their anatomical connections. The structures for W generation are known as the "ascending reticular activating system", and they keep and maintain the "thalamo-cerebral cortex unit" awake. This system originates from the neuronal groups located within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, which use known neurotransmitters and whose neurons are more active during W than during the other SWC states. Thus, synergies among several of these neurotransmitters are necessary to generate the cortical and thalamic activation that is characteristic of the W state, with all the plastic qualities and nuances present in its different behavioral circumstances. Each one of the neurotransmitters exerts powerful influences on the information and cognitive processes as well as attentional, emotional, motivational, behavioral, and arousal

  19. MRI and gross anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Lee, Ho; Klika, Alison; Barsoum, Wael; Drake, Richard; Elgabaly, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to explain the anatomic basis of a longitudinal cleft of increased signal in the iliopsoas tendon seen on hip MR arthrograms. A prospective review of 20 MR hip arthrograms was performed using standard and fat-suppressed T1-weighted images to establish whether or not the cleft was composed of fatty tissue and to define the anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex. Three cadaver dissections of the hip region were then performed for anatomic correlation. Fourteen out of 20 MR hip arthrograms demonstrated a longitudinal cleft of increased T1 signal adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, which suppressed on frequency selective fat-suppressed images, indicating fatty composition. Gross anatomic correlation demonstrated this fatty cleft to represent a fascial plane adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, in one case separating the iliopsoas tendon medially from a thin intramuscular tendon within the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle. Also noted was a direct muscular insertion of the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle onto the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis in all 3 cadavers. The anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex is more complicated than typically illustrated and includes the iliopsoas tendon itself attaching to the lesser trochanter, the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle attaching directly upon the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis, and a thin intramuscular tendon within this lateral iliacus muscle that is separated from the iliopsoas tendon by a cleft of fatty fascia that accounts for the MRI findings of a cleft of increased T1 signal. (orig.)

  20. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. African Journals Online: Biology & Life Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 71 ... Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical ... It publishes original articles pertaining to various aspects of renal ... in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  2. Leaf anatomy and subgeneric affiliations of C3 and C4 species of Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.D.; Schenk, H.J.; Thorsch, J.A.; Ferren, W.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The halophytic genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) includes species with the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. North American species of this genus were investigated to determine whether C3 and C4 leaf anatomy are consistent within the two sections of Suaeda, Chenopodina and Limbogermen, present on this continent. All species from section Chenopodina were found to possess C3 anatomy, whereas all species from section Limbogermen were found to be C4 species. Characteristics of leaf anatomy and chloroplast ultrastructure are similar to those reported from C3 and C4 species, respectively, from the Eastern Hemisphere. All species from section Limbogermen have the suaedoid type of leaf anatomy, characterized by differentiation of the mesophyll into palisade parenchyma and a chlorenchymatous sheath surrounding central water-storage tissue, as well as leaf carbon isotope ratios of above -20. All species from section Chenopodina have austrobassioid leaf anatomy without a chlorenchymatous sheath and leaf carbon isotope ratio values of below -20. According to our literature review, the photosynthetic pathway has now been reported for about half (44) of the Suaeda species worldwide. The C3 and C4 photosynthetic syndromes are with few exceptions distributed along sectional or subsectional lines. These findings throw new light on the infrageneric taxonomy of this genus

  3. Near-peer teaching strategy in a large human anatomy course: perceptions of near-peer instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon in Monterrey, Mexico. Modules included: Theory, Clinical Hour, Imaging Anatomy, and Laboratory. The aim of this study was to assess instructor participants' perceptions on the benefits of the NPT strategy in the anatomy classroom. A survey was administered to anatomy course instructors who utilized NPT strategies during winter, fall, and spring semesters of the 2012-2013 school year. A total of 120 instructors were enrolled in the study. There were different perceptions of instructors' roles. Theory and Imaging Anatomy instructors considered themselves to be information providers and resource developers, whereas Clinical Hour and Laboratory instructors saw themselves more as facilitators, role models, and planners. All instructors' opinions on the benefits of NPT were positive. Thus, in this article, the authors find NPT to be a strategy that promotes self-learning, a vital skill. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Understanding the Anatomy of the Upper Face When Providing Aesthetic Injection Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Tracey A

