WorldWideScience

Sample records for science briefs modeling

  1. Preditive Models And Health Sciences: A Brief Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sales Paulino, Msc

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Predictive Models are an important tool in event predicting and health planning. Despite this, there are few works focusing this area. Thus, the analysis of the real benefits of these models in Health Sciences is necessary to be performed. Results: Predictive techniques largely evolved in second half of XX century. The development of AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA and SARIMA models, through Box-Jenkins methodology, constitute a robust conjunct of mechanisms able to help in solution of epidemiological modeling problems, mainly in Health Sciences, once it allows to evaluate individual characteristics of living beings and its correlation with pathologies in the same space-time. Nevertheless, AR, MA and ARMA does not have tendency in seasonality, which weakens the analysis. Conclusions: To predict the natural history of endemic/epidemic and its health-disease processes in a determined population is a sine que non condition to its adequate management in Public Health context and in adoption of affirmative measures concerning health promotion. Thus, the predictive models, with emphasis in ARIMA, SARIMA, Artificial Neural Networks and Formalism of Copulas are alternatives that can be feasible.

  2. In Brief: Science teaching certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    More than 200 educators will receive fellowships over the next 5 years to participate in NASA's Endeavor Science Teaching Certificate Project, the agency announced on 14 November. Through workshops, online and on-site graduate courses, and NASA educational materials, the project will expose educators to NASA science and engineering and support them in translating the information for use in classrooms. ``Through the program, educators will learn to deliver cutting-edge science into the classroom, promoting science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education,'' according to Joyce Winterton, assistant administrator for education at NASA Headquarters, in Washington, D. C. Project fellows will earn a certificate from Teachers College Innovations at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and graduate credit from other institutional partners. For more information, visit http://education.nasa.gov/home/index.html.

  3. Citizens Science for Sustainability (SuScit) Project Briefing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eames, Malcolm; Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Adebowale, Maria

    This project briefing gives a short overview of the Citizens Science for Sustainability (SuScit) Project.......This project briefing gives a short overview of the Citizens Science for Sustainability (SuScit) Project....

  4. How Early Child Care Affects Later Development. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Are there Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?" (J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, M. Burchinal, K. A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. T. Owen, M. T., and The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network).…

  5. A Brief History of CME Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Richardson, Ian G.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    We present here a brief summary of the rich heritage of observational and theoretical research leading to the development of our current understanding of the initiation, structure, and evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections.

  6. Brief history of patient safety culture and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Roy; Fowler, Robert

    2005-03-01

    The science of safety is well established in such disciplines as the automotive and aviation industry. In this brief history of safety science as it pertains to patient care, we review remote and recent publications that have guided the maturation of this field that has particular relevance to the complex structure of systems, personnel, and therapies involved in caring for the critically ill.

  7. Graduate Enrollment Increases in Science and Engineering Fields, Especially in Engineering and Computer Sciences. InfoBrief: Science Resources Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrelli, Joan S.

    This brief describes graduate enrollment increases in the science and engineering fields, especially in engineering and computer sciences. Graduate student enrollment is summarized by enrollment status, citizenship, race/ethnicity, and fields. (KHR)

  8. Theoretical development of information science: A brief history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    the strongest “paradigms” in the field is a tradition derived from the Cranfield experiments in the 1960s and the bibliometric research following the publication of Science Citation Index from 1963 and forward. Among the competing theoretical frameworks, ‘the cognitive view’ became influential from the 1970s......This paper presents a brief history of information science (IS) as viewed by the author. The term ‘information science’ goes back to 1955 and evolved in the aftermath of Claude Shannon’s ‘information theory’ (1948), which also inspired research into problems in fields of library science...... and documentation. These subjects were a main focus of what became established as ‘information science’, which from 1964 onwards was often termed ‘library and information science’ (LIS). However, the usefulness of Shannon’s information theory as the theoretical foundation of the field was been challenged. Among...

  9. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Sheakley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods: This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (n l=515 and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066. Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4 that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%. USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results: Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003. Discussion: Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum.

  10. Brief history of agricultural systems modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W; Antle, John M; Basso, Bruno; Boote, Kenneth J; Conant, Richard T; Foster, Ian; Godfray, H Charles J; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E; Janssen, Sander; Keating, Brian A; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Porter, Cheryl H; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Wheeler, Tim R

    2017-07-01

    Agricultural systems science generates knowledge that allows researchers to consider complex problems or take informed agricultural decisions. The rich history of this science exemplifies the diversity of systems and scales over which they operate and have been studied. Modeling, an essential tool in agricultural systems science, has been accomplished by scientists from a wide range of disciplines, who have contributed concepts and tools over more than six decades. As agricultural scientists now consider the "next generation" models, data, and knowledge products needed to meet the increasingly complex systems problems faced by society, it is important to take stock of this history and its lessons to ensure that we avoid re-invention and strive to consider all dimensions of associated challenges. To this end, we summarize here the history of agricultural systems modeling and identify lessons learned that can help guide the design and development of next generation of agricultural system tools and methods. A number of past events combined with overall technological progress in other fields have strongly contributed to the evolution of agricultural system modeling, including development of process-based bio-physical models of crops and livestock, statistical models based on historical observations, and economic optimization and simulation models at household and regional to global scales. Characteristics of agricultural systems models have varied widely depending on the systems involved, their scales, and the wide range of purposes that motivated their development and use by researchers in different disciplines. Recent trends in broader collaboration across institutions, across disciplines, and between the public and private sectors suggest that the stage is set for the major advances in agricultural systems science that are needed for the next generation of models, databases, knowledge products and decision support systems. The lessons from history should be

  11. How Gene-Environment Interaction Affects Children's Anxious and Fearful Behavior. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction in Predicting Behavioral Inhibition in Middle Childhood" (N. A. Fox, K E. Nichols, H. A. Henderson, K. Rubin, L. Schmidt, D. Hamer, M. Ernst, and D. S.…

  12. SSNTD applications in science and technology - A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Qureshi, I.E.

    1999-01-01

    The technique of Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) has matured since long as a viable method of charged particle detection. The usage of this method has been successfully extended to neutron detection and gamma dose measurements as well. The etch-track mechanism has been further exploited to generate a major application area of nuclear track filters. In spite of the remarkable diversity of SSNTD applications that have emerged over the years in different fields, its potential is by no means saturated. In this article, a brief review of SSNTD applications is presented with reference to contemporary interests in science and technology. For convenience, the coverage of topics is organized under broad categories of Nuclear Physics, Materials Research, Geology, Environmental Science and allied technologies. While identifying high interest areas, those with limited but innovative applications are also mentioned. In some cases, the important results are quoted for the purpose of illustrating the strength of track detection method. In general, the presentation is aimed at providing a broad perspective of current SSNTD uses instead of detailed description of individual applications. The coverage is selective rather than exhaustive and portrays authors' preferences. Some comments related to the adoption of this technique as a mainstream method of detection are also given

  13. Aikido: a model for brief strategic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saposnek, D T

    1980-09-01

    Building on Watzlawick's observations of certain similarities between judo and brief strategic therapy, this paper develops theoretic and pragmatic parallels between brief strategic therapy and a sophisticated martial art system, Aikido. After presenting the contextual similarities of the two conceptual systems as parallel "challenges" to the therapist and Aikidoist to effect change, the similarities in basic principles of practice are presented. The similarities in the philosophical and attitudinal positions of these conceptual systems are then delineated, followed by a case example that integrates the various concepts in the paper.

  14. A brief review of augmented reality science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Valarmathie; Bakar, Juliana Aida Abu; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir

    2017-10-01

    This paper reviews several literatures concerning the theories and model that could be applied for science motivation for upper secondary school learners (16-17 years old) in order to make the learning experience more amazing and useful. The embedment of AR in science could bring an awe-inspiring transformation on learners' viewpoint towards the respective subject matters. Augmented Reality is able to present the real and virtual learning experience with the addition of multiple media without replacing the real environment. Due to the unique feature of AR, it attracts the mass attention of researchers to implement AR in science learning. This impressive technology offers learners with the ultimate visualization and provides an astonishing and transparent learning experience by bringing to light the unseen perspective of the learning content. This paper will attract the attention of researchers in the related field as well as academicians in the related discipline. This paper aims to propose several related theoretical guidance that could be applied in science motivation to transform the learning in an effective way.

  15. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  16. NASA’s Universe of Learning: Engaging Subject Matter Experts to Support Museum Alliance Science Briefings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Squires, Gordon K.; Biferno, Anya A.; Lestition, Kathleen; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Lee, Janice C.; Rivera, Thalia; Walker, Allyson; Spisak, Marilyn

    2018-06-01

    NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University and is part of the NASA SMD Science Activation Collective. The NASA’s Universe of Learning projects pull on the expertise of subject matter experts (scientist and engineers) from across the broad range of NASA Astrophysics themes and missions. One such project, which draws strongly on the expertise of the community, is the NASA’s Universe of Learning Science Briefings, which is done in collaboration with the NASA Museum Alliance. This collaboration presents a monthly hour-long discussion on relevant NASA astrophysics topics or events to an audience composed largely of informal educators from informal learning environments. These professional learning opportunities use experts and resources within the astronomical community to support increased interest and engagement of the informal learning community in NASA Astrophysics-related concepts and events. Briefings are designed to create a foundation for this audience using (1) broad science themes, (2) special events, or (3) breaking science news. The NASA’s Universe of Learning team engages subject matter experts to be speakers and present their science at these briefings to provide a direct connection to NASA Astrophysics science and provide the audience an opportunity to interact directly with scientists and engineers involved in NASA missions. To maximize the usefulness of the Museum Alliance Science Briefings, each briefing highlights resources related to the science theme to support informal educators in incorporating science content into their venues and/or interactions with the public. During this

  17. A Brief History of the Soil Science Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) was officially born on November 18, 1936 at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.C. with Richard Bradfield as the first President. SSSA was created from the merger of the American Soil Survey Association and the Soils Section of American Society of Agronomy (ASA). Six sections were established: 1) physics, 2) chemistry, 3) microbiology, 4) fertility, 5) morphology, and 6) technology, and total membership was less than 200. The first issue of SSSA Journal, then called SSSA Proceedings, published 87 items totaling 526 pages. The first recorded bank balance for SSSA was at the end of the 1937-38 fiscal year, and showed the Society to be worth 1,300.03. The Soils Section of ASA became the official American section of the International Society of Soil Science in 1934, and the new SSSA inherited that distinction which it retains to this day. SSSA has grown significantly since those early days. The original six sections have grown to 11 divisions, and some of those divisions have changed their names to reflect changes occurring within soil science. For example, the original section 5, morphology, is now Division S05 - Pedology after spending many years under other names such as Division V - Soil Classification and Division S-5 - Soil Genesis, Morphology, and Classification. SSSA was incorporated in the State of Wisconsin, USA on 22 January, 1952. Several awards have been developed to recognize achievement in the field of soil science, including the SSSA Presidential Award, Don and Betty Kirkham Soil Physics Award, Emil Truog Soil Science Award, International Soil Science Award, Irrometer Professional Certification Service Award, L.R. Ahuja Ag Systems Modeling Award, Marion L. and Chrystie M. Jackson Soil Science Award, Soil Science Applied Research Award, Soil Science Distinguished Service Award, Soil Science Education Award, Soil Science Industry and Professional Leadership Award, Soil Science Research Award, and SSSA Early

  18. Mean Field Games Models-A Brief Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Saú de, Joã o

    2013-01-01

    The mean-field framework was developed to study systems with an infinite number of rational agents in competition, which arise naturally in many applications. The systematic study of these problems was started, in the mathematical community by Lasry and Lions, and independently around the same time in the engineering community by P. Caines, Minyi Huang, and Roland Malhamé. Since these seminal contributions, the research in mean-field games has grown exponentially, and in this paper we present a brief survey of mean-field models as well as recent results and techniques. In the first part of this paper, we study reduced mean-field games, that is, mean-field games, which are written as a system of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and a transport or Fokker-Planck equation. We start by the derivation of the models and by describing some of the existence results available in the literature. Then we discuss the uniqueness of a solution and propose a definition of relaxed solution for mean-field games that allows to establish uniqueness under minimal regularity hypothesis. A special class of mean-field games that we discuss in some detail is equivalent to the Euler-Lagrange equation of suitable functionals. We present in detail various additional examples, including extensions to population dynamics models. This section ends with a brief overview of the random variables point of view as well as some applications to extended mean-field games models. These extended models arise in problems where the costs incurred by the agents depend not only on the distribution of the other agents, but also on their actions. The second part of the paper concerns mean-field games in master form. These mean-field games can be modeled as a partial differential equation in an infinite dimensional space. We discuss both deterministic models as well as problems where the agents are correlated. We end the paper with a mean-field model for price impact. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  19. Mean Field Games Models-A Brief Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2013-11-20

