WorldWideScience

Sample records for science humanities social

  1. Collaboration in the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Xia, Jianhong; Willson, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the first large-scale quantitative investigation into collaboration, demonstrated in co-authorship, by Australian humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) researchers. Web of Science data were extracted for Australian HASS publications, with a focus on the softer social sciences, over the period 2004-2013. The findings…

  2. The research trends of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bibliometric method was used to analyse the trends and challenges of Humanities and Social Sciences research by using research data reflecting on ongoing and completed Arts, Humanities and Social Science research publications submitted by staff and students from 1994 – 2008 to the university's Research Office.

  3. Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJOSSAH is a peer-reviewed journal of the social sciences and humanities specializing on social, political, economic and cultural development in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. It is a biannual journal open to all interested contributors. Vol 13, No 1 (2017). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  4. Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal strives to enable a sound balance between theory and practice and will ... conceptual, viewpoint, case study, literature review nature in broad topics in the ... Library and Information Science education in Anglophone Africa: Past, ...

  5. Social sciences and humanities contribution to tackle the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Sandøe, Peter; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    for identifying, describing, and discussing future potential in obesity research, to establish new and to nurture existing networks and collaborations between researchers across the social sciences and humanities and the natural sciences with an interest in obesity research, and thereby to mobilise significant......To address the obesity epidemic, European researchers need to come together to find the best solutions and use their combined knowledge to provide the most innovative research ideas. By gathering more than 50 researchers and stakeholders from around Europe, we took an important step towards...... establishing strong networks and building bridges between the natural sciences and social sciences and humanities that can address obesity as a complex societal challenge and help minimise the gap between research, markets, and citizens. The objectives of the workshop were to create a cross‐European forum...

  6. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-12-01

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Digitizing Human and Social Sciences Journals. Recent History and Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence and the gradual rise of French journals digital offers in the fields of human and social sciences. In this article, we will both reconsider the conditions of occurrence of these services and discuss the evolution of their environment. Through the example of several emerging initiatives in the field of scientific publishing, in a context marked by continuity but also rupture, we will try to glimpse the role journals could play in the new digital world being created.

  8. Integrating the social sciences to understand human-water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Many interesting and exciting socio-hydrological models have been developed in recent years. Such models often aim to capture the dynamic interplay between people and water for a variety of hydrological settings. As such, peoples' behaviours and decisions are brought into the models as drivers of and/or respondents to the hydrological system. To develop and run such models over a sufficiently long time duration to observe how the water-human system evolves the human component is often simplified according to one or two key behaviours, characteristics or decisions (e.g. a decision to move away from a drought or flood area; a decision to pump groundwater, or a decision to plant a less water demanding crop). To simplify the social component, socio-hydrological modellers often pull knowledge and understanding from existing social science theories. This requires them to negotiate complex territory, where social theories may be underdeveloped, contested, dynamically evolving, or case specific and difficult to generalise or upscale. A key question is therefore, how can this process be supported so that the resulting socio-hydrological models adequately describe the system and lead to meaningful understanding of how and why it behaves as it does? Collaborative interdisciplinary research teams that bring together social and natural scientists are likely to be critical. Joint development of the model framework requires specific attention to clarification to expose all underlying assumptions, constructive discussion and negotiation to reach agreement on the modelled system and its boundaries. Mutual benefits to social scientists can be highlighted, i.e. socio-hydrological work can provide insights for further exploring and testing social theories. Collaborative work will also help ensure underlying social theory is made explicit, and may identify ways to include and compare multiple theories. As socio-hydrology progresses towards supporting policy development, approaches that

  9. Evolution and the Human Population. Science In a Social CONtext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Joan

    Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

  10. Developing Library GIS Services for Humanities and Social Science: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ningning; Fosmire, Michael; Branch, Benjamin Dewayne

    2017-01-01

    In the academic libraries' efforts to support digital humanities and social science, GIS service plays an important role. However, there is no general service model existing about how libraries can develop GIS services to best engage with digital humanities and social science. In this study, we adopted the action research method to develop and…

  11. Humanities and Social Sciences Books of Ten National Disciplinary Associations, 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Books are the most important medium of communication in the humanities, a major medium in the social sciences, and a central component of academic library collections. This study examined humanities and social sciences books that won prizes from ten leading United States disciplinary associations between 2000 and 2009. The study extends earlier…

  12. E-Book Use and Attitudes in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett-Rivera, Kelsey; Hackman, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A survey of more than 1,300 faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students in the humanities and social sciences at the University of Maryland generated a wealth of data on use and opinions of e-books among those users. While the initial purpose of the survey was to gather data that would aid humanities and social sciences librarians in…

  13. Comprehensive bibliographic coverage of the social sciences and humanities in a citation index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Gunnar; Larsen, Birger

    2012-01-01

    A well-designed and comprehensive citation index for the social sciences and humanities has many potential uses, but has yet to be realised. Significant parts of the scholarly production in these areas are not published in international journals, but in national scholarly journals, in book chapters...... or in monographs. The potential for covering these literatures more comprehensively can now be investigated empirically using a complete publication output data set from the higher education sector of an entire country (Norway). We find that while the international journals in the social sciences and humanities...... are promising for a more comprehensive coverage of the social sciences and humanities....

  14. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  15. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  16. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  17. A quantitative evaluation system of Chinese journals in the humanities and social sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Xinning; ZHOU; Ping

    2009-01-01

    Based on analyses on existing indicators for evaluating journals in the humanities and social sciences and our experience in constructing the Chinese Social Science Citation Index(CSSCI),we proposed a comprehensive system for evaluating Chinese academic journals in the humanities and social sciences.This system constitutes 8 primary indicators and 17 sub-indicators for multidisciplinary journals and 19 sub-indicators for discipline-specific journals.Each indicator or sub-indicator is assigned a suitable weight according to its importance in terms of measuring a journal’s academic quality and/or impact.

  18. Human-centric decision-making models for social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    The volume delivers a wealth of effective methods to deal with various types of uncertainty inherently existing in human-centric decision problems. It elaborates on  comprehensive decision frameworks to handle different decision scenarios, which help use effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge and intuition, model perceptions and preferences in a more human-oriented style. The book presents original approaches and delivers new results on fundamentals and applications related to human-centered decision making approaches to business, economics and social systems. Individual chapters cover multi-criteria (multiattribute) decision making, decision making with prospect theory, decision making with incomplete probabilistic information, granular models of decision making and decision making realized with the use of non-additive measures. New emerging decision theories being presented as along with a wide spectrum of ongoing research make the book valuable to all interested in the field of advanced decision-mak...

  19. Making the Implicit Explicit: The Grammar of Inferential Reasoning in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that addresses the challenge of educational access to the Humanities and Social Sciences. It plots a theoretical quest to develop an explicit pedagogy to give "disadvantaged" students in the Humanities ways of working successfully with texts. In doing so it draws on Bernstein, Moore and Maton's work to…

  20. Notes for methodological study of instant messaging from social sciences and humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba MANCINAS-CHÁVEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article defends the need for transversality when methodologically addressing instant messaging via cellphones as a tool of communication from the point of view of social sciences and humanities. This leads us to the structural approach, which requires supplementary knowledge in fields such as Psychology or History, without losing sight that our study is composed in the areas of Communications and Journalism. We intend to avoid the functional approaches to think about the meaning of mobile phones as a communicative and palliative object of human loneliness. We believe that a part of the so-called applied research, in being useful to society, must take that path if we work as social science or humanities researchers. This issue gains even greater importance knowing that Spain is at the top of leading European countries in terms of the use of social networking systems of communication with software applications such as Whatsapp.

  1. Neoliberal Universities and the Education of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaruddin, Rdar M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the neoliberal impacts on higher education in Bangladesh, how market-driven policies might limit the education of arts, humanities and social sciences, and whether or not this phenomenon may have consequences for the future of democracy in the country. First, the author focuses on the privatisation of higher…

  2. Methods for mapping the impact of social sciences and humanities - a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Grønvad, Jonas Følsgaard; Hvidtfeldt, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the current literature on 'research impact' in the Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH). By providing a comprehensive review of available literature, drawing on national and international experiences, we seek to examine key methods and frameworks used to assess research impact...

  3. I'm Not Sure What to Do! Learning Experiences in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, JaneMaree; Mitchell, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a focus group study of student experience in a large humanities and social science faculty in Australia. The study had two purposes: the first was to examine student study/work/life balance issues, and the second purpose was to investigate their experiences of study, workloads and assessment. This article reports on the…

  4. Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities - Vol 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Contributing to Human Trafficking, Contexts of Vulnerability and Patterns of Victimization: The case of stranded victims in Metema, Ethiopia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Murugan, B Abebaw, 75-105 ...

  5. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

    2013-01-01

    Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.

  7. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Hogle, Linda

    2015-12-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with 'enhancement'; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with 'normal' function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with-and further develop-existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to-and be benefitted by-research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Ethics and research in Human and Social Sciences: a case to be thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto dos Santos Amaral Filho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, fundamentally through the analysis and interpretation of Resolutions that have historically been regulating ethical issues that involve scientific research (CNS Resolutions N. 196/96, N. 466/2012, N. 510/2016, seeks to show the inadequacy of such Resolutions for Human and Social Sciences research. In addition, this text wants to point to the political dispute imposed by the area of biomedical sciences that apparently seems to be little concerned with ethical issues per se and seeks, first and foremost, to maintain its power.

  9. Integrating social science into empirical models of coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Kline

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS research highlights reciprocal interactions (or feedbacks between biophysical and socioeconomic variables to explain system dynamics and resilience. Empirical models often are used to test hypotheses and apply theory that represent human behavior. Parameterizing reciprocal interactions presents two challenges for social scientists: (1 how to represent human behavior as influenced by biophysical factors and integrate this into CHANS empirical models; (2 how to organize and function as a multidisciplinary social science team to accomplish that task. We reflect on these challenges regarding our CHANS research that investigated human adaptation to fire-prone landscapes. Our project sought to characterize the forest management activities of land managers and landowners (or "actors" and their influence on wildfire behavior and landscape outcomes by focusing on biophysical and socioeconomic feedbacks in central Oregon (USA. We used an agent-based model (ABM to compile biophysical and social information pertaining to actor behavior, and to project future landscape conditions under alternative management scenarios. Project social scientists were tasked with identifying actors' forest management activities and biophysical and socioeconomic factors that influence them, and with developing decision rules for incorporation into the ABM to represent actor behavior. We (1 briefly summarize what we learned about actor behavior on this fire-prone landscape and how we represented it in an ABM, and (2 more significantly, report our observations about how we organized and functioned as a diverse team of social scientists to fulfill these CHANS research tasks. We highlight several challenges we experienced, involving quantitative versus qualitative data and methods, distilling complex behavior into empirical models, varying sensitivity of biophysical models to social factors, synchronization of research tasks, and the need to

  10. Virtual Reality for Artificial Intelligence: human-centered simulation for social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is a long last tradition in Artificial Intelligence as use of Robots endowing human peculiarities, from a cognitive and emotional point of view, and not only in shape. Today Artificial Intelligence is more oriented to several form of collective intelligence, also building robot simulators (hardware or software) to deeply understand collective behaviors in human beings and society as a whole. Modeling has also been crucial in the social sciences, to understand how complex systems can arise from simple rules. However, while engineers' simulations can be performed in the physical world using robots, for social scientist this is impossible. For decades, researchers tried to improve simulations by endowing artificial agents with simple and complex rules that emulated human behavior also by using artificial intelligence (AI). To include human beings and their real intelligence within artificial societies is now the big challenge. We present an hybrid (human-artificial) platform where experiments can be performed by simulated artificial worlds in the following manner: 1) agents' behaviors are regulated by the behaviors shown in Virtual Reality involving real human beings exposed to specific situations to simulate, and 2) technology transfers these rules into the artificial world. These form a closed-loop of real behaviors inserted into artificial agents, which can be used to study real society.

  11. [Forum: legitimacy, expansion, and sustainability of Social and Human Sciences in Public Health. Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    The Forum debates current trends and challenges for teaching and research in this subfield and the prevailing criteria for evaluation of its academic output. The authors wager on the hypothesis that we are currently experiencing a clash between the consolidation of Social and Human Sciences in Public Health (with a well-defined identity, undeniable vigor in their research and proposals, and an important number of practitioners) and a bottleneck in training processes and iniquity and inadequacy in the institutional mechanisms for recognition of merit. The Forum presents four articles. The first, by Minayo, discusses the basic forms of knowledge for this training and those needed to analyze contemporary challenges in a globalized world, besides debating the interfaces and mediations between the biological and the social in a teaching proposal. The second, by Trad, provides a current portrait of the subfield's output. The third, by Deslandes & Iriart, presents theoretical and methodological trends in recently published studies, identifying their gaps and characteristics. Bosi, author of the fourth article, fuels the debate on the criteria for evaluation of academic output in the field and analyzes their consequences. The Postscript, by Nunes, reclaims and updates the debate on the construction of identities in the social and Human Sciences in Public Health.

  12. Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en la formación médica Social Sciences and Humanities within undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Macías Llanes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El papel de las Humanidades Médicas en la formación del profesional de la salud ha sido entendido de diversas maneras. Se propone como objetivo ofrecer una valoración del significado de las Humanidades en los procesos formativos de la profesión médica. En primer lugar, se brindará una panorámica de este desarrollo y de sus diversas interpretaciones. En segundo lugar, se reflexionará sobre el encargo de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en la producción de conocimientos en Salud; en el contexto socio-político, económico y cultural actual latinoamericano. Por último, se analizará la contribución de este campo en los procesos formativos a través de la actividad del Centro de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en Salud a lo largo de una década.The Medical Humanities have been understood in different ways. This paper deals with their importance for undergraduate medical education. Firstly, it analyzes their development and various readings. Secondly, it reflects on the role of the Social Sciences and Humanities in the production of health knowledge, within the political socioeconomic cultural Latin-American context. Finally, it considers their contribution to the educational processes, by way of the Center for the Development of Social Sciences and Humanities.

  13. Effects of performance-based research funding on publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R.; Engels, T.C.E.

    2016-07-01

    Publishing in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) and research evaluation practices are co-evolving. In this paper we present an analysis on how in Flanders the PRFS has shaped and influenced publication practices in the SSH. Our analysis is based on the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of research output in the SSH in Flanders. We find that a strong emphasis on WoS publications since 2003 has caused a growth in WoS publications, that is greater than what can be observed in other countries and other fields of science in Flanders. Other mechanisms appear to exist for book publications, which are not indexed in the WoS databases used for the PRFS. (Author)

  14. Alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities: evidence from a comprehensive local database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R

    2016-07-01

    We present an analysis of alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities (SSH), based on data from the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of SSH research output in Flanders (2000-2013). Using an unbiased estimator of the share of intentional alphabetical co-authorship (IAC), we find that alphabetical co-authorship is more engrained in SSH than in science as a whole. Within the SSH, large differences exist between disciplines. The highest proportions of IAC are found for Literature, Economics & business, and History. Furthermore, alphabetical co-authorship varies with publication type: it occurs most often in books, is less common in articles in journals or in books, and is rare in proceedings papers. The use of alphabetical co-authorship appears to be slowly declining. (Author)

  15. Measuring research in Humanities and Social Sciences: information from a new Italian data infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, T.; Malgarini, M

    2016-07-01

    Measuring research output in Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) is particularly important, since in these fields scientific production is much more heterogeneous than in Natural and Life Sciences, and as such it is not well represented in standard international databases normally used to assess research output and impact. For these reason, ANVUR has recently started a new data infrastructure, aimed at gathering information about scienticic production, research infrastructures and research groups active in the Italian Universities. On the basis of these data, the aim of this paper is to provide a first characterization of Italian research Departments active in HSS, clustering them according to their level of research productivity and infrastructure availability. On the basis of our analysis, it is generally possible to distinguish among two main groups of Departments, respectively characterized by higher productivity but lower research quality, or by higher shares of excellent articles, but lower overall number of publications. (Author)

  16. The Humanistic Side of Engineering: Considering Social Science and Humanities Dimensions of Engineering in Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Morgan; Swenson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics and science knowledge/skills are most commonly associated with engineering's pre-requisite knowledge. Our goals in this paper are to argue for a more systematic inclusion of social science and humanities knowledge in the introduction of engineering to K-12 students. As part of this argument, we present a construct for framing the…

  17. The Effects of Teachers' Social and Human Capital on Urban Science Reform Initiatives: Considerations for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan A.; Yom, Jessica Koehler; Yang, Zhitong; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent research investigating the conditions under which science teachers can successfully implement science education reforms suggests that focusing only on professional development to improve content knowledge and teaching skills--often referred to as human capital--may not be enough. Increasingly, possessing social capital, defined…

  18. [Productivity and academic assessment in the Brazilian public health field: challenges for Human and Social Sciences research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    This article analyzes some challenges for knowledge output in the human and social sciences in the public health field, under the current academic assessment model in Brazil. The article focuses on the qualitative research approach in human and social sciences, analyzing its status in comparison to the other traditions vying for hegemony in the public health field, conjugating the dialogue with the literature, especially the propositions pertaining to the social fields present in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, with elements concerning the field's dynamics, including some empirical data. Challenges identified in the article include hurdles to interdisciplinary dialogue and equity in the production of knowledge, based on recognition of the founding place of human and social sciences in the public health field. The article discusses strategies to reshape the current correlation of forces among centers of knowledge in public health, especially those capable of impacting the committees and agendas that define the accumulation of symbolic and economic capital in the field.

  19. Co-authorship of Iranian Researchers in Science, Social Science, Art and Humanities Citation Indexes in the Web of Science between 2000 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Osareh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determines the co-authorship factor in the Iranian scientific output between 2000 and 2006 as reflected in the science, social science art and humanities citation indexes made available through the Web of Science database. Webometric indicators were used. The data were extracted in plain text from WOS, analyzed using HistCite software and counted in MS Office Excel program. Of the Total of 25320 documents indexed, 24480 documents were in Science Citation Index, 783 in Social Citation Index and 57 in Art and Humanities index. The findings indicated that co-authorship factor in the period studied had been on the rise. The highest participation rate belonged to the documents with two or three authors. General coauthorship factor was 0.59. The year 2006 had the highest coauthorship factor (0.62 while the year 2000 had the least (0.55. Bradford and Lotka laws were applied to the data sets. The Lotka’s Law only held true for the science citation index. The Bradford’s Law, however, held true for all indexes. In all citation indexes, the United States with 1865 documents (7.38 had the highest degree of coauthorship in Iranian scientific output.

  20. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Evaluating social science and humanities knowledge production: An exploratory analysis of dynamics in science systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, P.P.; Nijkamp, P.; Verbraak, J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge is gaining increasing importance in modern-day society as a factor of production and, ultimately, growth. This article explores the dynamics in university knowledge production and its effect on the state of university-industry-policy exchange in the Netherlands. Science systems are said to

  2. The Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews some recent technical progress in the social sciences and three frontier areas including evolutionary theory as related to sociobiology, the theory of human rational choice, and cognitive science. These areas offer explanations for broad areas of human behavior. (Author/SA)

  3. Social science that matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Social science is headed down a dead end toward mere scientism, becoming a second-rate version of the hard sciences. We neeed to recognise and support a different kind of social science research - and so should those who demand accountability from researchers. This paper asks what kind of social...... science we - scholars, policy makers, administrators - should and should not promote in democratic societies, and how we may hold social scientists accountable to deliver what we ask them for....

  4. Interdisciplinary promises versus practices in medicine: the decoupled experiences of social sciences and humanities scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Paradis, Elise; Kuper, Ayelet

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores social scientists' and humanities (SSH) scholars' integration within the academic medical research environment. Three questions guided our investigation: Do SSH scholars adapt to the medical research environment? How do they navigate their career within a culture that may be inconsistent with their own? What strategies do they use to gain legitimacy? The study builds on three concepts: decoupling, doxa, and epistemic habitus. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with SSH scholars working in 11 faculties of medicine across Canada. Participants were selected through purposeful and snowball sampling. The data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. For most of our participants, moving into medicine has been a challenging experience, as their research practices and views of academic excellence collided with those of medicine. In order to achieve some level of legitimacy more than half of our participants altered their research practices. This resulted in a dissonance between their internalized appreciation of academic excellence and their new, altered, research practices. Only six participants experienced no form of challenge or dissonance after moving into medicine, while three decided to break with their social science and humanities past and make the medical research community their new home. We conclude that the work environment for SSH scholars in faculties of medicine does not deliver on the promise of inclusiveness made by calls for interdisciplinarity in Canadian health research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ¿Publish or perish? The case of Social Sciences and Humanities in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aguado-López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the scientific collaborative behavior in the Social Sciences and Humanities in Latin America. To achieve this, Scopus trends (2003-2013, through the analysis done by Plume and Van Weijen, were contrasted with redalyc.org trends (2005-2014, covering a total of 220.200 papers. It revealed that the forms of author grew at a faster pace than the number of published papers; this rise was prompted by collaborative work strategies, with a tendency toward foreign collaboration. Therefore, the study of the characteristics of current scientific output leads inevitably to a discussion of collaboration. This has become one of the properties defining scientific work and is one of the ways that Latin American scientists address the “publish or perish” principle, which is now key to how research performance evaluations operate.

  6. Publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities: evidence from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, Emanuel; Engels, Tim; Polonen, Janne

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates patterns in the language and type of social sciences and humanities (SSH) publications in non-English speaking European countries to demonstrate that such patterns are related not only to discipline but also to each country’s cultural and historic heritage. We investigate...... publication patterns that occur across SSH publications of the whole of the SSH and of economics and business, law, and philosophy and theology publications in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Flanders (Belgium), Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. We use data from 74,022 peer-reviewed publications...... from 2014registered in at least one of the eight countries’ national databases and for 272,376 peer- reviewed publications from the period of 2011–2014 registered in at least one of the seven countries’ national databases (for all countries except Slovakia). Our findings show that publication patterns...

  7. Bringing Darwin into the social sciences and the humanities: cultural evolution and its philosophical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Denis, Gilles

    2018-04-10

    In the field of cultural evolution it is generally assumed that the study of culture and cultural change would benefit enormously from being informed by evolutionary thinking. Recently, however, there has been much debate about what this "being informed" means. According to the standard view, an interesting analogy obtains between cultural and biological evolution. In the literature, however, the analogy is interpreted and used in at least three distinct, but interrelated ways. We provide a taxonomy in order to clarify these different meanings. Subsequently, we discuss the alternatives model of cultural attraction theory and memetics, which both challenge basic assumptions of the standard view. Finally, we briefly summarize the contributions to the special issue on Darwin in the Humanities and the Social Sciences, which is the result of a collaborative project between scholars and scientists from the universities of Lille and Ghent. Furthermore, we explain how they add to the discussions about the integration of evolutionary thinking and the study of culture.

  8. Physics Laws of Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Economics, and other fields of social science are often criticized as unscientific for their apparent failures to formulate universal laws governing human societies. Whether economics is truly a science is one of the oldest questions. This paper attempts to create such universal laws, and asserts that economics is a branch of quantum physics just like chemistry. Choice is a central concept in economics and other fields of social science, yet there is no corresponding concept of choice in mode...

  9. Teaching microbiology to undergraduate students in the humanities and the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    This paper summarizes my experiences teaching a 28-hour course on the bacterial world for undergraduate students in the humanities and the social sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. This course was offered in the framework of a program in which students must obtain credit points for courses offered by other faculties to broaden their education. Most students had little biology in high school and had never been exposed to the basics of chemistry. Using a historical approach, highlighting the work of pioneers such as van Leeuwenhoek, Koch, Fleming, Pasteur, Winogradsky and Woese, I covered a broad area of general, medical, environmental and evolutionary microbiology. The lectures included basic concepts of organic and inorganic chemistry necessary to understand the principles of fermentations and chemoautotrophy, and basic molecular biology to explain biotechnology using transgenic microorganisms and molecular phylogeny. Teaching the basics of microbiology to intelligent students lacking any background in the natural sciences was a rewarding experience. Some students complained that, in spite of my efforts, basic concepts of chemistry remained beyond their understanding. But overall the students' evaluation showed that the course had achieved its goal. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Changing behaviours, pushing social practices towards more sustainability. The contribution of human and social sciences to understand and act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane

    2016-09-01

    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  11. The Humanistic Side of Engineering: Considering Social Science and Humanities Dimensions of Engineering in Education and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hynes, Morgan; Swenson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics and science knowledge/skills are most commonly associated with engineering’s pre-requisite knowledge. Our goals in this paper are to argue for a more systematic inclusion of social science and humanities knowledge in the introduction of engineering to K-12 students. As part of this argument, we present a construct for framing the humanistic side of engineering with illustrative examples of what appealing to the humanistic side of engineering can look like in a classroom setting, a...

  12. Features of Active Stress Overcoming Behavior among Civil Servants and Students of Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Pilishvili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the active overcoming of everyday stress by civil servants and students of Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty, focused on a similar professional activity. Different behavioral coping strategies are shown in terms of personal activity and their relationship with vitality.

  13. Strategies for Leading Academics to Rethink Humanities and Social Sciences Curricula in the Context of Discipline Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Theda; Wallace, Joy; Allen, Pamela; Clark, Jennifer; Jones, Adrian; Lawrence, Jill; Cole, Bronwyn; Sheridan Burns, Lynette

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of discipline standards in Australia has required a comprehensive rethinking of humanities and social science curricula from first year through to graduation. This paper proposes a model to facilitate academics' engagement with discipline standards and their implication for first-year curricula. The model supports…

  14. Social Work and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  15. Interactional nursing - a practice-theory in the dynamic field between the natural, human and social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Merry Elisabeth; Pedersen, Birthe D.; Rosenkrands, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Nursing is often described from the point of view of either the natural or the human sciences. In contrast to this, the value foundation in Interactional nursing practice is understood from the point of view of the natural sciences as well as that of the human and social sciences. This article...... presents many-faceted practice-theory of nursing, which is situated in the dynamic field between these three sciences. The focus of the theory is on interaction and practice resulting in a caring practice. Here practice is based on Taylor's and MacIntyre's interpretation of this concept. Action in nursing...... is based on Habermas' three varied modes of action seen in the light of an understanding of the world as a system world and a life world. Nursing as an interactional practice-theory is presented with examples of interpretative nursing science, seen in the ethical action-oriented, socio-cultural framework...

  16. THE POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS OF VISUALISATION AS A METHOD IN LEARNING SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana T. Sidelnikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the paper is concerned with potential and barriers of application of visualisation as a method in learning social sciences and humanities. Using and employing visual aids becomes the most important resource in modern pedagogical theory and learning process due to the improvement of traditional pedagogical tools and new interpretation of well-known methods. Materials and Methods: the methods of observation, analysis of test results, results of examination session, data of questionnaires were used during the elaboration of the paper. Results: a good visual aid in teaching political science is the smiley as a simplified graphical representation expressing the emotions of a speaker or a writer. Observation, survey and results of examinations indicate that the above visual solutions not only improve students’ knowledge of subjects, but also improve the intellectual activity, contribute to the formation of the methodical approach to learning, associative thinking and creativity. Discussion and Conclusion: visualisation is a sign presentation of the content, functions, structures, stages of a process, a phenomenon through schematisation and associative and illustrative arrays. At the same time it is a way of transforming knowledge into real visual product with the author’s personal touch. Initially, students learn to reflect by drawing the essence of rather abstract concepts such as “parity”, “power” “freedom” etc. Assignments of higher levels involve the use of associative arrays, free images. By doing this, students do not just paint, but on their own initiative work with colours, seek to schematise information, sometimes dressing comments in lyrics.

  17. The Metaphor of the Dawn of the Space Age in the Contemporary Social Sciences and Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Majsova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the space age in the early 1960s first provoked unabashed awe. Then, it inspired numerous attempts to explain (away the evental status of the first examples of manned spaceflight accounts that mainly interpreted Yuri Garagin’s flight (1961 and the Moon landing (1969 as logical consequences of technological progress, a certain constellation of political circumstances, and a pinch of ‘imagination’ to begin with. Curiously enough, conclusions of the vast majority of such accounts cannot but resort to ‘terrestrial’ metaphors in order to explain why these endeavours were worth undertaking in the first place. In the 21st century, reflections on outer space seem to have settled within three conceptually designed research fields within the social sciences and humanities: astrosociology, noocosmology and cultural studies of outer space. The text analyses conceptualisations and accounts of the dawn of the space age exhibited by the core texts and methodologies of these research fields to demonstrate how they actually hinge on variant epistemologies, and interpret the role of metaphor in world-formation in radically differing ways.

  18. Integrating social science into empirical models of coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Eric M. White; A Paige Fischer; Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Susan Charnley; Christine S. Olsen; Thomas A. Spies; John D. Bailey

    2017-01-01

    Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) research highlights reciprocal interactions (or feedbacks) between biophysical and socioeconomic variables to explain system dynamics and resilience. Empirical models often are used to test hypotheses and apply theory that represent human behavior. Parameterizing reciprocal interactions presents two challenges for social...

  19. Introduction in Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Articles: How Indonesian Writers Justify Their Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Safnil; Wardhana, Dian Eka Chandra

    2014-01-01

    The introductory part of a research article (RA) is very important because in this section writers must argue about the importance of their research topic and project so that they can attract their readers' attention to read the whole article. This study analyzes RA introductions written by Indonesian writers in social sciences and humanities…

  20. Complementary Social Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Pedersen, Morten Axel

    2014-01-01

    of measurement device deployed. At the same time, however, we also expect new interferences and polyphonies to arise at the intersection of Big and Small Data, provided that these are, so to speak, mixed with care. These questions, we stress, are important not only for the future of social science methods......The rise of Big Data in the social realm poses significant questions at the intersection of science, technology, and society, including in terms of how new large-scale social databases are currently changing the methods, epistemologies, and politics of social science. In this commentary, we address...