    2016-01-01

    Advanced rejuvenation procedures for the upper face are becoming increasingly popular for aesthetic providers but are considered a high-risk treatment area for dermal filler/contouring products. Risks may range from bruising, which is manageable, to blindness, most often irreversible. Detailed comprehension of the facial anatomy is imperative when performing aesthetic injections including neuromodulators and dermal filler/contouring products. Understanding the location and function of the muscles, as well as landmarking the blood vessels and nerves, will assist the aesthetic provider to perform safe, confident injection procedures. This article focuses on the upper face anatomy as identified by the author's cadaveric dissections and includes the treatment areas of the frontalis, temporalis, and glabellar complex. The author's next article for the Plastic Surgical Nursing journal will focus on the periorbital area.

  5. Hand infections: anatomy, types and spread of infection, imaging findings, and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dakshesh B; Emmanuel, Neelmini B; Stevanovic, Milan V; Matcuk, George R; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; White, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Infections of the hand are common, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and can lead to significant morbidity, including amputation, if not treated properly. Hand infection can spread far and wide from the original site of inoculation through interconnections between the synovium-lined and nonsynovial potential spaces. Because surgery is the mainstay of treatment, knowledge of the pertinent anatomy is imperative for accurately describing the presence, location, and extent of infection. The authors review the pertinent anatomy of the spaces of the hand and describe different types of infection-including cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, paronychia, felon, pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis, deep space infections, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis-and common causative organisms of these infections. They also describe various modes of spread; the common radiologic appearances of hand infections, with emphasis on findings at magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography; and the role of radiology in the management of these infections, along with a brief overview of treatment options. ©RSNA, 2014.

  6. SU-F-J-66: Anatomy Deformation Based Comparison Between One-Step and Two-Step Optimization for Online ART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Z; Yu, G; Qin, S; Li, D; Ma, C; Zhu, J; Yin, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated that how the quality of adapted plan was affected by inter-fractional anatomy deformation by using one-step and two-step optimization for on line adaptive radiotherapy (ART) procedure. Methods: 10 lung carcinoma patients were chosen randomly to produce IMRT plan by one-step and two-step algorithms respectively, and the prescribed dose was set as 60 Gy on the planning target volume (PTV) for all patients. To simulate inter-fractional target deformation, four specific cases were created by systematic anatomy variation; including target superior shift 0.5 cm, 0.3cm contraction, 0.3 cm expansion and 45-degree rotation. Based on these four anatomy deformation, adapted plan, regenerated plan and non-adapted plan were created to evaluate quality of adaptation. Adapted plans were generated automatically by using one-step and two-step algorithms respectively to optimize original plans, and regenerated plans were manually created by experience physicists. Non-adapted plans were produced by recalculating the dose distribution based on corresponding original plans. The deviations among these three plans were statistically analyzed by paired T-test. Results: In PTV superior shift case, adapted plans had significantly better PTV coverage by using two-step algorithm compared with one-step one, and meanwhile there was a significant difference of V95 by comparison with adapted and non-adapted plans (p=0.0025). In target contraction deformation, with almost same PTV coverage, the total lung received lower dose using one-step algorithm than two-step algorithm (p=0.0143,0.0126 for V20, Dmean respectively). In other two deformation cases, there were no significant differences observed by both two optimized algorithms. Conclusion: In geometry deformation such as target contraction, with comparable PTV coverage, one-step algorithm gave better OAR sparing than two-step algorithm. Reversely, the adaptation by using two-step algorithm had higher efficiency