    The mean-field framework was developed to study systems with an infinite number of rational agents in competition, which arise naturally in many applications. The systematic study of these problems was started, in the mathematical community by Lasry and Lions, and independently around the same time in the engineering community by P. Caines, Minyi Huang, and Roland Malhamé. Since these seminal contributions, the research in mean-field games has grown exponentially, and in this paper we present a brief survey of mean-field models as well as recent results and techniques. In the first part of this paper, we study reduced mean-field games, that is, mean-field games, which are written as a system of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and a transport or Fokker-Planck equation. We start by the derivation of the models and by describing some of the existence results available in the literature. Then we discuss the uniqueness of a solution and propose a definition of relaxed solution for mean-field games that allows to establish uniqueness under minimal regularity hypothesis. A special class of mean-field games that we discuss in some detail is equivalent to the Euler-Lagrange equation of suitable functionals. We present in detail various additional examples, including extensions to population dynamics models. This section ends with a brief overview of the random variables point of view as well as some applications to extended mean-field games models. These extended models arise in problems where the costs incurred by the agents depend not only on the distribution of the other agents, but also on their actions. The second part of the paper concerns mean-field games in master form. These mean-field games can be modeled as a partial differential equation in an infinite dimensional space. We discuss both deterministic models as well as problems where the agents are correlated. We end the paper with a mean-field model for price impact. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  20. Math and Science Teachers: Recruiting and Retaining California's Workforce. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Middle and high school math and science teachers provide the foundation for education in the growing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. They are crucial to California's efforts to remain competitive in a global economy. This policy brief looks at the shortage and challenges involved in recruiting and retaining fully prepared…

  1. A Brief Philosophical Encounter with Science and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ehsan Karbasizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  2. A brief philosophical encounter with science and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  3. Research briefing on contemporary problems in plasma science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the broad perspective of all plasma science. Detailed discussions are given of scientific opportunities in various subdisciplines of plasma science. The first subdiscipline to be discussed is the area where the contemporary applications of plasma science are the most widespread, low temperature plasma science. Opportunities for new research and technology development that have emerged as byproducts of research in magnetic and inertial fusion are then highlighted. Then follows a discussion of new opportunities in ultrafast plasma science opened up by recent developments in laser and particle beam technology. Next, research that uses smaller scale facilities is discussed, first discussing non-neutral plasmas, and then the area of basic plasma experiments. Discussions of analytic theory and computational plasma physics and of space and astrophysical plasma physics are then presented

  4. The NPOESS Preparatory Project Science Data Segment: Brief Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiss, Robert J.; Ho, Evelyn; Ullman, Richard; Samadi, Shahin

    2006-01-01

    The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) provides remotely-sensed land, ocean, atmospheric, ozone, and sounder data that will serve the meteorological and global climate change scientific communities while also providing risk reduction for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), the U.S. Government s future low-Earth orbiting satellite system monitoring global weather and environmental conditions. NPOESS and NPP are a new era, not only because the sensors will provide unprecedented quality and volume of data but also because it is a joint mission of three federal agencies, NASA, NOAA, and DoD. NASA's primary science role in NPP is to independently assess the quality of the NPP science and environmental data records. Such assessment is critical for making NPOESS products the best that they can be for operational use and ultimately for climate studies. The Science Data Segment (SDS) supports science assessment by assuring the timely provision of NPP data to NASA s science teams organized by climate measurement themes. The SDS breaks down into nine major elements, an input element that receives data from the operational agencies and acts as a buffer, a calibration analysis element, five elements devoted to measurement based quality assessment, an element used to test algorithmic improvements, and an element that provides overall science direction. This paper will describe how the NPP SDS will leverage on NASA experience to provide a mission-reliable research capability for science assessment of NPP derived measurements.

  5. Human Factors Science: Brief History and Applications to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2015-12-01

    This section will define the science of human factors, its origins, its impact on safety in other domains, and its impact and potential for impact on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contributions from Women to the Radiation Sciences: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicole E

    2017-04-01

    Contributions from men to radiation science are well known, particularly the early contributions from such luminaries as William Roentgen, James Chadwick, Niels Bohr, Robert Oppenheimer, and the like. Although not ignored per se, beyond Marie Curie and Lise Meitner, the contributions of female nuclear scientists are not as widely recognized. This paper provides a concise historical summary of contributions to radiation science from the discovery of radiation through the current status of international leadership within the radiation protection community. Beyond lead scientists and academics, this paper also considers support personnel as well as the role women have played in the advancement of radiation epidemiology.

  7. A brief review of advances in complex networks of nuclear science and technology field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of advances in complex networks of nuclear science and technology field at home and is given and summarized. These complex networks include: nuclear energy weapon network, network centric warfare, beam transport networks, continuum percolation evolving network associated with nuclear reactions, global nuclear power station network, (nuclear) chemistry reaction networks, radiological monitoring and anti-nuclear terror networks, and so on. Some challenge issues and development prospects of network science are pointed out finally. (authors)

  8. A Brief History of the Most Remarkable Numbers "e," "i" and "?" in Mathematical Sciences with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a brief history of the most remarkable Euler numbers "e,"?"i"?and?"?" in mathematical sciences. Included are many properties of the constants "e,"?"i"?and?"?" and their applications in algebra, geometry, physics, chemistry, ecology, business and industry. Special…

  9. In Brief: European Earth science network for postdocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched a new initiative called the Changing Earth Science Network, to support young scientists undertaking leading-edge research activities aimed at advancing the understanding of the Earth system. The initiative will enable up to 10 young postdoctoral researchers from the agency's member states to address major scientific challenges by using Earth observation (EO) satellite data from ESA and its third-party missions. The initiative aims to foster the development of a network of young scientists in Europe with a good knowledge of the agency and its EO programs. Selected candidates will have the option to carry out part of their research in an ESA center as a visiting scientist. The deadline to submit proposals is 16 January 2009. Selections will be announced in early 2009. The Changing Earth Science Network was developed as one of the main programmatic components of ESA's Support to Science Element, launched in 2008. For more information, visit http://www.esa.int/stse.

  10. In Brief: Science academies' statement on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-06-01

    “It is essential that world leaders agree on emissions reductions needed to combat negative consequences of anthropogenic climate change,” national science academies from 13 countries declared in a joint statement issued on 11 June. The statement, issued by the academies of the G8 countries—including England, France, Russia, and the United States—and five other countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), came in advance of a G8 meeting in Italy in July and prior to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations in Denmark in December. “The G8+5 should lead the transition to an energy-efficient and low-carbon world economy, and foster innovation and research and development for both mitigation and adaptation technologies,” the statement noted. The academies urged governments to agree at the UNFCCC negotiations to adopt a long-term global goal and short-term emissions reduction targets so that by 2050 global emissions would be reduced by about 50% from 1990 levels.

  11. STS-102 Expedition 2 Increment and Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Merri Sanchez, Expedition 2 Increment Manager, John Uri, Increment Scientist, and Lybrease Woodard, Lead Payload Operations Director, give an overview of the upcoming activities and objectives of the Expedition 2's (E2's) mission in this prelaunch press conference. Ms. Sanchez describes the crew rotation of Expedition 1 to E2, the timeline E2 will follow during their stay on the International Space Station (ISS), and the various flights going to the ISS and what each will bring to ISS. Mr. Uri gives details on the on-board experiments that will take place on the ISS in the fields of microgravity research, commercial, earth, life, and space sciences (such as radiation characterization, H-reflex, colloids formation and interaction, protein crystal growth, plant growth, fermentation in microgravity, etc.). He also gives details on the scientific facilities to be used (laboratory racks and equipment such as the human torso facsimile or 'phantom torso'). Ms. Woodard gives an overview of Marshall Flight Center's role in the mission. Computerized simulations show the installation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) onto the ISS and the installation of the airlock using SSRMS. Live footage shows the interior of the ISS, including crew living quarters, the Progress Module, and the Destiny Laboratory. The three then answer questions from the press.

  12. Usability Briefing - a process model for healthcare facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Background: In complex buildings with many types of users it can be difficult to satisfy the numerous, often contradictory requirements. Research in usability mostly focuses on evaluating products or facilities with users, after they were built. This paper is part of a PhD project “Usability...... with various users/stakeholders, using creative boundary objects at workshops.  Practical Implications: The research results have relevance to researchers, client organisations, facility managers and architects planning new complex facilities.  Research limitations: The proposed model is theoretical and needs...... briefing for hospitals”, where methods for capturing user needs and experiences at hospital facilities are investigated in order to feed into design processes and satisfy the users’ needs and maximise the effectiveness of facilities. Purpose: This paper introduces the concept of usability briefing...

  13. Center for modeling of turbulence and transition: Research briefs, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This research brief contains the progress reports of the research staff of the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT) from July 1993 to July 1995. It also constitutes a progress report to the Institute of Computational Mechanics in Propulsion located at the Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Lewis Research Center. CMOTT has been in existence for about four years. In the first three years, its main activities were to develop and validate turbulence and combustion models for propulsion systems, in an effort to remove the deficiencies of existing models. Three workshops on computational turbulence modeling were held at LeRC (1991, 1993, 1994). At present, CMOTT is integrating the CMOTT developed/improved models into CFD tools which can be used by the propulsion systems community. This activity has resulted in an increased collaboration with the Lewis CFD researchers.

  14. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    range wireless sensor network monitors remote areas A research team has developed a novel system which and Hari Viswanathan as Fellows. - 8/31/17 Transmission electron microscopy thin section of HIV virus uranium dioxide, researchers are improving understanding of an essential nuclear power plant fuel. - 7/27

  15. Science comics as tools for science education and communication: a brief, exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tatalovic

    2009-01-01

    Comics are a popular art form especially among children and as such provide a potential medium for science education and communication. In an attempt to present science comics in a museum exhibit I found many science themed comics and graphic books. Here I attempt to provide an overview of already available comics that communicate science, the genre of ‘science comics’. I also provide a quick literature review for evidence that comics can indeed be efficiently used for promoting scientific li...

  16. Redefining Outcome Measurement: A Model for Brief Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinty, Everett; Nelson, John; Carlson, Alain; Crowther, Eric; Bednar, Dina; Foroughe, Mirisse

    2016-05-01

    The zeitgeist for short-term psychotherapy efficacy has fundamentally shifted away from evidence-based practices to include evidence-informed practices, resulting in an equally important paradigm shift in outcome measurement designed to reflect change in this short-term modality. The present article delineates a short-term psychotherapy structure which defines four fundamental stages that all brief therapies may have in common, and are represented through Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, Narrative Therapy, and Emotion-Focused Therapy. These four theoretical approaches were analyzed via a selected literature review through comparing and contrasting specific and common tasks as they relate to the process of psychotherapy and change. Once commonalities were identified within session, they were categorized or grouped into themes or general stages of change within the parameters of a four to six session model of short-term therapy. Commonalities in therapeutic stages of change may more accurately and uniformly measure outcome in short-term work, unlike the symptom-specific psychometric instruments of longer-term psychotherapy. A systematic framework for evaluating the client and clinician adherence to 20 specific tasks for these four short-term therapies is presented through the newly proposed, Brief Task Acquisition Scale (BTAS). It is further proposed that the client-clinicians' adherence to these tasks will track and ultimately increase treatment integrity. Thus, when the client-clinician relationship tracks and evaluates the three pillars of (1) stage/process change, (2) task acquisition, and (3) treatment integrity, the culmination of these efforts presents a new way of more sensitively measuring outcome in short-term psychotherapy. Data collection is suggested as a first step to empirically evaluate the testable hypotheses suggested within this current model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message The

  17. Science comics as tools for science education and communication: a brief, exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatalovic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comics are a popular art form especially among children and as such provide a potential medium for science education and communication. In an attempt to present science comics in a museum exhibit I found many science themed comics and graphic books. Here I attempt to provide an overview of already available comics that communicate science, the genre of ‘science comics’. I also provide a quick literature review for evidence that comics can indeed be efficiently used for promoting scientific literacy via education and communication. I address the issue of lack of studies about science comics and their readers and suggest some possible reasons for this as well as some questions that could be addressed in future studies on the effect these comics may have on science communication.