  1. The first nationwide survey of MD-PhDs in the social sciences and humanities: training patterns and career choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Seth M; Karlin, Jennifer; Stonington, Scott D; Gottheil, Diane L

    2017-03-21

    While several articles on MD-PhD trainees in the basic sciences have been published in the past several years, very little research exists on physician-investigators in the social sciences and humanities. However, the numbers of MD-PhDs training in these fields and the number of programs offering training in these fields are increasing, particularly within the US. In addition, accountability for the public funding for MD-PhD programs requires knowledge about this growing population of trainees and their career trajectories. The aim of this paper is to describe the first cohorts of MD-PhDs in the social sciences and humanities, to characterize their training and career paths, and to better understand their experiences of training and subsequent research and practice. This paper utilizes a multi-pronged recruitment method and novel survey instrument to examine an understudied population of MD-PhD trainees in the social sciences and humanities, many of whom completed both degrees without formal programmatic support. The survey instrument was designed to collect demographic, training and career trajectory data, as well as experiences of and perspectives on training and career. It describes their routes to professional development, characterizes obstacles to and predictors of success, and explores career trends. The average length of time to complete both degrees was 9 years. The vast majority (90%) completed a clinical residency, almost all (98%) were engaged in research, the vast majority (88%) were employed in academic institutions, and several others (9%) held leadership positions in national and international health organizations. Very few (4%) went into private practice. The survey responses supply recommendations for supporting current trainees as well as areas for future research. In general, MD-PhDs in the social sciences and humanities have careers that fit the goals of agencies providing public funding for training physician-investigators: they are involved

  2. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  3. SSH & the City. A Network Approach for Tracing the Societal Contribution of the Social Sciences and Humanities for Local Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson-Garcia, N.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Rafols, I.

    2016-07-01

    Current evaluation frameworks in research policy were designed to address: 1) life and natural sciences, 2) global research communities, and; 3) scientific impact. This is problematic, as they do not adapt well to SSH scholarship, to local interests, or to consider broader societal impacts. This paper discusses three different evaluation frameworks and proposes a methodology to operationalize them and capture societal interactions between social sciences and humanities (SSH) researchers and their local context. To capture such interactions, we propose the use of social media and web-link analysis to identify interactions between academics and local stakeholders. We consider that the power of these tools is not so much on understanding their meaning as ‘acts’ to develop impact or visibility metrics whenever a mention to a research article is made, but as proxies for personal interactions. We offer some examples of the expected social networks we aim at developing for two Spanish cities: Granada and Valencia. (Author)

  4. Freud, Weber, Durkheim: A Philosophical Foundation for Writing in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Karen B.; Larkin, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a continuum of lines of inquiry applicable to many of the human sciences. Illustrates the continuum by discussing the approaches of Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim. Suggests uses of the continuum as an aid to invention and as a method of analysis. (RAE)

  5. Social Dynamics of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several ``science of science'' theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.

  6. Digital Social Science Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Michael; Lauersen, Christian Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    At the Faculty Library of Social Sciences (part of Copenhagen University Library) we are currently working intensely towards the establishment of a Digital Social Science Lab (DSSL). The purpose of the lab is to connect research, education and learning processes with the use of digital tools...... at the Faculty of Social Sciences. DSSL will host and facilitate an 80 m2 large mobile and intelligent study- and learning environment with a focus on academic events, teaching and collaboration. Besides the physical settings DSSL has two primary functions: 1. To implement relevant social scientific software...... and hardware at the disposal for students and staff at The Faculty of Social Sciences along with instruction and teaching in the different types of software, e.g. Stata, Nvivo, Atlas.ti, R Studio, Zotero and GIS-software. 2. To facilitate academic events focusing on use of digital tools and analytic software...

  7. Exploring the Composite Trace of Research Outputs of Humanities and Social Sciences Scholars: A Case Study of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences at National Taiwan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Hua Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the citation data from four databases (THCI, ACI, WOS and Scopus and one social media, Mendeley, to examine the composite traces of humanities and social sciences scholars’ research outputs. Using the researchers of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences in National Taiwan University as subjects, this study compared how the scholars’ publications were cited in Taiwan’s and international academic journals as well as used in the social Web. It found that most of the subjects’ publications were in Chinese, and the impact of the publications was domestic rather than international. Taiwan’s citation databases, unsurprisingly, saw more citations to their research outputs. However, when only the English publications were observed, it was found that the citation performances in international databases and Mendeley were highly correlated. This suggests that Mendeley is a valid altmetric citation source for observing the international impact of Taiwan’s scholars. [Article content in Chinese

  8. Philosophy of the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Kimelyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of social science is a branch of philosophy where relations between philosophy and social sciences are traced and investigated. The main functions of philosophy of social science are: to work out social ontology, methodology and metatheory of social science.

  9. A Forgotten Social Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The post–World War II era was one of great triumph for American linguists—and yet linguistics is all but absent from the historical literature on postwar social science. This paper aims to illuminate this curious situation: to understand its provenance, evaluate its merits, and contextualize...... of linguistics has led to a parallel isolation in the historical literature. Ultimately, this paper poses a pivotal and timely question: How is the postwar social science space construed within the existing historiographic framework, and how should it be construed in order to maximize understanding? I propose...... it broadly. I argue that the historiographic lacuna results from two factors: (1) the opt-out of linguists from the wider American social science community, and (2) historical-developmental and -orientational factors that stand linguistics apart from the social science mainstream. The resultant isolation...

  10. Cybersemiotics: Suggestion for a Transdisciplinary Framework Encompassing Natural, Life, and Social Sciences as Well as Phenomenology and Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Brier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern evolutionary paradigm combined with phenomenology forces us to view human consciousness as a product of evolution as well as accepting humans as observers from “within the universe”. The knowledge produced by science has first-person embodied consciousness combined with second-person meaningful communication in language as a prerequisite for third-person fallibilist scientific knowledge. Therefore, the study of consciousness forces us theoretically to encompass the natural and social sciences as well as the humanities in one framework of unrestricted or absolute naturalism. This means to view conscious quale life world with its intentionality as well as the intersubjectivity of culture as a part of nature, and therefore the whole human being as treated in modern bio-medicine. The ‘bio’ is not enough. The crucial question for a transdisciplinary theory of conscious human being is therefore: What is the role of consciousness, signs, and meaning in evolution as well as in cultural development? But this is problematic since the sciences in their present form are without concepts of qualia and meaning, and the European phenomenological-hermeneutic “sciences of meaning” does not have an evolutionary foundation. It is therefore interesting that C.S. Peirce phaneroscopic semiotics - in its modern form of a biosemiotics - was based on a phenomenological basis as well as an evolutionary thinking and ecology of sign webs at the same time drawing on knowledge from the sciences. To develop this 100 year old paradigm it is necessary to supplement it with the knowledge gained from the technologically founded information sciences, as well as systems, and cybernetics in order to produce a transdisciplinary alternative to logical positivism on the one hand and postmodern constructivism on the other. Cybersemiotics constructs such a non-reductionist naturalistic framework in order to integrate third-person knowledge from the exact sciences

  11. Interactional nursing--a practice-theory in the dynamic field between the natural, human and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Merry Elisabeth; Pedersen, Birthe D; Rosenkrands, Vibeke

    2008-12-01

    Nursing is often described from the point of view of either the natural or the human sciences. In contrast to this, the value foundation in Interactional nursing practice is understood from the point of view of the natural sciences as well as that of the human and social sciences. This article presents many-faceted practice-theory of nursing, which is situated in the dynamic field between these three sciences. The focus of the theory is on interaction and practice resulting in a caring practice. Here practice is based on Taylor's and MacIntyre's interpretation of this concept. Action in nursing is based on Habermas' three varied modes of action seen in the light of an understanding of the world as a system world and a life world. Nursing as an interactional practice-theory is presented with examples of interpretative nursing science, seen in the ethical action-oriented, socio-cultural framework of Taylor and Habermas. It is concluded that phenomenologic and socio-cultural research into caring practice as well as an in-depth, comprehensive interpretation of nursing practice are both highly suited to forming the fundamental theoretical framework in nursing, here seen as an interpretative nursing science. Finally, a comparison is drawn between Interactional nursing practice and Benner's theory of nursing practice.

  12. Incorporation of social sciences and humanities in the training of health professionals and practitioners in other ways of knowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Moreno-Leguizamon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It would appear that education in health sciences is currently focused primarily on instilling effective scientific, cognitive and technical competencies in health professionals and practitioners; it is not according the same level of importance to personal, relational, ethical and moral competencies. This review supports the quest for greater balance in biomedical and healthcare education by incorporating social sciences and humanities. It also argues that this is an urgent teaching and training task, especially in the developing world (Africa, Latin America and Asia. It is of critical importance to understand that matters of health and disease/illness are not only about the ‘disease in the body’ but also about the ‘disease in the body of the person suffering’, and that these two ways of knowing (epistemologies or world-views have different implications in the health sciences education process. Lastly, as an ethics of care, the understandings afforded by these more inclusive approaches of the social sciences and humanities should not be a privilege confined to medical schools.

  13. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  14. Social Justice and Human Caring: A Model of Caring Science as a Hopeful Paradigm for Moral Justice for Humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jean

    2018-04-01

    The only true standard of greatness of any civilization is our sense of social and moral responsibility in translating material wealth to human values and achieving our full potential as a caring society. -The Right Honorable Norman Kirk, Former Prime Minister of New Zealand.

  15. Reflections on Asia: Borrowing Lessons from the Humanities in Social Science Coursework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Sanborn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available What lessons can political science classes borrow from the humanities? This paper presents the results of a multi-year study on teaching about Asia as part of a general education program. Given the challenges of meeting common learning outcomes while also teaching discipline-specific lessons, political science courses often underperformed in assessments when compared to benchmark expectations. While our initial conclusion—that a greater focus on multimodal assignments would promote deeper learning and reflection—proved unfounded, explicitly emphasizing students’ reflection on their own process of democratic engagement, in comparison to that of their counterparts in Asia, did seem to address the shortcomings of the previous approaches by giving students context and guidance in their understanding of how democracy works at home and abroad. Data from reflective essays, collected over two years, provide evidence for this finding.

  16. Mapping Diversity of Publication Patterns in the Social Sciences and Humanities: An Approach Making Use of Fuzzy Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik T. Verleysen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a method for systematically mapping diversity of publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities in terms of publication type, publication language and co-authorship. Design/methodology/approach: In a follow-up to the hard partitioning clustering by Verleysen and Weeren in 2016, we now propose the complementary use of fuzzy cluster analysis, making use of a membership coefficient to study gradual differences between publication styles among authors within a scholarly discipline. The analysis of the probability density function of the membership coefficient allows to assess the distribution of publication styles within and between disciplines. Findings: As an illustration we analyze 1,828 productive authors affiliated in Flanders, Belgium. Whereas a hard partitioning previously identified two broad publication styles, an international one vs. a domestic one, fuzzy analysis now shows gradual differences among authors. Internal diversity also varies across disciplines and can be explained by researchers' specialization and dissemination strategies. Research limitations: The dataset used is limited to one country for the years 2000-2011; a cognitive classification of authors may yield a different result from the affiliation-based classification used here. Practical implications: Our method is applicable to other bibliometric and research evaluation contexts, especially for the social sciences and humanities in non-Anglophone countries. Originality/value: The method proposed is a novel application of cluster analysis to the field of bibliometrics. Applied to publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities, for the first time it systematically documents intra-disciplinary diversity.

  17. Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2001-04-01

    In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised.

  18. Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an initiative was taken by SCK-CEN to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. As a result, two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of nuclear experts. The general objectives of SCK-CEN's social sciences programme are: (1) to improve the nuclear research approach by integrating social sciences - where needed- to solve complex problems in interaction with society; (2) to stimulate university collaboration with social disciplines in learning process towards transdisciplinary and improved social responsibility; (3) to improve the training of nuclear experts of SCK-CEN by gaining insight in their expert culture and implicit ethical choices; (4) to develop projects and an original transdisciplinary programme and project management by involving young and senior scientists, a variety of university opinions and relevant actors from industry and society. Along these lines, projects were developed on sustainability and nuclear development, transgenerational ethics related to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and cognitive dissonance effects, legal aspects and liability, non-radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies and safety. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2000 are summarised

  19. Rethinking Data Sharing and Human Participant Protection in Social Science Research: Applications from the Qualitative Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Kirilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While data sharing is becoming increasingly common in quantitative social inquiry, qualitative data are rarely shared. One factor inhibiting data sharing is a concern about human participant protections and privacy. Protecting the confidentiality and safety of research participants is a concern for both quantitative and qualitative researchers, but it raises specific concerns within the epistemic context of qualitative research. Thus, the applicability of emerging protection models from the quantitative realm must be carefully evaluated for application to the qualitative realm. At the same time, qualitative scholars already employ a variety of strategies for human-participant protection implicitly or informally during the research process. In this practice paper, we assess available strategies for protecting human participants and how they can be deployed. We describe a spectrum of possible data management options, such as de-identification and applying access controls, including some already employed by the Qualitative Data Repository (QDR in tandem with its pilot depositors. Throughout the discussion, we consider the tension between modifying data or restricting access to them, and retaining their analytic value. We argue that developing explicit guidelines for sharing qualitative data generated through interaction with humans will allow scholars to address privacy concerns and increase the secondary use of their data.

  20. Whitehead Policy Symposium. The Human Genome Project: Science, law, and social change in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, E.K.

    2000-02-17

    Advances in the biomedical sciences, especially in human genomics, will dramatically influence law, medicine, public health, and many other sectors of our society in the decades ahead. The public already senses the revolutionary nature of genomic knowledge. In the US and Europe, we have seen widespread discussions about genetic discrimination in health insurance; privacy issues raised by the proliferation of DNA data banks; the challenge of interpreting new DNA diagnostic tests; changing definitions of what it means to be healthy; and the science and ethics of cloning animals and human beings. The primary goal of the Whitehead/ASLME Policy Symposium was to provide a bridge between the research community and professionals, who were just beginning to grasp the potential impact of new genetic technologies on their fields. The ''Human Genome Project: Science, Law, and Social Change in the 21st Century'' initially was designed as a forum for 300-500 physicians, lawyers, consumers, ethicists, and scientists to explore the impact of new genetic technologies and prepare for the challenges ahead.

  1. Apoio social e saúde: pontos de vista das ciências sociais e humanas Social support and health: standpoints from the social and human sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Canesqui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Analisam-se os temas e as abordagens teórico-conceituais do apoio social nos artigos de importantes periódicos internacionais de ciências sociais e de medicina e nacionais de Saúde Coletiva/Saúde Pública no período 1983-2005. Procedeu-se a leitura dos resumos dos 259 textos internacionais e 57 nacionais encontrados classificando e computando as relações do apoio social com a saúde/doença/cuidado. A seguir analisaram-se os conceitos e as abordagens do apoio social do ponto de vista das teorias e dos autores das ciências sociais e humanas, em uma amostra intencional de 56 textos internacionais e 18 nacionais. A literatura internacional respalda-se na psicologia social, nas várias correntes da sociologia e da ciência política e menos na antropologia. A literatura nacional dialoga menos com as teorias psicossociais e mais com as sociológicas e as antropológicas, realçando-se pela abordagem do apoio com a rede social, a solidariedade, as trocas e os valores culturais, deslocando-se da esfera individual e privada para a capacidade de organização da sociedade civil e de ações coletivas. Diferentes correntes norteiam as análises teórico-conceituais do apoio social, sendo a literatura internacional mais antiga, diversificada, empírica e escassa de produção antropológica.This article analyses the themes and conceptual-theoretical approaches of the social support in the literature from important international journals about social sciences and medicine, and in from 1983 to 2005 are analyzed. 259 international and 57 national abstracts was reading for the identification and computing the relations of the social support with health/disease/care. A deeper conceptual analysis about social support and the theories of social science were reported in an intentional sample of 56 international and 18 national texts. The international literature is based on the social psychology, in the several trends of the sociology and of the political

  2. Imaginative methodologies in the social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imaginative Methodologies develops, expands and challenges conventional social scientific methodology and language by way of literary, poetic and other alternative sources of inspiration. Sociologists, social workers, anthropologists, criminologists and psychologists all try to rethink, provoke...... and reignite social scientific methodology. Imaginative Methodologies challenges the mainstream social science methodological orthodoxy closely guarding the boundaries between the social sciences and the arts and humanities, pointing out that authors and artists are often engaged in projects parallel to those...... of the social sciences and vice versa, and that artistic and cultural productions today do not constitute a specialist field, but are integral to our social reality. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in the social sciences and across the arts and humanities working with questions...

  3. Risk in social science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zinn, Jens; Taylor-Gooby, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ... for control. Advances in social science improve understanding of how people perceive and prioritise risks, broaden awareness of the bearing of a range of other issues (trust, experience during the life course, democratic expectations) on people's capacity to manage risks, and facilitate exploration of the ways in which people communicate abo...

  4. Evolutionary game theory meets social science: is there a unifying rule for human cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2010-05-21

    Evolutionary game theory has shown that human cooperation thrives in different types of social interactions with a PD structure. Models treat the cooperative strategies within the different frameworks as discrete entities and sometimes even as contenders. Whereas strong reciprocity was acclaimed as superior to classic reciprocity for its ability to defeat defectors in public goods games, recent experiments and simulations show that costly punishment fails to promote cooperation in the IR and DR games, where classic reciprocity succeeds. My aim is to show that cooperative strategies across frameworks are capable of a unified treatment, for they are governed by a common underlying rule or norm. An analysis of the reputation and action rules that govern some representative cooperative strategies both in models and in economic experiments confirms that the different frameworks share a conditional action rule and several reputation rules. The common conditional rule contains an option between costly punishment and withholding benefits that provides alternative enforcement methods against defectors. Depending on the framework, individuals can switch to the appropriate strategy and method of enforcement. The stability of human cooperation looks more promising if one mechanism controls successful strategies across frameworks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Quantum social science

    CERN Document Server

    Haven, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Written by world experts in the foundations of quantum mechanics and its applications to social science, this book shows how elementary quantum mechanical principles can be applied to decision-making paradoxes in psychology and used in modelling information in finance and economics. The book starts with a thorough overview of some of the salient differences between classical, statistical and quantum mechanics. It presents arguments on why quantum mechanics can be applied outside of physics and defines quantum social science. The issue of the existence of quantum probabilistic effects in psychology, economics and finance is addressed and basic questions and answers are provided. Aimed at researchers in economics and psychology, as well as physics, basic mathematical preliminaries and elementary concepts from quantum mechanics are defined in a self-contained way.

  6. Employment & the Unity of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Employment and the unity of social sciences are discussed. The paper argues that employment is the simplest and the best indicator of human-centered sustainable and secure development.

  7. Applied Computational Mathematics in Social Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Damaceanu, Romulus-Catalin

    2010-01-01

    Applied Computational Mathematics in Social Sciences adopts a modern scientific approach that combines knowledge from mathematical modeling with various aspects of social science. Special algorithms can be created to simulate an artificial society and a detailed analysis can subsequently be used to project social realities. This Ebook specifically deals with computations using the NetLogo platform, and is intended for researchers interested in advanced human geography and mathematical modeling studies.

  8. Information Science: Science or Social Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.

    2017-01-01

    Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...

  9. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swijghuisen Reigersberg, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths', University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper's aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical 'sets' and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item 'represents' as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP), copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research.

  10. A Discussion of Students Understanding, Learning and Application of Theory of Science within Humanities and Social Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    when they learn a disciplinary area and in this context design strategies for investigations and project writing. Due to the massification of education and research (Gibbons 1998, 2005) in most universities the tendency is that science and research have become oriented towards practice, partnerships...... is to discuss the role of theory of science in teaching and learning in the actual university context. It is to be discussed why a discussion of ontological complexity is relevant for the understanding of scientific work for both the researcher of today and the academics which are to apply research strategies......: European Educational Research Journal, Volume 6, no. 2, 2007 Nowotny, H. Scott, P., Gibbons, M. (2011). Re-Thinking Science, Cambridge: Polity Press Wittgenstein, L. (1984). Philosophische Untersuchungen. I: Wittgenstein, L. Werkausgabe Band 1. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp....

  11. Can biosemiotics be a "science" if its purpose is to be a bridge between the natural, social and human sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Søren

    2015-12-01

    Central to the attempt to develop a biosemiotics has been the discussion of what it means to be scientific. In Marcello Barbieri's latest argument for leaving Peircean biosemiotics and creating an alternative code-biology the definition of what it means to be scientific plays a major role. For Barbieri "scientific knowledge is obtained by building machine-like models of what we observe in nature". Barbieri interestingly claims that - in combination with the empirical and experimental basis - mechanism is virtually equivalent to the scientific method. The consequences of this statement seem to be that the optimal type of knowledge science can produce about living system is to model them as machines. But the explicit goal of a Peircean semiotically based biosemiotics is (also) to model living systems as cognitive and communicative systems working on the basis of meaning and signification. These two concepts are not part of the mechanistic models of natural science today, not even of cognitive science. Barbieri tries to solve this problem by introducing a new concept of biological meaning that is separate from the Peircean biosemiotics and then add Peirce's semiotics on top. This article argues why this view is inconsistent on the grounds that Peirce's semiotic paradigm only gives meaning in its pragmaticist conception of a fallibilist view of science, which again is intrinsic connected to its non-mechanistic metaphysics of Tychism, Synechism and Agapism. The core of the biosemiotic enterprise is to establish another type of trans- and interdisciplinary wissenschaft than the received view of "science". Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...

  13. Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences - Vol 7, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bipolar disorder, childhood bereavement, and the return of the dead in Edgar Allan Poe's Works · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Applying Social Capital Theory and the Technology Acceptance Model in information and knowledge sharing research · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Role of International Study Experiences in the Personal and Professional Development of University Lecturers in the Humanities and Social Sciences Fields in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaowiwattanakul, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of international experience on personal and professional development of university academic staff in the Humanities and Social Sciences fields in Thailand. The participants were 23 lecturers from nine universities in Thailand. A semi-structured face-to-face interviewing method was employed. The findings reveal that…

  15. The Holocaust as History and Human Rights: A Cross-National Analysis of Holocaust Education in Social Science Textbooks, 1970-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Patricia; Russell, Susan Garnett

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Holocaust education in secondary school social science textbooks around the world since 1970, using data coded from 465 textbooks from 69 countries. It finds that books and countries more connected to world society and with an accompanying emphasis on human rights, diversity in society and a depiction of international, rather…

  16. Communicating science in social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2013-08-20

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

  17. Communicating science in social settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  18. Social Anthropology and Social Science History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914

  19. ACADEMIC GENEALOGIES WITH RESPECT TO NARRATIVE IN HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THEIR IMPLICATION FOR PUBLIC POLICIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Taiki; Nakano, Takeshi; Hatori, Tsuyoshi

    In human and society science, narrative is regarded as an important issue to understand dynamic actions of human being and society. Therefore, narrative is also expected to be important for public policies that try to improve dynamic actions of human being and society. In th is study, we review academic genealogies with respect to narratives including western philosophy, hermeneutics, historical science, historical philosophy, literary criticism, clinical psychology and sociology, narrative psychology and folklore. Then we discuss how narrative can be pragmatically applied for public policies.

  20. Human social genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  1. Performative Social Science and Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gergen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of "Performative Social Science," which is defined as the deployment of different forms of artistic performance in the execution of a scientific project. Such forms may include art, theater, poetry, music, dance, photography, fiction writing, and multi-media applications. Performative research practices are in their developmental stage, with most of the major work appearing in the last two decades. Frequently based on a social constructionist metatheory, supporters reject a realist, or mapping view of representation, and explore varieties of expressive forms for constructing worlds relevant to the social sciences. The performative orientation often relies on a dramaturgical approach that encompasses value-laden, emotionally charged topics and presentations. Social scientists invested in social justice issues and political perspectives have been especially drawn to this approach. Performative social science invites productive collaborations among various disciplinary fields and between the sciences and arts. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101119

  2. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  3. Desain Bahan Ajar Mata Kuliah Pendidikan Agama Islam dengan Pendekatan Integratif-Interkonektif antara Religious Studies, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, dan Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hanafi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dicotomy differentiation between religious and general studies affected islamic studies become stiff and rigid. So it is less responsive to the challenge and demand of developing era. This research is aimed to arrange a new handbook of Islamic education which is spirited by ethos and breath of reintegrative epistemology between religious studies and general studies, such as: natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Meanwhile the result targeted of this research is: (1 a new islamic education syllabus which is balance with principals of islamic studies through integrative-interconnective approach (interdisciplinary; (2 A new islamic education handbook with integrative-interconnective approach which is accepted both theoretically and practically; (3 The design of Islamic education’s teaching plan in one semester presented in 16 meetings which is tested in teaching and learning process; (4 Islamic education’s teaching scenario through a new teaching material which is able to implement the mission of islamic studies interdisciplinarily. Pemilahan secara dikotomis terhadap studi agama dan studi umum menjadi sulit dan kaku. Sehingga kurang responsif terhadap tantangan dan permintaan pengembangan era. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat ulang buku pegangan baru pendidikan Islam yang berenergi oleh etos dan napas epistemologi baru antara studi agama dan studi umum, seperti: ilmu alam, ilmu sosial, dan humaniora. Sementara itu hasil yang ditargetkan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 silabus pendidikan Islam baru yang seimbang pada prinsip studi Islam melalui pendekatan integratif-interkonektif (interdisipliner; (2 sebuah buku pegangan pendidikan islam yang baru dengan pendekatan integratif-interkonektif yang dapat diterima baik secara teoritis dan praktis; (3 Rancangan rencana pengajaran pendidikan Islam dalam satu semester disajikan dalam 16 pertemuan yang diuji dalam proses belajar dan proses pengajaran; (4 Skema pengajaran pendidikan

  4. La evaluación de revistas científicas en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades Evaluation of scientific journals in Social Sciences and Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Borrego

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el papel de la evaluación de revistas científicas en los procesos de valoración de la investigación desarrollada por personas e instituciones, prestando un especial interés a los títulos de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades. En primer lugar, se examinan las dificultades de aplicación, en estas disciplinas, de métodos bibliométricos de repercusión basados en el análisis de citas con datos obtenidos de las bases de datos de Thomson Scientific (ex ISI. A continuación se examinan los proyectos de creación de índices de citas alternativos, y los principales repertorios de revistas desarrollados a partir de la aplicación de otros métodos de evaluación como el arbitraje por pares, el análisis de la calidad editorial o la determinación de la difusión de los títulos.The article analyzes the role of the evaluation of scientific journals in the process of the evaluation of the research performed by individuals and institutions. Special attention is paid to social sciences and humanities journals. Firstly, the difficulties in the application of bibliometric methods based on citation analysis with data obtained from Thompson Scientific (ex ISI are studied. Secondly, we describe several projects for the creation of alternative citation indexes and the main collection of journals developed from the application of other evaluation methods such as peer evaluation, editorial quality analysis or journals' diffusion.

  5. Increased number of papers co-authored by professor and his students in humanities and social sciences journals published in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae Seong Hong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Humanities and social sciences studies in Korea have remarkably low rates of co-authorship between professors and students. We chose a bibliometrics-based approach to characterize changes in the ratio of joint authorship between professors and students. Articles classified in the humanities and social sciences sectors that were published in journals registered in the Korean Citation Index during 2 phases over a 10-year period—2004 to 2006 (phase 1 and 2011 to 2013 (phase 2—were used as the main source for the analysis. The study results can be summarized as follows: first, the overall number of co-authored articles drastically increased from phase 1 to phase 2; the percentage of co-authorship articles increased from 34.8% to 47.7%, and the percentage of co-authorship between students and professors rose from 9.9% to 20.7%. This trend was particularly noticeable in the social sciences, such as accounting, social welfare, and economics/business administration. Second, papers written by scholars from Seoul National University, Yonsei University, and Korea University were often published in high-impact factor journals. Among those articles, the rate of professor-student co-authorship increased by 21.6% for 7 years. Third, the increase in professor-student co-authored articles published in high- impact factor journals was even sharper. These findings indicate that perceptions of professor-student co-authorship have changed in the humanities and social sciences. In the near future, positive perceptions toward joint research and joint authorship between professors and students are expected to become more widespread.

  6. Science's social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    like Science in the City in which the science institutions communicate and discuss science with interested citizens. It can be done in relation to strategic plans: solving medical, environmental, socio-political problems for which the state or commercial actors provide funding. But it can also be what...... this is kind of funny, it has some kind of serious core to it in that part of science responsibility to society is to figure out the meaning of the questions that we want to pose – and furthermore: which questions can be asked. Doing this may not be limited to short-term processes, to strategic considerations...

  7. An expanded One Health model: integrating social science and One Health to inform study of the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehanna, Sara; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Zoonotic disease emergence is not a purely biological process mediated only by ecologic factors; opportunities for transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans also depend on how people interact with animals. While exposure is conditioned by the type of animal and the location in which interactions occur, these in turn are influenced by human activity. The activities people engage in are determined by social as well as contextual factors including gender, age, socio-economic status, occupation, social norms, settlement patterns and livelihood systems, family and community dynamics, as well as national and global influences. This paper proposes an expanded "One Health" conceptual model for human-animal exposure that accounts for social as well as epidemiologic factors. The expanded model informed a new study approach to document the extent of human exposure to animals and explore the interplay of social and environmental factors that influence risk of transmission at the individual and community level. The approach includes a formative phase using qualitative and participatory methods, and a representative, random sample survey to quantify exposure to animals in a variety of settings. The paper discusses the different factors that were considered in developing the approach, including the range of animals asked about and the parameters of exposure that are included, as well as factors to be considered in local adaptation of the generic instruments. Illustrative results from research using this approach in Lao PDR are presented to demonstrate the effect of social factors on how people interact with animals. We believe that the expanded model can be similarly operationalized to explore the interactions of other social and policy-level determinants that may influence transmission of zoonoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mapping "Social Responsibility" in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Maja; Glerup, Cecilie

    The paper investigates the discourse on social responsibility in science as it appears in academic journals. Through database searches a collection of more than 300 papers have been analysed in order to map their answers to the following three questions: - What is the central problem that threatens...... responsibility in science? - What are the central aspects of science or its relation to society that need to be regulated or changed? - What kinds of solutions are imagined and how are these solutions supposed to be put into place? On this basis the paper explores how different interpretations of the notion...... of social responsibility of science imply different forms of governance of and within science. The paper employs a Foucaldian discourse analysis to understand how a particular conceptualisation of responsibility implies a political rationality, i.e. a particular form of governance of science. The analysis...