  7. SU-F-J-66: Anatomy Deformation Based Comparison Between One-Step and Two-Step Optimization for Online ART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Z; Yu, G; Qin, S; Li, D [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Ma, C; Zhu, J; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study investigated that how the quality of adapted plan was affected by inter-fractional anatomy deformation by using one-step and two-step optimization for on line adaptive radiotherapy (ART) procedure. Methods: 10 lung carcinoma patients were chosen randomly to produce IMRT plan by one-step and two-step algorithms respectively, and the prescribed dose was set as 60 Gy on the planning target volume (PTV) for all patients. To simulate inter-fractional target deformation, four specific cases were created by systematic anatomy variation; including target superior shift 0.5 cm, 0.3cm contraction, 0.3 cm expansion and 45-degree rotation. Based on these four anatomy deformation, adapted plan, regenerated plan and non-adapted plan were created to evaluate quality of adaptation. Adapted plans were generated automatically by using one-step and two-step algorithms respectively to optimize original plans, and regenerated plans were manually created by experience physicists. Non-adapted plans were produced by recalculating the dose distribution based on corresponding original plans. The deviations among these three plans were statistically analyzed by paired T-test. Results: In PTV superior shift case, adapted plans had significantly better PTV coverage by using two-step algorithm compared with one-step one, and meanwhile there was a significant difference of V95 by comparison with adapted and non-adapted plans (p=0.0025). In target contraction deformation, with almost same PTV coverage, the total lung received lower dose using one-step algorithm than two-step algorithm (p=0.0143,0.0126 for V20, Dmean respectively). In other two deformation cases, there were no significant differences observed by both two optimized algorithms. Conclusion: In geometry deformation such as target contraction, with comparable PTV coverage, one-step algorithm gave better OAR sparing than two-step algorithm. Reversely, the adaptation by using two-step algorithm had higher efficiency

  8. Volumetric visualization of anatomy for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, Charles A.; Grzeszczuk, Robert; Chen, George T. Y.; Heimann, Ruth; Haraf, Daniel J.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Ryan, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Delineation of volumes of interest for three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning is usually performed by contouring on two-dimensional sections. We explore the usage of segmentation-free volumetric rendering of the three-dimensional image data set for tumor and normal tissue visualization. Methods and Materials: Standard treatment planning computed tomography (CT) studies, with typically 5 to 10 mm slice thickness, and spiral CT studies with 3 mm slice thickness were used. The data were visualized using locally developed volume-rendering software. Similar to the method of Drebin et al., CT voxels are automatically assigned an opacity and other visual properties (e.g., color) based on a probabilistic classification into tissue types. Using volumetric compositing, a projection into the opacity-weighted volume is produced. Depth cueing, perspective, and gradient-based shading are incorporated to achieve realistic images. Unlike surface-rendered displays, no hand segmentation is required to produce detailed renditions of skin, muscle, or bony anatomy. By suitable manipulation of the opacity map, tissue classes can be made transparent, revealing muscle, vessels, or bone, for example. Manually supervised tissue masking allows irrelevant tissues overlying tumors or other structures of interest to be removed. Results: Very high-quality renditions are produced in from 5 s to 1 min on midrange computer workstations. In the pelvis, an anteroposterior (AP) volume rendered view from a typical planning CT scan clearly shows the skin and bony anatomy. A muscle opacity map permits clear visualization of the superficial thigh muscles, femoral veins, and arteries. Lymph nodes are seen in the femoral triangle. When overlying muscle and bone are cut away, the prostate, seminal vessels, bladder, and rectum are seen in 3D perspective. Similar results are obtained for thorax and for head and neck scans. Conclusion: Volumetric visualization of anatomy is useful in treatment

  9. Stereology, an unbiased methodological approach to study plant anatomy and cytology: Past, present and future

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Lucie; Radochová, Barbora; Lhotáková, Z.; Kubínová, Z.; Albrechtová, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2017), s. 187-205 ISSN 1580-3139 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chloroplast * confocal microscopy * leaf anatomy * mesophyll * stereological methods * systematic uniform random sampling Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical laboratory technology (including laboratory samples analysis Impact factor: 1.135, year: 2016