  18. Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Drury, Benjamin J.; Vichayapai, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance…

  19. A Brief Review on Leading Big Data Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugam Sharma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, science is passing through an era of transformation, where the inundation of data, dubbed data deluge is influencing the decision making process. The science is driven by the data and is being termed as data science. In this internet age, the volume of the data has grown up to petabytes, and this large, complex, structured or unstructured, and heterogeneous data in the form of “Big Data” has gained significant attention. The rapid pace of data growth through various disparate sources, especially social media such as Facebook, has seriously challenged the data analytic capabilities of traditional relational databases. The velocity of the expansion of the amount of data gives rise to a complete paradigm shift in how new age data is processed. Confidence in the data engineering of the existing data processing systems is gradually fading whereas the capabilities of the new techniques for capturing, storing, visualizing, and analyzing data are evolving. In this review paper, we discuss some of the modern Big Data models that are leading contributors in the NoSQL era and claim to address Big Data challenges in reliable and efficient ways. Also, we take the potential of Big Data into consideration and try to reshape the original operationaloriented definition of “Big Science” (Furner, 2003 into a new data-driven definition and rephrase it as “The science that deals with Big Data is Big Science.”

  20. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... 1Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, 2Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, ... controlled by the soybean heat-shock promoter is an effective tool for conditional removal ... Brief communication ...

  1. Seeking Missing Pieces in Science Concept Assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses.…

  2. Part C Service Coordination: State Policies and Models. Synthesis Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Joy

    This brief paper summarizes data from a survey of state coordinators of Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act concerning service coordination to infants and toddlers with disabilities. The survey examined variations in service coordination at the state level including roles of parents, values of key stakeholders, sources of…

  3. Modeling Performance in C4ISR Sustained Operations: A Multi-Level Approach (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, Christopher; Miller, James C; Elliott, Linda; Coovert, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This briefing discusses methodology and preliminary findings focused on the application of multi-level modeling techniques to distinguish effects of sleep loss and task demands on individual and team...

  4. Science and sports: a brief history of muscle, motion and ad hoc organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, Jan Pieter; Alewaeters, Katrien

    2003-09-01

    Both the history of biolocomotion (later to become motion analysis/biomechanics) and of electrology (later kinesiological electromyography) are to be traced back to approximatively the same period in the second half of the seventeenth century. The major contributors to these emergent sciences were Swammerdam in 1658 and Borelli in 1680. Some 150 years later, electrophysiological methods were derived and motion-cinephotography was developed from their pioneering work. Subsequently, use was made of motion analysis by means of cinephotography, forming a basis for biomechanics. The work of Marey in 1873 in particular stimulated the multidisciplinary study of human activity, providing models for contemporary sports scientists working in applied settings. The link between theory and practice in motion sciences and the multidisciplinary model of Marey were the motive and the example for establishing the Working Group of Biomechanics in the 1960s. This body has gone through a series of progressive developments, culminating in the approval of the World Commission of Science and Sports as a service group of the International Council for Sport Science and Physical Education (recognized by UNESCO).

  5. A brief overview of models of nucleon-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.V.

    2003-01-01

    The basic features of low to intermediate energy nucleon-induced reactions are discussed within the contexts of the optical model, the statistical model, preequilibrium and intranuclear cascade models. The calculation of cross sections and other scattering quantities are described. (author)

  6. A brief critique of the Adam-Gibbs entropy model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.; Hecksher, Tina; Niss, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the entropy model proposed by Adam and Gibbs in 1965 for the dramatic temperature dependence of glass-forming liquids' average relaxation time, which is one of the most influential models during the last four decades. We discuss the Adam-Gibbs model's theoretical...

  7. Mathematical Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao

    1988-01-01

    An important new area of current research in combustion science is reviewed in the contributions to this volume. The complicated phenomena of combustion, such as chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer, and gaseous flows, have so far been studied predominantly by experiment and by phenomenological approaches. But asymptotic analysis and other recent developments are rapidly changing this situation. The contributions in this volume are devoted to mathematical modeling in three areas: high Mach number combustion, complex chemistry and physics, and flame modeling in small scale turbulent flow combustion.

  8. Modelling water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines: short brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, K.; Firkowski, M.; Zarzycki, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The model of water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines is analyzed. An appropriate mathematical model of water hammer in polymer pipelines is presented. An additional term has been added to continuity equation to describe the retarded deformation of the pipe wall. The mechanical behavior of viscoelastic material is described by generalized Kelvin-Voigt model. The comparison of numerical simulation and experimental data from well known papers is presented. Short discussion about obtained results are given.

  9. Application of solution focused brief counseling model to increase of counselee resilience as a part of multicultural society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Kurnia Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern multicultural society and is a dynamic life marked by interaction between the components of a diverse society based on the rule of science and technology. A society that is increasingly complex due to the rapid changes in various aspects of life often creates problems for the individual's life. For example, inner tension, internal and external conflicts, and emotional disturbance. Facing these challenges, the individual is expected to have resilience was good. The role of the counselor is to help the counselee improve resilience with counseling approach effectively. Counseling models that meet the criteria of an effective and efficient is the Solution Focused Brief Counseling. Counseling model emphasizes the collaborative process between counselor and counselee to find solutions to achieve the expected goals. In the process of this counseling model uses questioning techniques to uncover the story, advantages, strengths and exceptions problems experienced by counselee in a short time.

  10. [Active ageing and success: A brief history of conceptual models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petretto, Donatella Rita; Pili, Roberto; Gaviano, Luca; Matos López, Cristina; Zuddas, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe different conceptual models of successful ageing, active and healthy ageing developed in Europe and in America in the 20° century, starting from Rowe and Kahn's original model (1987, 1997). A narrative review was conducted on the literature on successful ageing. Our review included definition of successful ageing from European and American scholars. Models were found that aimed to describe indexes of active and healthy ageing, models devoted to describe processes involved in successful ageing, and additional views that emphasise subjective and objective perception of successful ageing. A description is also given of critiques on previous models and remedies according to Martin et al. (2014) and strategies for successful ageing according to Jeste and Depp (2014). The need is discussed for the enhancement of Rowe and Kahn's model and other models with a more inclusive, universal description of ageing, incorporating scientific evidence regarding active ageing. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Childhood Stress Can Accumulate in the Body. Science Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief presents the findings of a study that examined the effects of "allostatic load" on children in poverty at age 9 and 13. "Allostatic load" refers to the measurement of the cumulative wear and tear on the body that results from experiencing stress. Research shows that high allostatic load in childhood is associated with long-term…

  12. Funding research data management and related infrastructures : Knowledge Exchange and Science Europe briefing paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, Magchiel; Duca, Daniela; Katerbow, Matthias; Kupiainen, Irina; Dillo, Ingrid; Doorn, P.K.; Enke, Harry; de Lucas, Jesus Eugenio Marco

    2016-01-01

    Research Funding Organisations (RFO) and Research Performing Organisations (RPO) throughout Europe are well aware that science and scholarship increasingly depend on infrastructures supporting sustainable Research Data Management (RDM). In two complementary surveys, the Science Europe Working Group

  13. THE WHITE-SELGIN MODEL - A BRIEF ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN BĂDESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the model proposed by Professor White and further developed by professor Selgin and an analysis of the possibility of its implementation as a reform of the current monetary system. Research has shown that the proposed system is somewhat similar to the monetary system during the classical gold standard, between the years 1880-1913 and assumes that the money in circulation is convertible. Their amount depends on the existing bank reserves, so that an important factor in the decision of banks to issue banknotes will be the desire of the public to hold them. If the public trusts a particular bank, it will increase the demand for its banknotes so that the bank will record a surplus towards other banks in the clearing sessions and, as a result, it will have excess reserves, which will be used to grant new loans and gain market share. The model is based on fractional reserves and assumes they have no optimal level, but instead they fluctuate, depending on the velocity of circulation of money. Regarding the market's ability to correct imbalances in the absence of strong institutions (in this case, central banks that can provide the necessary solutions, the model appears to be perhaps a little too permissive. Also, the only rule imposed by the authors, the convertibility of money, though it is strong, cannot provide by itself a satisfactory efficiency of a system based on this model.

  14. Teaching the Interactionist Model of Ethics: Two Brief Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on the interactionist model of ethics as a framework to help students answer two key questions they will confront in their future careers: (a) How can I, as a professional manager, deter clearly unethical behavior among my subordinates? and (b) How can I avoid engaging in clearly unethical behavior myself? For each of these…

  15. The harmonious relationship between faith and science from the perspective of some great saints: A brief comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Manuel E; Del Río, Juan Pablo; Vigil, Pilar

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this editorial is to show that a harmonious relationship between science and faith is possible, as exemplified by great saints of the Catholic Church. It begins with the definitions of science and faith, followed by an explanation of the apparent conflict between them. A few saints that constitute an example that a fruitful relationship between these two seemingly opposed realities has been possible are Saint Albert the Great, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Giuseppe Moscati, and Saint Edith Stein, among others, and this editorial highlights their deep contributions to the dialogue between faith and reason. This editorial ends with a brief discussion on whether it is possible to be both a scientist and a man of faith.

  16. A Brief History of the Business Model Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The basic idea of the business model concept is that it should spell out the unique value proposition of the firm and how such a value proposition ought to be implemented. For customers such “value creation” could be related to solving a problem, improving performance, or reducing risk and costs......, which might require specific value configurations including relationships to suppliers, access to technologies, insight in the users’ needs etc. Taking one’s point of departure in a business model perspective can have multiple purposes. Among the advantages of this approach is the possibility...... of enabling company management to structure their thoughts and understanding about strategic objectives and other relevant issues. Furthermore, this facilitates the conveyance of ideas and expectations the management has to the employees on the business process level and to the technically oriented functions...

  17. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL Presentation to: IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science...Conference C. J. Keane Director, NIF User Office June 21, 2013 1491978-1-4673-5168-3/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  18. Brief introductory guide to agent-based modeling and an illustration from urban health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. Auchincloss

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing interest among urban health researchers in addressing complex problems using conceptual and computation models from the field of complex systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM is one computational modeling tool that has received a lot of interest. However, many researchers remain unfamiliar with developing and carrying out an ABM, hindering the understanding and application of it. This paper first presents a brief introductory guide to carrying out a simple agent-based model. Then, the method is illustrated by discussing a previously developed agent-based model, which explored inequalities in diet in the context of urban residential segregation.

  19. Brief introductory guide to agent-based modeling and an illustration from urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest among urban health researchers in addressing complex problems using conceptual and computation models from the field of complex systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is one computational modeling tool that has received a lot of interest. However, many researchers remain unfamiliar with developing and carrying out an ABM, hindering the understanding and application of it. This paper first presents a brief introductory guide to carrying out a simple agent-based model. Then, the method is illustrated by discussing a previously developed agent-based model, which explored inequalities in diet in the context of urban residential segregation.