  9. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society

  10. Like a bridge over troubled water – Opening pathways for integrating social sciences and humanities into nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, Catrinel; Schröder, Jantine; Meskens, Gaston; Perko, Tanja; Rossignol, Nicolas; Carlé, Benny; Hardeman, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Research on nuclear technologies has been largely driven by a detachment of the 'technical content' from the 'social context'. However, social studies of science and technology - also for the nuclear domain – emphasize that 'the social' and 'the technical' dimensions of technology development are inter-related and co-produced. In an effort to create links between nuclear research and innovation and society in mutually beneficial ways, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre started fifteen years ago a ‘Programme of Integration of Social Aspects into nuclear research’ (PISA). In line with broader science-policy agendas (responsible research and innovation and technology assessment), this paper argues that the importance of such programmes is threefold. First, their multi-disciplinary basis and participatory character contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between science, technology and society, in general, and the complexity of nuclear technology assessment in particular. Second, their functioning as (self -)critical policy supportive research with outreach to society is an essential prerequisite for policies aiming at generating societal trust in the context of controversial issues related to nuclear technologies and exposure to ionising radiation. Third, such programmes create an enriching dynamic in the organisation itself, stimulating collective learning and transdisciplinarity. The paper illustrates with concrete examples these claims and concludes by discussing some key challenges that researchers face while engaging in work of this kind. - Highlights: • Needs and possibilities for multi-disciplinary research in the nuclear field are discussed. • The added value of multi-disciplinary approaches is illustrated with exemplary cases. • Key challenges are summarised.

  11. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  12. Science, Innovation, and Social Work: Purpose: Clash or Convergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Marilyn L.

    2017-01-01

    Social work as a human services profession has been distinctive for its inclusion of research as a required element of practice and instrument in instigating reform. At the present time, the relationship of social work to science and a redefinition of social work as a science have reentered our national dialogue with new force. This expansion of…

  13. National Register of research projects, 1986/1987: Part 3, Human sciences: Social sciences. Nasionale Register van navorsingsprojekte, 1986/1987: Deel III, Geesteswetenskappe: Sosiale wetenskappe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This Register is intended to serve as a source of information on research which is being conducted in all fields (both natural and human sciences) in the Republic of South Africa. New and current research projects that were commenced or modified during 1986--1987, on which information was received by the compilers until January 1988, are included, with the exception of confidential projects.

  14. Contextualizing Social Science in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Raj Dahal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the

  15. Pluralizing social science

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus

    2010-01-01

    The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations (C of I) was not a book that I had any long-standing plans to write. The manuscript did, however, grow out of two related and long-standing frustrations that I had with discussions in Political Science in general and International Relations in particular about research design, causation, and the basic contours of knowledge-production. First of all, people seemed to invariably conflate questions of method or technique with questions of methodol...

  16. Time representations in social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

  17. Poster "Maladies rares & sciences sociales"

    OpenAIRE

    Duysens, Fanny

    2018-01-01

    Le poster "Maladies rares & sciences sociales" visait à présenter la recherche doctorale de l'auteure au grand public dans le cadre de la Journée des Maladies Rares du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège dont le thème était "la recherche sur les maladies rares". Réalisé spécialement pour l'occasion, le poster explicitait de manière synthétique le sujet de recherche, la méthodologie, certains résultats, ainsi que les apports possibles des échanges entre chercheurs en sciences et sociales...

  18. The Science of Human Interaction and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There is a missing link between our understanding of teaching as high-level social phenomenon and teaching as a physiological phenomenon of brain activity. We suggest that the science of human interaction is the missing link. Using over one-million days of human-behavior data, we have discovered that "collective activenes" (CA), which indicates…

  19. Gestión del conocimiento en el Centro de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en Salud Knowledge management at the Center for the Development of Social Sciences and Humanities in Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbis Díaz Campos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la gestión del conocimiento se ha convertido en una herramienta indispensable para las instituciones. Esta actividad se orienta hacia el aprovechamiento eficiente del conocimiento, que se genera dentro y fuera de la institución, lo que permite organizar el proceso de producción y transmisión del mismo. El artículo realiza un acercamiento teórico-práctico a la gestión del conocimiento en el Centro de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en Salud, para diseñar una estrategia que optimice la estructuración de sus funciones como contribución al cumplimiento de su misión. Atendiendo a las características del Centro como Entidad de Ciencia e Innovación Tecnológica, se identifican las principales consideraciones teóricas y las bases sobre las cuales debe sustentarse el diseño de la estrategia.Knowledge management is a very important tool for institutions today. It focuses on the effective use of knowledge produced inside and outside of institutions, which consequently facilitates the organization of the process of knowledge production and transmission. This article deals with a theoretical-practical approach to knowledge management at the Center for the Development of Social Sciences and Humanities in Health, in order to design a strategy that optimizes the structure of the institution’s functions as a contribution to the fulfillment of its mission. The approach is intended to design a strategy to organize the functions contributing to the fulfillment of the institution’s mission. Taking into consideration that the institution is an Entity of Science and Technological Innovation, the article presents the main theoretical considerations and bases upon which the design of the strategy must be supported.

  20. "Publish or Perish" as citation metrics used to analyze scientific output in the humanities: International case studies in economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneyx, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the most commonly used source of bibliometric data is the Thomson ISI Web of Knowledge, in particular the (Social) Science Citation Index and the Journal Citation Reports, which provide the yearly Journal Impact Factors. This database used for the evaluation of researchers is not advantageous in the humanities, mainly because books, conference papers, and non-English journals, which are an important part of scientific activity, are not (well) covered. This paper presents the use of an alternative source of data, Google Scholar, and its benefits in calculating citation metrics in the humanities. Because of its broader range of data sources, the use of Google Scholar generally results in more comprehensive citation coverage in the humanities. This presentation compares and analyzes some international case studies with ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar. The fields of economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history are focused on to illustrate the differences of results between these two databases. To search for relevant publications in the Google Scholar database, the use of "Publish or Perish" and of CleanPoP, which the author developed to clean the results, are compared.

  1. University Rankings and Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  2. Toward hydro-social modeling: Merging human variables and the social sciences with climate-glacier runoff models (Santa River, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mark; Baraer, Michel; Mark, Bryan G.; French, Adam; Bury, Jeffrey; Young, Kenneth R.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    2014-10-01

    Glacier shrinkage caused by climate change is likely to trigger diminished and less consistent stream flow in glacier-fed watersheds worldwide. To understand, model, and adapt to these climate-glacier-water changes, it is vital to integrate the analysis of both water availability (the domain of hydrologists) and water use (the focus for social scientists). Drawn from a case study of the Santa River watershed below Peru’s glaciated Cordillera Blanca mountain range, this paper provides a holistic hydro-social framework that identifies five major human variables critical to hydrological modeling because these forces have profoundly influenced water use over the last 60 years: (1) political agendas and economic development; (2) governance: laws and institutions; (3) technology and engineering; (4) land and resource use; and (5) societal responses. Notable shifts in Santa River water use-including major expansions in hydroelectricity generation, large-scale irrigation projects, and other land and resource-use practices-did not necessarily stem from changing glacier runoff or hydrologic shifts, but rather from these human variables. Ultimately, then, water usage is not predictable based on water availability alone. Glacier runoff conforms to certain expected trends predicted by models of progressively reduced glacier storage. However, societal forces establish the legal, economic, political, cultural, and social drivers that actually shape water usage patterns via human modification of watershed dynamics. This hydro-social framework has widespread implications for hydrological modeling in glaciated watersheds from the Andes and Alps to the Himalaya and Tien Shan, as well as for the development of climate change adaptation plans.

  3. GIS and the Social Sciences : Theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballas, Dimitris; Clarke, Graham; Franklin, Rachel S.; Newing, Andy

    2017-01-01

    GIS and the Social Sciences offers a uniquely social science approach on the theory and application of GIS with a range of modern examples. It explores how human geography can engage with a variety of important policy issues through linking together GIS and spatial analysis, and demonstrates the

  4. Mapping 'Social Responsibility' in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This article employs the Foucauldian notion of ‘political rationality’ to map discussions and ideals about the responsibility of science toward society. By constructing and analyzing an archive of 263 journal papers, four political rationalities were identified: the Demarcation rationality, which......, which insists that responsible science should live up to public demands for innovation and democracy; and the Integration rationality, which advocates that science should be co-constructed with societal actors in order to be socially responsible. While each rationality is distinct, the article argues...... that all of them address the issue of a boundary (or integration) between science and society. Hence, it is not possible for scientists to avoid ‘a relationship’ with society. The political question is how this relationship is to be defined and regulated....

  5. Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Dator, James A

    2012-01-01

    Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration presents a uniquely human perspective on the quest to explore space and to understand the universe through the lens of the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It considers early stories about the universe in various cultures; recent space fiction; the origins and cultural rationale for the space age; experiences of humans in space and their emerging interactions with robots and artificial intelligence; how humans should treat environments and alien life; and the alternative futures of space exploration and settlement.

  6. English Writing for International Publication in the Age of Globalization: Practices and Perceptions of Mainland Chinese Academics in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Ge

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Much scholarly attention has been given to the English writing and publishing practices of the academics in non-Anglophone countries, but studies on such practices in the humanities and social sciences (HSS have in general been limited. The case of Mainland Chinese HSS academics is potentially interesting. On the one hand, international publications in these disciplines have been on the increase, which are also encouraged by the national research policy of “going-out”. On the other hand, unlike those in science and technology (S&T, such practices in the HSS are still much less institutionalized at the local level. In the study reported in this article, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine academics in economics, sociology and archaeology from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS, and all nine participants had prior experience in international publishing. With a focus on participants’ experiences and perceptions, findings from this study demonstrated the relatively passive role participants played in their international publications, the importance of various resources in bringing forth these publications, and the relations between participants’ alignments with the local or international community and their voluntary investment in participating in their practices. Implications of the study were also discussed.

  7. Development of a dissertation quality value-added model for humanities and social sciences programs for private higher education institutions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyasinee Laosum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were: (1 to evaluate the quality of dissertations in the humanities and social sciences of private higher education institutions, (2 to analyze factors affecting the quality at the student, advisor, and institute levels, and (3 to develop a quality, value-added model of the dissertations. Samples consisted of: (1 750 student dissertations in the humanities and social sciences and (2 753 questionnaire responses consisting of 633 students, 108 dissertation advisors, and 12 senior administrators in the participating institutions. A 5-point rating dissertation evaluation scale was developed for use by the researcher and her assistants. Three sets of a dissertation attribution questionnaire used by the students, advisors, and senior administrators were also developed and administered. Descriptive statistics were used with the 5-point rating data. The 3-level HLM package was used to analyze the quality, value-added model of the dissertations. The findings of the study were: (1 the overall quality of the 750 dissertations was at the standard level; (2 there were 5 factors at 3 different levels influencing the dissertation quality with 1 student factor (favorable characteristics in conducting research, 3 advisor factors (experience in research, up-to-date knowledge in research, and the advisor-student ratio, 1 institutional factor (close monitoring and management system; and (3 the quality value-added model was able to predict the variance of the dissertation quality at 36 percent.

  8. The Study of Scientific Outputs Status of Faculty Members of Humanities, Art and Social Sciences Faculties of State Universities of Iran during 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jafari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated scientific outputs status of faculty members of Humanities, Art and Social Sciences faculties of state universities of Iran that indexed in A&HCI and SSCI during 2000 to 2008. Descriptive and analytical method was used to conduct this research. Findings showed that Tehran University with 38/73% and then Shiraz University with 15.65% had the greatest value of scientific outputs, while in other universities the status of scientific outputs was not satisfying. Article with 76.42% was the most published format and then meeting abstract, book review, proceeding paper are next in rank . 65.65% of scientific outputs were collective and 34.34% individual. Scientific outputs development process in universities during the investigated period was ascending. Scientific outputs of Humanities, Art and Social Sciences faculties of state universities were published in167 titles and through these 135 titles (80.83% were indexed in Journal Citation Reports and among these the impact factor of 74 journals (54.81% range from 0 to 1 and the other 61 (45.18% journals’ impact factors value more than one.

  9. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Social Sciences and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

  11. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  12. University Rankings and Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Marginson, S.

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real outputs are of no common value. It is necessary that rankings be soundly based in scientific terms if a virtuous relationship between performance and...

  13. Using Social Media to Communicate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, W.

    2017-12-01

    Social media (SM) is a popular and ubiquitous communication method and as such offers scientists an opportunity to directly interface with the public, improve public perception of science and scientists, and combat the growing tide of scientific misunderstanding and misinformation. It's become increasingly critical for scientists to use their voice and influence to communicate science and address misinformation. More than 60% of US adults get news from SM (1) but studies find that scientists infrequently post about science (2), missing a rich opportunity to combat scientific disinformation. While it may seem like a futile exercise to educate over SM, even passive exposure to new information can change public perceptions and behavior (3). Additionally, scientists, especially early career scientists, have social networks populated largely by non-scientists (2), allowing them an opportunity to speak to an audience that already trusts and values their scientific judgment. Importantly, these networks are often ideologically and politically diverse (4). However, science communication isn't as simple as a presentation of facts, and effective science communication via SM requires both SM competence and science communication proficiency. Thus, a discussion of best practices for both topics would benefit the scientific community. The range of potential topics for discussion is broad and could include scientific storytelling, empathetic communication, crafting a message, using SM to "humanize science", tips and tricks for broad SM information dissemination and how to run an effective SM campaign. (1) Gottfried J, Shearer E. New use across social media platforms: Pew Research Center; 2016. Available from: http://www.journalism.org/2016/05/26/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2016/. (2) McClain, Craig R., Practices and promises of Facebook for science outreach:Becoming a "Nerd of Trust". PLOS Biology 15(6). 2017; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2002020(3) Messing S

  14. The latest science and human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Il; Lee, Hae Du; Lee, Geun Hui

    1985-04-01

    The book is collective reports on the science and human. The contents of this book are life ethics and technology ethics, conception of human and human science, biotechnology. The tower of Babel in computer age, human brain and robot, new media and communication innovation, status of computer engineering, current condition of development of new media, mass media and violence, crime and scientification of terror, condition of the life and peace, period of machine and literature, religious prophecy and scientific prophecy and hi-tech age and education of science.

  15. The latest science and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Il; Lee, Hae Du; Lee, Geun Hui

    1985-04-15

    The book is collective reports on the science and human. The contents of this book are life ethics and technology ethics, conception of human and human science, biotechnology. The tower of Babel in computer age, human brain and robot, new media and communication innovation, status of computer engineering, current condition of development of new media, mass media and violence, crime and scientification of terror, condition of the life and peace, period of machine and literature, religious prophecy and scientific prophecy and hi-tech age and education of science.

  16. Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A A

    2012-01-01

    Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences provides graduate students in the social and health sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish statistical models using contemporary standards. The book targets the social and health science branches such as human development, public health, sociology, psychology, education, and social work in which students bring a wide range of mathematical skills and have a wide range of methodological affinities. For these students, a successful course in statistics will not only offer statistical content

  17. Enacting the social relations of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the writings of Danish science journalist Børge Michelsen from 1939 to 1956. As part of the international social relations of science movement in the period, Michelsen transformed science journalism from mere reporting on issues pertaining to science into performing...... the social function of science journalism: advancing and enacting the social relations of science. Based on analyses of Michelsen's articles and other initiatives, this study suggests that the social function of science journalism practiced by Michelsen showed many new and conflicting aspects. From...... new links to reinforce mutual relations between scientists and policy-makers, between scientists and journalists, and between science and the public. Finally, in the concluding remarks, the contemporary significance of Michelsen's social function of science journalism is discussed....

  18. Why Right is Might: How the Social Science on Radicalisation suggests that International Human Rights Norms actually help frame Effective Counterterrorism Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Parker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many states appear to turn instinctively to hard power resources when confronted with a terrorist threat. Yet existing research on violent extremism and radicalisation leading to terrorism suggests that such responses might well exacerbate the problem. Terrorist groups actively seek to exploit the push-pull dynamic that drives radicalisation and violent extremism, while one case study after the other indicates that states thereby appear to play actively into their hands. Social science research suggests that international human rights norms assist compliant states to moderate responses, build legitimacy, and ultimately craft effective counterterrorism strategies. A close reading of the literature on radicalisation and terrorist group formation offers qualitative evidence to support this conclusion. 

  19. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...

  20. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R; Brown, Phil

    2015-11-01

    Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science-environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social science collaboration with environmental health. Environ Health

  1. SOCIAL SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO DISCUSSIONS AFFECT THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santiago Quintal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In its origins, the social sciences have focused on technological issues. Social scientists have devoted much attention to the subject affects the action of technological progress on the conformation of human life in General, as well as keeping an eye on more concreteness about the aspects related to the way the technique is acquired, the ways employed to protect her and the tools used to Exchange and protection. In this context, the article aims to identify the contributions of social sciences-notably of the applied social sciences-to discussions involving science, technology and innovation. The survey used the inductive method, applied to the literature review. The findings point to multidisciplinarity of significant thematic affects to science, technology and innovation. Keywords: Scientific knowledge; Social Sciences; Technology and society.

  2. Exploring the Great Schism in the Social Sciences: Confirmation Bias and the Interpretation of Results Relating to Biological Influences on Human Behavior and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winking, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The nature-nurture debate is one that biologists often dismiss as a false dichotomy, as all phenotypic traits are the results of complex processes of gene and environment interactions. However, such dismissiveness belies the ongoing debate that is unmistakable throughout the biological and social sciences concerning the role of biological influences in the development of psychological and behavioral traits in humans. Many have proposed that this debate is due to ideologically driven biases in the interpretation of results. Those favoring biological approaches have been accused of a greater willingness to accept biological explanations so as to rationalize or justify the status quo of inequality. Those rejecting biological approaches have been accused of an unwillingness to accept biological explanations so as to attribute inequalities solely to social and institutional factors, ultimately allowing for the possibility of social equality. While it is important to continue to investigate this topic through further research and debate, another approach is to examine the degree to which the allegations of bias are indeed valid. To accomplish this, a convenience sample of individuals with relevant postgraduate degrees was recruited from Mechanical Turk and social media. Participants were asked to rate the inferential power of different research designs and of mock results that varied in the degree to which they supported different ideologies. Results were suggestive that researchers harbor sincere differences of opinion concerning the inferential value of relevant research. There was no suggestion that ideological confirmation biases drive these differences. However, challenges associated with recruiting a large enough sample of experts as well as identifying believable mock scenarios limit the study's inferential scope.

  3. [Information flow between medical and social sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó

    2014-12-28

    In order to reveal impacts of natural and social sciences on each other, the authors examined connections between fields of medical and social sciences using a search for references and citations of scientific publication. 1. The largest affinity between the medical and social sciences was found between neurosciences and psychology, but there was a significant affinity between clinical sciences and general social sciences, as well. 2. The example of General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes" suggests that in the period 2001-2010 the share of references to social sciences was significantly increased. In the meantime, social science papers in the same topics contained references to Clinical Medicine papers in a constantly high percentage. 3. In the sample under study, the age distribution of social science papers in the references did not differ significantly from that of the other sources. 4. Share of references to social science papers was found to be extremely high among Hungarian General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes". This finding still requires clarification, nevertheless, since e.g. it was not supported by an institutional comparison including the largest Hungarian medical research university. 5. The intensity of the reference/citation mediated information flows between the Hungarian Medical Journal, Orvosi Hetilap and social sciences appears to be in accordance with the current international trends.

  4. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  5. Using Our Heads and HARTSS*: Developing Perspective-Taking Skills for Socioscientific Reasoning (*Humanities, ARTS, and Social Sciences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sami; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Functional scientific literacy demands an informed citizenry capable of negotiating controversial socioscientific issues (SSI). Perspective taking is critical to SSI implementation as it enables understanding of the diverse cognitive and emotional perspectives of others. Science teacher educators must therefore facilitate teachers' promotion of…

  6. Eight statements on environmental research in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prittwitz, V.

    1985-01-01

    Social science research on environmental problems has two main tasks: (1) to provide critical practice-oriented contributions to present and threatening environmental problems, and (2) to draw the humans-and-nature problematique into social science concepts and theoretical frameworks. In this paper, the prerequisites for achieving both tasks as well as the theoretical, political, and institutional aspects that affect them are discussed. The focus of the discussion is the interdependence between practical problem solving and development of theory. (orig.) [de

  7. Human reasoning and cognitive science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenning, K.; van Lambalgen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen—a cognitive scientist and a logician—argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the

  8. Remuneration of Graduates, as at 1 July 1994. Legal, Religious, Social Science, Humanities and Related Occupations = Vergoeding van Gegradueerdes, soos op 1 Julie 1994. Regs-, Godsdiens-, Sosiaal- en Verwante Geesteswetenskaplike Beroepe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Johan

    This document, which is based on data gathered during a September 1994 mail survey of 215,284 South African graduates that elicited a total response rate of 18.3%, details the remuneration of graduates (as of July 1, 1994) in a wide range of occupations in the following categories: legal; religious; social science; humanities; and art, sport, and…

  9. International Conference on Data Science & Social Research

    CERN Document Server

    Amaturo, Enrica; Grassia, Maria; Aragona, Biagio; Marino, Marina

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume lays the groundwork for Social Data Science, addressing epistemological issues, methods, technologies, software and applications of data science in the social sciences. It presents data science techniques for the collection, analysis and use of both online and offline new (big) data in social research and related applications. Among others, the individual contributions cover topics like social media, learning analytics, clustering, statistical literacy, recurrence analysis and network analysis. Data science is a multidisciplinary approach based mainly on the methods of statistics and computer science, and its aim is to develop appropriate methodologies for forecasting and decision-making in response to an increasingly complex reality often characterized by large amounts of data (big data) of various types (numeric, ordinal and nominal variables, symbolic data, texts, images, data streams, multi-way data, social networks etc.) and from diverse sources. This book presents selected papers from...

  10. Social Media, Open Science, and Data Science Are Inextricably Linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, Bradley

    2017-12-20

    Should scientists use social media? Why practice open science? What is data science? Ten years ago, these phrases hardly existed. Now they are ubiquitous. Here I argue that these phenomena are inextricably linked and reflect similar underlying social and technological transformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Decision science a human-oriented perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mengov, George

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a new perspective on human decision-making by comparing the established methods in decision science with innovative modelling at the level of neurons and neural interactions. The book presents a new generation of computer models, which can predict with astonishing accuracy individual economic choices when people make them by quick intuition rather than by effort. A vision for a new kind of social science is outlined, whereby neural models of emotion and cognition capture the dynamics of socioeconomic systems and virtual social networks. The exposition is approachable by experts as well as by advanced students. The author is an Associate Professor of Decision Science with a doctorate in Computational Neuroscience, and a former software consultant to banks in the City of London.  .

  12. 128 THE SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THE SOCIALLY OPPRESSED IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    subject to a series of rigorous testing, self-scrutiny and the verification of facts as ... the social sciences cannot be subject to such tests and verification. The social sciences ... until such a time when that hypothesis or theory is scrutinized and.

  13. Climate change studies and the human sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Poul; Winiwarter, Verena

    2017-09-01

    Policy makers have made repeated calls for integration of human and natural sciences in the field of climate change. Serious multidisciplinary attempts began already in the 1950s. Progress has certainly been made in understanding the role of humans in the planetary system. New perspectives have clarified policy advice, and three insights are singled out in the paper: the critique of historicism, the distinction between benign and wicked problems, and the cultural critique of the 'myths of nature'. Nevertheless, analysis of the IPCC Assessment Reports indicates that integration is skewed towards a particular dimension of human sciences (economics) and major insights from cultural theory and historical analysis have not made it into climate science. A number of relevant disciplines are almost absent in the composition of authorship. Nevertheless, selective assumptions and arguments are made about e.g. historical findings in key documents. In conclusion, we suggest to seek remedies for the lack of historical scholarship in the IPCC reports. More effort at science-policy exchange is needed, and an Integrated Platform to channel humanities and social science expertise for climate change research might be one promising way.

  14. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  15. Introduction to the Social Sciences: Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.; Spangehl, Stephen D.

    A competency-based, introductory social science course for college students is described. Objectives of the manual are twofold--first, to present the complete set of materials which have served as the basis of a one semester social sciences course at the University of Louisville over three years, and, second, to offer suggestions regarding…

  16. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  17. The Courts, Social Science, and School Desegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Betsy, Ed.; Hawley, Willis D., Ed.

    A conference on the courts, social science, and school desegregation attempted to clarify how social science research has been used and possibly misused in school desegregation litigation. The symposium issue addressed in this book is a product of that conference. First, the judicial evolution of the law of school desegregation from Brown V. the…

  18. Anticipation in Law and Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores a particular aspect of the role of anticipation in social and legal processes. The program begins by recognizing that social interaction happens within a time-space manifold of events. This means that society functions in terms of events located on the plane of time and the situation of space. This means that social process is a dynamic. As an ancient philosopher put it, change is so ubiquitous that you cannot jump into the same river twice. Since we tend to look at social dynamics in a more static way, one major theorist reminds us that the stable in social process is a special case of the unstable. The article underscores a point that the anticipatory perspective is a ubiquitous part of social dynamics and change. Indeed, it is a critical component of social coexistence. To briefly illustrate, if the members of a governing group come into power, they will immediately have to anticipate the security needs, the economic needs, the educational needs, the health and well-being needs, the skill and labor needs, the food needs of the body politic, the requirements of effective family relationships, the requirements of morality and ethics and the needs of aesthetics. The paper provides a framework in which anticipation is used to predict the problems that emerge from the social process. The value of a social science that facilitates anticipation before problems occur provides opportunities on the time-space manifold of society to develop problem-solving strategies with a better chance of those strategies being successful. To utilize this approach, the authors provide the sophisticated model of social process developed by WAAS Fellows Lasswell and McDougal: Human beings pursue values through institutions based on resources. Using this model the authors provide a provisional map of the social process with key markers at points likely to generate important problems. The markers in the maps are as follows: participators

  19. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A

    2014-09-16

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India.

  20. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  1. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  2. Applied modelling and computing in social science

    CERN Document Server

    Povh, Janez

    2015-01-01

    In social science outstanding results are yielded by advanced simulation methods, based on state of the art software technologies and an appropriate combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This book presents examples of successful applications of modelling and computing in social science: business and logistic process simulation and optimization, deeper knowledge extractions from big data, better understanding and predicting of social behaviour and modelling health and environment changes.

  3. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  5. Trimodernism and Social Sciences: A Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel C.

    2012-01-01

    The issues of premodern, modern, and postmodern can often confuse the social scientists because so much is drawn from modernism as the foundation of the social methodologies. Briefly, the author would like to differentiate the three modernism philosophies and indicate how a coalition of the three may apply to social sciences.

  6. Social Work Science and Knowledge Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…

  7. Adapting computational text analysis to social science (and vice versa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul DiMaggio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists and computer scientist are divided by small differences in perspective and not by any significant disciplinary divide. In the field of text analysis, several such differences are noted: social scientists often use unsupervised models to explore corpora, whereas many computer scientists employ supervised models to train data; social scientists hold to more conventional causal notions than do most computer scientists, and often favor intense exploitation of existing algorithms, whereas computer scientists focus more on developing new models; and computer scientists tend to trust human judgment more than social scientists do. These differences have implications that potentially can improve the practice of social science.

  8. DARE: Unesco Computerized Data Retrieval System for Documentation in the Social and Human Sciences (Including an Analysis of the Present System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasarhelyi, Paul

    The new data retrieval system for the social sciences which has recently been installed in the UNESCO Secretariat in Paris is described in this comprehensive report. The computerized system is designed to facilitate the existing storage systems in the circulation of information, data retrieval, and indexing services. Basically, this report…

  9. Social Water Science Data: Dimensions, Data Management, and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Flint, C.; Jackson-Smith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Water systems are increasingly conceptualized as coupled human-natural systems, with growing emphasis on representing the human element in hydrology. However, social science data and associated considerations may be unfamiliar and intimidating to many hydrologic researchers. Monitoring social aspects of water systems involves expanding the range of data types typically used in hydrology and appreciating nuances in datasets that are well known to social scientists, but less understood by hydrologists. We define social water science data as any information representing the human aspects of a water system. We present a scheme for classifying these data, highlight an array of data types, and illustrate data management considerations and challenges unique to social science data. This classification scheme was applied to datasets generated as part of iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Arid region Hydro-sustainability), an interdisciplinary water research project based in Utah, USA that seeks to integrate and share social and biophysical water science data. As the project deployed cyberinfrastructure for baseline biophysical data, cyberinfrastructure for analogous social science data was necessary. As a particular case of social water science data, we focus in this presentation on social science survey data. These data are often interpreted through the lens of the original researcher and are typically presented to interested parties in static figures or reports. To provide more exploratory and dynamic communication of these data beyond the individual or team who collected the data, we developed a web-based, interactive viewer to visualize social science survey responses. This interface is applicable for examining survey results that show human motivations and actions related to environmental systems and as a useful tool for participatory decision-making. It also serves as an example of how new data sharing and visualization tools can be developed once the

  10. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  11. An emerging action science of social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  12. Emphaty as the foundation of the social sciences and of social life: a reading of Husserl's phenomenology of transcendental intersubjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Vandenberghe

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with an overview of possible solutions to the problem of social order, the author presents a non-acritical reconstruction of Edmund Husserl's transcendental phenomenology of intersubjectivity as a sympathetic alternative to Habermas's theory of communicative action. By means of a detailed analysis of the concept of empathy (Einfühlung, he shows that Husserl's phenomenology of intersubjectivity offers a triple foundation of the sciences. As a warrant of the objectivity of the world, it grounds the natural sciences; as a presupposition of sociality, it founds the social sciences; as mediated by culture, it grounds the social sciences as human sciences.

  13. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues.