  10. Three-dimensional CT features of occipital squama normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jungang; Li Xin; Wang Chunxiang; Zhang Lin; Guo Wanhua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate 3D CT features of normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures of occipital squama. Methods: The 3D CT features on MIP, VR images were analyzed retrospectively in 589 pediatric cases. The normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures of occipital squama were observed respectively, and the differential diagnostic features including the individual location, appearance and extension were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and thirty-three patients (75.2%) showed normal anatomy, including 154 patients with adult occipital anatomical features, 279 patients with posterior intraoccipital synchondrosis, and 37 patients with Kerckring-supraoccipital synchondrosis. When cases with recent trauma history were excluded, 113 patients (19.1%) showed anatomic variants, including unpenetrating sutures and penetrating sutures. The former could be subdivided to Mendosal sutures in 23 cases, superior median fissures in 19 cases, and midline supraoccipital fissures in 4 cases, while the latter could be subdivided to the interparietal bone variations in 54 cases, wormian bones in 23 cases, and accessory bones in 7 cases. Two or more variations coexisted in 33 cases. The occipital squama fractures were shown in 34 cases (5.6%), including linear fractures in 27 cases, comminuted fractures in 3 cases, with depression fracture in one case, separation of cranial sutures in 3 cases, and other fractures associated with variants in 3 cases. The fractures were sharp, or jagged, without limitation of the occification. Conclusion: There are different 3D CT features of normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures of occipital squama in children, which are important for making the accurate diagnosis. (authors)

  11. Cloud-Based Evaluation of Anatomical Structure Segmentation and Landmark Detection Algorithms : VISCERAL Anatomy Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-del-Toro, Oscar; Muller, Henning; Krenn, Markus; Gruenberg, Katharina; Taha, Abdel Aziz; Winterstein, Marianne; Eggel, Ivan; Foncubierta-Rodriguez, Antonio; Goksel, Orcun; Jakab, Andres; Kontokotsios, Georgios; Langs, Georg; Menze, Bjoern H.; Fernandez, Tomas Salas; Schaer, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the shape and appearance of anatomical structures in medical images are often relevant radiological signs of disease. Automatic tools can help automate parts of this manual process. A cloud-based evaluation framework is presented in this paper including results of benchmarking current state-of-the-art medical imaging algorithms for anatomical structure segmentation and landmark detection: the VISCERAL Anatomy benchmarks. The algorithms are implemented in virtual machines in the ...

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the knee: examples of normal anatomy and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, D M; Worthington, B S; Preston, B J; Roebuck, E J; McKim-Thomas, H; Hawkes, R C; Holland, G N; Moore, W S

    1983-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance images of the knee were obtained from three normal volunteers and from two patients. The pathology included an osteosarcoma of the distal femur and a fracture of the tibia. Steady State Free Precession (SSFP) techniques were used with a 0.15 Tesla resistive type magnet. Normal anatomy was well displayed and the size of the osteosarcoma was accurately predicted. Using SSFP techniques, the blood in the knee joint was not visualised, but the underlying tibial fracture was clearly outlined.

  13. Improving surgical results in complex nerve anatomy during implantation of selective upper airway stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaojun; Hofauer, Benedikt; Heiser, Clemens

    2018-06-01

    The following report presents a case of two late embedded hypoglossus branches during implantation of an upper airway stimulation device that caused a mixed activation of the tongue when included in the stimulation cuff. In the end, correct cuff placement could be achieved by careful examination of the hypoglossal nerve anatomy, precise nerve dissection, tongue motion analysis and intraoperative nerve monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-dimensional morphologic description and visualization of brain anatomy from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraske, W.; George, F.W.; Zee, C.S.; Colletti, P.M.; Halls, J.M.; Boswell, W.O.