  20. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science: A Brief Report on 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Lee, Seungmin; Kostelis, Kimberly T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this annual report is to provide a summary of measurement in physical education and exercise science-related activities in 2017. A recent trend for an annual increase in manuscript submissions to measurement in physical education and exercise science continued in 2017. Twenty-nine countries were represented (i.e., corresponding…

  1. High Fidelity Modeling of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    THRUSTERS (Briefing Charts) Robert Martin , Eder Sousa, Jonathan Tran Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRS 1 Ara Drive Edwards AFB, CA 93524... Martin N/A HIGH FIDELITY MODELING OF FIELD-REVERSED CONFIGURATION (FRC) THRUSTERS Robert Martin1, Eder Sousa2, Jonathan Tran2 1AIR FORCE RESEARCH...Distribution is unlimited. PA Clearance No. 17314 MARTIN , SOUSA, TRAN (AFRL/RQRS) DISTRIBUTION A - APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. PA

  2. The Food and Drug Administration and Drug Legalization: A Brief Model of Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalam, Murad

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers a brief model of FDA regulation of currently illegal narcotics in the United States. Given that nearly three out of four Americans believe that the drug war has failed, recent calls from prominent liberal and conservative thinkers to legalize drugs, and state “compassionate use†ballot initiatives, future drug legalization is at least conceivable in the United States. Yet, how would the FDA regulate NLD’s under its current st...

  3. A brief history of the most remarkable numbers e, i and γ in mathematical sciences with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2015-08-01

    This paper deals with a brief history of the most remarkable Euler numbers e, i and γ in mathematical sciences. Included are many properties of the constants e, i and γ and their applications in algebra, geometry, physics, chemistry, ecology, business and industry. Special attention is given to the growth and decay phenomena in many real-world problems including stability and instability of their solutions. Some specific and modern applications of logarithms, complex numbers and complex exponential functions to electrical circuits and mechanical systems are presented with examples. Included are the use of complex numbers and complex functions in the description and analysis of chaos and fractals with the aid of modern computer technology. In addition, the phasor method is described with examples of applications in engineering science. The major focus of this paper is to provide basic information through historical approach to mathematics teaching and learning of the fundamental knowledge and skills required for students and teachers at all levels so that they can understand the concepts of mathematics, and mathematics education in science and technology.

  4. Glioblastoma, a brief review of history, molecular genetics, animal models and novel therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Burrell, Kelly E; Wolf, Amparo; Jalali, Sharzhad; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2013-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor. Over the past few years tremendous genomic and proteomic characterization along with robust animal models of GBM have provided invaluable data that show that "GBM", although histologically indistinguishable from one another, are comprised of molecularly heterogenous diseases. In addition, robust pre-clinical models and a better understanding of the core pathways disrupted in GBM are providing a renewed optimism for novel strategies targeting these devastating tumors. Here, we summarize a brief history of the disease, our current molecular knowledge, lessons from animal models and emerging concepts of angiogenesis, invasion, and metabolism in GBM that may lend themselves to therapeutic targeting.

  5. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF MODERN SCIENCE TO PORTUGAL DURING THE 18th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA CASTELÃO-LAWLESS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the role played by members of the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Oratorians, and the Jewish community in the introduction of Modern science in Portugal during the 18th century. The record of their publications prove, contrary to common stereotypes on the permanent conflict between science and religion, that they all embraced Modern, anti-Aristotelian, natural philosophy fairly equally and unreservedly. The rhetoric they used in manuscript Dedications to prospective patrons also show that they were actively engaged in shifting Modern science from a context of private consumption to one of public circulation. I acknowledgethat the dissemination of Modern science in Portugal during the 1700’s was slow and protracted. This phenomenon, however, was not, as typically argued, caused by scientific conservatism on the part of the religious Orders, or the ill will of patrons of the sciences, but by the political motives of enlightened despots João V, José I and his Prime-Minister the Marquis of Pombal.

  6. Cognitive science, psychoanalysis and neuroscience: A Brief History of a current trend (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Imbasciati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For decades, cognitive sciences and psychoanalysis have been ignored each other for a mutual distrust, producing in scholars of both disciplines a progressive mutual ignorance and misunderstanding about their developments. The latest studies of cognitive sciences on the role of emotions have allowed a partial approach to psychoanalysis. But above all, recent studies in neuroscience on the emotional basis of all mental processes, about the formation of the subjectivity, about identity and sense of self (neuro psychoanalysis, are opening up a horizon of integration between the three different sciences. In this perspective the epigenetics is playing a fundamental role, that the Author hopes will produce significant developments from a social and anthropological point of view. 

  7. Cognitive science, psychoanalysis and neuroscience: A Brief History of a current trend (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Imbasciati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, cognitive sciences and psychoanalysis have been ignored each other for a mutual distrust, producing in scholars of both disciplines a progressive mutual ignorance and misunderstanding about their developments. The latest studies of cognitive sciences on the role of emotions have allowed a partial approach to psychoanalysis. But above all, recent studies in neuroscience on the emotional basis of all mental processes, about the formation of the subjectivity, about identity and sense of self (neuro psychoanalysis, are opening up a horizon of integration between the three different sciences. In this perspective the epigenetics is playing a fundamental role, that the Author hopes will produce significant developments from a social and anthropological point of view. 

  8. How the “Queen Science” Lost Her Crown: A Brief Social History of Science Fairs and the Marginalization of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Marx

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Science fairs at one time started out with an interest of increasing participation in the sciences. But as time has passed, the definition of science has been narrowed to the point where any possible social science project has been eliminated in favor of the bench sciences only. Even here, natural curiosity of students has been deemphasized. It is not surprising that science majors in the USA are becoming fewer and fewer given the narrowing of the disciplines. Young people are discouraged from majoring in science by the science establishment.

  9. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    The Brazilian Soil Science Society (SBCS) is one of the oldest scientific societies in Brazil. It was created in October 1947 during the 1st Brazilian Meeting of Soil Science held at the headquarters of the Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Rio de Janeiro, at present the Soils Institute of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre. Its origin lies within the Interamerican Conference of Agriculture, Caracas, 1945, the 2nd Pan American Congress of Mining and Geology, Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1946 and the 5th Brazilian Congress of Chemistry, Porto Alegre, 1947. Its first president was Álvaro Barcelos Fagundes, who was the only Brazilian participant at the 1st International Congress of Soil Science and Transcontinental Excursion held in United States of America, in 1927. At that time he was engaged in research work at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Rutgers University where he did a doctorate under the guidance of Professor Selman Waksman. The society started with 47 members and presently has nearly 900 members. In its first phase the Brazilian Soil Science Society was housed at the Agricultural Chemistry Institute in Rio de Janeiro and its main activity was the biannual Brazilian Congress of Soil Science. In 1975 its headquarters moved to the Agronomic Institute of Campinas with the creation of its executive board and the start of publication of the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science (1977) as well as the society bulletin (1976). In 1997 its executive office moved to the Soils Department at the Federal University of Viçosa. Nowadays it has a structure similar to the one from the IUSS: the society is organized in four divisions (Soil in space and time, Soils properties and processes, Soil use and management and Soil, environment and society) which encompass 14 technical commissions and eight State or Regional nuclei. The Brazilian Congresses of Soil Science happen without interruption since 1947. The first one had had 72 participants that

  10. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  11. Research briefing on selected opportunities in atomic, molecular, and optical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research on the following topics: The Laser-Atom Revolution; Controlling Dynamical Pathways; Nonclassical States of Light; Transient States of Atomic Systems; New Light Generation and Handling; Clusters; Atomic Physics at User Facilities; and Impacts of AMO Sciences on Modern Technologies

  12. Models in Science Education: Applications of Models in Learning and Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss different types of models in science education and applications of them in learning and teaching science, in particular physics. Based on the literature, I categorize models as conceptual and mental models according to their characteristics. In addition to these models, there is another model called "physics model" by the…

  13. A brief history of science as seen through the development of scientific instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Crump, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    From earliest pre-history, with the dawning understanding of fire and its many uses, up to the astonishing advances of the twenty-first century, Thomas Crump traces the ever more sophisticated means employed in our attempts to understand the universe. The result is a vigorous and readable account of how our curious nature has continually pushed forward the frontiers of science and, as a consequence, human civilization.

  14. How Much Does It Cost Institutions to Produce Stem Degrees? Data Brief. The Price and Cost of Science Degrees Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This AIR Data Brief breaks down the "cost per degree" estimates for 28 disciplines, including those in the STEM fields, which among the most expensive degrees to produce. The brief points to ways colleges can change their tuition structure to finance STEM degrees more affordably. This data brief is the fourth of four in the series. (See…

  15. Zaccaria Lilio and the shape of the earth: A brief response to Allegro's "Flat earth science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, C Philipp E

    2017-12-01

    This is a response to James J. Allegro's article "The Bottom of the Universe: Flat Earth Science in the Age of Encounter," published in Volume 55, Number 1, of this journal. Against the solid consensus of modern scholars, Allegro contends that the decades around 1500 saw a resurgence of popular and learned doubts about the existence of a southern hemisphere and the concept of a spherical earth more generally. It can be shown that a substantial part of Allegro's argument rests on an erroneous reading of his main textual witness, Zaccaria Lilio's Contra Antipodes (1496), and on a failure adequately to place this source in the context of the cosmographical debate of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Once this context is taken into account, the notion that Lilio was a flat-earther falls flat.

  16. A Brief Review on Metamaterial-Based Vacuum Electronics for Terahertz and Microwave Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials, which enable us to realize novel physical effects that cannot be achieved using natural materials, have been extensively studied in recent years and significant progress has been made, especially in the field of optics. This game-changing concept has also initiated a rich variety of research activity in vacuum electronics. Here we review the recent development of metamaterial-based vacuum electronics for terahertz (THz) and microwave science and technology. The reversed Cherenkov radiation (RCR) in double-negative (DNG) metamaterials predicted by Veselago back in the 1960s has been experimentally verified in the microwave frequency range by utilizing specially designed DNG metamaterials. The interaction of an electron beam (e-beam) with DNG metamaterials may lead to the realization of novel applications such as microwave and THz radiation sources, accelerators, and even the visualization of invisibility cloaks. Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) has recently received renewed interest owing to the development of metamaterials and the concept of spoof surface plasmon polaritons, as discussed in this review, and recent results on e-beam-induced directional and wide-band THz radiation with sharp multiple peaks from a graded grating, as well as directional and monochromatic special SPR and their possible application to THz orotron devices, are also reviewed.

  17. Seeking missing pieces in science concept assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses. Differing from typical concept inventories that focus only on one topic of a subject area, BEMA covers a broad range of topics in the electromagnetism domain. In spite of this fact, prior studies exclusively used a single aggregate score to represent individual students' overall understanding of E&M without explicating the construct of this assessment. Additionally, BEMA has been used to compare traditional physics courses with a reformed course entitled Matter and Interactions (M&I). While prior findings were in favor of M&I, no empirical evidence was sought to rule out possible differential functioning of BEMA that may have inadvertently advantaged M&I students. In this study, we used Rasch analysis to seek two missing pieces regarding the construct and differential functioning of BEMA. Results suggest that although BEMA items generally can function together to measure the same construct of application and analysis of E&M concepts, several items may need further revision. Additionally, items that demonstrate differential functioning for the two courses are detected. Issues such as item contextual features and student familiarity with question settings may underlie these findings. This study highlights often overlooked threats in science concept assessments and provides an exemplar for using evidence-based reasoning to make valid inferences and arguments.

  18. Seeking missing pieces in science concept assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners’ disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M topics in college-level introductory physics courses. Differing from typical concept inventories that focus only on one topic of a subject area, BEMA covers a broad range of topics in the electromagnetism domain. In spite of this fact, prior studies exclusively used a single aggregate score to represent individual students’ overall understanding of E&M without explicating the construct of this assessment. Additionally, BEMA has been used to compare traditional physics courses with a reformed course entitled Matter and Interactions (M&I. While prior findings were in favor of M&I, no empirical evidence was sought to rule out possible differential functioning of BEMA that may have inadvertently advantaged M&I students. In this study, we used Rasch analysis to seek two missing pieces regarding the construct and differential functioning of BEMA. Results suggest that although BEMA items generally can function together to measure the same construct of application and analysis of E&M concepts, several items may need further revision. Additionally, items that demonstrate differential functioning for the two courses are detected. Issues such as item contextual features and student familiarity with question settings may underlie these findings. This study highlights often overlooked threats in science concept assessments and provides an exemplar for using evidence-based reasoning to make valid inferences and arguments.