  14. The Social Science of Carl von Clausewitz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klinger, Janeen

    2006-01-01

    .... At the risk of adding to the veritable cottage industry of distortion, this article attempts to add conceptual clarity by demonstrating that Clausewitz was formulating a social science approach...

  15. On the almost inconceivable misunderstandings concerning the subject of value-free social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald

    2013-12-01

    A value judgment says what is good or bad, and value-free social science simply means social science free of value judgments. Yet many sociologists regard value-free social science as undesirable or impossible and readily make value judgments in the name of sociology. Often they display confusion about such matters as the meaning of value-free social science, value judgments internal and external to social science, value judgments as a subject of social science, the relevance of objectivity for value-free social science, and the difference between the human significance of social science and value-free social science. But why so many sociologists are so value-involved - and generally so unscientific - is sociologically understandable: The closest and most distant subjects attract the least scientific ideas. And during the past century sociologists have become increasingly close to their human subject. The debate about value-free social science is also part of an epistemological counterrevolution of humanists (including many sociologists) against the more scientific social scientists who invaded and threatened to expropriate the human subject during the past century. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  16. Science during crisis: the application of social science during major environmental crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machlis, Gary; Ludwig, Kris; Manfredo, Michael J.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Rechkemmer, Andreas; Duke, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Historical and contemporary experience suggests that science plays an increasingly critical role in governmental and institutional responses to major environmental crises. Recent examples include major western wildfires (2009), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). The application of science during such crises has several distinctive characteristics, as well as essential requirements if it is to be useful to decision makers. these include scope conditions that include coupled natural/human systems, clear statement of uncertainties and limitations, description of cascading consequences, accurate sense of place, estimates of magnitude of impacts, identification of beneficiaries and those adversely affected, clarity and conciseness, compelling visualization and presentation, capacity to speak "truth to power", and direct access to decision makers. In this chapter, we explore the role and significance of science – including all relevant disciplines and focusing attention on the social sciences – in responding to major environmental crises. We explore several important questions: How is science during crisis distinctive? What social science is most useful during crises? What distinctive characteristics are necessary for social science to make meaningful contributions to emergency response and recovery? How might the social sciences be integrated into the strategic science needed to respond to future crises? The authors, both members of the Department of the Interior's innovative Strategic Sciences Group, describe broad principles of engagement as well as specific examples drawn from history, contemporary efforts (such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill), and predictions of environmental crises still to be confronted.

  17. Directory of Research in Social Studies/Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Anna R.; Carnett, George S.

    Described are current trends in the social and behavioral sciences intended to meet the needs of the educational community. The projects listed include studies in anthropology, sociology, political science, history, geography, foreign area studies, economics, international relations, and environmental education. Part I of the directory lists…

  18. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  19. The restoration and management of nature: A conference and forthcoming book explore restoration from the perspectives of the social science and humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Bruce Hull

    1999-01-01

    Although major advances have been made in recent years in the physical science and technology of restoration, we think there is an equally important human side to restoration that has received little attention from researchers and practitioners. This journal provides a good case in point. Even though its editor, William Jordan III, is a principal spokesperson for the...

  20. International Conference "Social Sciences: Achievements and Prospects"

    OpenAIRE

    Open European Academy of Public Sciences

    2018-01-01

    The Organizing Committee of the International Scientific and Practical Conference of the Open European Academy of Social Sciences(Spain, Barcelona), in partnership with the Barcelona University (Spain, Barcelona), the Berlin University (Germany, Berlin) Conference sections: Anthropology, Demography and Ethnography, Journalism, Art History and Culturology History and archeology, Political science, Psychology, Pedagogy Regional studies and socio-economic geography, Relig...

  1. Scientific Competencies in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…

  2. Shaping a Science of Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Social workers provide more social services to populations across the life span than any other human service profession, including psychiatry, nursing, and psychology. The scientific methodologies and the scientific knowledge relevant to social services have expanded dramatically in the last 30 years. Using the two indicators of the total number…

  3. Fire social science research–selected highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; Richard W. Haynes; Sarah McCaffrey; Evan Mercer; Alan Watson

    2007-01-01

    Forest Service Research and Development has a long-standing component of social fire science that since 2000 has expanded significantly. Much of this new work focuses on research that will increase understanding of the social and economic issues connected with wildland fire and fuels management. This information can enhance the ability of agencies and communities to...

  4. Social Science Disciplines. Fundamental for Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Johathan C., Ed.

    This guide is written for the social studies curriculum developer interested in developing a structured multidisciplinary program based on the concepts, methodology, and structure of social science disciplines and history. Seven 15-29 page chapters are included on each discipline: Anthropology and Psychology, by Charles R. Berryman; Economics, by…

  5. A new foundation for the social sciences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of John Searle’s philosophy of society is to provide a foundation for the social sciences. Arguing that the study of social reality needs to be based on a philosophy of language, Searle claims that sociology has little to offer, since no sociologist ever took language seriously. Attacking...

  6. Interviewing for Education and Social Science Research: The Gateway Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2009-01-01

    This volume introduces a fresh approach to research, using strategies adapted from oral history and educational criticism to traverse the boundaries of human experience, and bring to light matters of concern to education and social science researchers. This narrator-centered method, a by-product of the author's award-winning investigation into the…

  7. Wilderness values: Perspectives from non-economic social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Alan E. Watson

    2007-01-01

    The concept of “values” is one of the most widely used to characterize the human dimensions of natural resources. Yet, clearly it means many different things in different disciplines and in everyday discourse. Background information regarding values from a non-economic social science perspective is provided, with an aim towards stretching the dominant economic paradigm...

  8. Thinking Political Emancipation and the Social Sciences in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central to their limitations if not their failure to comprehend emancipation in a manner ... aligning their thinking with that of the state (either in its current or forthcoming form). Given the lack of success of the social sciences in thinking human ...

  9. Social Science Methods Used in the RESTORE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Cristy Watkins; Paul H. Gobster; Liam Heneghan; Kristen Ross; Laurel Ross; Madeleine Tudor; Alaka Wali; David H. Wise; Joanne Vining; Moira. Zellner

    2014-01-01

    The RESTORE (Rethinking Ecological and Social Theories of Restoration Ecology) project is an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional research endeavor funded by the National Science Foundation's Dynamics of Coupled Natural Human Systems program. The goal of the project is to understand the links between organizational type, decision making processes, and...

  10. Big Data and historical social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bearman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Big Data” can revolutionize historical social science if it arises from substantively important contexts and is oriented towards answering substantively important questions. Such data may be especially important for answering previously largely intractable questions about the timing and sequencing of events, and of event boundaries. That said, “Big Data” makes no difference for social scientists and historians whose accounts rest on narrative sentences. Since such accounts are the norm, the effects of Big Data on the practice of historical social science may be more limited than one might wish.

  11. Learning to teach science for social justice in urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Purvi

    This study looks at how beginner teachers learn to teach science for social justice in urban schools. The research questions are: (1) what views do beginner teachers hold about teaching science for social justice in urban schools? (2) How do beginner teachers' views about teaching science for social justice develop as part of their learning? In looking at teacher learning, I take a situative perspective that defines learning as increased participation in a community of practice. I use the case study methodology with five teacher participants as the individual units of analysis. In measuring participation, I draw from mathematics education literature that offers three domains of professional practice: Content, pedagogy and professional identity. In addition, I focus on agency as an important component of increased participation from a social justice perspective. My findings reveal two main tensions that arose as teachers considered what it meant to teach science from a social justice perspective: (1) Culturally responsive teaching vs. "real" science and (2) Teaching science as a political act. In negotiating these tensions, teachers drew on a variety of pedagogical and conceptual tools offered in USE that focused on issues of equity, access, place-based pedagogy, student agency, ownership and culture as a toolkit. Further, in looking at how the five participants negotiated these tensions in practice, I describe four variables that either afforded or constrained teacher agency and consequently the development of their own identity and role as socially just educators. These four variables are: (1) Accessing and activating social, human and cultural capital, (2) reconceptualizing culturally responsive pedagogical tools, (3) views of urban youth and (4) context of participation. This study has implications for understanding the dialectical relationship between agency and social justice identity for beginner teachers who are learning how to teach for social justice. Also

  12. Editorial: Challenges of Social Science Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Weber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since international tests compare the performance of students in different subjects, the issue of literacy in the social science subject is becoming more pressing. The successes and failures in international tests influence the national education policies considerably. First, the inclusion of subjects in international comparisons has consequences for their importance. Second, the race in the Olympics of education leads to an increasing focus on the output of educational processes, also measured in the central exams. Social Sciences can refuse to take part in the national comparison studies with the price of losing much more importance; they can participate with the danger of undermining their goals. This raises a lot of questions: What competences students need in this social world to reason about it und to act responsibly? What is the foundation of concepts from social science students need for guidance and understanding their place and role as an individual in society? The social science disciplines, as sociology, political science and economics in a narrow sense, history, law and geography in a broader sense, supported by philosophy, pedagogy and psychology are able to select them for educational purposes or determine such educational aims. This Journal wants to resume und discuss competences and core con¬cepts for political and economic teaching and learning as Social Science Literacy”. Contributions in this issue do not only discuss and recommend competences and core concepts from a domain specific political or economic point of view, but also from an interdisciplinary or psychological point of view. They analyse preconditions and interdependencies as well as obstacles und problems of development and diagnosis core concepts and competences of Social Science Literacy.

  13. Social touch and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Carissa J; Moore, David; McGlone, Francis

    2018-04-24

    Social touch is a powerful force in human development, shaping social reward, attachment, cognitive, communication, and emotional regulation from infancy and throughout life. In this review, we consider the question of how social touch is defined from both bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the former category, there is a clear role for the C-touch (CT) system, which constitutes a unique submodality that mediates affective touch and contrasts with discriminative touch. Top-down factors such as culture, personal relationships, setting, gender, and other contextual influences are also important in defining and interpreting social touch. The critical role of social touch throughout the lifespan is considered, with special attention to infancy and young childhood, a time during which social touch and its neural, behavioral, and physiological contingencies contribute to reinforcement-based learning and impact a variety of developmental trajectories. Finally, the role of social touch in an example of disordered development -autism spectrum disorder-is reviewed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Citing Journal Articles in Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Jamali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations of scholarly journal articles are good indicators for the societal impact of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. An existing categorization scheme was used and modified inductively. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty-one (22.68% of all journals cited were from the category of social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy-five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited was 5.8 years. The most frequent (38, 12.67% motivation was to ‘neutrally presenting details of a study’. Overall, social science blogs were rather subject-oriented than article oriented. This means a considerable number of blog posts were not driven simply by writing about an article, instead bloggers tend to write about their subject of interest and use references to support their argument. The study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact.

  15. Equity in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enbar, M.

    1984-01-01

    This review suggests that many social scientists and philosophers are increasingly sensitive to the ethical and moral dimensions of analytic endeavors and of normative policymaking, in particular to the fact that no purely technical fix exists for problems whose solutions impinge upon the political process. The presence of equity issues widens the scope of the decision making process, requiring the consideration of a broader field of options and consequences and an awareness of the institutional and social fabrics from which solutions to previous analogous problems were fashioned. Current policy must reflect greater sensitivity to the distributional outcomes of major collective decisions and to the moral and ethical foundations which underlie them. 85 references

  16. Dualism of Social Conditions: Religion, Morality and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Levickaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the topic of social dualism through religion, morality and science. The paper refers to one of the most original works uncovering the social roots of religion – The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life by Emile Durkheim (1858–1917 who is considered to be the founder of modern sociology. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life develops the coherent theory of religion as well as ventilates different aspects of the religious life. The message of the paper is: is religion the generative essence of social aspect, does a state of constant dependence stimulate a sense of religious piety, is a moral social order able to stabilize dualism of human energy. The paper proposes an assertion that science as a social phenomenon reflects knowledge and the values of its perception which are impacted by imagination and classified codes of cultural forms. As a result a thesis is proposed – a cultural (influenced by environment and a personal (influenced by internal factors desire for differentiation and its provoked conflict is of a social character. The second part of the paper deals with relation between science and social phenomena with inherent dualism. A short discussion is presented on L’ Année Sociologique (a group of scientists initiated by Durkheim representing a new sociological paradigm, the beginning of scientific social culture giving sense to cooperation of sociological theory and practice. 

  17. What Contribution Can the Humanities and Social Sciences Make to Career Guidance in General and Technological Lycées? The Case of Economics in Year One of Lycée in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Richit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the 2008 Resolution of the Council of the European Union on “Better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies”, the reform of French lycées has included career guidance among its priorities. This reform, which was implemented in 2010, includes lessons on exploring economics for all students in year one (seconde of the French three-year lycée. Will this new feature help to promote career guidance?This research aims to show that academic and vocational guidance is socially controversial, and that the two programmes on economics, “Sciences économiques et sociales - SES” (social and economic sciences and “Principes fondamentaux de l’économie et de la gestion - PFEG” (basic principles of economics and management, provide knowledge and skills from the humanities and social sciences that are useful for the guidance of year one students, even if the teachers involved do not feel directly involved in assisting with careerguidance.As career guidance is not a discipline, will efficient teachers be those who are able to distinguish between “knowledge that” and “knowledge for”?

  18. Regression analysis for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A

    2010-01-01

    The book provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of both SAS and Stata "side-by-side" and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set and course exercises in which students can choose their own research questions and data set.

  19. Integration of Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised

  20. Social sciences via network analysis and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanduc, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    In recent years information and communication technologies have gained significant importance in the social sciences. Because there is such rapid growth of knowledge, methods and computer infrastructure, research can now seamlessly connect interdisciplinary fields such as business process management, data processing and mathematics. This study presents some of the latest results, practices and state-of-the-art approaches in network analysis, machine learning, data mining, data clustering and classifications in the contents of social sciences. It also covers various real-life examples such as t

  1. The social practice of psychology and the social sciences in a liberal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the relevance of psychology and the social and human sciences in a changing South Africa. The new South Africa embraces a liberal democratic approach to government. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) is a policy document that articulates the goals of this liberal democratic ...

  2. The Essential Connection between Modern Science and Utopian Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Redpath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The chief aim of this paper is to demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt how, through an essential misunderstanding of the nature of philosophy, and science, over the past several centuries, the prevailing Western tendency to reduce the whole of science to mathematical physics unwittingly generated utopian socialism as a political substitute for metaphysics. In short, being unable speculatively, philosophically, and metaphysically to justify this reduction, some Western intellectuals re-conceived the natures of philosophy, science, and metaphysics as increasingly enlightened, historical and political forms of the evolution of human consciousness toward creation of systematic science, a science of clear and distinct ideas. In the process they unwittingly wound up reducing contemporary philosophy and Western higher education largely into tools of utopian socialist political propaganda.

  3. Explicit training in human values and social attitudes of future engineers in Spain : commentary on "preparing to understand and use science in the real world: interdisciplinary study concentrations at the technical University of Darmstadt".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregat, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    In Spain before the 1990s there was no clear and explicit comprehensive training for future engineers with regard to social responsibility and social commitment. Following the Spanish university curricular reform, which began in the early 1990s, a number of optional subjects became available to students, concerning science, technology and society (STS), international cooperation, the environment and sustainability. The latest redefinition of the Spanish curriculum in line with the Bologna agreements has reduced the number of non-obligatory subjects, but could lead to improving preparation for social responsibility due to the requirement that the design of curricula and the assessment of students should be based on competencies, some of which include human values and attitudes.

  4. Social science in a stem cell laboratory: what happened when social and life sciences met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.

  5. Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network: Social Dimensions of Ecological Change and Ecological Dimensions of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Redman; J. Morgan Grove; Lauren H. Kuby; Lauren H. Kuby

    2004-01-01

    The integration of the social sciences into long-term ecological research is an urgent priority. To address this need, a group of social, earth, and life scientists associated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network have articulated a conceptual framework for understanding the human dimensions of ecological change...

  6. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-08-01

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Review Essay: Mirror Neurons in the Discourse of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Pätzold

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the mid-1990s, mirror neurons have been the subject of continuous discussions in neurosciences as well as in the social sciences. The interest of scientists outside the life sciences in mirror neurons is primarily based on the fact that mirror neurons not only have epistemological meaning, but also seem to play an important role in processes of social insights and emotions, like empathy. With her book, Nadia ZABOURA provides a new contribution from a social and cultural sciences point of view, which critically reflects the discussion on mirror neurons and its consequences on the social sciences and humanities. Starting off from philosophical approaches to the mind-matter-dualism and the question of intersubjectivity, she explores the meaning of mirror neurons for the debate on empathy and communication. By discussing concepts of philosophy and communication sciences as well as current knowledge on mirror neurons, she concludes that they do not provide a stable basis for any material reductionism, which would explain phenomena like intersubjectivity only by recordable neuronal processes. The book refers to a variety of related theories (ranging from DESCARTES through to MEAD and TOMASELLO; these references are inspiring, yet they stay cursory for the most part. All in all the book offers avenues for further inquiry on the issues in focus, and can rather be taken as "tour of suggestions" through the topical field of mirror neurons and the related research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003245

  8. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  9. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  10. Globalisation and Social Sciences in Africa | Nieftagodien ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation and Social Sciences in Africa. Noor Nieftagodien. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · FAQ's · News · AJOL jobs · More about AJOL ...

  11. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  12. Virtual Games in Social Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose M. Cuenca; Caceres, Myriam J. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The new technologies make the appearance of highly motivating and dynamic games with different levels of interaction possible, in which large amounts of data, information, procedures and values are included which are intimately bound with the social sciences. We set out from the hypothesis that videogames may become interesting resources for their…

  13. Pedagogical Relationship in Secondary Social Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Brian James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates two high school social science classrooms in order to better understand the pedagogical relationships among teachers, students, and disciplinary content, and how teachers can influence students' opportunities to learn disciplinary literacy. Drawing on conceptual resources from sociocultural theories of learning and…

  14. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social

  15. Michael Polanyi and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Maben Walter

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author attempts three things: (a) to describe the main beliefs of the "continental empiricist" epistemology that dominated the study of the social sciences in North America since the mid 1930s; (b) to speak of the influence of this epistemology on the dominant or mainstream school in the study of politics; and (c) to…

  16. Human life: genetic or social construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Boris

    2005-01-01

    I am going to discuss some present-day tendencies in the development of the very old debate on nature vs nurture. There is a widespread position describing the history of this debate as a pendulum-like process. Some three decades ago there was a time of overwhelming prevalence of the position stressing social factors in determining human character and behavior; now the pendulum has come to the opposite side and those who stress the role of biology, of genes are in favor. Yet in my view rather acute opposition of both positions still exists. Its existence depends not so much on new scientific discoveries as on some social and cultural factors which are more conservative than the development of science. More than that, we can even talk about competition of these two positions.

  17. Mode-2 social science knowledge production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer; Blok, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The notion of mode-2 knowledge production points to far-reaching transformations in science-society relations, but few attempts have been made to investigate what growing economic and political demands on research may entail for the social sciences. This case study of new patterns of social science...... knowledge production outlines some major institutional and cognitive changes in Danish academic sociology during 'mode-2' times, from the 1980s onwards. Empirically, we rely on documentary sources and qualitative interviews with Danish sociologists, aiming to reconstruct institutional trajectories...... show how a particular cognitive modality of sociology — 'welfare reflexivity' — has become a dominant form of Danish sociological knowledge production. Welfare reflexivity has proven a viable response to volatile mode-2 policy conditions....

  18. On the Governance of Social Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nørreklit, Hanne; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of social science research is conducted within public or semi-public institutions, such as universities. Over the past decades, these institutions have experienced substantial changes in governance structures and an increased focus on performance contracts. Obviously, the new...... structures do not enter into a governance vacuum but replace existing profession-based governance structures. The present paper has a two-fold purpose. First, we map the key features and problems of a profession-based governance system focussing on principal-agent issues and motivational drivers. Second, we...... study the implications of the current changes in the social science research landscape along with central aspects of mechanism design, validity, employee motivation as well as the ability to establish socially optimal resource allocations. We identify a number of potential problems that may come along...

  19. Rural science education as social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2017-03-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  20. Social representations of science and gender in Science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Heerdt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Social Representations (SR of teachers regarding the Nature of Science (NoS, gender issues in society, Science and in the teaching context. The theoretical approach is Moscovici’s SR associated to NoS discussions, Science feminist theories and Teaching of Science. A number of twenty-two teachers were part of this research. Data were collected through the filmic record. The lexical analysis was performed using the Alceste software. Four classes were formed: NoS, Gender and women in Science, Gender and teaching context, and Gender and society. In the areas of the teachers’ education, it was not possible to find significant differences in SR. Through empirical data, the distinct argumentation of men and women is noticed. The SR of men, naturalized, discriminatory and of gender issue denial in society and Science, is more forceful than of women. It is necessary, in the initial and continued education, the problematization of gender issues in Science.

  1. Senator Fred Harris's National Social Science Foundation proposal: Reconsidering federal science policy, natural science-social science relations, and American liberalism during the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovey, Mark

    2012-03-01

    During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."

  2. Using Twitter for Demographic and Social Science Research: Tools for Data Collection and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Tyler H.; Lee, Hedwig; Cesare, Nina; Shojaie, Ali; Spiro, Emma S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent and growing interest in using Twitter to examine human behavior and attitudes, there is still significant room for growth regarding the ability to leverage Twitter data for social science research. In particular, gleaning demographic information about Twitter users--a key component of much social science research--remains a…

  3. Unmasking the social engineer the human element of security

    CERN Document Server

    Hadnagy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Learn to identify the social engineer by non-verbal behavior Unmasking the Social Engineer: The Human Element of Security focuses on combining the science of understanding non-verbal communications with the knowledge of how social engineers, scam artists and con men use these skills to build feelings of trust and rapport in their targets. The author helps readers understand how to identify and detect social engineers and scammers by analyzing their non-verbal behavior. Unmasking the Social Engineer shows how attacks work, explains nonverbal communications, and demonstrates with visuals the c

  4. Historical Roots of Information Sciences and the Making of E-Humanities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, C.M.J.M.; Bod, Rens; Maat, Jaap; Westeijn, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Christine Borgman in Scholarship in the Digital Age. Information, Infrastructure and the Internet (2007) distinguishes between data of the natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. This distinction has been used as one of the arguments to explain why scholars in the humanities and social

  5. Digital Resource Use and Non‐Use in the Humanities and Social Sciences Academic Settings is Multifaceted. A review of: Harley, Diane. “Why Study Users? An Environmental Scan of Use and Users of Digital Resources in Humanities and Social Sciences Undergraduate Education.” First Monday 12.1 (Jan. 2007. 7 May 2007 .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Haglund

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – (1 To map the digital resources available to undergraduate educators in the humanities and the social sciences, (2 to survey faculty about their use of digital resources, and (3 to examine how understanding use and users can benefit the integration of resources into teaching.Design – A mixed‐methods approach, which included a survey, conducting discussion groups, and in‐depth interviews.Setting – Academic institutions in the United States.Subjects – (1 “Various stakeholders”; (2 31 instructors from three institutions, and 4500 full‐time and part‐time faculty and graduate students (at California public research universities, liberal arts colleges and community colleges; and (3 13 digital resource providers and two other stakeholders, and 16 site owners or user researchers.Methods – (1 A literature review, combined with discussions with various stakeholders. (2 Four sessions of discussion groups with 31 instructors from three institutions formed the basis for developing a faculty surveyi nstrument. The survey was distributed both on paper and online. (3 Collection of data on cost and collaborative development strategies, in‐depth interviews with 13 digital resource providers and two other stakeholders, combined with a two day workshop with 16 experts, both on the subject of online educational resources.Main results – (1 Concerning the humanities and social sciences digital resource landscape, the main results of the literature study were the conclusions that the field of online education studies is complicated by a lack of common vocabulary, definitions, and analyses; and that different stakeholder interests and agendas also influence the understanding of how digital resources are used. With the help of discussion groups, an attempt at creating a typology for digital resources available to undergraduates was made, looking at type of resource, origin, and typeo f role of the provider or site owner. From the

  6. Social Climate Science: A New Vista for Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Assessing Prinary School; Second Cycle Social Science Textbooks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Prinary School; Second Cycle Social Science Textbooks in ... second cycle primary level social science textbooks vis-à-vis the principles of multiculturalism. ... Biases were disclosed in gender, economic and occupational roles.

  8. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  11. Introduction: The Humanities and the Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bod, Rens; Kursell, Julia

    2015-06-01

    The humanities and the sciences have a strongly connected history, yet their histories continue to be written separately. Although the scope of the history of science has undergone a tremendous broadening during the past few decades, scholars of the history of the humanities and the history of science still seem to belong to two separate cultures that have endured through the past century. This Focus section explores what common ground would enable a study of the histories of the humanities and the sciences to investigate their shared epistemic objects, virtues, values, methods, and practices.

  12. Science Education: The New Humanity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, John H.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes science education trends, problems, and controversies at the elementary, secondary, and higher education levels beginning with the Physical Science Study Committee course, and discusses the present status concerning the application of the Fourth Revolution to the education system. (CC)

  13. Changing human relationships with nature: making and remaking wilderness science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill M. Belsky

    2000-01-01

    The paper identifies and discusses two major themes in wilderness social science. First, that wilderness studies (and its advocates) have been limited by an ontological tension between those who mainly approach the relationship between humans and nature on the basis of material factors and constraints and those who approach it through an examination of shifting...

  14. Regression analysis for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    Provides graduate students in the social sciences with the basic skills they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish basic regression models using contemporary standards. Key features of the book include: interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature. thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis. teaching of Stata and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set. A separate set of exercises allows students to select a data set to apply the concepts learned in each chapter to a research question of interest to them, all updated for this edition.

  15. Integration of Social Sciences in Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovy, M.; Eggermont, G

    2002-04-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN initiated a programme to integrate social sciences into its scientific and technological projects. Activities were started on the following issues: (1) sustainable development; (2) ethics and decision making in nuclear waste management (transgenerational ethics/retrievability; socio-psychological aspect and local involvement); (3) law and liability (medical applications and the basic safety standards implementation); (4) decision making (emergency management); safety culture; ALARA and ethical choices in protection). Two working groups were created to discuss two broad items: (1) ethical choices in radiation protection; and (2) the role and culture of the expert. Progress and major achievements in SCK-CEN's social science programme in 2001 are summarised.

  16. In defense of forensic social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goldberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Like the navigation tools that freed ancient sailors from the need to stay close to the shoreline—eventually affording the discovery of new worlds—Big Data might open us up to new sociological possibilities by freeing us from the shackles of hypothesis testing. But for that to happen we need forensic social science: the careful compilation of evidence from unstructured digital traces as a means to generate new theories.

  17. The Social Science Curriculum of the Two-Year College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Describes a nationwide study to identify: (1) the representation of different areas within the social sciences (i.e. anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, social/ethnic studies, sociology, and interdisciplinary social sciences) in the two-year college curriculum, and (2) which courses were offered for transfer,…

  18. Producción científica sobre Educación Multicultural contenida en las bases de datos Social Sciences Citation Index y Arts & Humanities Citation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Ruiz, Mónica

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an inquiry into the productivity on multicultural education using a list of documents retrieved from two databases of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, Philadelphia, Social Sciences Citation Index and Arts & Humanities Citation Index during the period 1956 to 2003.
    Scientometrics indicators relative to longitudinal production, authors and institutional productivity, journal and citations patterns are offered, which allowed a description of the international production in this educational field and to establish evaluative inferences.

    Este estudio indaga la productividad en educación multicultural en base a una lista de documentos incluidos en dos bases del Institute for Scientific Information (ISI de Filadelfia: Social Sciences Citation Index y Arts & Humanities Citation Index, durante el periodo 1956-2003.
    Se ofrecen una serie de indicadores cienciométricos relativos a diacronía, productividad personal e institucional, revistas editoras y patrones de citación, los cuales permiten describir la producción internacional en este campo educativo y establecer inferencias evaluativas sobre el mismo.

  19. Socializing the coast: Engaging the social science of tropical coastal research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Ana K.; Biedenweg, Kelly

    2017-03-01

    The broad scale and rapid rate of change in the global environment is causing some of the world's most challenging problems, such as habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity, and food insecurity. These problems are especially pressing in coastal environments in the tropics, resulting in significant impacts on human wellbeing and ecological systems across the globe. The underlying causes of marine and coastal environmental change are both anthropogenic and natural; and, while it is difficult to parse out causal linkages as either exclusively human or naturally occurring, feedbacks between drivers only exacerbate the issues. Increasingly, scholars are turning to integrated research efforts, whereby multiple disciplines are used to answer pressing questions about and find solutions for the sustainability of human life and natural ecosystems across the coastal tropics. This article leverages the recent wave of interdisciplinary research to explore the various ways in which the social sciences have successfully contributed to a more complete understanding of coastal systems across the tropics. It also identifies opportunities for research that move beyond single disciplinary approaches to coastal science. The concluding discussion suggests social science knowledge areas that are underutilized in coastal research and provides suggestions for increasing the incorporation of social science in coastal research programs.

  20. Social behavior in the "Age of Empathy"?-A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  1. Society and the Carbon Cycle: A Social Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, P.

    2017-12-01

    Societal activities, actions, and practices affect the carbon cycle and the climate of North America in complex ways. Carbon is a key component for the functioning of croplands, grasslands, forests. Carbon fuels our industry, transportation (vehicles and roadways), buildings, and other structures. Drawing on results from the SOCCR-2, this presentation uses a social science perspective to address three scientific questions. How do human actions and activities affect the carbon cycle? How human systems such as cities, agricultural field and forests are affected by changes in the carbon cycle? How is carbon management enabled and constraint by socio-political dynamics?