    1989-01-01

    The USC VOXAR-MRI system incorporates MR tissue classification algorithms to provide dynamic three- dimensional volumetric visualization and discrimination of brain anatomy and pathology for precision diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning. The VOXAR-MRI approach to tissue classification employs the three-dimensional reconstruction of various intracranial features from gray-scale morphologic erosion and dilation (GMED)-derived skeleton representation of the MR acquisition. Case presentations include an array of VOXAR-MRI-demonstrated tumors, abscesses, hematomas, and other lesions

  15. Attitudes and views of medical students toward anatomy learnt in the preclinical phase at King Khalid University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Kemeir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the views and attitude of clinical medical students toward gross anatomy courses taught to them in preclinical years and their relevance to their medical practice. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire of 16 items was distributed to 146 clinical students. The study group included both genders (104 males and 42 females. A total of 121 students (83% responded to the questionnaire. Results: The responses obtained in relation to the clarity of the anatomy course outline its impact on their ability to think and solve problems, develop their skills as members of a team, and its relevance to their clinical practice and their ability to engage in common clinical practices were negative. Conclusion : There is an urgent need to redesign the anatomy curriculum in King Khalid University in order to enable the graduates to deliver adequate health care to the community.

  16. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akash; Dougherty, Max; Findlay, Gregory M; Geisheker, Madeleine; Klein, Jason; Lazar, John; Machkovech, Heather; Resnick, Jesse; Resnick, Rebecca; Salter, Alexander I; Talebi-Liasi, Faezeh; Arakawa, Christopher; Baudin, Jacob; Bogaard, Andrew; Salesky, Rebecca; Zhou, Qian; Smith, Kelly; Clark, John I; Shendure, Jay; Horwitz, Marshall S

    2014-01-01

    Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD) adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  17. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar

    Full Text Available Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  18. Imaging of jaw with dental CT software program: Normal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myong Gon; Seo, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hak Young; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duk Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Young Hwan

    1994-01-01

    Dental CT software program can provide reformatted cross-sectional and panoramic images that cannot be obtained with conventional axial and direct coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study is to describe the method of the technique and to identify the precise anatomy of jaw. We evaluated 13 mandibles and 7 maxillae of 15 subjects without bony disease who were being considered for endosseous dental implants. Reformatted images obtained by the use of bone algorithm performed on GE HiSpeed Advantage CT scanner were retrospectively reviewed for detailed anatomy of jaw. Anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(mandibular foramen, inferior alveolar canal, mental foramen, canal for incisive artery, nutrient canal, lingual foramen and mylohyoid groove), muscular insertion(mylohyoid line, superior and inferior genial tubercle and digastric fossa) and other anatomy(submandibular fossa, sublingual fossa, contour of alveolar process, oblique line, retromolar fossa, temporal crest and retromolar triangle) were well delineated in mandible. In maxilla, anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(greater palatine foramen and groove, nasopalatine canal and incisive foramen) and other anatomy(alveolar process, maxillary sinus and nasal fossa) were also well delineated. Reformatted images using dental CT software program provided excellent delineation of the jaw anatomy. Therefore, dental CT software program can play an important role in the preoperative assessment of mandible and maxilla for dental implants and other surgical conditions

  19. Deep dissection: motivating students beyond rote learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.

  20. Occurrence and evolutionary inferences about Kranz anatomy in Cyperaceae (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIRLEY MARTINS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cyperaceae is an angiosperm family with the greatest diversity of species with Kranz anatomy. Four different types of Kranz anatomy (chlorocyperoid, eleocharoid, fimbristyloid and rhynchosporoid have been described for this angiosperm family, and the occurrence and structural characteristics of these types are important to trace evolutionary hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to examine the available data on Cyperaceae Kranz anatomy, emphasizing taxonomy, geographic distribution, habitat and anatomy, to infer the potential origin of the Kranz anatomy in this family. The results showed that the four types of Kranz anatomy (associated with C4 photosynthesis in Cyperaceae emerged numerous times in unrelated phylogenetic groups. However, the convergence of these anatomical types, except rhynchosporoid, was observed in certain groups. Thus, the diverse origin of these species might result from different environmental pressures that promote photorespiration. Greater variation in occurrence of Kranz anatomy and anatomical types was observed inEleocharis, whose emergence of the C4 pathway was recent compared with other genera in the family, and the species of this genus are located in aquatic environments.