  19. Applied modelling and computing in social science

    CERN Document Server

    Povh, Janez

    2015-01-01

    In social science outstanding results are yielded by advanced simulation methods, based on state of the art software technologies and an appropriate combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This book presents examples of successful applications of modelling and computing in social science: business and logistic process simulation and optimization, deeper knowledge extractions from big data, better understanding and predicting of social behaviour and modelling health and environment changes.

  20. Problem Solving Model for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.

  1. Building a Democratic Model of Science Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Ibnu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Earlier in the last century, learning in science, as was learning in other disciplines, was developed according to the philosophy of behaviorism. This did not serve the purposes of learning in science properly, as the students were forced to absorb information transferred from the main and the only source of learning, the teacher. Towards the end of the century a significant shift from behaviorism to constructivism philosophy took place. The shift promoted the development of more democratic models of learning in science which provided greater opportunities to the students to act as real scientist, chattering for the building of knowledge and scientific skills. Considering the characteristics of science and the characteristics of the students as active learners, the shift towards democratic models of learning is unavoidable and is merely a matter of time

  2. Enhanced science-stakeholder communication to improve ecosystem model performances for climate change impact assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Anna Maria; Anderbrant, Olle; Holmér, Jennie; Johansson, Jacob; Schurgers, Guy; Svensson, Glenn P; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, climate impact assessments of relevance to the agricultural and forestry sectors have received considerable attention. Current ecosystem models commonly capture the effect of a warmer climate on biomass production, but they rarely sufficiently capture potential losses caused by pests, pathogens and extreme weather events. In addition, alternative management regimes may not be integrated in the models. A way to improve the quality of climate impact assessments is to increase the science-stakeholder collaboration, and in a two-way dialog link empirical experience and impact modelling with policy and strategies for sustainable management. In this paper we give a brief overview of different ecosystem modelling methods, discuss how to include ecological and management aspects, and highlight the importance of science-stakeholder communication. By this, we hope to stimulate a discussion among the science-stakeholder communities on how to quantify the potential for climate change adaptation by improving the realism in the models.

  3. Cointegration and Error Correction Modelling in Time-Series Analysis: A Brief Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Thome

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Criminological research is often based on time-series data showing some type of trend movement. Trending time-series may correlate strongly even in cases where no causal relationship exists (spurious causality. To avoid this problem researchers often apply some technique of detrending their data, such as by differencing the series. This approach, however, may bring up another problem: that of spurious non-causality. Both problems can, in principle, be avoided if the series under investigation are “difference-stationary” (if the trend movements are stochastic and “cointegrated” (if the stochastically changing trendmovements in different variables correspond to each other. The article gives a brief introduction to key instruments and interpretative tools applied in cointegration modelling.

  4. Deep Generative Models for Molecular Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Winther, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Generative deep machine learning models now rival traditional quantum-mechanical computations in predicting properties of new structures, and they come with a significantly lower computational cost, opening new avenues in computational molecular science. In the last few years, a variety of deep...... generative models have been proposed for modeling molecules, which differ in both their model structure and choice of input features. We review these recent advances within deep generative models for predicting molecular properties, with particular focus on models based on the probabilistic autoencoder (or...

  5. Applied Mathematics, Modelling and Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Kotsireas, Ilias; Makarov, Roman; Melnik, Roderick; Shodiev, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The Applied Mathematics, Modelling, and Computational Science (AMMCS) conference aims to promote interdisciplinary research and collaboration. The contributions in this volume cover the latest research in mathematical and computational sciences, modeling, and simulation as well as their applications in natural and social sciences, engineering and technology, industry, and finance. The 2013 conference, the second in a series of AMMCS meetings, was held August 26–30 and organized in cooperation with AIMS and SIAM, with support from the Fields Institute in Toronto, and Wilfrid Laurier University. There were many young scientists at AMMCS-2013, both as presenters and as organizers. This proceedings contains refereed papers contributed by the participants of the AMMCS-2013 after the conference. This volume is suitable for researchers and graduate students, mathematicians and engineers, industrialists, and anyone who would like to delve into the interdisciplinary research of applied and computational mathematics ...

  6. Modelling Spark Integration in Science Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study critically explored how a PASCO-designed technology (SPARK ScienceLearning System is meaningfully integrated into the teaching of selected topics in Earth and Environmental Science. It highlights on modelling the effectiveness of using the SPARK Learning System as a primary tool in learning science that leads to learning and achievement of the students. Data and observation gathered and correlation of the ability of the technology to develop high intrinsic motivation to student achievement were used to design framework on how to meaningfully integrate SPARK ScienceLearning System in teaching Earth and Environmental Science. Research instruments used in this study were adopted from standardized questionnaires available from literature. Achievement test and evaluation form were developed and validated for the purpose of deducing data needed for the study. Interviews were done to delve into the deeper thoughts and emotions of the respondents. Data from the interviews served to validate all numerical data culled from this study. Cross-case analysis of the data was done to reveal some recurring themes, problems and benefits derived by the students in using the SPARK Science Learning System to further establish its effectiveness in the curriculum as a forerunner to the shift towards the 21st Century Learning.

  7. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Graham

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive…

  8. Effectiveness of brief interventions as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model for reducing the nonmedical use of psychoactive substances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Matthew M; Stevens, Adrienne; Galipeau, James; Pirie, Tyler; Garritty, Chantelle; Singh, Kavita; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Golfam, Mohammed; Pratt, Misty; Turner, Lucy; Porath-Waller, Amy; Arratoon, Cheryl; Haley, Nancy; Leslie, Karen; Reardon, Rhoda; Sproule, Beth; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Moher, David

    2014-05-24

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions (BIs) as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model for reducing the nonmedical use of psychoactive substances. Bibliographic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to April 2012) and gray literature sources were searched. We included randomized controlled trials that opportunistically screened adolescents or adults and then provided a one-to-one, verbal BI to those at risk of substance-use harm. Of interest was the nonmedical use of psychoactive substances (for example, drugs prohibited by international law), excluding alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine. Interventions comprised four or fewer sessions and were compared with no/delayed intervention or provision of information only. Studies were assessed for bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results were synthesized narratively. Evidence was interpreted according to the GRADE framework. We identified 8,836 records. Of these, five studies met our inclusion criteria. Two studies compared BI with no BI, and three studies compared BI with information only. Studies varied in characteristics such as substances targeted, screening procedures, and BI administered. Outcomes were mostly reported by a single study, leading to limited or uncertain confidence in effect estimates. Insufficient evidence exists as to whether BIs, as part of SBIRT, are effective or ineffective for reducing the use of, or harms associated with nonmedical use of, psychoactive substances when these interventions are administered to nontreatment-seeking, screen-detected populations. Updating this review with emerging evidence will be important. CRD42012002414.

  9. Derivation and Implementation of a Model Teaching the Nature of Science Using Informal Science Education Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Burkett, Ruth; Leard, Cyndy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for using informal science education venues as contexts within which to teach the nature of science. The model was initially developed to enable university education students to teach science in elementary schools so as to be consistent with "National Science Education Standards" (NSES) (1996) and "A Framework for…

  10. Springer handbook of model-based science

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    The handbook offers the first comprehensive reference guide to the interdisciplinary field of model-based reasoning. It highlights the role of models as mediators between theory and experimentation, and as educational devices, as well as their relevance in testing hypotheses and explanatory functions. The Springer Handbook merges philosophical, cognitive and epistemological perspectives on models with the more practical needs related to the application of this tool across various disciplines and practices. The result is a unique, reliable source of information that guides readers toward an understanding of different aspects of model-based science, such as the theoretical and cognitive nature of models, as well as their practical and logical aspects. The inferential role of models in hypothetical reasoning, abduction and creativity once they are constructed, adopted, and manipulated for different scientific and technological purposes is also discussed. Written by a group of internationally renowned experts in ...

  11. A brief introduction to mixed effects modelling and multi-model inference in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Xavier A; Donaldson, Lynda; Correa-Cano, Maria Eugenia; Evans, Julian; Fisher, David N; Goodwin, Cecily E D; Robinson, Beth S; Hodgson, David J; Inger, Richard

    2018-01-01

    The use of linear mixed effects models (LMMs) is increasingly common in the analysis of biological data. Whilst LMMs offer a flexible approach to modelling a broad range of data types, ecological data are often complex and require complex model structures, and the fitting and interpretation of such models is not always straightforward. The ability to achieve robust biological inference requires that practitioners know how and when to apply these tools. Here, we provide a general overview of current methods for the application of LMMs to biological data, and highlight the typical pitfalls that can be encountered in the statistical modelling process. We tackle several issues regarding methods of model selection, with particular reference to the use of information theory and multi-model inference in ecology. We offer practical solutions and direct the reader to key references that provide further technical detail for those seeking a deeper understanding. This overview should serve as a widely accessible code of best practice for applying LMMs to complex biological problems and model structures, and in doing so improve the robustness of conclusions drawn from studies investigating ecological and evolutionary questions.

  12. Soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land use management: a brief historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Basic soil management goes back to the earliest days of agricultural practices, approximately 9,000 BCE. Through time humans developed soil management techniques of ever increasing complexity, including plows, contour tillage, terracing, and irrigation. Spatial soil patterns were being recognized as early as 3,000 BCE, but the first soil maps didn't appear until the 1700s and the first soil models finally arrived in the 1880s (Brevik et al., in press). The beginning of the 20th century saw an increase in standardization in many soil science methods and wide-spread soil mapping in many parts of the world, particularly in developed countries. However, the classification systems used, mapping scale, and national coverage varied considerably from country to country. Major advances were made in pedologic modeling starting in the 1940s, and in erosion modeling starting in the 1950s. In the 1970s and 1980s advances in computing power, remote and proximal sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and statistics and spatial statistics among other numerical techniques significantly enhanced our ability to map and model soils (Brevik et al., 2016). These types of advances positioned soil science to make meaningful contributions to sustainable land use management as we moved into the 21st century. References Brevik, E., Pereira, P., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Cerda, A., Parras-Alcantara, L., Lozano-Garcia, B. Historical perspectives on soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B. (eds) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management (In press). Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. 2016. Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274.

  13. A Brief Review of Viscosity Models for Slag in Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2011-11-01

    of ash and slag, especially in high-temperature environments need to be understood and properly modeled. The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal (and biomass for co-firing cases) present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. In this report, we first provide a brief review of the various approaches taken by different researchers in formulating or obtaining a slag viscosity model. In general, these models are based on experiments. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied.

  14. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  15. Materials Informatics: Statistical Modeling in Material Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosipof, Abraham; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2016-12-01

    Material informatics is engaged with the application of informatic principles to materials science in order to assist in the discovery and development of new materials. Central to the field is the application of data mining techniques and in particular machine learning approaches, often referred to as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling, to derive predictive models for a variety of materials-related "activities". Such models can accelerate the development of new materials with favorable properties and provide insight into the factors governing these properties. Here we provide a comparison between medicinal chemistry/drug design and materials-related QSAR modeling and highlight the importance of developing new, materials-specific descriptors. We survey some of the most recent QSAR models developed in materials science with focus on energetic materials and on solar cells. Finally we present new examples of material-informatic analyses of solar cells libraries produced from metal oxides using combinatorial material synthesis. Different analyses lead to interesting physical insights as well as to the design of new cells with potentially improved photovoltaic parameters. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

  17. A motivational account of the undergraduate experience in science: brief measures of students' self-system appraisals, engagement in coursework, and identity as a scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ellen; Saxton, Emily; Currie, Cailin; Shusterman, Gwen

    2017-11-01

    As part of long-standing efforts to promote undergraduates' success in science, researchers have investigated the instructional strategies and motivational factors that promote student learning and persistence in science coursework and majors. This study aimed to create a set of brief measures that educators and researchers can use as tools to examine the undergraduate motivational experience in science classes. To identify key motivational processes, we drew on self-determination theory (SDT), which holds that students have fundamental needs - to feel competent, related, and autonomous - that fuel their intrinsic motivation. When educational experiences meet these needs, students engage more energetically and learn more, cumulatively contributing to a positive identity as a scientist. Based on information provided by 1013 students from 8 classes in biology, chemistry, and physics, we constructed conceptually focused and psychometrically sound survey measures of three sets of motivational factors: (1) students' appraisals of their own competence, autonomy, and relatedness; (2) the quality of students' behavioural and emotional engagement in academic work; and (3) students' emerging identities as scientists, including their science identity, purpose in science, and science career plans. Using an iterative confirmatory process, we tested short item sets for unidimensionality and internal consistency, and then cross-validated them. Tests of measurement invariance showed that scales were generally comparable across disciplines. Most importantly, scales and final course grades showed correlations consistent with predictions from SDT. These measures may provide a window on the student motivational experience for educators, researchers, and interventionists who aim to improve the quality of undergraduate science teaching and learning.