  2. Human and social factors in the transportation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenburg, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The main body of this report is a broad-based examination of human and social factors in the transportation of nuclear wastes. It deals with pair interested problems that, while familiar to the social science community, appear to have received little attention from the risk assessment community to data: The human and social attenuation of risk estimates, and the organizational amplification of risks. Second, given the special opportunities for learning that are presented by the recent Alaska oil spill, in particular, the Appendix to this report examines the issue of organizational foresight in the context of the Exxon oil spill

  3. Citizen-science, Geoethics and Human Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The anthropogenic biogeosphere or 'human niche' is the intersection of the biogeosphere and the sphere of human activities of social, economic, cultural and political nature. The application case for geoethics, namely "appropriate behaviours and practices, wherever human activities interact with the Earth system" [1], is about niche building. Geoethics is about the conduct of people and geoscientists, respectively their ordinary lifestyles and professional activities. Geoscience professionals notice the diverse economic, social and cultural living conditions of people, and the application cases of geosciences mirror the diversity of the global social sphere. Subsequently it is argued: A) when considering the ethical dimensions of global niche building then geosciences should feature 'citizen geoscience'; and B) when considering the functioning of a knowledge-based society under conditions of anthropogenic global change then 'citizen geoscience' facilitates applying that knowledge base. (A) Regarding 'niche building': The design of production systems and consumption patterns embeds geoscience know-how and relates it to the everyday life. Any citizen's activities purposefully interconnect to the biogeosphere for well-being, care-taking, and reproduction, although habitually without involving a geoscientist in professional capacity. In that implicit manner the everyday behaviours and practices of people influence Earth system dynamic. This renders their inherent geoscience know-how a public good as it makes their ignorance a public risk. A comfortable human niche for billions of people requires a global biogeosphere that is disrupted little by citizens' activities and exposes them to hazards that can be tamed. Quite the reverse, anthropogenic global change will disturb living conditions for many citizen. Much geoscience know-how will have to be deployed to tame disturbances in a socially sustainable manner. Sustainability in turn needs involvement of citizens in

  4. Role of social science in global environmental change: case of urbanisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available the role of social scientists in global environmental change by examining urbanisation and other environmental changes as suggested in the science plan of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP 2005)...

  5. The Role of the History of Science in the Understanding of Social Darwinism and Eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The link between science and society is examined by studying the application of evolution theories and genetics to human affairs. Described are the ways in which biological theories have been applied to social issues. (KR)

  6. Climate change adaptation and social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change subjects societies to a large range of uncertainties concerning the future and their development orientation. It came up as a scientific global problem, extended to political concerns first at a global and then national scales. Though it has long been the object of economic approaches which have notably contributed to its recognition, particularly the Stern Report, social sciences have hardly been mobilized as part of policies to counteract it. Social sciences strongly question the notion of climate change being built as a global scale transcendent phenomenon, analyzed by several authors. With the rise of adaptation policies, the question becomes even more important. Adaptation first comes up as a spontaneous behaviour, independent of policy, in close relationship to social dimensions as a basic way through which climate change is grasped collectively. Thus adaptation policies' social aspects need to be carefully worked in relation with more general goals for adaptation policies to be implemented efficiently, on the basis of wide interactions between local and global scales. (author)

  7. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.

    2017-07-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  8. The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jeane W.

    2014-01-01

    As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work. This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…

  9. Social Science Boot Camp: Development and Assessment of a Foundational Course on Academic Literacy in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Judy; Long, Jennifer; Morris, David

    2018-01-01

    We developed a course, as part of our institution's core program, which provides students with a foundation in academic literacy in the social sciences: how to find, read, critically assess, and communicate about social science research. It is not a research methods course; rather, it is intended to introduce students to the social sciences and be…

  10. Social networks and human development / Redes sociales y desarrollo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gallego Trijueque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is a brief introduction to the concept of social networks and their importance in society. Social networks have been responsible over the centuries to preserve community values, in addition to being facilitators of social interaction in human development processes, through communication and relationships between individuals.

  11. The imagework method in health and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, I R

    1999-03-01

    Existing alongside the traditional forms of qualitative social science research, there is a set of potential research methods that derive from experiential groupwork and the humanistic human potential movement and are only slightly used by researchers. Social science research has barely begun to use these powerful strategies that were developed originally for personal and group change but that are potentially applicable to the research domain. This article will locate these methods within the qualitative research domain and propose a novel view of their value. The study of the actual and potential use of one of these methods, imagework, will be the particular focus of this article. References to the use of artwork, sculpting, psychodrama, gestalt, and dreamwork will also be made. The hypothesis underpinning the author's approach is that experiential research methods such as imagework can elicit implicit knowledge and self-identifies of respondents in a way that other methods cannot.

  12. Knowledge machines digital transformations of the sciences and humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    In Knowledge Machines, Eric Meyer and Ralph Schroeder argue that digital technologies have fundamentally changed research practices in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Meyer and Schroeder show that digital tools and data, used collectively and in distributed mode -- which they term e-research -- have transformed not just the consumption of knowledge but also the production of knowledge. Digital technologies for research are reshaping how knowledge advances in disciplines that range from physics to literary analysis. Meyer and Schroeder map the rise of digital research and offer case studies from many fields, including biomedicine, social science uses of the Web, astronomy, and large-scale textual analysis in the humanities. They consider such topics as the challenges of sharing research data and of big data approaches, disciplinary differences and new forms of interdisciplinary collaboration, the shifting boundaries between researchers and their publics, and the ways that digital tools promote o...

  13. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  14. Social science. Publication bias in the social sciences: unlocking the file drawer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Annie; Malhotra, Neil; Simonovits, Gabor

    2014-09-19

    We studied publication bias in the social sciences by analyzing a known population of conducted studies--221 in total--in which there is a full accounting of what is published and unpublished. We leveraged Time-sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored program in which researchers propose survey-based experiments to be run on representative samples of American adults. Because TESS proposals undergo rigorous peer review, the studies in the sample all exceed a substantial quality threshold. Strong results are 40 percentage points more likely to be published than are null results and 60 percentage points more likely to be written up. We provide direct evidence of publication bias and identify the stage of research production at which publication bias occurs: Authors do not write up and submit null findings. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Commonly Shared Foundation of Mathematics, Information Science, Natural Science, Social Science, and Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Through a simple thought experiment, this paper shows that there must be a shared foundation of mathematics, information science, natural science, social science, and theology. The thought experiment is to ask a volunteer to write down an arbitrary real number between 0 and 1 with many digits. For example, 0.19823765010367129462…. would be one of such numbers. Then we analyze this experiment result by asking five simple questions: Is the real number a random real? Can the observed real numbe...

  16. Supporting new science teachers in pursuing socially just science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel; Flohr, Linda

    2017-10-01

    This forum explores contradictions that arose within the partnership between Teach for America (TFA) and a university teacher education program. TFA is an alternate route teacher preparation program that places individuals into K-12 classrooms in low-income school districts after participating in an intense summer training program and provides them with ongoing support. This forum is a conversation about the challenges we faced as new science teachers in the TFA program and in the Peace Corps program. We both entered the teaching field with science degrees and very little formal education in science education. In these programs we worked in a community very different from the one we had experienced as students. These experiences allow us to address many of the issues that were discussed in the original paper, namely teaching in an unfamiliar community amid challenges that many teachers face in the first few years of teaching. We consider how these challenges may be amplified for teachers who come to teaching through an alternate route and may not have as much pedagogical training as a more traditional teacher education program provides. The forum expands on the ideas presented in the original paper to consider the importance of perspectives on socially just science education. There is often a disconnect between what is taught in teacher education programs and what teachers actually experience in urban classrooms and this can be amplified when the training received through alternate route provides a different framework as well. This forum urges universities and alternate route programs to continue to find ways to authentically partner using practical strategies that bring together the philosophies and goals of all stakeholders in order to better prepare teachers to partner with their students to achieve their science learning goals.

  17. Online information services in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Information professionals are increasingly responsible not only for running traditional information and library services but also for providing an online presence for their organisation. This book shows how best practice in delivering online information services should be based on actual user needs and behaviour. A series of case studies provide real life examples of how social science information is being used in the community. The book then draws on these case studies to outline the main issues facing service providers: such as usability, metadata and management. The book concludes with a lo

  18. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  19. Semiparametric regression for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Keele, Luke John

    2008-01-01

    An introductory guide to smoothing techniques, semiparametric estimators, and their related methods, this book describes the methodology via a selection of carefully explained examples and data sets. It also demonstrates the potential of these techniques using detailed empirical examples drawn from the social and political sciences. Each chapter includes exercises and examples and there is a supplementary website containing all the datasets used, as well as computer code, allowing readers to replicate every analysis reported in the book. Includes software for implementing the methods in S-Plus and R.

  20. Creativity, Pragmatism and the Social Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2006-01-01

    In this discussion, Richard Sennett and Hans Joas elaborate on the role of both creativity and pragmatism in the social sciences. They pursue these topics from different perspectives: the role creativity played in the history of ideas and in classical pragmatism, what creativity means...... in the practice of the arts and how a creative pragmatist sociology might be possible. Pragmatism, they conclude, may not be a new idea, but the practice of pragmatism offers a new political vision beyond the traditional frontiers of left and right....

  1. Nonparametric statistics for social and behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Kraska-MIller, M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Research in Social and Behavioral SciencesBasic Principles of ResearchPlanning for ResearchTypes of Research Designs Sampling ProceduresValidity and Reliability of Measurement InstrumentsSteps of the Research Process Introduction to Nonparametric StatisticsData AnalysisOverview of Nonparametric Statistics and Parametric Statistics Overview of Parametric Statistics Overview of Nonparametric StatisticsImportance of Nonparametric MethodsMeasurement InstrumentsAnalysis of Data to Determine Association and Agreement Pearson Chi-Square Test of Association and IndependenceContingency

  2. Prospects and challenges for social media data in conservation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eDi Minin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media data have been extensively used in numerous fields of science, but examples of their use in conservation science are still very limited. In this paper, we propose a framework on how social media data could be useful for conservation science and practice. We present the commonly used social media platforms and discuss how their content could be providing new data and information for conservation science. Based on this, we discuss how future work in conservation science and practice would benefit from social media data.

  3. social work and human rights in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    The place of the social work profession on the human rights arena is beyond doubt. .... Human Rights and the Media Institute of Southern Africa. THE NEXUS ..... Becket, C.; 2006 Ethics and values in social work 3rd Edition. Basingstoke: ...

  4. Operationalizing Social Work Science through Research-Practice Partnerships: Lessons from Implementation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Amy S.; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Hertel, Amy Locklear

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify and promote a distinct science for the discipline of social work have led to an ongoing debate regarding the nature and function of such a science. Central to this debate is a lack of consensus as to how to operationalize a social work science. Drawing from the field of implementation science and its application in…

  5. The Employment Outlook for Social Science Majors in the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Eva C.

    This assessment of the future job market for social science graduates is made both generically and separately for certain disciplines. The definition of the social sciences follows the USOE definition and includes: anthropology, archeology, economics, history, geography, political science, sociology, criminology, international relations, urban…

  6. How social science should complement scientific discovery: lessons from nanoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, David M.

    2018-05-01

    This article examines the state of social science of science, particularly nanoscience. It reviews what has been done and offers a series of constructive criticisms. It examines some of the problems associated with experts and expertise and itemizes challenges we confront dealing with them. It presages some of the social science research work that we may consider to embrace in the future.

  7. Response: Social Work, Science, Social Impact--Crafting an Integrative Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in the ways that science is being undertaken and marshaled toward social change argue for a new kind of professional competence. Taking the view that the science of social work is centrally about the relationship of research to social impact, the authors extend Fong's focus on transdisciplinary and translational approaches to science,…

  8. Social and ethical dimensions of nanoscale science and engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Aldrin E

    2006-07-01

    Continuing advances in human ability to manipulate matter at the atomic and molecular levels (i.e. nanoscale science and engineering) offer many previously unimagined possibilities for scientific discovery and technological development. Paralleling these advances in the various science and engineering sub-disciplines is the increasing realization that a number of associated social, ethical, environmental, economic and legal dimensions also need to be explored. An important component of such exploration entails the identification and analysis of the ways in which current and prospective researchers in these fields conceptualize these dimensions of their work. Within the context of a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in nanomaterials processing and characterization at the University of Central Florida (2002-2004), here I present for discussion (i) details of a "nanotechnology ethics" seminar series developed specifically for students participating in the program, and (ii) an analysis of students' and participating research faculty's perspectives concerning social and ethical issues associated with nanotechnology research. I conclude with a brief discussion of implications presented by these issues for general scientific literacy and public science education policy.

  9. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  10. The Social Science Teacher. 1972. Collected Conference Papers: Social Science Concepts Classroom Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three…

  11. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5dy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Swijghuisen Reigersberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS. It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths’, University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper’s aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical ‘sets’ and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item ‘represents’ as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP, copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research.

  12. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-07

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  14. Social Science in Forestry Curricula: A Case Study of Colombia Forestry Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Farleidy Villarraga-Flórez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest management depends greatly on complex social interactions. To understand the underlying human causes of deforestation and to plan forest management, it is of great importance to incorporate social science in the study of forestry. There is insufficient information about the incorporation of social sciences in undergraduate forestry programs. Foresters are well prepared in ecology, silviculture, forest measurements, and operational topics such as logging, but their knowledge of basic elements of social sciences is limited. This study explored the extent to which tertiary forestry education programs in Colombia include social science. It also examined students’ perceptions of social sciences courses in the curriculum. About 10% of course credits are in economics, administration, and foreign language, courses on social science are listed as optional. A high percentage of current sophomore (fifth semester, junior, and senior students do not have clear knowledge of basic social research methods, although a majority have used social science techniques at some point in their academic careers.

  15. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  16. JSC Human Life Sciences Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes articles entitled: (1) E029 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Exposure to Microgravity; (2) E030 - Extended Studies of Pulmonary Function in Weightlessness; (3) E074 - Direct Measurement of the Initial Bone Response to Spaceflight in Humans; (4) E401 - The Effects of Microgravity on Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties; (5) E407 - Effects of Microgravity on the Biochemical and Bioenergetic Characteristics of Human Skeletal Muscle; (6) E410 - Torso Rotation Experiment; (7) E920 - Effect of Weightlessness on Human Single Muscle Fiber Function; (8) E948 - Human Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Performance in Space; (9) E963 - Microgravity Effects on Standardized Cognitive Performance Measures; and (10) E971 - Measurement of Energy Expenditures During Spaceflight Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method

  17. Medicine as combining natural and human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Hubert L

    2011-08-01

    Medicine is unique in being a combination of natural science and human science in which both are essential. Therefore, in order to make sense of medical practice, we need to begin by drawing a clear distinction between the natural and the human sciences. In this paper, I try to bring the old distinction between the Geistes and Naturwissenschaften up to date by defending the essential difference between a realist explanatory theoretical study of nature including the body in which the scientist discovers the causal properties of natural kinds and the interpretive understanding of human beings as embodied agents which, as Charles Taylor has convincingly argued, requires a hermeneutic account of self-interpreting human practices.

  18. Quantum Mechanics and the Social Sciences: After Hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Patrick A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the hermeneutical aspect of quantum mechanical measurement reveals close analogs with the hermeneutical social/historical sciences. Suggests that the hermeneutical analysis of science requires the move from the epistemological attitude to an ontological view. (LZ)

  19. Can Biosemiotics be a “Science” if its Purpose is to be a Bridge between the Natural, Social and Human Sciences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2015-01-01

    to be that the optimal type of knowledge science can produce about living system is to model them as machines. But the explicit goal of a Peircean semiotically based biosemiotics is (also) to model living systems as cognitive and communicative systems working on the basis of meaning and signification. These two concepts...... are not part of the mechanistic models of natural science today, not even of cognitive science. Barbieri tries to solve this problem by introducing a new concept of biological meaning that is separate from the Peircean biosemiotics and then add Peirce's semiotics on top. This article argues why this view...... is inconsistent on the grounds that Peirce's semiotic paradigm only gives meaning in its pragmaticist conception of a fallibilist view of science, which again is intrinsic connected to its non-mechanistic metaphysics of Tychism, Synechism and Agapism. The core of the biosemiotic enterprise is to establish another...

  20. Citizen Data Science for Social Good in Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya Banerjee

    2018-01-01

    The confluence of massive amounts of openly available data, sophisticated machine learning algorithms and an enlightened citizenry willing to engage in data science presents novel opportunities for crowd sourced data science for social good. In this submission, I present vignettes of data science projects that I have been involved in and which have impact in various spheres of life and on social good. Complex systems are all around us: from social networks to transportation systems, cities, e...

  1. SMART social science? Examining the nature and role of social scientific expertise in institutional design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan C. Tait

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Bromley argues against Oran Young's FIT model as a basis for environmental governance, on the grounds that humans cannot manage nature and that attempts to do so are based on a scientistic, modernist conceit. At issue is the role of natural and social scientists in adjudicating questions about what we ought to do to close governance gaps and address unsustainable behaviors. If Bromley is right, then the lessons of the American pragmatist tradition recommend against attempts to "fit" social institutions to the natural world. The first objective of this paper is to argue that Bromley's view is not in keeping with the pragmatism of C. S. Peirce and John Dewey, which actually places a high value on natural and social scientific modes of inquiry in the service of social ends. I argue that Young's proposal is in fact a development of the pragmatist idea that social institutions must be fit in the sense of fitness, i.e., resilient and able to navigate uncertainty. Social institutions must also evolve to accommodate the emerging values of the agents who operate within them. The second objective of this paper is to examine the role of social science expertise in the design of social policies. Governance institutions typically rely on the testimony of natural scientists, at least in part, to understand the natural systems they operate within. However, natural systems are also social systems, so it seems pertinent to ask whether there is a role for social systems experts to play in helping to design environmental governance institutions. I argue that social scientists can make a unique contribution as experts on social institutions, and as such, are necessary to bring about a transformation of the unsustainable institutions that are preventing us from achieving stated sustainable development goals.

  2. The Human Face as a Dynamic Tool for Social Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G

    2015-07-20

    As a highly social species, humans frequently exchange social information to support almost all facets of life. One of the richest and most powerful tools in social communication is the face, from which observers can quickly and easily make a number of inferences - about identity, gender, sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical health, attractiveness, emotional state, personality traits, pain or physical pleasure, deception, and even social status. With the advent of the digital economy, increasing globalization and cultural integration, understanding precisely which face information supports social communication and which produces misunderstanding is central to the evolving needs of modern society (for example, in the design of socially interactive digital avatars and companion robots). Doing so is challenging, however, because the face can be thought of as comprising a high-dimensional, dynamic information space, and this impacts cognitive science and neuroimaging, and their broader applications in the digital economy. New opportunities to address this challenge are arising from the development of new methods and technologies, coupled with the emergence of a modern scientific culture that embraces cross-disciplinary approaches. Here, we briefly review one such approach that combines state-of-the-art computer graphics, psychophysics and vision science, cultural psychology and social cognition, and highlight the main knowledge advances it has generated. In the light of current developments, we provide a vision of the future directions in the field of human facial communication within and across cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Science fiction and the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin; McFarlane, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Research on science fiction within the medical humanities should articulate interpretative frameworks that do justice to medical themes within the genre. This means challenging modes of reading that encourage unduly narrow accounts of science fiction. Admittedly, science studies has moved away from reading science fiction as a variety of scientific popularisation and instead understands science fiction as an intervention in the technoscientific imaginary that calls for investment in particular scientific enterprises, including various biomedical technologies. However, this mode of reading neglects science fiction's critical relationship to the construction of 'the future' in the present: the ways in which science fiction proposes concrete alternatives to hegemonic narratives of medical progress and fosters critical self-awareness of the contingent activity which gives 'the future' substance in the here-and-now. Moreover, the future orientation of science fiction should not distract from the function of medical science fiction as 'cognitive estrangement': the technological innovations that dominate science-fiction narratives are less concrete predictions and more generic devices that explain in historical time the origins of a marvellous world bearing provocative correspondences to our own, everyday reality. The editorial concludes with a series of introductions to the articles comprising the special issue, covering the print edition and a special online-only section. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Winch, Wittgenstein and the Idea of a Critical Social Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jens Christian

    such phenomena. In the light of new uses ofWittgenstein within social theory and recent philosophical research on Wittgenstein (that challenge the orthodoxWinchian reception of Wittgenstein), the paper discusses the prospects of a critical social science after Wittgenstein.......In "The Idea of a Social Science" and in the article "Understanding a Primitive Society" Peter Winch develops what he believes to be the implications ofWittgenstein's late philosophy for the social sciences. Inspired byWittgenstein,Winch argues for a linguistic turn. Winch's basic ontological claim...... is that social life is conceptually organised: it is organised by the ways in which language is used by members of social life. This claim has methodological implications: the social sciences are, according to Winch, conceptual studies, that is, they are studies of the concepts possessed by members of social...

  5. Sharing experiences about developing a regional social science virtual library

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Why and how a Latin American and the Caribbean social sciences network (Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, CLACSO) started a cooperative open access digital library to disseminate research results (journal articles, books, working documents)

  6. Evaluating the best available social science for natural resource management decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Courtney Carothers; Terre Satterfield; Arielle Levine; Melissa R. Poe; Karma Norman; Jamie Donatuto; Sara Jo Breslow; Michael B. Mascia; Phillip S. Levin; Xavier Basurto; Christina C. Hicks; Carlos García-Quijano; Kevin St. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the human dimensions of natural resource management issues, and of social and ecological sustainability and resilience as being inter-related, highlights the importance of applying social science to natural resource management decision-making. Moreover, a number of laws and regulations require natural resource management agencies to consider...

  7. Applied statistics for social and management sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Miah, Abdul Quader

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the application of statistical techniques and methods across a wide range of disciplines. While its main focus is on the application of statistical methods, theoretical aspects are also provided as fundamental background information. It offers a systematic interpretation of results often discovered in general descriptions of methods and techniques such as linear and non-linear regression. SPSS is also used in all the application aspects. The presentation of data in the form of tables and graphs throughout the book not only guides users, but also explains the statistical application and assists readers in interpreting important features. The analysis of statistical data is presented consistently throughout the text. Academic researchers, practitioners and other users who work with statistical data will benefit from reading Applied Statistics for Social and Management Sciences. .

  8. A guideline to improve qualitative social science publishing in ecology and conservation journals

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Moon; Tom D. Brewer; Stephanie R. Januchowski-Hartley; Vanessa M. Adams; Deborah A. Blackman

    2016-01-01

    A rise in qualitative social science manuscripts published in ecology and conservation journals speaks to the growing awareness of the importance of the human dimension in maintaining and improving Earth's ecosystems. Given the rise in the quantity of qualitative social science research published in ecology and conservation journals, it is worthwhile quantifying the extent to which this research is meeting established criteria for research design, conduct, and interpretation. Through a compre...

  9. Social robots from a human perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Taipale, Sakari; Sapio, Bartolomeo; Lugano, Giuseppe; Fortunati, Leopoldina

    2015-01-01

    Addressing several issues that explore the human side of social robots, this book asks from a social and human scientific perspective what a social robot is and how we might come to think about social robots in the different areas of everyday life. Organized around three sections that deal with Perceptions and Attitudes to Social Robots, Human Interaction with Social Robots, and Social Robots in Everyday Life, the book explores the idea that even if technical problems related to robot technologies can be continuously solved from a machine perspective, what kind of machine do we want to have and use in our daily lives? Experiences from previously widely adopted technologies, such smartphones, hint that robot technologies could potentially be absorbed into the everyday lives of humans in such a way that it is the human that determines the human-machine interaction. In a similar way to how today’s information and communication technologies were first designed for professional/industrial use, but which soon wer...

  10. On the Methodology of Islamizing the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Ragab

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 It is argued in this paper that the Islamization of the social sciences should be seen-for conceptual and for pragmatic reasons-as the heart of the Islamization of Knowledge (IOK movement. If that position is accepted, the importance of efforts to clarify the specific methodology for the Islamization of the social sciences becomes self-evident. An attempt is made here to suggest an outline for such a methodology, building on the pioneer work of Ismā‘īl al-Fārūqī and on mainstream writings on IOK. The issue of the "starting point" for actual efforts at the Islamization of the social sciences is discussed in detail, particularly along with two major phases of this work, i.e., (a generating an "integral theoretical framework" that combines insights gleaned from Islamic revealed knowledge and from the human sciences; and (b validating that theoretical framework in well-designed research projects and professional practice field demonstrations. The implications of the suggested methodology for research and for theory building are discussed. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  11. The field of medical anthropology in Social Science & Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Eggerman, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically, medical anthropology is well-positioned to support a "big-tent" research agenda on health and society. It fosters approaches to social and structural models of health and wellbeing in ways that are critically reflective, cross-cultural, people-centered, and transdisciplinary. In this review article, we showcase these four main characteristics of the field, as featured in Social Science & Medicine over the last fifty years, highlighting their relevance for an international and interdisciplinary readership. First, the practice of critical inquiry in ethnographies of health offers a deep appreciation of sociocultural viewpoints when recording and interpreting lived experiences and contested social worlds. Second, medical anthropology champions cross-cultural breadth: it makes explicit local understandings of health experiences across different settings, using a fine-grained, comparative approach to develop a stronger global platform for the analysis of health-related concerns. Third, in offering people-centered views of the world, anthropology extends the reach of critical enquiry to the lived experiences of hard-to-reach population groups, their structural vulnerabilities, and social agency. Finally, in developing research at the nexus of cultures, societies, biologies, and health, medical anthropologists generate new, transdisciplinary conversations on the body, mind, person, community, environment, prevention, and therapy. As featured in this journal, scholarly contributions in medical anthropology seek to debate human health and wellbeing from many angles, pushing forward methodology, social theory, and health-related practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Symposium | Science, technology, innovation & social responsibility | 11 November

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognised that science, technology and innovation are among the most powerful forces driving social change and development today. Their impact on the progress of humanity will be discussed at this symposium.   Wednesday, 11 November, 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. Council Chamber This symposium, organised by CERN and the World Academy of Art & Science (WAAS) under the auspices of United Nations Office at Geneva, will survey the potential impact of scientific and technological innovation in different fields on the progress of humanity in the 21st century and the alternative mechanisms available to ensure socially responsible management of these activities by the research community, business and governments. The introduction will be given by Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, Michael Møller, UNOG Director-General, and Heitor Gurgulino de Souza, WAAS President. Registration is mandatory for people who do not hold a CERN access card. The talks will be i...

  13. social work and human rights in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    ... a few cases of human rights breaches were selected from reports and academic ..... retroviral drugs lost contact with their suppliers during and after operation .... Becket, C.; 2006 Ethics and values in social work 3rd Edition. Basingstoke: ...

  14. Magic vs. Science in the Historiography of Science: The Social-Historical Construction of Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez Maia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of scientific studies has suffered from a great impact, that is rarely referred to, from anthropological analyses of magic in so-called primitive societies. The emphasis brought by criticism during the 1950/1960’s of Evans-Pritchard’s 1937 classic, Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande, brought a fresh look at certainties already consolidated in Western thought, especially those relating to rational human characteristics and science. For the history, these criticisms were interesting because they were presented science as a historically situated activity, in the same way as magic. It favours, therefore, the proximity of historians tout court with the history of the sciences that resists its absences even today. This renewal helped to create a scenario that would enable David Bloor to develop the strong program of Sociology of Knowledge in the 1970s. Such a program indicates the analogous process that involves both the social production of beliefs and that of scientific truths. The comparison between magic and science usually presents them in a hierarchy. As if there were an evolutionary process in which magical thinking necessarily preceded scientific thought. The one, more precarious, would belong to the prehistory of the scientific thought, which would be the climax of modern rational action. In this paper I evaluate the proximity of magic-science from the point of view of contemporary studies about scientific activity, questioning the concepts of rationality and logic as if they were exclusive qualities of scientific activity. A kind of metaphysical gift that would show the superiority of individuals over others, as much as of science over magic. I give special emphasis to the exposition of how rationality and logic are socio-historical characteristics acquired throughout history by human subjects in their experiential practices, and which are present both in magic and technical activities; these, an embryo of

  15. Student Empowerment in an Environmental Science Classroom: Toward a Framework for Social Justice Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel

    2012-01-01

    Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…

  16. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three ... Outputs. Journal articles. Problems of the national and the ethnic/sectarian in Iraq [Arabic language]. Download PDF. Reports. State of social sciences in Iraq ...

  17. The present state of social science research in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieten, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    The first pan-Asia conference ‘Status and Role of Social Science Research in Asia, Emerging Challenges and Policy Issues’ (New Delhi, 13-15 March 2014), with representatives from 24 countries in Asia and some non-Asian countries, was intended to assess the present state of social science research in

  18. Kant or Marx? Philosophy and the Origins of Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaff, Lawrence A.

    The origins of social science as a discipline are analyzed in terms of the German scientific community before 1920, which tended to define itself according to the theories of Karl Marx or Immanuel Kant. Following a brief introduction about the nature of social science debates in intellectual Germany, section 2 of the paper considers whether the…

  19. Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

  20. Social Science in the Making: An Economist's View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in economics and psychology suggest that productivity in the social sciences will benefit from crossing existing academic barriers, and that such crossing is more and more likely. Social science is in the making, but its success seems particularly conditioned on the willingness

  1. Critical Debates in Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores some of the critical debates in social science research methods education and is set out in three parts. The first section introduces the importance and relevance of research methods to the social sciences. It then outlines the problems and challenges experienced in the teaching and learning of research methods, which are…

  2. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  3. Biology, politics, and the emerging science of human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, James H; Schreiber, Darren

    2008-11-07

    In the past 50 years, biologists have learned a tremendous amount about human brain function and its genetic basis. At the same time, political scientists have been intensively studying the effect of the social and institutional environment on mass political attitudes and behaviors. However, these separate fields of inquiry are subject to inherent limitations that may only be resolved through collaboration across disciplines. We describe recent advances and argue that biologists and political scientists must work together to advance a new science of human nature.

  4. Daniel Courgeau: Probability and social science: methodological relationships between the two approaches [Review of: . Probability and social science: methodological relationships between the two approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, humans engaged in games in which randomness plays a role. In the 17th century, scientists started to approach chance scientifically and to develop a theory of probability. Courgeau describes how the relationship between probability theory and social sciences emerged and evolved

  5. Human Exploration Science Office (KX) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office supports human spaceflight, conducts research, and develops technology in the areas of space orbital debris, hypervelocity impact technology, image science and analysis, remote sensing, imagery integration, and human and robotic exploration science. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) resides in the Human Exploration Science Office. ODPO provides leadership in orbital debris research and the development of national and international space policy on orbital debris. The office is recognized internationally for its measurement and modeling of the debris environment. It takes the lead in developing technical consensus across U.S. agencies and other space agencies on debris mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. The Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) project evaluates the risks to spacecraft posed by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). HVIT facilities at JSC and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) use light gas guns, diagnostic tools, and high-speed imagery to quantify the response of spacecraft materials to MMOD impacts. Impact tests, with debris environment data provided by ODPO, are used by HVIT to predict risks to NASA and commercial spacecraft. HVIT directly serves NASA crew safety with MMOD risk assessments for each crewed mission and research into advanced shielding design for future missions. The Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) supports the International Space Station (ISS) and commercial spaceflight through the design of imagery acquisition schemes (ground- and vehicle-based) and imagery analyses for vehicle performance assessments and mission anomaly resolution. ISAG assists the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in the development of camera systems for the Orion spacecraft that will serve as data sources for flight test objectives that lead to crewed missions. The multi-center Imagery Integration Team is led by the Human Exploration Science Office and provides

  6. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have done on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) in order to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ...

  7. The evolutionary basis of human social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T J H; Rendell, L E; Ehn, M; Hoppitt, W; Laland, K N

    2012-02-22

    Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information. Such dependence requires the complex integration of social and asocial information to generate effective learning and decision making. Recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies, but relevant empirical work is scarce and rarely examines multiple strategies or tasks. We tested nine hypotheses derived from theoretical models, running a series of experiments investigating factors affecting when and how humans use social information, and whether such behaviour is adaptive, across several computer-based tasks. The number of demonstrators, consensus among demonstrators, confidence of subjects, task difficulty, number of sessions, cost of asocial learning, subject performance and demonstrator performance all influenced subjects' use of social information, and did so adaptively. Our analysis provides strong support for the hypothesis that human social learning is regulated by adaptive learning rules.

  8. Critical bioethics: beyond the social science critique of applied ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecoe, Adam M

    2004-04-01

    This article attempts to show a way in which social science research can contribute in a meaningful and equitable way to philosophical bioethics. It builds on the social science critique of bioethics present in the work of authors such as Renee Fox, Barry Hoffmaster and Charles Bosk, proposing the characteristics of a critical bioethics that would take social science seriously. The social science critique claims that traditional philosophical bioethics gives a dominant role to idealised, rational thought, and tends to exclude social and cultural factors, relegating them to the status of irrelevancies. Another problem is they way in which bioethics assumes social reality divides down the same lines/categories as philosophical theories. Critical bioethics requires bioethicists to root their enquiries in empirical research, to challenge theories using evidence, to be reflexive and to be sceptical about the claims of other bioethicists, scientists and clinicians. The aim is to produce a rigorous normative analysis of lived moral experience.

  9. Who's Who in the Social and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin

    1983-01-01

    Faculty members in social/behavioral science programs at the Universities of Chicago and California at Berkeley have been given the highest overall "grades" for quality by their academic peers in a survey published by the National Academy of Sciences. Includes scores for anthropology, geography, history, political science, psychology and sociology…

  10. Analyzing the Scientific Evolution of Social Work Using Science Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ma Angeles; Cobo, Manuel Jesús; Herrera, Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports the first science mapping analysis of the social work field, which shows its conceptual structure and scientific evolution. Methods: Science Mapping Analysis Software Tool, a bibliometric science mapping tool based on co-word analysis and h-index, is applied using a sample of 18,794 research articles published from…

  11. Recommendations for the role of social science research in One Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Funk, Julie A; Moccia, Lauren T

    2015-03-01

    The social environment has changed rapidly as technology has facilitated communication among individuals and groups in ways not imagined 20 years ago. Communication technology increasingly plays a role in decision-making about health and environmental behaviors and is being leveraged to influence that process. But at its root is the fundamental need to understand human cognition, communication, and behavior. The concept of 'One Health' has emerged as a framework for interdisciplinary work that cuts across human, animal, and ecosystem health in recognition of their interdependence and the value of an integrated perspective. Yet, the science of communication, information studies, social psychology, and other social sciences have remained marginalized in this emergence. Based on an interdisciplinary collaboration, this paper reports on a nascent conceptual framework for the role of social science in 'One Health' issues and identifies a series of recommendations for research directions that bear additional scrutiny and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Social Science Perspectives into Climate and Global Change Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Li, J.; Zycherman, A.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of social science into climate and global change assessments is fundamental for improving understanding of the drivers, impacts and vulnerability of climate change, and the social, cultural and behavioral challenges related to climate change responses. This requires disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge as well as integrational and translational tools for linking this knowledge with the natural and physical sciences. The USGCRP's Social Science Coordinating Committee (SSCC) is tasked with this challenge and is working to integrate relevant social, economic and behavioral knowledge into processes like sustained assessments. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a recent SSCC workshop, "Social Science Perspectives on Climate Change" and their applications to sustained assessments. The workshop brought academic social scientists from four disciplines - anthropology, sociology, geography and archaeology - together with federal scientists and program managers to discuss three major research areas relevant to the USGCRP and climate assessments: (1) innovative tools, methods, and analyses to clarify the interactions of human and natural systems under climate change, (2) understanding of factors contributing to differences in social vulnerability between and within communities under climate change, and (3) social science perspectives on drivers of global climate change. These disciplines, collectively, emphasize the need to consider socio-cultural, political, economic, geographic, and historic factors, and their dynamic interactions, to understand climate change drivers, social vulnerability, and mitigation and adaptation responses. They also highlight the importance of mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to explain impacts, vulnerability, and responses at different time and spatial scales. This presentation will focus on major contributions of the social sciences to climate and global change research. We will discuss future directions for

  13. Evaluation of Life Sciences and Social Sciences Course Books in Term of Societal Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykac, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books in terms of gender discrimination. This study is a descriptive study aiming to evaluate the primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books…

  14. Social Science Research Findings and Educational Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to raise several distinctions regarding the presumed relationship of social science research findings to social policy making. The distinctions are made using Glymour's critique of the Bell Curve. An argument is made that (1 social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policy makers and (2 what is relevant, but overlooked by Glymour, is how ideological factors mediate the process. The forms that ideological mediation may take are indicated.

  15. Applied data-centric social sciences concepts, data, computation, and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2014-01-01

    Applied data-centric social sciences aim to develop both methodology and practical applications of various fields of social sciences and businesses with rich data. Specifically, in the social sciences, a vast amount of data on human activities may be useful for understanding collective human nature. In this book, the author introduces several mathematical techniques for handling a huge volume of data and analysing collective human behaviour. The book is constructed from data-oriented investigation, with mathematical methods and expressions used for dealing with data for several specific problems. The fundamental philosophy underlying the book is that both mathematical and physical concepts are determined by the purposes of data analysis. This philosophy is shown throughout exemplar studies of several fields in socio-economic systems. From a data-centric point of view, the author proposes a concept that may change people’s minds and cause them to start thinking from the basis of data. Several goals underlie ...

  16. Brain structures in the sciences and humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    The areas of academic interest (sciences or humanities) and area of study have been known to be associated with a number of factors associated with autistic traits. However, despite the vast amount of literature on the psychological and physiological characteristics associated with faculty membership, brain structural characteristics associated with faculty membership have never been investigated directly. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV)/regional white matter volume (rWMV) between science and humanities students to test our hypotheses that brain structures previously robustly shown to be altered in autistic subjects are related to differences in faculty membership. We examined 312 science students (225 males and 87 females) and 179 humanities students (105 males and 74 females). Whole-brain analyses of covariance revealed that after controlling for age, sex, and total intracranial volume, the science students had significantly larger rGMV in an anatomical cluster around the medial prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar area, whereas the humanities students had significantly larger rWMV in an anatomical cluster mainly concentrated around the right hippocampus. These anatomical structures have been linked to autism in previous studies and may mediate cognitive functions that characterize differences in faculty membership. The present results may support the ideas that autistic traits and characteristics of the science students compared with the humanities students share certain characteristics from neuroimaging perspectives. This study improves our understanding of differences in faculty membership which is the link among cognition, biological factors, disorders, and education (academia).

  17. Limits to tolerance: Tribal social order versus human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchhoff Ferdinand Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, there are clear differences in ideologies that are usually not spelled out. The paper follows the approach prescribed by Ben David’s “Victim’s Victimology” (2000 and applies a classical approach to ideologies in social sciences by W.B. Miller (1973. The main subject of this paper is the difference between local order ideology and human rights ideology. The aim is to show that formal social control is determined or influenced by these different ideologies. The authors analyze four cases of victimization of women in different social settings , in Sudan (2012, Canada (2012, India (1985 and in Pakistan (2002. In all these cases the local order ideology clashes with a human rights ideology. Limits to tolerance must be clear.

  18. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. Commentary. Contributions of social science to the health sciences are not always recognized as such. It may help if the professional profile of social science in the health sciences would be higher and if its focus would be more on making useful predictions. Clinical epidemiologists may assume that their discipline includes all relevant methods and that social science is largely based on qualitative research. These perceptions need to be challenged in order to widen the scope of clinical epidemiology and include relevant methods from other sciences. New methods help to ask new research questions and to provide better to old questions. This paper has sketched challenges for both social science researchers and clinical epidemiologists.

  19. Biological and social understanding of human nature: biopolitical dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kostiuchkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the position of the biopolitical nature of man as a biosocial being given supplies of both the two spheres of life – natural, biological and social. The necessity of understanding of human nature, which by definition are bio-social importance of the approach to the definition of man as an integral, binary-konnotovanoyi of the «social individual – a species» which is characterized by symmetrical opposition – upposition social and biological. It was found that the main task of modern political science, and in particular bio-political studies presented appeals to rethink the political picture of the world in order to predict the development of a new order or a new chaos. Understanding the formation of a new global civilization worldview is today one of the most important problems, which is connected with the main problem of the modern world – the task of preserving life on the planet. It is concluded that the contradictions of human nature – between the biological and the social, physical and spiritual, universal and the particular, natural and artificial, rational and emotional – in today’s conditions are extremely sharp. The said situation requires more in-depth scientific analysis of human nature, the study of the structural level as human biosocial system.

  20. Social Networking among Library and Information Science Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakpodia, Onome Norah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine social networking use among Library and Information Science students of the Delta State University, Abraka. In this study, students completed a questionnaire which assessed their familiarity with social networking sites, the purpose for which they use social networking site and their most preferred sites to…

  1. Social Fear Learning: from Animal Models to Human Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiec, Jacek; Olsson, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders. This review discusses recent advances in SFL studies and their implications for basic, social and clinical sciences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Resource Management and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bujor Anca Liliana

    2012-01-01

    The current context of economic development, the transformations that are subject to national and international organizations impose their traditional attitude change in relation to results and performance of current activity. In this context, the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) aims to achieve economic success in an ethical manner with respect for people, communities and environment. This article analyses the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility in relation to Human Resources (HR...

  3. Circuitos segmentados de consagración académica: las revistas de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas en la Argentina = Segmented circuits of academic recognition: the journals of social sciences and humanities in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Beigel

    2015-06-01

    mainstream” circuit was based on the distinction between internationalized scientists and researchers restricted to domestic or “marginal” circuits. In this paper, we focus on the world of social science journals in Argentina in order to deepen our insight on the disciplinar specificity of that principle of hierarchy. In the first part, we describe the circuits according with their power of “international” recognition, in order to go beyond a mere measurement of “visibility”. Then, we develop an analysis of the database that we have built with the universe of Argentine journals to determine how this knowledge circulates. We observe, particularly, a strong domestic circuit, with little or none international impact, consisting of non- indexed journals published only in paper, resulting in a very restricted distribution.

  4. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  5. Controversies on the beginning of human life - science and religions closer and closer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjak, Asim

    2017-04-01

    One of the most controversial topics in modern bioethics, science, and philosophy is the beginning of individual human life. In the seemingly endless debate, strongly stimulated by recent technologic advances in human reproduction, a synthesis between scientific data and hypothesis, philosophical thought, and issues of humanities has become a necessity to deal with ethical, juridical, and social problems. Furthermore, in this field there is a temptation to ask science to choose between opinions and beliefs, which neutralize one another. The question of when human life begins requires the essential aid of different forms of knowledge. Here we become involved in the juncture between science and religion, which needs to be carefully explored.

  6. Incentivising social science perspectives in the SADC water sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the governance challenges facing the water sector necessitates expertise from a diverse set of interdisciplinary backgrounds. Creating a balance between technical, natural and social science is critical to developing relevant and impact...

  7. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. O. O. Umoh, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom. State, Nigeria .... research may be lost through misunderstanding ..... advertisement, the media also should be used to ...

  8. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO. ... media. From the over fifty tertiary institutions in the country graduates are churned .... few were collected at the contact addresses, ... acquisition is paramount for successful job hunting.

  9. Basic mathematics for the biological and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Marriott, F H C

    2013-01-01

    Basic Mathematics for the Biological and Social Sciences deals with the applications of basic mathematics in the biological and social sciences. Mathematical concepts that are discussed in this book include graphical methods, differentiation, trigonometrical or circular functions, limits and convergence, integration, vectors, and differential equations. The exponential function and related functions are also considered. This monograph is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of basic algebra, followed by an introduction to infinitesimal calculus, scalar and vector quantities, co

  10. The socializing workshop and the scientific appraisal in pedagogical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos, Eneida Catalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematization of the authors' experiences as agents of the process of Ph. D. formative process in Pedagogical Sciences leads them to propose The Socialization Workshop, as a valid alternative for scientific valuation of pedagogical investigations, supported in the epistemic nature of this science, as well as the author’s previous contributions about epistemic communication. The definition of The Socialization Workshop, its rationale and corresponding methodological stages are presented.

  11. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  12. How the “Queen Science” Lost Her Crown: A Brief Social History of Science Fairs and the Marginalization of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Marx

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Science fairs at one time started out with an interest of increasing participation in the sciences. But as time has passed, the definition of science has been narrowed to the point where any possible social science project has been eliminated in favor of the bench sciences only. Even here, natural curiosity of students has been deemphasized. It is not surprising that science majors in the USA are becoming fewer and fewer given the narrowing of the disciplines. Young people are discouraged from majoring in science by the science establishment.

  13. To Trust or Not to Trust? What Drives Public Trust in Science in Social Media Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Y. L.; Oliver, C.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The erosion of public trust in science is a serious concern today. This climate of distrust has real consequences, from the anti-vaccination movement to climate change denials. The age of social media promises opportunities for improved interactivity between scientists and the public, which experts hope will help improve public confidence in science. However, evidence linking social media engagement and public attitude towards science is scarce. Our study aimed to help fill this gap. We examined Twitter engagement and its impact on public trust in science, focusing on two related science issues: space science and climate change. Our datasets comprised of 10,000 randomly sampled tweets over a month's period in 2016. We used human annotation and machine learning to analyse the tweets. Results revealed the level of distrust was significantly higher in the climate change tweets. However, in the climate change network, people who engaged with science personalities trust science more than those who did not. This difference in trust levels was not present in the space science network. There the two clusters of people displayed similar levels of trust in science. Additionally, we used machine learning to predict the trust labels of tweets and conducted feature analysis to find the properties of trust-inspiring tweets. Our supervised learning algorithm was able to predict trust in science in our sample tweets with 84% accuracy. The strongest predictors of trust in science (as conveyed by tweets) were similarity, presence of URL and authenticity. Contrast this with the findings of our previous study investigating the features of highly engaging space science related social media messages, authenticity is the only feature that also inspires trust. This indicates that what works to promote engagement (e.g. `retweets', `Likes') does not necessarily build trust in science. Social media science communication is not as simple as `we engage, therefore they trust'. We suggest that

  14. A systematic review of US rangeland social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland science aims to create knowledge to sustain rangeland social-ecological systems over the long term. Range science has made substantial progress on understanding ecological dynamics of rangeland systems and the management practices that sustain them, and these findings have been systematica...

  15. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences generally aims to foster progressive partnerships between different stake holders towards sustainable Agriculture. Papers in Animal husbandry, Fisheries, wild life, crop and Soil Science, agricultural economics, Extension, Forestry, environment and papers with a ...

  16. Oxytocin and social affiliation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth

    2012-03-01

    A conceptual model detailing the process of bio-behavioral synchrony between the online physiological and behavioral responses of attachment partners during social contact is presented as a theoretical and empirical framework for the study of affiliative bonds. Guided by an ethological behavior-based approach, we suggest that micro-level social behaviors in the gaze, vocal, affective, and touch modalities are dynamically integrated with online physiological processes and hormonal response to create dyad-specific affiliations. Studies across multiple attachments throughout life are presented and demonstrate that the extended oxytocin (OT) system provides the neurohormonal substrate for parental, romantic, and filial attachment in humans; that the three prototypes of affiliation are expressed in similar constellations of social behavior; and that OT is stable over time within individuals, is mutually-influencing among partners, and that mechanisms of cross-generation and inter-couple transmission relate to coordinated social behavior. Research showing links between peripheral and genetic markers of OT with concurrent parenting and memories of parental care; between administration of OT to parent and infant's physiological readiness for social engagement; and between neuropeptides and the online synchrony of maternal and paternal brain response in social-cognitive and empathy networks support the hypothesis that human attachment develops within the matrix of biological attunement and close behavioral synchrony. The findings have conceptual implications for the study of inter-subjectivity as well as translational implications for the treatment of social disorders originating in early childhood, such as autism spectrum disorders, or those associated with disruptions to early bonding, such as postpartum depression or child abuse and neglect. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics.

  18. Exploring Social Dynamics in School Science Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet C. Ayar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-cultural practices and interactions of learning science in a science classroom within the concept of communities of practice. Our qualitative data were collected through observing, taking field notes, and conducting interviews in a public science classroom during an entire school year. The study occurred in a seventh-grade classroom with a veteran physical science teacher, with more than 10 years teaching experience, and 22 students. For this article, we presented two classroom vignettes that reflect a sample of the participation, practice, and community that was observed in the science classroom on a daily basis. The first vignette illustrated a typical formula of Initiation–Response–Feedback (I-R-F that transfers knowledge to students through a teacher-led discussion with the entire class. The second vignette described a laboratory activity designed to allow students to apply or discover knowledge through practical experience, while taking responsibility for their learning through small-group work. The normative practices and routine behaviors of the science classroom are highlighted through the description of material resources, and different modes of participation accompanied by assigned roles and responsibilities. What we observed was that laboratory activities reproduced the epistemic authority of the I-R-F rather than creating collective cognitive responsibility where students have the independence to explore and create authentic science experiences.

  19. The principle of an NRF rating system for the humanities and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Research Foundation (NRF) is proposing to introduce a ratings system for the humanities and social sciences comparable to that which pertains in the natural sciences. The article welcomes this development, and argues for full and open consultation with the research community regarding appropriate ratings ...

  20. Social behaviour in the Age of Empathy? – A social scientist’s perspective on current trends in the behavioural sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eMatusall

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the ‘social brain’ that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what social means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what social means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the social. The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalise prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  1. Experts and consensus in social science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, C.; Boumans, M.

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together the research of philosophers and social scientists. It examines those areas of scientific practice where reliance on the subjective judgment of experts and practitioners is the main source of useful knowledge to address, and, possibly, bring solutions to social problems. A

  2. Health and environment: social science perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.; Keune, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this new book the authors examine the contribution of social scientists to the topics of health and environment. They present diverse perspectives on classical and contemporary debates by focusing on social scientific framing of environment and health, as well as on the potential contribution of

  3. Information-seeking behavior of social sciences scholars: A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...

  4. Leyla and Mahmood--Emotions in Social Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blennow, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The paper explores what emotions do in social science education through two specific cases and discusses the relation between emotion and politicization in the subject education. Method/approach: The cases are selected from an on-going dissertation project that uses interviews, video and observations in examining how social science…

  5. Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism: Recommendations for Social Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that…

  6. Against integration - Why evolution cannot unify the social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M

    A lack of integration is often identified as a fundamental problem in psychology and the social sciences. It is thought that only through increased cooperation among the various disciplines and subdisciplines, and integration of their different theoretical approaches, can psychology and the social

  7. The Social Science Teacher; Vol. 4, No. 1, Summer 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles, Ed.

    This new British journal is a medium of communication for those involved in teaching social science and social studies at the secondary and elementary levels. The first article in this issue, Ian Shelton's "The Sociology of Everyday Life," describes an experimental short course in secondary sociology. The course is designed to produce an…

  8. Science Fiction in Social Education: Exploring Consequences of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.

    2013-01-01

    An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…

  9. Shaping Social Work Science: What Should Quantitative Researchers Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shenyang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a review of economists' debates on mathematical economics, this article discusses a key issue for shaping the science of social work--research methodology. The article describes three important tasks quantitative researchers need to fulfill in order to enhance the scientific rigor of social work research. First, to test theories using…

  10. Social studies of science and us. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses some social impacts related with nuclear wastes, nuclear energy, nuclear weapons and radioanalytical chemistry. They are based on the talks delivered at the meeting of the Society for the Social Studies of Science (4S) in November 1983. (The first part of the publication does not contain references to nuclear problems). (A.L.)

  11. Pathways from College to University: A Social Science Example from Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, Ann; Samis, John; Hinch, Ron; Longo, Fabiola; DiGiuseppe, Maurice; Goodman, William; Percival, Jennifer; De La Rocha, Arlene; Rodrigues, Anna; Raby, Phil; Sanchez, Otto

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of a College to University Pathway Program in the Faculty of Social Science and Humanities at The University of Ontario Institute of Technology. The findings support the assertion that Pathway students perform as well as or better than students who enter university directly from secondary school. This finding is…

  12. Connecting Psychological Science with Climate Change: A Persuasion and Social Influence Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Behlen, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    Students often have little understanding of the role psychological science plays in informing us about the impact of human behavior when addressing climate change. We designed an assignment for a social psychology course based on Frantz and Mayer's use of the decision tree model of helping behavior to identify the psychological barriers that…

  13. The evolution of wilderness social science and future research to protect experiences, resources, and societal benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Robert Manning; Steven Martin

    2016-01-01

    The historic Wilderness Act celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2014, and wilderness social science shared a similar legacy. As paradoxical as it might seem, humans are an important part of wilderness, helping to define the very concept and representing an important component of wilderness use and management. Much of the past five decades of wilderness-related...

  14. Mapping Social Interactions: The Science of Proxemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Cade

    Interpersonal distance and gaze provide a wealth of information during face-to-face social interactions. These "proxemic" behaviors offer a window into everyday social cognition by revealing interactants' affective states (e.g., interpersonal attitudes) and cognitive responses (e.g., social attention). Here we provide a brief overview of the social psychological literature in this domain. We focus on new techniques for experimentally manipulating and measuring proxemics, including the use of immersive virtual environments and digital motion capture. We also discuss ways in which these approaches can be integrated with psychophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. Throughout, we argue that contemporary proxemics research provides psychology and neuroscience with a means to study social cognition and behavior as they naturally emerge and unfold in vivo.

  15. The Methodological Socialization of Social Science Doctoral Students in China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Robert A.; Zheng, Mi; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study reports findings from a comparative analysis of the methodological socialization of doctoral students in the social sciences at two universities: one in China and one in the USA. Relying primarily on theories of organizational socialization, the study focuses on formal and informal processes students report as part of…

  16. A Sample Application for Use of Biography in Social Studies; Science, Technology and Social Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Harun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the opinions of social studies teacher candidates on use of biography in science, technology and social change course given in the undergraduate program of social studies education. In this regard, convergent parallel design as a mixed research pattern was used to make use of both qualitative and quantitative…

  17. Social sciences in Puget Sound recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine F. Wellman; Kelly Biedenweg; Kathleen Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Advancing the recovery of large-scale ecosystems, such as the Puget Sound inWashington State, requires improved knowledge of the interdependencies between nature and humans in that basin region. As Biedenweg et al. (this issue) illustrate, human wellbeing and human behavior do not occur independently of the biophysical environment. Natural environments contribute to...

  18. Exploring Social Learning through Upstream Engagement in Science and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose

    This discussion paper deliberates on how the concept of social learning can be used for evaluating upstream engagement initiatives in science and technology.  The paper briefly introduces to the concept of upstream engagement and a concrete case, the UK Citizen Science for Sustainability project...... (SuScit), as an outset for discussing how the concept of social learning can be used for analysing and understanding relations between citizen participation, Science and research, and sustainability. A number of relevant research questions and methodological considerations are distilled...

  19. Mind the Gap: Appropriate Evolutionary Perspectives toward the Integration of the Sciences and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Leslie L.; Garcia, Justin R.; Wilson, David Sloan

    2010-01-01

    Although Darwinism has gained a foothold in the social sciences, in the humanities, with a few exceptions, it is still largely rejected--not, as some would claim, because humanists are all radical poststructuralists who deny that material reality exists, but rather because, with notable exceptions, Darwinists who work within the humanities have…

  20. Science Students and the Social Sciences: Strange Bedfellows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Foong May

    2014-01-01

    With various internet resources available to students, the main aim of a good university education today should not merely be to provide students with content knowledge, but rather to equip them with essential skills necessary to develop into lifelong learners. Among science educators, repeated calls have been made to promote a more holistic…

  1. Social defeat models in animal science: What we have learned from rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    Studies on stress and its impacts on animals are very important in many fields of science, including animal science, because various stresses influence animal production and animal welfare. In particular, the social stresses within animal groups have profound impact on animals, with the potential to induce abnormal behaviors and health problems. In humans, social stress induces several health problems, including psychiatric disorders. In animal stress models, social defeat models are well characterized and used in various research fields, particularly in studies concerning mental disorders. Recently, we have focused on behavior, nutrition and metabolism in rodent models of social defeat to elucidate how social stresses affect animals. In this review, recent significant progress in studies related to animal social defeat models are described. In the field of animal science, these stress models may contribute to advances in the development of functional foods and in the management of animal welfare. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. entrepreneurship opportunities in social and management sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    most manufacturing and service-providing organizations is ... manufacturing concerns of the .... security needs for protection and safety; (iii) .... as religion, social class, belief, income bracket .... other apart from general exposure to the world of.

  3. Social Bots: Human-Like by Means of Human Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Christian; Preuss, Mike; Adam, Lena; Trautmann, Heike

    2017-12-01

    Social bots are currently regarded an influential but also somewhat mysterious factor in public discourse and opinion making. They are considered to be capable of massively distributing propaganda in social and online media, and their application is even suspected to be partly responsible for recent election results. Astonishingly, the term social bot is not well defined and different scientific disciplines use divergent definitions. This work starts with a balanced definition attempt, before providing an overview of how social bots actually work (taking the example of Twitter) and what their current technical limitations are. Despite recent research progress in Deep Learning and Big Data, there are many activities bots cannot handle well. We then discuss how bot capabilities can be extended and controlled by integrating humans into the process and reason that this is currently the most promising way to realize meaningful interactions with other humans. This finally leads to the conclusion that hybridization is a challenge for current detection mechanisms and has to be handled with more sophisticated approaches to identify political propaganda distributed with social bots.

  4. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The idea of human prehistory: the natural sciences, the human sciences, and the problem of human origins in Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    The idea of human prehistory was a provocative and profoundly influential new notion that took shape gradually during the nineteenth century. While archaeology played an important role in providing the evidence for this idea many other sciences such as geology, paleontology, ethnology, and physical anthropology all made critical contributions to discussions about human prehistory. Many works have explored the history of prehistoric archaeology but this paper examines the conceptual content of the idea of "human prehistory" as it developed in the British scientific community. Both the natural and the human sciences contributed to what was in fact a complex collection of individual elements that together constituted the prevailing idea of human prehistory, although there were other competing conceptions of human prehistory endorsed by various scientists and critics of the new view of early human history.

  6. Contextualising the role of the gatekeeper in social science research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the physical premises of a specified organisation, for example, employees of ... Discipline of Psychology, School of Applied Human Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, ... research site has the resources to host the proposed study, and to.

  7. Social Science, Equity and the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.

  8. Social learning in humans and other animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François eGariépy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decisions made by individuals can be influenced by what others think and do. Social learning includes a wide array of behaviors such as imitation, observational learning of novel foraging techniques, peer or parental influences on individual preferences, as well as outright teaching. These processes are believed to underlie an important part of cultural variation among human populations and may also explain intraspecific variation in behavior between geographically distinct populations of animals. Recent neurobiological studies have begun to uncover the neural basis of social learning. Here we review experimental evidence from the past few decades showing that social learning is a widespread set of skills present in multiple animal species. In mammals, the temporoparietal junction, the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus, appear to play critical roles in social learning. Birds, fish and insects also learn from others, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. We discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings and highlight the importance of emerging animal models that permit precise modification of neural circuit function for elucidating the neural basis of social learning.

  9. A data discovery index for the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Thomas; Klas, Claus-Peter; Hausstein, Brigitte

    2018-04-10

    This paper describes a novel search index for social and economic research data, one that enables users to search up-to-date references for data holdings in these disciplines. The index can be used for comparative analysis of publication of datasets in different areas of social science. The core of the index is the da|ra registration agency's database for social and economic data, which contains high-quality searchable metadata from registered data publishers. Research data's metadata records are harvested from data providers around the world and included in the index. In this paper, we describe the currently available indices on social science datasets and their shortcomings. Next, we describe the motivation behind and the purpose for the data discovery index as a dedicated and curated platform for finding social science research data and gesisDataSearch, its user interface. Further, we explain the harvesting, filtering and indexing procedure and give usage instructions for the dataset index. Lastly, we show that the index is currently the most comprehensive and most accessible collection of social science data descriptions available.

  10. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  11. Qualitative Data Sharing Practices in Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Social scientists have been sharing data for a long time. Sharing qualitative data, however, has not become a common practice, despite the context of e-Research, information growth, and funding agencies' mandates on research data archiving and sharing. Since most systematic and comprehensive studies are based on quantitative data practices, little…

  12. 77 FR 24228 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of...; Division of Social and Economic Sciences, Room 990, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard... Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site visit review of the Nanoscale Science and...