  18. One Brief, Shining Moment? The Impact of Neo-Liberalism on Science Curriculum in the Compulsory Years of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dorothy Veronica

    2011-01-01

    The past 20 years or so have seen ongoing concern for the nature of science education in the Anglophone developed world. A particular focus of this concern has been the need to find new ways to frame science curricula that will engage students, yet it is proving difficult to achieve this goal. In this article I argue that the impact on science…

  19. The Briefing Book Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minix, Dean A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes an open admissions program, a public university's nontraditional population, and their unique academic needs. Provides a political science briefing book assignment in which students research and write about one country. Claims the book is effective in helping students to organize and focus their thoughts and to improve their research and…

  20. The Instructional Model for Using History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Hayati

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the levels of The Instructional Model for Using History of Science (UHOS) to explain the relationship between the history of science and science teaching. The UHOS model proposes four levels: Conceptual Level, Epistemological Level, Sociocultural Level, and Interest Level. Each Level has sublevels with regards to types of…

  1. Numerical modeling in materials science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaz, Michel; Deville, Michel

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts and methodologies related to the modelling of the complex phenomena occurring in materials processing. After a short reminder of conservation laws and constitutive relationships, the authors introduce the main numerical methods: finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements. These techniques are developed in three main chapters of the book that tackle more specific problems: phase transformation, solid mechanics and fluid flow. The two last chapters treat inverse methods to obtain the boundary conditions or the material properties and stochastic methods for microstructural simulation. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering and physics and for engineering professionals or researchers who want to get acquainted with numerical simulation to model and compute materials processing.

  2. Capabilities: Science Pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  3. Faces of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  4. Bradbury Science Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  5. Office of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  6. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences

  7. Comparisonof depression prevalence in medical students between the first and last years of Birjand University of Medical Sciences: Brief Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rahmani Bidokhti

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Apparently, prevalence of depression in medical students in Birjand university of Medical Sciences is high, although studying medicine is not significantly decisive in the occurrence of the problem.

  8. Integrated Modelling in CRUCIAL Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mukhamedzhanova, Elena; Nerobelov, Georgiy; Sedeeva, Margarita; Suhodskiy, Alexander; Mostamandy, Suleiman; Smyshlyaev, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    The NordForsk CRUCIAL project (2016-2017) "Critical steps in understanding land surface - atmosphere interactions: from improved knowledge to socioeconomic solutions" as a part of the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX; https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex) programme activities, is looking for a deeper collaboration between Nordic-Russian science communities. In particular, following collaboration between Danish and Russian partners, several topics were selected for joint research and are focused on evaluation of: (1) urbanization processes impact on changes in urban weather and climate on urban-subregional-regional scales and at contribution to assessment studies for population and environment; (2) effects of various feedback mechanisms on aerosol and cloud formation and radiative forcing on urban-regional scales for better predicting extreme weather events and at contribution to early warning systems, (3) environmental contamination from continues emissions and industrial accidents for better assessment and decision making for sustainable social and economic development, and (4) climatology of atmospheric boundary layer in northern latitudes to improve understanding of processes, revising parameterizations, and better weather forecasting. These research topics are realized employing the online integrated Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) model within students' research projects: (1) "Online integrated high-resolution modelling of Saint-Petersburg metropolitan area influence on weather and air pollution forecasting"; (2) "Modeling of aerosol impact on regional-urban scales: case study of Saint-Petersburg metropolitan area"; (3) "Regional modeling and GIS evaluation of environmental pollution from Kola Peninsula sources"; and (4) "Climatology of the High-Latitude Planetary Boundary Layer". The students' projects achieved results and planned young scientists research training on online integrated modelling (Jun 2017) will be presented and

  9. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-05

    Nov 5, 2013 ... Brief communication. Published ... showed longer FIDs in response to a human looking at them than to a human not looking at them (Burger et al. 1992). ..... Rivas JA and Burghardt GM 2001 Understanding sexual size dimor-.

  10. Proceedings of the one hundred and first Indian Science Congress: brief notes on the lectures and presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Indian capabilities in science and technology cover an impressive range of diverse disciplines, areas of competence and of applications. India's strength in basic research is recognized internationally. Successes in agriculture, health care, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, nuclear energy, astronomy and astrophysics, space technology and applications, defense research, biotechnology, electronics, information technology and oceanography are widely acknowledged. Major national achievements include very significant increase in food production, eradication or control of several diseases and increased life expectancy of our citizens. Research and development (R and D) is an inseparable part of science and technology, with India fast emerging as the global R and D hub. While these developments have been highly satisfying, one is also aware of the dramatic changes that have taken place, and continue to do so, in the practice of science, in technology development, and their relationships with, and impact on, society. Mainly remarkable is the rapidity with which science and technology is moving ahead. Science is becoming increasingly inter- and multi-disciplinary, and calls for multi-institutional and, in several cases, multi-country participation. Major experimental facilities, even in several areas of basic research, require very large material, human and intellectual resources. Science and technology have become so closely intertwined, and so reinforce each other that, to be effective, any policy needs to view them together. The continuing revolutions in the field of information and communication technology have had profound impact on the manner and speed with which scientific information becomes available, and scientific interactions take place. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. The Nature of Information Science: Changing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lyn; Karamuftuoglu, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers the nature of information science as a discipline and profession. Method: It is based on conceptual analysis of the information science literature, and consideration of philosophical perspectives, particularly those of Kuhn and Peirce. Results: It is argued that information science may be understood as a field of…

  12. Students Who Study Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) in Postsecondary Education. Stats in Brief. NCES 2009-161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianglei

    2009-01-01

    Rising concern about America's ability to maintain its competitive position in the global economy has renewed interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. To understand who enters into and completes undergraduate programs in STEM fields, this report examined data from three major national studies: the 1995-96…

  13. Treatment of substance misuse in older women: using a brief intervention model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah L

    2004-08-01

    Alcohol and benzodiazepine misuse is a significant problem in older women for a number of reasons such as physiological changes, outdated prescribing practices, and failure to identify hazardous use. In addition, treatment barriers involving the health-care system, conflicting information, and ageism also exist. Substance misuse among older women is predicted to become a bigger problem as the baby boom generation ages. Brief interventions that consist of assessment, feedback, responsibility, advice, menu, empathy, and self-efficacy, or A-FRAMES, have the potential to reduce alcohol and benzodiazepine misuse among older women in a cost-effective manner.

  14. Development of an Instructional Quality Assurance Model in Nursing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajpru, Haruthai; Pasiphol, Shotiga; Wongwanich, Suwimon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science. The study was divided into 3 phases; (1) to study the information for instructional quality assurance model development (2) to develop an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science and (3) to audit and the assessment of the developed…

  15. Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular modeling techniques have been of great applicability in the study of the biological sciences and other exact science fields like agriculture, mathematics, computer science and the like. In this write up, a list of computer programs for predicting, for instance, the structure of proteins has been provided. Discussions on ...

  16. A Substantiation of Macdonald's Models in Science Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searles, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    A history and analysis of science curriculum development is presented. Factors which influence the selection and organization of content in a science curriculum are discussed, including Macdonald's curriculum development models, propositions for curriculum development, and changes made in science curricula during the last century. (CJ)

  17. Modeling and control in the biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, H T

    1975-01-01

    These notes are based on (i) a series of lectures that I gave at the 14th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress held at the University of Western Ontario August 12-24, 1973 and (li) some of my lectures in a modeling course that I have cotaught in the Division of Bio-Medical Sciences at Brown during the past several years. An earlier version of these notes appeared in the Center for Dynamical Systems Lectures Notes series (CDS LN 73-1, November 1973). I have in this revised and extended version of those earlier notes incorporated a number of changes based both on classroom experience and on my research efforts with several colleagues during the intervening period. The narrow viewpoint of the present notes (use of optimization and control theory in biomedical problems) reflects more the scope of the CMC lectures given in August, 1973 than the scope of my own interests. Indeed, my real interests have included the modeling process itself as well as the contributions made by investiga­ tors who e...

  18. The Scientific Theory Profile: A Philosophy of Science Model for Science Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Cathleen

    The model developed for use with science teachers--called the Scientific Theory Profile--consists of placing three well-known philosophers of science on a grid, with the x-axis being their methods for judging theories (rational vs. natural) and the y-axis being their views on scientific theories representing the Truth versus mere models of what…

  19. Models of science dynamics encounters between complexity theory and information sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Börner, Katy; Besselaar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of science dynamics aim to capture the structure and evolution of science. They are developed in an emerging research area in which scholars, scientific institutions and scientific communications become themselves basic objects of research. In order to understand phenomena as diverse as the structure of evolving co-authorship networks or citation diffusion patterns, different models have been developed. They include conceptual models based on historical and ethnographic observations, mathematical descriptions of measurable phenomena, and computational algorithms. Despite its evident importance, the mathematical modeling of science still lacks a unifying framework and a comprehensive research agenda. This book aims to fill this gap, reviewing and describing major threads in the mathematical modeling of science dynamics for a wider academic and professional audience. The model classes presented here cover stochastic and statistical models, game-theoretic approaches, agent-based simulations, population-dy...

  20. Bioethics: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Medical and life sciences research is a key driver in development, which leads to better quality of life. These pursuits can lead to discrimination, human rights violation, and injustice. The field of bioethics explores the ethical issues arising due to these advances in research and encompasses social, judicial, and environmental aspects affecting human beings. This brief review discusses the origin of bioethics, its principles, various international organizations, and their network involved...

  1. The National Ocean Sciences Bowl: An Effective Model for Engaging High School Students in Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    The National Ocean Sciences Bowl (NOSB) is an informal high school education program that engages students in ocean and environmental science and exposes them to the breadth of ocean-related careers. The NOSB strives to train the next generation of interdisciplinary capable scientists and build a STEM-literate society that harnesses the power of ocean and climate science to address environmental, economic, and societal issues. Through the NOSB, students not only learn scientific principles, but also apply them to compelling real-world problems. The NOSB provides a richer STEM education and exposes students to ocean science topics they may not otherwise study through classroom curriculum. A longitudinal study that began in 2007 has shown that NOSB participants have an enhanced interest in ocean-related hobbies and environmental stewardship and an increasing number of these students have remained in the STEM pipeline and workforce.While the NOSB is primarily an academic competition, it has evolved since its creation in 1998 to include a variety of practical and professional development components. One of the program enhancements, the Scientific Expert Briefing (SEB), gives students the opportunity to apply what they have studied and think critically about current and ongoing ocean science challenges. The SEB helps students connect their knowledge of ocean science with current and proposed policy initiatives. Students gain significant research, writing, and presentation skills, while enhancing their ability for collaboration and consensus building, all vital workforce skills. Ultimately, the SEB teaches students how to communicate complex scientific research into digestible information for decision-makers and the general public.This poster will examine the impact of the NOSB and its role in strengthening the workforce pipeline through a combination of independent learning, competition, and opportunities for communication skills development.

  2. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Graham

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.

  3. Rewards of bridging the divide between measurement and clinical theory: demonstration of a bifactor model for the Brief Symptom Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that psychiatric disorders maintain hierarchical associations where general and domain-specific factors play prominent roles (see D. Watson, 2005). Standard, unidimensional measurement models can fail to capture the meaningful nuances of such complex latent variable structures. The present study examined the ability of the multidimensional item response theory bifactor model (see R. D. Gibbons & D. R. Hedeker, 1992) to improve construct validity by serving as a bridge between measurement and clinical theories. Archival data consisting of 688 outpatients' psychiatric diagnoses and item-level responses to the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; L. R. Derogatis, 1993) were extracted from files at a university mental health clinic. The bifactor model demonstrated superior fit for the internal structure of the BSI and improved overall diagnostic accuracy in the sample (73%) compared with unidimensional (61%) and oblique simple structure (65%) models. Consistent with clinical theory, multiple sources of item variance were drawn from individual test items. Test developers and clinical researchers are encouraged to consider model-based measurement in the assessment of psychiatric distress.