  13. University genres in disciplinary domains: social sciences and humanities and basic sciences and engineering Gêneros acadêmicos nas diferentes disciplinas: ciências sociais e humanidades e ciências básicas e engenharia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Parodi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of disciplinarity is becoming increasingly salient in discourse studies. Questions of how differences in the structures of intellectual fields and curricula help shape educational experiences and outcomes are the focus of studies across a variety of disciplines using a range of approaches. One way to access the specialized written genres employed by academia is to begin from the tenet that all materials read by students during their university training reveal relevant data about disciplinary genres. This article presents research that focuses on the collection, construction, and description of an academic corpus based on texts collected in four disciplinary domains of knowledge: Industrial Chemistry, Construction Engineering, Social Work, and Psychology. A review of the concepts of genre and academic discourse is presented. This is followed by a description of the procedures of collecting and organizing the Academic Corpus PUCV-2006, which comprises almost 60 million words. In addition, a preliminary genre typology of the 491 text corpus is provided.O tema da disciplinaridade está se tornando cada vez mais relevante nos estudos do discurso. Uma maneira de conhecer os gêneros escritos específicos utilizados na universidade, é ter acesso ao material que os estudantes lêem durante sua formação universitária. Este artigo apresenta uma investigação que tem como foco a coleta, construção e descrição de um corpus acadêmico baseado em textos de quatro áreas: Química Industrial, Engenharia da Civil, Serviço Social e Psicologia. Apresenta-se uma revisão dos conceitos e gêneros do discurso acadêmico. Segue-se uma descrição dos procedimentos de coleta e organização do corpus acadêmico PUCV-2006, que compreende um total de 60 milhões de palavras e uma tipologia dos gêneros a partir dos 491 textos do corpus.

  14. Personality and social skills in human-dog interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley

    developing a social tool set that makes it very successful in interacting and communicating with humans. Human evolution has similarly resulted in the development of complex social cognition in humans. This enables humans to form bonded relationships, besides pair-bonding, and it seems that humans are also...... of this thesis was to attain a better understanding of some of the factors related to the inter-action between humans and dogs. This aim was addressed by focusing on dog personality and hu-man social skills in relation to human-dog interaction. Two studies investigated dog personality and how it a) affects...... the relationship with the owner, and b) is affected by human breeding goals. Two studies investigated how human social skills affect the communication and interaction between hu-man and dog. As part of these studies it was also investigated how experience with dogs interacts with human social skills, perception...

  15. The Science and Social Necessity of Deceased Organ Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis L. Delmonico

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful deceased organ donation requires a reproducible – consistent (scientific system that evaluates the potential for organ donation and determines objectively whether the national system is achieving its goals. The science of organ donation also pertains to the determination of death. We are a common humanity that dies similarly – a humanity whose ultimate criterion of life resides in the function of the human brain. The recent brain death law of Israel encouragingly enables a determination of death by the loss of neurologic function, but it has become complicated by a practice that may perpetuate societal misperceptions. As a result opportunities for deceased organ donation – to provide for Israelis in need of organ transplants – are being lost. A statured task force of society could be assembled to convey its support for deceased donation to influence society and resolve these misperceptions. The World Health Organization is now calling for each member state to achieve a self-sufficiency in organ donation and transplantation “equitably meeting the transplantation needs of a given population using resources from within that population”. Patients should not be compelled to go to foreign countries for their organs. Israel has been a leader in the development of a model program intended to address transplant tourism. Insurance companies are no longer permitted to provide resources for Israelis to undergo illegal transplants in foreign destinations. The social necessity of a scientifically and medically applied system of deceased organ donation is now evident so that a sufficient number of organs can be available for patients from within the country where they reside.

  16. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  17. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    education research to question whether conventional research approaches, foci and theoretical approaches are sufficient in a world of science education that is neither politically neutral, nor free of cultural values. Attention is not only on the individual learner but on the cultural, social and political......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...

  18. Social Thinking®: Science, Pseudoscience, or Antiscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Kassardjian, Alyne; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L; Cihon, Joseph H; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-06-01

    Today, there are several interventions that can be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Most of these interventions have limited to no empirical evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, yet they are widely implemented in home, school, university, and community settings. In 1996, Green wrote a chapter in which she outlined three levels of science: evidence science, pseudoscience, and antiscience; professionals were encouraged to implement and recommend only those procedures that would be considered evidence science. Today, an intervention that is commonly implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is Social Thinking®. This intervention has been utilized by behaviorists and non-behaviorists. This commentary will outline Social Thinking® and provide evidence that the procedure, at the current time, qualifies as a pseudoscience and, therefore, should not be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, especially given the availability of alternatives which clearly meet the standard of evidence science.

  19. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-04

    Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students' opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Data were collected from the Universitas 21 "Use of social media in health education" survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media "almost always" reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education. ©Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Emily Cutts, Sushma Kavikondala, Alejandra Salcedo, Karan D'Souza, Martin Hernandez-Torre, Claire Anderson, Agnes Tiwari, Kendall

  20. ARTS, AND TEACHING OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Marcela Ríos Rincón

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El texto abarca el problema de la enseñanza de las ciencias sociales -en particular de la historia- a través del arte pictórico. En este propósito, describe una propuesta de interpretación de la obra artística como parte de un sistema comunicativo que se puede leer desde el discurso semiótico que se incorpora a su vez en un sistema de interiorización cognitiva de conceptos sociales. Se discute la posibilidad de encontrar en el arte pictórico una fuente de formación en valores por encima de ilustración realista de la realidad social. Por último, se propone el tema de la violencia política en Colombia en la segunda mitad del siglo XX a través de obras artísticas como espacio de enseñanza de la historia en los términos discutidos previamente.

  1. Fifty years of sociological leadership at Social Science and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Stefan; Tietbohl, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    In this review article, we examine some of the conceptual contributions of sociology of health and illness over the past fifty years. Specifically, we focus on research dealing with medicalization, the management of stigma, research on adherence and compliance, and patient-doctor interaction. We show how these themes that originated within sociology, diffused in other disciplines. Sociology in Social Science and Medicine started as an applied research tradition but morphed into a robust, stand-alone social science tradition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The “Second” Vienna School as Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Verstegen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Kunstwollen, not as a historicized concept, but as a social scientific construct open to reinterpretation and input from the evolving sciences. Emphasizing especially the contributions of Hans Sedlmayr in his Introduction to Riegl’s Collected Works (1929 and Otto Pächt’s article on Riegl (1962, attention departs from Riegl to set the stage regarding the meaning of Kunstwollen. Emphasizing its roots in materialistic social history, inspired by evolution, the article undertakes vignettes of paired art historians and social theorists: Dvorak and Karl Mannheim, Sedlmayr and Alfred Vierkandt, and Otto Pächt and Wolfgang Metzger. It can be seen that Kunstwollen is interpreted with the tools of social science as the sociology of knowledge (Mannheim, Vierkandt with refinements from Gestalt psychology (Metzger. As the career of Pächt progresses, the Austrian art historian looks for ways to stress continuous evolution, historical determinism and compulsion, and the super-individuality of artistic tradition.

  3. Social Media and Science: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, W.; Robinson, S.; Arrowsmith, R.; Semken, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    What is black and white and 'read' all over? Facebook, that's what. As of December 2012 Facebook had over 618 million daily users, and over a billion monthly users from around the world (http://newsroom.fb.com/Key-Facts). Twitter has more than 130 million active users and generates as many as 340 million Tweets a day (http://blog.twitter.com/2012/03/twitter-turns-six.html). Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter are not the future of communication, they are the reality, and scientists (and science organizations) need to become part of the conversation. More than half of the teenage and adult population of the US belongs to a social network or are using another form of social media on a regular basis. This creates an opportunity for organizations to use the well-established functionality and pervasiveness of social media platforms to communicate important scientific information and discoveries. In addition, the informal environment of social media allows scientists to interact with non-scientists in a friendly and non-threatening way that can be used to create engagement scenarios that continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify science. Social media also provides scientists with the means and opportunity to improve the way science is viewed by the public while improving general science literacy and integrating scientific discoveries into the fabric of the lives of non-scientists. Many questions remain regarding the best way to utilize the opportunities that social media present. For instance, how can we reach a broader, more diverse audience? What are realistic expectations about the effects of social media? How do we improve the quality of content? How can we use social media to communicate scientific information in innovative ways? And perhaps most importantly, how do we know if we are communicating successfully? The EarthScope National Office will share our experiences creating a social media program from the

  4. The Social Sciences and their compromisse with truth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro W. Barbosa de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the social scientists responsability in relation to justice and truth, based in the practical and theoretical experiences of the author in the field of Social Anthropology. Although the text adresses the Social Sciences from the perspective of Social Anthropology, it deals with topics in which the researchers and ativists activities require a cooperative action of lawyers, engineers and biologists among the work of sociologists and geographers – all that is involved in the situations when it is necessary to tell the truth and also to judge about justice and injustice in social life. Justice and truth notions are social scientists weapons and they can not be abandoned in the hands of conservative thought.

  5. Social science research in malaria prevention, management and control in the last two decades: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenesi, Halima Abdullah

    2005-09-01

    In the recent past, considerable progress has been made in understanding how human behavior and social organization, macro- and micro-level economic processes, and health and political systems affect responses to malaria at global, national, community, household, and individual levels. Advances in malaria-related social, behavioral, economic, evaluation, health systems, and policy (social science) research have resulted in improvements in the design and implementation of malaria prevention, management and control (PMC) strategies. Indeed, the past two decades chronicle dramatic advances in the implementation of evidence-based interventions, drawn not only from biomedical but also from social science research. Malaria awareness-raising, advocacy, case management, and prevention efforts have reaped the benefits of social science research and as a result, many programs are implemented and evaluated in a more effective manner than in the past. However, the pace at which findings from social science research are integrated into program and policy implementation is unsatisfactory. Additionally, examples remain of programs that fail to utilize findings from social science research and as a result, achieve minimal results. Furthermore, there is a sizeable body of knowledge that is underutilized and which, if assimilated into programs and policies, could accelerate progress in malaria PMC. Examples include information on meaningful community participation, gender, socio-economic status, and health systems. Regrettably, although social science input is necessary for almost all interventions for malaria management and control, the numbers of scientists working in this area are dismal in most of the key disciplines-medical anthropology; demography; geography and sociology; health economics and health policy; social psychology; social epidemiology; and behavior-change communication. Further, skills of program workers charged with implementation of interventions and strategies

  6. Converging social classes through humanized urban edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuan, M. V.; Galingan, Z. D.

    2017-10-01

    Urban open spaces are created to be used by people. It is a place of convergence and social activity. However, these places have transformed into places of divergence. When spaces become dehumanized, it separates social classes. As a result, underused spaces contribute to urban decay. Particularly an urban edge, the JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is the center of this paper. The JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is a waterfront development situated along the banks of one of Metro Manila’s major water thoroughfare --- Pasig River. The park and its physical form, urban design and landscape tend to deteriorate over time --- creating a further division of social convergence. Social hostility, crime, negligent maintenance and poor urban design are contributing factors to this sprawling decay in what used to be spaces of bringing people together. Amidst attempts to beautify and renew this portion of Makati City’s edge, the urban area still remains misspent.This paper attempts to re-humanize the waterfront development. It uses the responsive environment design principles to be able to achieve this goal.

  7. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.

  8. Scalable, Secure Analysis of Social Sciences Data on the Azure Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Deng, Litao; Kumbhare, Alok; Redekopp, Mark; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-05-07

    Human activity and interaction data is beginning to be collected at population scales through the pervasiveness of social media and willingness of people to volunteer information. This can allow social science researchers to understand and model human behavior with better accuracy and prediction power. Political and social scientists are starting to correlate such large scale social media datasets with events that impact society as evidence abound of the virtual and physical public spaces intersecting and influencing each other [1,2]. Managers of Cyber Physical Systems such as Smart Power Grid utilities are investigating the impact of consumer behavior on power consumption, and the possibility of influencing the usage profile [3]. Data collection is also made easier through technology such as mobile apps, social media sites and search engines that directly collect data, and sensors such smart meters and room occupancy sensors that indirectly measure human activity. These technology platforms also provide a convenient framework for “human sensors” to record and broadcast data for behavioral studies, as a form of crowd sourced citizen science. This has the added advantage of engaging the broader public in STEM activities and help influence public policy.

  9. Derivatives Trading, Climate Science and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    for capital flows associated with climate management. Media communications and decision making theories are used to interpret data drawn from participant observation and interviews with climate scientists, policy makers and institutional investors. Findings - The framework suggests a digital divide between...... the heaviest polluters as contributing to carbon-minimised investment portfolios. Assets owned by privately managed pension funds have remained materially exposed to risks posed by climate change. In public finance, a narrow range of financial instruments centred on derivatives trading has entrenched global...... between human rights, climate change, and the stability of private pensions provision. Originality/value - Provides policy sciences useful assessments of communication media and financial instruments used in climate management. Establishes bases for theoretical and applied communications research...

  10. Social Justice and Out-of-School Science Learning: Exploring Equity in Science Television, Science Clubs and Maker Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Emily

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines how social justice theories, in combination with the concepts of infrastructure access, literacies and community acceptance, can be used to think about equity in out-of-school science learning. The author applies these ideas to out-of-school learning via television, science clubs, and maker spaces, looking at research as well…

  11. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  12. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    conditions and contexts in science education. The different chapters review debates and research in teacher education, school teaching and learning including when external stakeholders are involved. Even though the chapters are contextualized in Nordic settings there will be similarities and parallels...... that will be informative to the international science education research community.......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...

  13. Do Perceptions of Gifted Intelligence and Normal Intelligence Participants Differ about Social Science and Social Scientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Sezgin; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to compare the perceptions of students with gifted intelligence and students with those of normal intelligence about social science and social scientists. The data obtained from 23 gifted intelligent and 23 normal participants within the same age group was analysed using content analysis and results were…

  14. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  15. Safety: Science and technique in social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The author describes in a simple and clearly written Dutch text the relationship between scientific and technical knowledge and the social problems concerning the safety of nuclear energy. He begins with the cooling system of reactors and the safety aspects of the associated pumps. He uses this example to illustrate that the quantative determination of failure risks need not necessarily be relevant for judging the acceptance of the risk but is always relevant as a method of judging the effect of technical improvements on safety values. The author then considers the radiological effects of the operation of a nuclear plant by presenting the doses of radioactivity released if a reactor is operating normally, if there are technical problems and in the case of accidents. The corresponding biological effects on man are also presented and in an appendix the radiological consequences of reactor accidents are considered in some detail. He describes a number of models used in such calculations - for metereological distribution, dosimetry for internal radiation, cancer induction - to illustrate the margins of uncertainty in the predictions. According to the author safety aspects should not just be seen as a purely technical problem, starting with the fact that nuclear energy is desirable and then ensuring that all required safety regulations are met. Safety aspects are a social problem and should be considered by first discussing whether nuclear energy is acceptable, taking into consideration such consequences as the effects of possible accidents and the long term effects of reactor operation. (C.F.)

  16. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  17. Inequality in the Scientific Community: The Effects of Cumulative Advantage among Social Scientists and Humanities Scholars in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keuntae; Kim, Jong-Kil

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to provide a balanced perspective for understanding inequality in research productivity among Korean scholars in humanities and social sciences. Specifically, we examine cumulative advantage over the careers of a sample of Korean social scientists and humanities scholars (N = 8933). Descriptive analyses indicated…

  18. 77 FR 24227 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of... Engineering Center (NSEC) at Arizona State University by the Division Social and Economic Sciences ( 10748... Kronz, Program Director; Science, Technology and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic...

  19. Social collective intelligence combining the powers of humans and machines to build a smarter society

    CERN Document Server

    Miorandi, Daniele; Rovatsos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on Social Collective Intelligence, a term used to denote a class of socio-technical systems that combine, in a coordinated way, the strengths of humans, machines and collectives in terms of competences, knowledge and problem solving capabilities with the communication, computing and storage capabilities of advanced ICT.Social Collective Intelligence opens a number of challenges for researchers in both computer science and social sciences; at the same time it provides an innovative approach to solve challenges in diverse application domains, ranging from health to education

  20. Perceived social support among students of medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Alavijeh, Freshteh; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Raeesi; Shahry, Parvin

    2017-06-01

    Social support is emotional and instrumental assistance from family, friends or neighbors, and has an important but different impact on individuals, mainly depending on contextual factors. To determine the status of perceived social support and related personal and family characteristics of medical sciences students in Ahvaz, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the target population included the students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in the second semester of 2013-2014, of whom 763 were selected by cluster random sampling method. The study tool was a two-part questionnaire containing 48 self-administered questions including 25 questions of measurements of personal and family characteristics and a Persian modified version of Vaux's social support scale (Cronbach's α=0.745). Data were analyzed with T test, ANOVA and chi-square and using SPSS version 16 and 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. The mean score of the perceived social support was 17.06±3.6 and 60.3% of them reported low social support. There was a significant relationship among the perceived social support and sex (p=0.02), faculty (psocial support and importance of social support in reducing stress and academic failure, the planners need to provide efficient supportive interventions for students.

  1. On Using GIS to Teach in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how a professor can harness the power of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and use GIS to teach in the social sciences. She shows examples of how GIS can illustrate concepts during lecture or discussion, and provides two specific GIS assignments: one for undergraduate students and the other for graduate…

  2. Using WebQuests in the Social Sciences Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachina, Olga A.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates if WebQuests have been an effective instructional tool for teaching Social Sciences subjects. In order to obtain an answer to this question, a review of scholarly literature from 1995 to the present has been undertaken and action research in 8th grade U.S. history course was conducted. The literature investigation has…

  3. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq - phase ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    appuyer sur le travail accompli au cours de la première phase du projet (103936) pour concevoir et offrir une formation en méthodes et techniques de recherche en sciences sociales destinée à de jeunes intellectuels et réaliser des recherches sur ...

  4. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three regions: Baghdad, southern Iraq and Kurdistan. In doing so, the Institute will identify strengths and weaknesses, gaps in the literature, themes of current interest to ...

  5. The Treatment of Wife Abuse in Recent Social Science Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Laurie; And Others

    This paper reviews the social science literature dealing with gender relations in marriage and the issues of wife abuse. It is argued that the old anti-woman biases of the literature have not really diminished under the impact of feminism. The sexist assumptions and victim-blaming focus of the new battery literature are examined through…

  6. Priors & prejudice : using existing knowledge in social science research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wesel, F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in the social sciences usually start their research with the formulation of research goals and questions, which, together with studying the existing literature, lead to the formulation of hypotheses. Next, data is collected using experiments or questionnaires and is subsequently

  7. Psychology, Social Science and the Management of Violent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the salient aspects of an eight – year experience in the Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Abuja – Nigeria, where the author ... matter of psychology and rivalry emanating from subtle competition among sub disciplines of the social science for hegemonic role in conflict management, (b) many of ...

  8. Popper's Fact-Standard Dualism Contra "Value Free" Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlin, Fred H.

    1983-01-01

    Noncognitivism, the belief that normative statements (unlike empirical statements) do not convey objective knowledge is contrasted to Karl Popper's "critical dualism," which maintains that science is imbued with values and value judgments. Noncognitivism impedes the development of a social scientific method which would integrate…

  9. Causal Inference for Statistics, Social, and Biomedical Sciences: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbens, Guido W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Most questions in social and biomedical sciences are causal in nature: what would happen to individuals, or to groups, if part of their environment were changed? In this groundbreaking text, two world-renowned experts present statistical methods for studying such questions. This book starts with the notion of potential outcomes, each corresponding…

  10. Mathematics and social science : a statistical mechanics approach to immigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contucci, P.; Giardinà, C.

    2008-01-01

    Is modern science able to study social matters like those related to immigration phenomena on solid mathematical grounds? Can we for instance determine cultural robustness and the causes behind abrupt changes from cultural legacies? Can we predict, cause or avoid swings? A novel approach is under

  11. Globalising Service-Learning in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoncelli, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing internationalisation of social science curricula in undergraduate education along with the growth of service-learning has provided new opportunities to join the two. This article offers a refection and discussion of service-learning with placements in international nongovernmental organisations (INGOs), drawing from its application…

  12. Recreation, protected areas, and social science: where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Payne

    1998-01-01

    I am new in my job as coordinator for USDA Forest Service research in recreation, social sciences, and wilderness. I predict that we will be giving greater attention and resources to this area in the near future, despite recent budget cuts and personnel reductions. Researchers should cooperate with each other nation-wide, and involve resource managers and users in the...

  13. Attitudes toward Information Competency of University Students in Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, María; Fernández-Pascual, Rosaura; Gómez-Hernández, José A.; Cuevas, Aurora; Granell, Ximo; Puertas, Susana; Guerrero, David; Gómez, Carmen; Palomares, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' self-assessment of their information literacy, presenting a study involving 1,575 social science students at five Spanish universities. Data were collected and analyzed through a validated instrument that measures the variables of (1) the students' belief in the importance of information literacy skills; (2)…

  14. A Science of Social Work? Response to John Brekke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ian

    2014-01-01

    I take the opportunity provided by John Brekke's (2012) article to respond to the general assumptions and approaches that may be brought when considering the question of a science of social work. I consider first, what should be our frames of reference, our communities of interest, or our boundaries of inclusion, for such a discussion?…

  15. The Limitations of Quantitative Social Science for Informing Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.

  16. Integrating Social Science and Ecosystem Management: A National Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell; H. Ken; Linda Caldwell

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings contain the contributed papers and panel presentations, as well as a paper presented at the National Workshop, of the Conference on Integrating Social Sciences and Ecosystem Management, which was held at Unicoi Lodge and Conference Center, Helen, GA, December 12-14, 1995. The overall purpose of this Conference was to improve understanding, integration...

  17. Mathematics education giving meaning to Social Science students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Annica; Valero, Paola

    Compulsory mathematics for social science students is problematic. We discuss the case of a group of students in Sweden who met a mathematics course inspired on the ideas of critical mathematics education and ethnomathematics. The evidence collected about students' experiences on this course...

  18. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    Polaski, S., 2008. Rising Food Prices, Poverty and Doha Round. Carnegie endowment for international Peace. Udoh, E. J., and Sunday B. A., 2007. Estimating. Exportable Tree Crop Relative Price. Variability and Inflation Movement under different Policy Regimes in Nigeria. European Journal of social Science. 5(2):. 17-26.

  19. The Perspective of Women Managing Research Teams in Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Marina; Castro, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a research study that focuses on how women manage research teams. More specifically, the study aims to ascertain the perception of female researchers who are leaders of research groups in social sciences with regard to the formation, operation and management of their research teams. Fifteen interviews were carried out, eight…

  20. Ranciere and the Poetics of the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the significance of Jacques Ranciere's work for methodological debates in the social sciences, and education specifically. It explores the implications of constructing research as an aesthetic, rather than primarily a methodological, endeavour. What is at stake in this distinction is the means by which research intervenes in…

  1. Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.

    Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…

  2. Women and Spatial Change: Learning Resources for Social Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengert, Arlene C., Ed.; Monk, Janice J., Ed.

    Six units focusing on the effects of spatial change on women are designed to supplement college introductory courses in geography and the social sciences. Unit 1, Woman and Agricultural Landscapes, focuses on how women contributed to landscape change in prehistory, women's impact on the environment, and the hypothesis that women developed…

  3. Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guides for Social Studies, English, Science, Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice

    These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…

  4. The challenge of the social sciences: The impact of Sociology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge of the social sciences: The impact of Sociology among first year students. JF Graaff. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  5. Social Science Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Three papers on the nonconventional literature and social science libraries were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "Grey Material: A Scandinavian View," Birgitta Bergdahl (Sweden) outlines the etymology and meaning of the concept of "grey literature" (which can include…

  6. Cultural Dynamics in a Globalized World : Proceedings of the Asia- Pacific research in Social Sciences and Humanities, Depok, Indonesia, November 7–9, 2016, Topics in arts and humanities

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    The book contains essays on current issues in arts and humanities in which peoples and cultures compete as well as collaborate in globalizing the world while maintaining their uniqueness as viewed from cross- and inter-disciplinary perspectives. The book covers areas such as literature, cultural studies, archaeology, philosophy, history, language studies, information and literacy studies, and area studies. Asia and the Pacific are the particular regions that the conference focuses on as they ...

  7. Response: From Fish and Bicycles to a Science of Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne Cay

    2012-01-01

    John Brekke challenges the field and profession of social work to define and develop the "science of social work". This response to Brekke's paper identifies the premises undergirding a discussion of the science of social work related to (1) a definition of "science";; (2 ) an organizing principle for social work; (3) a…

  8. What are the predictor variables of social well-being among the medical science students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Darvishpour, Azar

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with social well-being can cope more successfully with major problems of social roles. Due to the social nature of human life, it cannot be ignored to pay attention the social aspect of health. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that predict the social well-being of medical students. A descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 489 medical science students of Gilan Province, the North of Iran, during May to September 2016. The samples were selected using quota sampling method. Research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts: demographic section and Keyes social well-being questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 19 and with descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression). The results showed that majority of the students had average social well-being. Furthermore, a significant relationship between the academic degree ( P = 0.009), major ( P = 0.0001), the interest and field's satisfaction ( P = 0.0001), and social well-being was seen. The results of linear regression model showed that four variables (academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction) were significantly associated with the social well-being ( P social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.

  9. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  10. We Engage, Therefore They Trust? A Study of Social Media Engagement and Public Trust in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Y. L.; Oliver, C.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Our society relies heavily on the trust that the public places in science to work. Given science's importance, the growing distrust in science is a cause for concern. Thanks to their participatory nature, social media have been touted as the promising tool for public engagement to restore public trust in science. These digital platforms have transformed the landscape of science communication yet little is known about their impact on public trust in science. This study probed several aspects of public trust in science as expressed on Twitter, focusing on two related science issues: space science and climate change. Our datasets comprised of 10,000 randomly sampled tweets over a month's period in 2016. We used human annotation and machine learning as our approach. Results indicated that the perceived contentiousness of a science issue has a significant impact on public trust. The level of distrust is higher in the climate change tweets than in the space science tweets, despite climate scientists being almost four times as active as space scientists in engaging with sceptics. However, people who engaged with scientists in the climate change network displayed a higher level of trust in science compared with those who did not. This effect was not observed in the space science network - in this network, there is no significant difference in trust levels between people who engaged with scientists and those who did not. Additionally, our machine learning study revealed that trust in science (as conveyed by tweets) can be predicted. The supervised learning algorithm that we developed was able to predict the trust labels of tweets in our sample with an accuracy of 84%. A further feature analysis indicated that similarity, presence of URL and authenticity are the properties of trust-inspiring tweets. Based on these findings, we argue that social media science communication is not as straightforward as `we engage, therefore they trust'. Public attitude towards science is often

  11. The intellectual and social organization of the sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Whitley, Richard

    2000-01-01

    In a rapidly changing and inter-disciplinary world it is important to understand the nature and generation of knowledge, and its social organization. Increasing attention is paid in the social sciences and management studies to the constitution and claims of different theories, perspectives, and 'paradigms'. This book is one of the most respected and robust analyses of these issues. For this new paperback edition Richard Whitley - a leading figure in European business education - has written a new introduction which addresses the particular epistemological issues presented by management and business studies. He approaches the sciences as differently organized systems for the production and validation of knowledge - systems which become established in particular contexts and which generate different sorts of knowledge. He identifies seven major types of scientific field and discusses the establishment and growth of these sciences, including the major consequences of the nineteenth-century expansion of employme...

  12. Using person factors in social science research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K. Burger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis factorial es el método utilizado frecuentemente para la identificación de las dimensiones y estructuras que constituyen la base de un conjunto de medidas, lo cual es importante para la investigación. Mientras el análisis factorial de tipo R, produce los factores presentes en las variables, es conocido por muchos investigadores que el análisis de tipo Q describe los factores presentes en las personas, y ha sido utilizado con menor frecuencia. En el presente trabajo se describe el análisis factorial de tipo Q y lo distingue del análisis factorial de tipo R. Entonces, se examinan tres usos de factores derivados del análisis factorial tipo Q: para describir el perfil de los resultados de pruebas de individuos, para dar más opciones al análisis convencional de los datos y para investigar las cualidades del individuo en los instrumentos de medición. Se propone que los factores personales resultan útiles para estos propósitos, en las investigaciones de las ciencias sociales.

  13. 76 FR 65219 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: November 3, 2011; 1 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. November 4, 2011; 8..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  14. 77 FR 25207 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: May 17, 2012; 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; May 18, 2012; 8:30..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  15. 75 FR 25886 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: May 20, 2010; 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. May 21, 2010; 8:30..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  16. 75 FR 50783 - Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ADVISORY Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time: September 7, 2010; 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. September 8... Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation...

  17. 76 FR 24062 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: May 19, 2011; 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. May 20, 2011; 9 a.m. to..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  18. Persistent Confusions about Hypothesis Testing in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Thron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes common confusions involving basic concepts in statistical hypothesis testing. One-third of the social science statistics textbooks examined in the study contained false statements about significance level and/or p-value. We infer that a large proportion of social scientists are being miseducated about these concepts. We analyze the causes of these persistent misunderstandings, and conclude that the conventional terminology is prone to abuse because it does not clearly represent the conditional nature of probabilities and events involved. We argue that modifications in terminology, as well as the explicit introduction of conditional probability concepts and notation into the statistics curriculum in the social sciences, are necessary to prevent the persistence of these errors.