  4. Carbon footprint estimator, phase II : volume I - GASCAP model & volume II - technical appendices [technical brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This study resulted in the development of the GASCAP model (the Greenhouse Gas Assessment : Spreadsheet for Transportation Capital Projects). This spreadsheet model provides a user-friendly interface for determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...

  5. Some random models in traffic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth, U.

    1996-06-01

    We give an overview of stochastic models for the following traffic phenomena. Models for traffic flow including gaps and capacities for lanes, crossings and roundabouts. Models for wanted and achieved speed distributions. Mode selection models including dispersed equilibrium models and traffic accident models. Also some statistical questions are discussed. 60 refs, 1 tab

  6. Statistical methods applied to the study of opinion formation models: a brief overview and results of a numerical study of a model based on the social impact theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia María; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand we present a brief overview on the application of statistical physics methods to the modelling of social phenomena focusing our attention on models for opinion formation. On the other hand, we discuss and present original results of a model for opinion formation based on the social impact theory developed by Latané. The presented model accounts for the interaction among the members of a social group under the competitive influence of a strong leader and the mass media, both supporting two different states of opinion. Extensive simulations of the model are presented, showing that they led to the observation of a rich scenery of complex behaviour including, among others, critical behaviour and phase transitions between a state of opinion dominated by the leader and another dominated by the mass media. The occurrence of interesting finite-size effects reveals that, in small communities, the opinion of the leader may prevail over that of the mass media. This observation is relevant for the understanding of social phenomena involving a finite number of individuals, in contrast to actual physical phase transitions that take place in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we give a brief outlook of open questions and lines for future work.

  7. Statistical methods applied to the study of opinion formation models: a brief overview and results of a numerical study of a model based on the social impact theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordogna, Clelia Maria; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand we present a brief overview on the application of statistical physics methods to the modelling of social phenomena focusing our attention on models for opinion formation. On the other hand, we discuss and present original results of a model for opinion formation based on the social impact theory developed by Latane. The presented model accounts for the interaction among the members of a social group under the competitive influence of a strong leader and the mass media, both supporting two different states of opinion. Extensive simulations of the model are presented, showing that they led to the observation of a rich scenery of complex behaviour including, among others, critical behaviour and phase transitions between a state of opinion dominated by the leader and another dominated by the mass media. The occurrence of interesting finite-size effects reveals that, in small communities, the opinion of the leader may prevail over that of the mass media. This observation is relevant for the understanding of social phenomena involving a finite number of individuals, in contrast to actual physical phase transitions that take place in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we give a brief outlook of open questions and lines for future work

  8. Review of State-Space Models for Fisheries Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aeberhard, William H.; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Nielsen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Fisheries science is concerned with the management and understanding of the raising and harvesting of fish. Fish stocks are assessed using biological and fisheries data with the goal of estimating either their total population or biomass. Stock assessment models also make it possible to predict how...... highlights what should be considered best practices for science-based fisheries management....

  9. A "Semantic" View of Scientific Models for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I inspect a "semantic" view of scientific models taken from contemporary philosophy of science-I draw upon the so-called "semanticist family", which frontally challenges the received, syntactic conception of scientific theories. I argue that a semantic view may be of use both for science education in the…

  10. Nature of Science and Models: Comparing Portuguese Prospective Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Joana; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Despite the relevance of nature of science and scientific models in science education, studies reveal that students do not possess adequate views regarding these topics. Bearing in mind that both teachers' views and knowledge strongly influence students' educational experiences, the main scope of this study was to evaluate Portuguese prospective…

  11. A Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidarra, José; Rusman, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to support science education through blended learning, based on a participatory and interactive approach supported by ICT-based tools, called Science Learning Activities Model (SLAM). The study constitutes a work in progress and started as a response to complex

  12. Rasch models suggested the satisfactory psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief among lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Yang, Szu-Chun; Lai, Wu-Wei; Su, Wu-Chou; Wang, Jung-Der

    2017-03-01

    The study examined whether the items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief questionnaire can assess its four underlying domains (Physical, Psychological, Social, and Environment) in a sample of lung cancer patients. All patients ( n = 1150) were recruited from a medical center in Tainan, and each participant completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief. Several Rasch rating scale models were used to examine the data-model fit, and Rasch analyses corroborated that each domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief could be unidimensional. Although three items were found to have a poor fit, all the other items fit the unidimensionality with ordered thresholds.

  13. Terapia Interpessoal: um modelo breve e focal Interpersonal Therapy: a brief and focal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Feijó de Mello

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A psicoterapia é uma forma particular de tratamento em psiquiatria. Seu uso é amplamente difundido e conta com várias linhas de abordagem. OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho, o autor faz considerações a respeito da terapia interpessoal (TIP, uma forma breve e focal de psicoterapia. Inicialmente usada para o tratamento da depressão, teve seu espectro de ação ampliado para outros transtornos. A TIP pode ser dividida em 3 fases: inicial, quando é feito um diagnóstico do transtorno nomeando os sintomas ao paciente e diagnosticando o foco interpessoal a ser trabalhado; fase intermediária, onde se trabalha o foco; e fase final, quando o paciente é encorajado a reconhecer e consolidar seus ganhos para usá-los no futuro. MÉTODOS: O autor faz uma revisão das evidências científicas da eficácia da TIP no tratamento da depressão. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que a TIP é uma forma terapêutica eficaz e bem tolerada de tratamento para a depressão.Psychotherapy is a particular form of treatment in Psychiatry. Its use is widespread and has many different approaches. OBJECTIVE: In this article, the author makes some considerations about Interpersonal Therapy (IPT, a brief and focal psychotherapy. Initially created to treat depression, other researchers had successfully increase its spectrum. It could be divided in three phases. Initial, when the therapist makes the diagnosis of the disorder and also the interpersonal problematic is pointed out; the patient received a sick role. Intermediary when the focus is treated, and the final phase when the therapist encourages the patient to recognize and consolidate gains and prepare the patient to use it in the future. METHODS: It is stressed that IPT is a testable form of psychotherapy and the scientific evidences of its efficacy are showed. CONCLUSIONS: The results assure that IPT is an efficient form of psychotherapy for depression with a great acceptability from the patients.

  14. Artificial Intelligence and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ron

    1987-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence (AI) in relation to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Provides a brief background of AI work, examples of expert systems, examples of ICAI work, and addresses problems facing AI workers that have implications for science education. Proposes a revised model of the Karplus/Renner…

  15. Science Professionals Engaging Theologians in India: Towards a Dialogical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, A.; Vaiphei, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Societies across the world have profoundly ambivalent attitudes towards science; exaggerated expectations to vigorous anti-science attitude abound whereby Science is perceived as the sole panacea for every societal problem to meddling with nature and creating environmental havoc. The rapid advancement in Sciences from the nineteenth century onwards had created a hype that organised religion will be a relic of the past by 21st century, which also unfortunately created an image of Science being hostile to religions. But this is not conducive for scientific progress. For good or for ill, religious beliefs continue to exert great influence with 87% of the world population, according to one survey, identifying themselves to be `part of a religion'. The scientific community cannot afford to ignore if they want to make a difference with their science. While India is often considered to be the most religious country in the world the ambivalent attitude towards science is perhaps not too dissimilar from other societies. This paper highlights the findings from a workshop conducted in India, by practicing scientists, and the follow-up responses from Christian theologians to a proposed curriculum revision on Science, Technology and Religion course being taught in mainline Christian Theological Seminaries in India. Feedbacks collected from the clergy/theologians based on the discussions regarding a) the nature, b) potentials and c) limits of science and technology, and, d) historical survey of the interaction between Science and Christian faith will be presented. Responses of Christian theologians in India regarding the new challenges and opportunities being thrown by Artificial Intelligence, Nanotechnology, Synthetic Biology and others will also be discussed. The paper concludes with the results of discussing four models of relating science and religion: conflict, independence, dialogue and integration discussed in the workshop to develop methods of meaningful engagements

  16. Brief report on thermodynamics of chromium slags and kinetic modelling of chromite reduction (1995-96)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamping, Xiao; Holappa, L [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    This article summaries the research work on thermodynamics of chromium slags and kinetic modelling of chromite reduction. The thermodynamic properties of FeCr slag systems were calculated with the regular solution model. The effects of CaO/MgO ratio, Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} amount as well as the slag basicity on the activities of chromium oxides and the oxidation state of chromium were examined. The calculated results were compared to the experimental data in the literature. In the kinetic modelling of the chromite reduction, the reduction possibilities and tendencies of the chromite constitutes with CO were analysed based on the thermodynamic calculation. Two reaction models, a structural grain model and a multi-layers reaction model, were constructed and applied to simulate the chromite pellet reduction and chromite lumpy ore reduction, respectively. The calculated reduction rates were compared with the experimental measurements and the reaction mechanisms were discussed. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  17. Brief report on thermodynamics of chromium slags and kinetic modelling of chromite reduction (1995-96)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Yamping; Holappa, L. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1996-12-31

    This article summaries the research work on thermodynamics of chromium slags and kinetic modelling of chromite reduction. The thermodynamic properties of FeCr slag systems were calculated with the regular solution model. The effects of CaO/MgO ratio, Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} amount as well as the slag basicity on the activities of chromium oxides and the oxidation state of chromium were examined. The calculated results were compared to the experimental data in the literature. In the kinetic modelling of the chromite reduction, the reduction possibilities and tendencies of the chromite constitutes with CO were analysed based on the thermodynamic calculation. Two reaction models, a structural grain model and a multi-layers reaction model, were constructed and applied to simulate the chromite pellet reduction and chromite lumpy ore reduction, respectively. The calculated reduction rates were compared with the experimental measurements and the reaction mechanisms were discussed. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  18. Experimental modelling of the consequences of brief late gestation asphyxia on newborn lamb behaviour and brain structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Castillo-Melendez

    Full Text Available Brief but severe asphyxia in late gestation or at the time of birth may lead to neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and is associated with long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. We undertook this study to examine the consequences of transient in utero asphyxia in late gestation fetal sheep, on the newborn lamb after birth. Surgery was undertaken at 125 days gestation for implantation of fetal catheters and placement of a silastic cuff around the umbilical cord. At 132 days gestation (0.89 term, the cuff was inflated to induce umbilical cord occlusion (UCO, or sham (control. Fetal arterial blood samples were collected for assessment of fetal wellbeing and the pregnancy continued until birth. At birth, behavioral milestones for newborn lambs were recorded over 24 h, after which the lambs were euthanased for brain collection and histopathology assessments. After birth, UCO lambs displayed significant latencies to (i use all four legs, (ii attain a standing position, (iii find the udder, and (iv successfully suckle--compared to control lambs. Brains of UCO lambs showed widespread pathologies including cell death, white matter disruption, intra-parenchymal hemorrhage and inflammation, which were not observed in full term control brains. UCO resulted in some preterm births, but comparison with age-matched preterm non-UCO control lambs showed that prematurity per se was not responsible for the behavioral delays and brain structural abnormalities resulting from the in utero asphyxia. These results demonstrate that a single, brief fetal asphyxic episode in late gestation results in significant grey and white matter disruption in the developing brain, and causes significant behavioral delay in newborn lambs. These data are consistent with clinical observations that antenatal asphyxia is causal in the development of neonatal encephalopathy and provide an experimental model to advance our understanding of neuroprotective therapies.