  19. Misunderstood misunderstanding: social identities and public uptake of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper draws general insights into the public reception of scientific knowledge from a case study of Cumbrian sheep farmers' responses to scientific advice about the restrictions introduced after the Chernobyl radioactive fallout. The analysis identifies several substantive factors which influence the credibility of scientific communication. Starting from the now-accepted point that public uptake of science depends primarily upon the trust and credibility public groups are prepared to invest in scientific institutions and representatives, the paper observes that these are contingent upon the social relationships and identities which people feel to be affected by scientific knowledge, which never comes free of social interests or implications. The case study shows laypeople capable of extensive informal reflection upon their social relationships towards scientific experts, and on the epistemological status of their own 'local' knowledge in relation to 'outside' knowledge. Public uptake of science might be improved if scientific institutions expressed an equivalent reflexive discourse in the public domain. (author)

  20. Enhance Your Science With Social Media: No ... Really

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, H.; Aiken, A. C.; Sams, A.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to communicate the societal value of basic research to nonacademic audiences is morphing from an optional soft skill to a crucial tool for scientists who are competing over finite or shrinking resources for research. Former National Academy of Sciences President Ralph Cicerone argued as early as 2006 that "scientists themselves must do a better job of communicating directly to the public," taking advantage of "new, non-traditional outlets" on the Internet. Findings suggest that scientists have begun to embrace social media as a viable tool for communicating research and keeping abreast of advancements in their fields. Social media is changing the way that scientists are interacting with each other and with the global community. Scientists are taking to popular social media (Twitter, Facebook, etc.) to challenge weak research, share replication attempts in real time, and counteract hype. Incorporating social media into the different stages of a scientific publication: Accelerates the pace of scientific communication and collaboration Facilitates interdisciplinary collaboration Makes it possible to communicate results to a large and diverse audience Encourages post-publication conversations about findings Accelerates research evaluation Makes science more transparent Amplifies the positive effects of scientists' interactions with more traditional media Our presentation will demonstrate how scientists can use social media as a tool to support their work, collaborate with peers around the world, and advance the cause of science. Information will be presented by communications experts and research librarians in collaboration with scientists who are already active on social media. Content will focus on pragmatic best practices for engaging peers, other stakeholders, promoting science and scientific research, and measuring success.

  1. Asian Studies/Global Studies: Transcending Area Studies and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The post–World War II growth of area studies, and Asian studies in particular, posed a serious challenge to the mainstream social sciences. Yet the epistemic and institutional foundations of area studies were never well articulated or justified, and the post–Cold War years brought a pervasive sense of crisis to its intellectual mission and justification. In particular, the author focuses on the tensions, if not contradictions, between social science disciplines and area studies. In advocating a more integrated human science, which depends more on mobile networks of scholars than on fixed fields of discipline-bound professors, the author suggests global studies as a fitting field of inquiry in the age of globalization.

  2. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  3. Perceptions of Human Services Students about Social Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Judith T.

    2010-01-01

    Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…

  4. Track D Social Science, Human Rights and Political Science

    OpenAIRE

    Strathdee, S.; Lozada, R.; Martinez, G.; Rangel, G.; Staines, H.; Abramovitz, D.; Vera, A.; Magis-Rodriguez, C.; Patterson, T.; Bärnighausen, T.; Bloom, D.; Humair, S.; Lichtenberg, M.; Hansen, I.; Mukhopadhyay, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana (TJ) and Ciudad Juarez (CJ) Mexico during 2008-2010, when harm reduction was expanding in TJ, but not CJ. Methods FSW-IDUs≥18 years reporting recently sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients participated in a randomized factorial trial comparing four brief, single-session combinations of active motivati...

  5. Application of fuzzy sets and cognitive maps to incorporate social science scenarios in integrated assessment models: A case study of urbanization in Ujung Pandang, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, Jean-Luc; Titus, Milan; Wind, H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Decision-support systems in the field of integrated water management could benefit considerably from social science knowledge, as many environmental changes are human-induced. Unfortunately the adequate incorporation of qualitative social science concepts in a quantitative modeling framework is not

  6. Editors' overview perspectives on teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, Henk; Børsen, Tom; Deneke, Michael; Bird, Stephanie J

    2013-12-01

    Global society is facing formidable current and future problems that threaten the prospects for justice and peace, sustainability, and the well-being of humanity both now and in the future. Many of these problems are related to science and technology and to how they function in the world. If the social responsibility of scientists and engineers implies a duty to safeguard or promote a peaceful, just and sustainable world society, then science and engineering education should empower students to fulfil this responsibility. The contributions to this special issue present European examples of teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering, and provide examples and discussion of how this teaching can be promoted, and of obstacles that are encountered. Speaking generally, education aimed at preparing future scientists and engineers for social responsibility is presently very limited and seemingly insufficient in view of the enormous ethical and social problems that are associated with current science and technology. Although many social, political and professional organisations have expressed the need for the provision of teaching for social responsibility, important and persistent barriers stand in the way of its sustained development. What is needed are both bottom-up teaching initiatives from individuals or groups of academic teachers, and top-down support to secure appropriate embedding in the university. Often the latter is lacking or inadequate. Educational policies at the national or international level, such as the Bologna agreements in Europe, can be an opportunity for introducing teaching for social responsibility. However, frequently no or only limited positive effect of such policies can be discerned. Existing accreditation and evaluation mechanisms do not guarantee appropriate attention to teaching for social responsibility, because, in their current form, they provide no guarantee that the curricula pay sufficient attention to

  7. An Assault on Poverty: Basic Human Needs, Science, and Technology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Can S&T help the world's communities secure adequate nutrition, health care, water, ... Virus Disease Outbreaks will fund social science, population and public health, and health ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  8. Social and behavioral science priorities for genomic translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehly, Laura M; Persky, Susan; Spotts, Erica; Acca, Gillian

    2018-01-29

    This commentary highlights the essential role of the social and behavioral sciences for genomic translation, and discusses some priority research areas in this regard. The first area encompasses genetics of behavioral, social, and neurocognitive factors, and how integration of these relationships might impact the development of treatments and interventions. The second area includes the contributions that social and behavioral sciences make toward the informed translation of genomic developments. Further, there is a need for behavioral and social sciences to inform biomedical research for effective implementation. The third area speaks to the need for increased outreach and education efforts to improve the public's genomic literacy such that individuals and communities can make informed health-related and societal (e.g., in legal or consumer settings) decisions. Finally, there is a need to prioritize representation of diverse communities in genomics research and equity of access to genomic technologies. Examples from National Institutes of Health-based intramural and extramural research programs and initiatives are used to discuss these points. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  9. Performative Social Science: A Consideration of Skills, Purpose and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Roberts

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent work applying a notion of "performance" in the study and representation of lives. It tries to clarify some of the issues involved—including the meaning of "performance"—and "performative"—the range of possible approaches (e.g., in addition to drama—other arts and the relationship between "subjects", "researcher" and "audience". An immediate concern is the nature of the researcher—as having the necessary skills and abilities or knowledge involved in "performance" (in researching, writing, recording and representing, as engaged (to some extent in "artistic" endeavour, and moving between a number of "roles" and social relations in "performing" with/to others (the "researched" group, audience and society. An important issue for social science in crossing or bridging the social science-arts, in taking up "performative approaches", is "What remains distinctive about the social science if it becomes involved with performance approaches?" As a source for comparison (and inspiration, some brief reference will be made to the work of KANDINSKY—who moved across disciplinary boundaries and artistic practices—as ethnographer, painter, teacher, designer, theorist and poet. Finally, perhaps, there is a deeper "turn" indicated by the "turn to performance" in the study of lives, a more "complete" portrait of the individual as an active, communicative and sensual being. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802588

  10. Human Nature and the Social Order | Opafola | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes cognizance of the fact that the ideas of human beings or human persons and a social order are mutually re-in forcing or mutually inclusive. It argues that a stable, peaceful, and progressive social order will be promoted to some extent if the differences in the elements of human nature are acknowledged and ...

  11. We "Must" Integrate Human Rights into the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ed

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that educators need to teach about human rights issues, such as social and economic rights, in the social studies curriculum because these issues are disregarded throughout the country. Defines human rights, discusses the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), and provides two lessons. (CMK)

  12. Human Rights Education: Is Social Work behind the Curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A.; Mathiesen, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a descriptive assessment of human rights education within schools of social work and law. A review of course titles and descriptions within MSW programs and law programs was conducted for identification of human rights content. The results suggest a dearth of human rights content in social work curricula and a great disparity…

  13. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Subhash; Reidpath, Daniel; Allotey, Pascale

    2011-01-06

    The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39%) were social science related while 41 projects (61%) were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million) went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  14. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. Method A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39% were social science related while 41 projects (61% were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. Conclusion The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  15. Evolution and the American social sciences: An evolutionary social scientist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Bradley A

    2004-03-01

    American social scientists rarely ever use evolutionary concepts to explain behavior, despite the potential of such concepts to elucidate major social problems. I argue that this observation can be understood as the product of three influences: an ideologically narrowed political liberalism; a fear of ''Social Darwinism'' as a scientific idea, rather than a scientific apostasy; and a widely believed criticism of evolutionary thinking as deterministic, reductionistic, and Panglossian. I ask what is to be done to encourage social scientists to learn and to apply evolutionary lessons. I answer with four solutions. First, evolutionary social scientists should more effectively educate their non-evolutionary students and colleagues. Second, they should publicize, even popularize, accessible refutations of perennially misleading criticisms. Third, they should more credibly assure skeptics that evolutionary theory not only keeps the ''social'' in social science but better explains social behavior than can any individual-level theory, such as rational-choice theory. Fourth, they should recall that biology took generations to become Darwinian, and they must understand that the social sciences may take as long to become evolutionary.

  16. Raising agents: sources of human social intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper urges that if we wish to give social intelligence to our agents, it pays to look at how we acquired our social intelligence ourselves. Our drives and motives are innate and deeply social. Next, as children we are social-ized to acquire norms and values. This motivational and group-based

  17. Cultural, Social and Political Perspectives in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches to resea......This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...... conditions and contexts in science education. The different chapters review debates and research in teacher education, school teaching and learning including when external stakeholders are involved. Even though the chapters are contextualized in Nordic settings there will be similarities and parallels...

  18. Un estudio de las necesidades de información, hábitos y características de investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales A study of the information needs, habits and characteristics of Humanities and Social Science Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Münster

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue elaborado con el propósito de entender e identificar las necesidades, el proceso de búsqueda de información, las características y los hábitos de los investigadores en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de San Andrés (UdeSA; su conducta informativa se analiza tanto en la biblioteca como a través del uso de los servicios que ésta les ofrece; además se evaluaron posibles diferencias entre las necesidades de información de los profesores de los países anglosajones y los de Argentina, tomando como objeto de estudio al profesorado de esa Universidad. Por lo tanto, se ponen a consideración los resultados de una encuesta realizada, de la que se adjunta el formulario, con el fin de detectar sus necesidades de información.The present study was conducted to understand and identify the characteristics, needs, and habits of researchers from Humanities and Social Sciences at the Universidad de San Andrés (UdeSA. Their information behavior is analyzed at the library, as well as through their use of the services that the library offers them. Differences between the information needs of Anglo Saxon and Argentinian professors were also studied, taking as objects for study the UdeSA faculty. The results of the survey are presented, as well as its questionnaire, with the aim of identifying information needs.

  19. Austria announces new money for research infrastructure and social sciences

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Austria's Minister for Science and Research, Johannes Hahn, has announced funding for research infrastructures and the social sciences, amounting to EUR 6.9 million in total. The largest chunk of the money will go to a new data processing centre for the analysis of data from the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The idea is that the new centre will provide Austria with access to the key technology for solving highly complex scientific and technological problems, while strengthening Austria's domestic research infrastructure in the field of 'advanced communication networks'.

  20. Primate social attention : species differences and effects of individual experience in humans, great apes, and macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Fumihiro; Shepherd, Stephen V.; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2018-01-01

    Financial support came from Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS) [grant numbers: KAKENHI 26885040, 16K21108 to FK, KAKENHI 26245069, 16H06301, 16H06283, JSPS-LGP-U04 to SH] and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) [K-CONNEX to FK], and the European Research Council [SOMICS 609819 to JC]. When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models’ eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies report...

  1. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ...] Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals... announcing a public workshop entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science... constructive dialogue and information-sharing among regulators, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry...

  2. A theory of social thermoregulation in human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Coan, James A; Wagemans, Fieke M A; Missler, Marjolein A; van Beest, Ilja; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Tops, Mattie

    2015-01-01

    Beyond breathing, the regulation of body temperature-thermoregulation-is one of the most pressing concerns for many animals. A dysregulated body temperature has dire consequences for survival and development. Despite the high frequency of social thermoregulation occurring across many species, little is known about the role of social thermoregulation in human (social) psychological functioning. We outline a theory of social thermoregulation and reconsider earlier research on people's expectations of their social world (i.e., attachment) and their prediction of the social world. We provide support and outline a research agenda that includes consequences for individual variation in self-regulatory strategies and capabilities. In our paper, we discuss physiological, neural, and social processes surrounding thermoregulation. Emphasizing social thermoregulation in particular, we appeal to the economy of action principle and the hierarchical organization of human thermoregulatory systems. We close with future directions of a crucial aspect of human functioning: the social regulation of body temperature.

  3. Time series analysis in the social sciences the fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Youseop

    2017-01-01

    Times Series Analysis in the Social Sciences is a practical and highly readable introduction written exclusively for students and researchers whose mathematical background is limited to basic algebra. The book focuses on fundamental elements of time series analysis that social scientists need to understand so they can employ time series analysis for their research and practice. Through step-by-step explanations and using monthly violent crime rates as case studies, this book explains univariate time series from the preliminary visual analysis through the modeling of seasonality, trends, and re

  4. Ontologies, methodologies, and new uses of Big Data in the social and cultural sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Wagner-Pacifici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our Introduction to the Conceiving the Social with Big Data Special Issue of Big Data & Society , we survey the 18 contributions from scholars in the humanities and social sciences, and highlight several questions and themes that emerge within and across them. These emergent issues reflect the challenges, problems, and promises of working with Big Data to access and assess the social. They include puzzles about the locus and nature of human life, the nature of interpretation, the categorical constructions of individual entities and agents, the nature and relevance of contexts and temporalities, and the determinations of causality. As such, the Introduction reflects on the contributions along a series of binaries that capture the dualities and dynamisms of these themes: Life/Data; Mind/Machine; and Induction/Deduction.

  5. Curriculum Assessment in Social Sciences at Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Hanifah Mahat Yazid; Hashim, Mohmadisa; Yaacob, Norazlan Hadi; Kasim, Adnan Jusoh Ahmad Yunus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effectiveness of the curriculum implementation for undergraduate programme in the Faculty of Human Sciences, UPSI producing quality and competitive educators. Curriculum implementation has to go through an assessment process that aims to determine the problem, select relevant information and collect and…

  6. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  7. Schizotypy as An Organizing Framework for Social and Affective Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S.; Mohr, Christine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Park, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypy, defined in terms of commonly occurring personality traits related to the schizophrenia spectrum, has been an important construct for understanding the neurodevelopment and stress-diathesis of schizophrenia. However, as schizotypy nears its sixth decade of application, it is important to acknowledge its impressively rich literature accumulating outside of schizophrenia research. In this article, we make the case that schizotypy has considerable potential as a conceptual framework for understanding individual differences in affective and social functions beyond those directly involved in schizophrenia spectrum pathology. This case is predicated on (a) a burgeoning literature noting anomalies in a wide range of social functioning, affiliative, positive and negative emotional, expressive, and social cognitive systems, (b) practical and methodological features associated with schizotypy research that help facilitate empirical investigation, and (c) close ties to theoretical constructs of central importance to affective and social science (eg, stress diathesis, neural compensation). We highlight recent schizotypy research, ie providing insight into the nature of affective and social systems more generally. This includes current efforts to clarify the neurodevelopmental, neurobiological, and psychological underpinnings of affiliative drives, hedonic capacity, social cognition, and stress responsivity systems. Additionally, we discuss neural compensatory and resilience factors that may mitigate the expression of stress-diathesis and functional outcome, and highlight schizotypy’s potential role for understanding cultural determinants of social and affective functions. PMID:25810057

  8. Basing Science Ethics on Respect for Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel

    2016-12-01

    A "no ethics" principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: (1) An understanding of a scientific "ethos" based on actual "value preferences" and "value repugnances" prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the "no ethics" principle in science. (2) The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and ethics. This breaking point involved granting science the exclusive mandate to pass judgment on the life worth living. (3) By contrast, respect for human dignity, in its Kantian definition as "the absolute inner worth of being human," should be adopted as the basis to ground science ethics. (4) The pathway from this foundation to the articulation of an ethical duty specific to scientific practice, i.e., respect for objective truth, is charted by Karl Popper's discussion of the ethical principles that form the basis of science. This also permits an integrated account of the "external" and "internal" ethical problems in science. (5) Principles of the respect for human dignity and the respect for objective truth are also safeguards of epistemic integrity. Plain defiance of human dignity by genetic determinism has compromised integrity of claims to knowledge in behavioral genetics and other behavioral sciences. Disregard of the ethical principles that form the basis of science threatens epistemic integrity.

  9. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What¿s the deal with the web/blogs/the next big technology: a key role for information science in e-social science research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thelwall, M.; Wouters, P.

    2005-01-01

    Since many nations have provided substantial funding for new e-social science and humanities investigations, there is now an opportunity for information scientists to adopt an enabling role for this new kind of research. Logically, a more information-centred environment should be more conducive to

  11. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  12. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  13. Articulating social science in the wild of global natures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Building on multisited ethnographic case studies, this paper seeks to contrastively compare the demonstration and articulation formats of two social science expert cultures—economics and anthropology—enrolled ‘in the wild’ of transnational environmental politics. How, the paper asks, do different......) similarities, related to credible expert demonstrations in transnational environmental contexts. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of this claim for STS self-reflection on its politics of methods....

  14. Manufacturing Consistency: Social Science, Rhetoric and Chomsky’s Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Edgley, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Chomsky’s critique of US foreign policy – and the media coverage it generates – has significant theoretical merit, and deserves to be of considerable interest within the social sciences. His analysis rests upon two distinctive positions. First, he claims that capitalism only survives because of the role played by the state, legislatively and administratively, controversially adding that it operates as an economic agent providing welfare for the rich. While the political and corporate elite ca...

  15. Patterns of rationality recurring inferences in science, social cognition and religious thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    This book proposes an applied epistemological framework for investigating science, social cognition and religious thinking based on inferential patterns that recur in the different domains. It presents human rationality as a tool that allows us to make sense of our (physical or social) surroundings. It shows that the resulting cognitive activity produces a broad spectrum of outputs, such as scientific models and experimentation, gossip and social networks, but also ancient and contemporary deities. The book consists of three parts, the first of which addresses scientific modeling and experimentation, and their application to the analysis of scientific rationality. Thus, this part continues the tradition of eco-cognitive epistemology and abduction studies. The second part deals with the relationship between social cognition and cognitive niche construction, i.e. the evolutionarily relevant externalization of knowledge onto the environment, while the third part focuses on what is commonly defined as "irrational...

  16. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... public meeting to promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (Opp... . Background: The Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) is a trans-NIH initiative to expand the agency's funding of basic behavioral and social sciences research (b-BSSR). OppNet prioritizes...

  17. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Reversals of national fortune, and social science methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared

    2014-12-16

    Among non-European regions colonized by Europeans, regions that were relatively richer five centuries ago (like Mexico, Peru, and India) tend to be poorer today, while regions that originally were relatively poorer (like the United States, Chile, and Australia) tend now to be richer. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (abbreviated AJR) established the generality of this reversal of fortune. Chanda, Cook, and Putterman (abbreviated CCP) have now reanalyzed it, taking as a unit of analysis populations rather than geographic regions. That is, India's population was Indian 500 y ago and is still overwhelmingly Indian today, whereas the United States' population was Native American 500 years ago but is overwhelmingly Old World (especially European) today. Reversals of fortune disappeared when CCP analyzed populations rather than geographic regions: for instance, the geographic region of the modern United States has become relatively richer since AD 1500, but the predominantly European population now occupying the United States was already relatively rich in AD 1500. Evidently, European colonists carried ingredients of wealth with them. I discuss the biological and cultural baggage transported by European immigrants and associated with wealth. Among that baggage, AJR emphasize institutions, CCP emphasize social capital, and I identify many different elements only loosely coupled to each other. This paper discusses the problem, especially acute in the social sciences, of "operationalizing" intuitive concepts (such as mass, temperature, wealth, and innovation) so that they can be measured. Basic concepts tend to be harder to define, operationalize, and measure in the social sciences than in the laboratory sciences.

  19. Science Student Role: Evidence of Social Structural Norms Specific to School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire; Nieswandt, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Sociocultural studies of science education have consistently recognized the dialectic nature of students' agency to create and author positions for themselves and the structural constraints that may influence them. This mixed-methods study explores one particular aspect of these potential constraints: the possibility of a social structure specific…

  20. Early career researchers and PhD students from the social sciences use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) for science communication: an affordances approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manco Vega, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to understand the different practices and strategies early career researchers and PhD students from the social sciences have in Social Networking Sites (SNSs) for science communication in one particular country: Brazil. Following this purpose, the central research question is which are the motives and rationale of the researchers for using social networking sites for science communication. Two sub-questions arise from this general research question: How do practices and str...

  1. Food security as a social movement in neo-liberal times: Envisaging a role for social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2008-01-01

    Food is one of the vital elements of human existence and human health. The right to food is equivalent to the right to life. From production to consumption, food involves many important cultural, social, and economic activities of human societies. Yet, despite advances in science and technology...... that have modernized food production and distribution, hunger and malnutrition still threaten the health and well-being of millions of people around the world. Estimates suggest that 800 million people in ‘developing’ countries are undernourished; of these 207.6 million reside in India alone. Food security...... is affected by food availability and affordability, which in turn, is largely influenced by the state of agriculture. The pivotal importance of agriculture in the fight against hunger and poverty lies in the fact that around 2.5 billion people in developing countries live in rural areas and are engaged...

  2. Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercilia García-Álvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.

  3. 78 FR 25309 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ADVISORY Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time: May 20, 2013; 9:00 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. May 21, 2013; 9:00 a..., Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...

  4. 78 FR 15745 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of... Science Foundation (NSF) announces the following Site Visit. Name: Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences, 10748. Date and Time: March 21, 2013 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., March 22, 2013 8:00 a.m. to...

  5. Impact of socially responsible human resources policies on intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Barrena-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the benefits that social responsibility can report on the area of human resources, examined the impact of a socially responsible configuration of human resource policies and practices in the generation value process for the company, and more specifically in its intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach: The study performed a regression analysis, testing the individual effects of socially responsible human resource policies on intellectual capital, broken down into three main variables such as human, social and organizational capital. Findings: The results shed light on how the introduction of socially responsible aspects in the management of human resources can facilitate the exchange of knowledge, skills and attitudes human--capital; lead to improvements in communication, trust, cooperation among employees social-capital and, in turn, generates an institutionalized knowledge encoded in the own organizational culture –organizational capital–. Research limitations/implications: The study only provides information from large companies with over 250 employees. Practical implications: There are important implications in the measure of corporate social responsibility concerns in the area of human resources. Social implications: Also important intangible effects on non-economic variables are confirmed, such as intellectual capital. Originality/value: The value of the study lies in its novelty, testing socially responsible configurations of human resources as well as the direct effects of different policies on intellectual capital.

  6. Medical anthropology: toward a third moment in social science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, W W

    2001-12-01

    This article about medical anthropology was inspired by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, specifically, his efforts to reconcile the antinomy of a "social structuralist" and a "cultural constructivist" perspective. These perspectives are often opposed in the literature, but, in Bourdieu's view, human life cannot be studied without taking into account both how individuals are situated within and constrained by social structures and how those individuals construct an understanding of and impose meaning on the world around them. I argue that the special subject matter of medical anthropology--human health--demands that a synthetic approach be taken in our theory and research. I illustrate this argument with examples from my own research on social and cultural factors associated with blood pressure, and I point to other examples of this synthesis in medical anthropology. The results of this research hold promise for the continuing refinement of culture theory.

  7. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  8. Social technologies : Cross-disciplinary reflections on technologies in and from the social sciences Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten; Vikkelso, Signe; Beaulieu, Anne

    In this introduction, we explore the relevance to critical psychology of the ideas about technology that have come from science and technology studies (STS), which we argue allow a new look at a classic theme in critical approaches in psychology. Rather than seeing psychical and social reality as

  9. Human capital, social capital and scientific research in Europe: an application of linear hierarchical models

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Goudard; Michel Lubrano

    2011-01-01

    The theory of human capital is one way to explain individual decisions to produce scientific research. However, this theory, even if it reckons the importance of time in science, is too short for explaining the existing diversity of scientific output. The present paper introduces the social capital of Bourdieu (1980), Coleman (1988) and Putnam (1995) as a necessary complement to explain the creation of scientific human capital. This paper connects these two concepts by means of a hierarchical...

  10. Socially Impaired Robots: Human Social Disorders and Robots' Socio-Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vitale, Jonathan; Williams, Mary-Anne; Johnston, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Social robots need intelligence in order to safely coexist and interact with humans. Robots without functional abilities in understanding others and unable to empathise might be a societal risk and they may lead to a society of socially impaired robots. In this work we provide a survey of three relevant human social disorders, namely autism, psychopathy and schizophrenia, as a means to gain a better understanding of social robots' future capability requirements. We provide evidence supporting...

  11. Human genes and genomes: science, health, society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenberg, Leon E; Rosenberg, Diane Drobnis

    2012-01-01

    "In the nearly 60 years since Watson and Crick proposed the double helical structure of DNA, the molecule of heredity, waves of discoveries have made genetics the most thrilling field in the sciences...

  12. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  13. Using Twitter for Demographic and Social Science Research: Tools for Data Collection and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Tyler H; Lee, Hedwig; Cesare, Nina; Shojaie, Ali; Spiro, Emma S

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent and growing interest in using Twitter to examine human behavior and attitudes, there is still significant room for growth regarding the ability to leverage Twitter data for social science research. In particular, gleaning demographic information about Twitter users-a key component of much social science research-remains a challenge. This article develops an accurate and reliable data processing approach for social science researchers interested in using Twitter data to examine behaviors and attitudes, as well as the demographic characteristics of the populations expressing or engaging in them. Using information gathered from Twitter users who state an intention to not vote in the 2012 presidential election, we describe and evaluate a method for processing data to retrieve demographic information reported by users that is not encoded as text (e.g., details of images) and evaluate the reliability of these techniques. We end by assessing the challenges of this data collection strategy and discussing how large-scale social media data may benefit demographic researchers.

  14. Human history and deep time in nineteenth-century British sciences: An introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera-Shriar, Efram

    2015-06-01

    The historicisation of humans was a major endeavour in nineteenth-century Britain, and one that led to wide-ranging debates involving a variety of disciplinary approaches, new and old. Within the context of science and medicine these discussions centred on the issues of human origins and evolution. Did the various races living throughout the world develop from a single location, or were their physical and social differences evidence for their separate genesis? Which disciplinary tradition offered the best method for tracing human development? Was it even possible to trace that development, or had too much time passed since the dawn of humans? Furthermore, who had the authority to speak about these matters? This special issue will examine these core questions and introduce some of the ways that researchers attempted to historicise humans within the context of nineteenth-century British sciences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Science Between Neo-Kantianism and Philosophy of Life: The Cases of Weber, Simmel, and Mannheim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuber, Daniel

    In recent years, a group of social scientists have credited Wilhelm Dilthey with the status of a "classical sociological theorist" (Bakker 1999) and a key figure with regard to the establishment of the social sciences since the last decades of the nineteenth century.1 Such evaluations stand in distinct contrast to Dilthey's reputation as a firm critic of sociology on the one hand and his dubious standing within his proper field, philosophy, on the other, where he is perceived as a failed epistemologist. Generally, his influence on social and cultural science is associated with his notion of Erleben and understanding as fundamental categories for the interpretive sciences and their unique relatedness to their particular subject. On the basis of this starting point, he eventually established a division between Verstehen and Erklären and, correspondingly, human and natural sciences.

  16. Can Science Explain the Human Mind? Intuitive Judgments About the Limits of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sara; Lombrozo, Tania

    2018-01-01

    Can science explain romantic love, morality, and religious belief? We documented intuitive beliefs about the limits of science in explaining the human mind. We considered both epistemic evaluations (concerning whether science could possibly fully explain a given psychological phenomenon) and nonepistemic judgments (concerning whether scientific explanations for a given phenomenon would generate discomfort), and we identified factors that characterize phenomena judged to fall beyond the scope of science. Across six studies, we found that participants were more likely to judge scientific explanations for psychological phenomena to be impossible and uncomfortable when, among other factors, they support first-person, introspective access (e.g., feeling empathetic as opposed to reaching for objects), contribute to making humans exceptional (e.g., appreciating music as opposed to forgetfulness), and involve conscious will (e.g., acting immorally as opposed to having headaches). These judgments about the scope of science have implications for science education, policy, and the public reception of psychological science.

  17. Human Factors Science: Brief History and Applications to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2015-12-01

    This section will define the science of human factors, its origins, its impact on safety in other domains, and its impact and potential for impact on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-Rate Laser Communications for Human Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B. S.; Shih, T.; Khatri, F. I.; King, T.; Seas, A.

    2018-02-01

    Laser communication links has been successfully demonstrated on recent near-Earth and lunar missions. We present a status of this development work and its relevance to a future Deep Space Gateway supporting human exploration and science activities.

  19. Kant and the development of the human and cultural sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkreel, Rudolf A

    2008-12-01

    Starting with Kant's doubts about psychology as a natural science capable of explaining human behavior, several alternative attempts to conceive of human life, culture and history are examined. Kant proposes an anthropology that will be a commonly useful human science rather than a universally valid natural science. This anthropology relates to philosophy as a mode of world-cognition. Special attention is given to how Kant's theory of right can help define our appropriate place in a communal world. The different ways in which Wilhelm Dilthey and Hermann Cohen respond to Kant's idea of legitimate appropriation are also considered. The various tasks that descriptive elucidation, explanation, reflective understanding, characterization and interpretation can perform for the human and cultural sciences are examined throughout the essay.

  20. Human Rights, Mineral Rights and Corporate Social Responsibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This view of the company is often described under the concept of corporate social responsibility. This Paper assesses the nature of corporate social responsibility in Ghana primarily focusing on the mining industry. The Paper outlines the various human rights and mineral rights in Ghana and the effects of mining on human ...