  19. An Integrative Cultural Model to better situate marginalized science students in postsecondary science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouta, Hagar Ibrahim; Adams, Jennifer Dawn; Cramb, David Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we reflect on the article "I am smart enough to study postsecondary science: a critical discourse analysis of latecomers' identity construction in an online forum", by Phoebe Jackson and Gale Seiler (Cult Stud Sci Educ. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11422-017-9818-0). In their article, the authors did a significant amount of qualitative analysis of a discussion on an online forum by four latecomer students with past negative experiences in science education. The students used this online forum as an out-of-class resource to develop a cultural model based on their ability to ask questions together with solidarity as a new optimistic way to position themselves in science. In this forum, we continue by discussing the identity of marginalized science students in relation to resources available in postsecondary science classes. Recent findings on a successful case of a persistent marginalized science student in spite of prior struggles and failures are introduced. Building on their model and our results, we proposed a new cultural model, emphasizing interaction between inside and outside classroom resources which can further our understanding of the identity of marginalized science students. Exploring this cultural model could better explain drop-outs or engagement of marginalized science students to their study. We, then, used this model to reflect on both current traditional and effective teaching and learning practices truncating or re-enforcing relationships of marginalized students with the learning environment. In this way, we aim to further the discussion initiated by Jackson and Seiler and offer possible frameworks for future research on the interactions between marginalized students with past low achievements and other high and mid achieving students, as well as other interactions between resources inside and outside science postsecondary classrooms.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  1. A model for education and promoting food science and technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for education and promoting food science and technology among high school students and the public. ... at the tertiary stage (retail) directly with the consumer while depending on the product of FST. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Effective modelling for predictive analytics in data science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective modelling for predictive analytics in data science. ... the nearabsence of empirical or factual predictive analytics in the mainstream research going on ... Keywords: Predictive Analytics, Big Data, Business Intelligence, Project Planning.

  3. The Model Identification Test: A Limited Verbal Science Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the production of a test with a low verbal load for use with elementary school science students. Animated films were used to present appropriate and inappropriate models of the behavior of particles of matter. (AL)

  4. Science Writing and Rhetorical Training: A New Model for Developing Graduate Science Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, N. E.; Lofgren, I.; Druschke, C. G.; McWilliams, S. R.; Morton-Aiken, J.; Reynolds, N.

    2016-12-01

    Graduate programs in the sciences generally offer minimal support for writing and communication, yet there is an increasing need for scientists to engage with the public and policymakers on technological, environmental, and health issues. The traditional focus on gaining particular discipline-related technical skills, coupled with the relegation of writing largely to the end of a student's academic tenure, falls short in equipping them to tackle these challenges. To address this problem, we launched a cross-disciplinary, National Science Foundation-funded training program in rhetoric and writing for science graduate students and faculty at the University of Rhode Island. This innovative program bases curricular and pedagogical support on three central practices, habitual writing, multiple genres, and frequent review, to offer a flexible model of writing training for science graduate students and pedagogical training for faculty that could be adopted in other institutional contexts. Key to the program, called SciWrite@URI, is a unique emphasis on rhetoric, which, we argue, is an essential—but currently lacking—component of science communication education. This new model has the potential to transform graduate education in the sciences by producing graduates who are as adept at the fundamentals of their science as they are at communicating that science to diverse audiences.

  5. Analytic innovations for air quality modeling | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides an overview of ongoing research activities at the U.S. EPA, focusing on improving long-term emission projections and the development of decision support systems for coordinated environmental, climate and energy planning. This presentation will be given on October 10th, 2016, at the Johns Hopkins Dept. of Environmental Health and Engineering as part of the Environmental Science and Management Seminar Series.

  6. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : carrier intervention effectiveness model, version 1.0 : [analysis brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Carrier Intervention Effectiveness Model (CIEM) : provides the Federal Motor Carrier Safety : Administration (FMCSA) with a tool for measuring : the safety benefits of carrier interventions conducted : under the Compliance, Safety, Accountability...

  7. A Brief Review on the Baer-Nunziato type Multi-pressure Multi-fluid Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Park, Chan Eok; Lee, Gyu Cheon

    2010-01-01

    Single pressure two-fluid flow equations have complex characteristics. This causes ill-posedness problem. Even though some authors show that the numerical solutions are well behaved if the number of mesh points is sufficiently small, the stability of the solution is always challenged. There have been several attempts to overcome these problems. Multi-pressure multi-fluid models are one of them. Among them, Baer and Nunziato (BN) derived an interesting two-fluid model. BN model has independent phase pressures. It is closed by inserting volume fraction evolution equation. In this paper, several aspects of the BN type model will be reviewed and some suggestion for the future study will be made

  8. Space Science Cloud: a Virtual Space Science Research Platform Based on Cloud Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Tong, Jizhou; Zou, Ziming

    Through independent and co-operational science missions, Strategic Pioneer Program (SPP) on Space Science, the new initiative of space science program in China which was approved by CAS and implemented by National Space Science Center (NSSC), dedicates to seek new discoveries and new breakthroughs in space science, thus deepen the understanding of universe and planet earth. In the framework of this program, in order to support the operations of space science missions and satisfy the demand of related research activities for e-Science, NSSC is developing a virtual space science research platform based on cloud model, namely the Space Science Cloud (SSC). In order to support mission demonstration, SSC integrates interactive satellite orbit design tool, satellite structure and payloads layout design tool, payload observation coverage analysis tool, etc., to help scientists analyze and verify space science mission designs. Another important function of SSC is supporting the mission operations, which runs through the space satellite data pipelines. Mission operators can acquire and process observation data, then distribute the data products to other systems or issue the data and archives with the services of SSC. In addition, SSC provides useful data, tools and models for space researchers. Several databases in the field of space science are integrated and an efficient retrieve system is developing. Common tools for data visualization, deep processing (e.g., smoothing and filtering tools), analysis (e.g., FFT analysis tool and minimum variance analysis tool) and mining (e.g., proton event correlation analysis tool) are also integrated to help the researchers to better utilize the data. The space weather models on SSC include magnetic storm forecast model, multi-station middle and upper atmospheric climate model, solar energetic particle propagation model and so on. All the services above-mentioned are based on the e-Science infrastructures of CAS e.g. cloud storage and

  9. A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Jones, A. J. P.; Farrell, W. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.

  10. A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L.; Jones, A. P.; Farrell, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.

  11. Brief communication: human cranial variation fits iterative founder effect model with African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Lycett, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies comparing craniometric and neutral genetic affinity matrices have concluded that, on average, human cranial variation fits a model of neutral expectation. While human craniometric and genetic data fit a model of isolation by geographic distance, it is not yet clear whether this is due to geographically mediated gene flow or human dispersal events. Recently, human genetic data have been shown to fit an iterative founder effect model of dispersal with an African origin, in line with the out-of-Africa replacement model for modern human origins, and Manica et al. (Nature 448 (2007) 346-349) have demonstrated that human craniometric data also fit this model. However, in contrast with the neutral model of cranial evolution suggested by previous studies, Manica et al. (2007) made the a priori assumption that cranial form has been subject to climatically driven natural selection and therefore correct for climate prior to conducting their analyses. Here we employ a modified theoretical and methodological approach to test whether human cranial variability fits the iterative founder effect model. In contrast with Manica et al. (2007) we employ size-adjusted craniometric variables, since climatic factors such as temperature have been shown to correlate with aspects of cranial size. Despite these differences, we obtain similar results to those of Manica et al. (2007), with up to 26% of global within-population craniometric variation being explained by geographic distance from sub-Saharan Africa. Comparative analyses using non-African origins do not yield significant results. The implications of these results are discussed in the light of the modern human origins debate. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Longitudinal Assessment of Intellectual Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Multilevel Modeling of Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Kistler, Doris J.; John, Angela E.; Morris, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to address the longitudinal stability of standard scores (SSs) measuring intellectual ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were 40 children with genetically confirmed WS who completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition (KBIT-2; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 2004) 4-7…

  13. Brief Communication: Tissue-engineered Microenvironment Systems for Modeling Human Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourovskaia, Anna; Fauver, Mark; Kramer, Gregory; Simonson, Sara; Neumann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The high attrition rate of drug candidates late in the development process has led to an increasing demand for test assays that predict clinical outcome better than conventional 2D cell culture systems and animal models. Government agencies, the military, and the pharmaceutical industry have started initiatives for the development of novel in-vitro systems that recapitulate functional units of human tissues and organs. There is growing evidence that 3D cell arrangement, co-culture of different cell types, and physico-chemical cues lead to improved predictive power. A key element of all tissue microenvironments is the vasculature. Beyond transporting blood the microvasculature assumes important organ-specific functions. It is also involved in pathologic conditions, such as inflammation, tumor growth, metastasis, and degenerative diseases. To provide a tool for modeling this important feature of human tissue microenvironments, we developed a microfluidic chip for creating tissue-engineered microenvironment systems (TEMS) composed of tubular cell structures. Our chip design encompasses a small chamber that is filled with an extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding one or more tubular channels. Endothelial cells seeded into the channels adhere to the ECM walls and grow into perfusable tubular tissue structures that are fluidically connected to upstream and downstream fluid channels in the chip. Using these chips we created models of angiogenesis, the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), and tumor-cell extravasation. Our angiogenesis model recapitulates true angiogenesis, in which sprouting occurs from a “parent” vessel in response to a gradient of growth factors. Our BBB model is composed of a microvessel generated from brain-specific endothelial cells (ECs) within an ECM populated with astrocytes and pericytes. Our tumor-cell extravasation model can be utilized to visualize and measure tumor-cell migration through vessel walls into the surrounding matrix. The described

  14. Similarity and Modeling in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuneš, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The present text sets itself in relief to other titles on the subject in that it addresses the means and methodologies versus a narrow specific-task oriented approach. Concepts and their developments which evolved to meet the changing needs of applications are addressed. This approach provides the reader with a general tool-box to apply to their specific needs. Two important tools are presented: dimensional analysis and the similarity analysis methods. The fundamental point of view, enabling one to sort all models, is that of information flux between a model and an original expressed by the similarity and abstraction. Each chapter includes original examples and ap-plications. In this respect, the models can be divided into several groups. The following models are dealt with separately by chapter; mathematical and physical models, physical analogues, deterministic, stochastic, and cybernetic computer models. The mathematical models are divided into asymptotic and phenomenological models. The phenomenological m...

  15. Brief communication "Modeling tornado dynamics and the generation of infrasound, electric and magnetic fields"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Schmitter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations endorse earlier measurements of time varying electric and magnetic fields generated by tornadoes and dust devils. These signals may provide a means for early warning but together with a proper modeling approach can also provide insight into geometry and dynamics of the vortices. Our model calculations show the existence of pressure resonances characterized as acoustic duct modes with well defined frequencies. These resonances not only generate infrasound but also modulate the charge density and the velocity field and in this way lead to electric and magnetic field oscillations in the 0.5–20-Hz range that can be monitored from a distance of several kilometers.

  16. Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling of quantal and graded sublethal endpoints: a brief discussion of concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashauer, R.; Agatz, A.; Albert, C.; Ducrot, V.; Galic, N.G.; Hendriks, J.; Jager, T.; Kretschmann, A.; O'Connor, I.; Rubach, M.N.; Nyman, M.; Schmitt, W.; Stadnicka, J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the advantages and problems of using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models for the analysis, understanding, and simulation of sublethal effects. Only a few toxicodynamic approaches for sublethal effects are available. These differ in their effect mechanism and emphasis on linkages

  17. Brief Report: Predictors of Outcomes in the Early Start Denver Model Delivered in a Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Zierhut, Cynthia; Rogers, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have looked at factors associated with responsiveness to interventions in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated learning profiles associated with response to the Early Start Denver Model delivered in a group setting. Our preliminary results from 21 preschool children with an ASD aged…

  18. Why we do what we do: a theoretical evaluation of the integrated practice model for forensic nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of the Integrated Practice Model for Forensic Nursing Science () is presented utilizing methods outlined by . A brief review of nursing theory basics and evaluation methods by Meleis is provided to enhance understanding of the ensuing theoretical evaluation and critique. The Integrated Practice Model for Forensic Nursing Science, created by forensic nursing pioneer Virginia Lynch, captures the theories, assumptions, concepts, and propositions inherent in forensic nursing practice and science. The historical background of the theory is explored as Lynch's model launched the role development of forensic nursing practice as both a nursing and forensic science specialty. It is derived from a combination of nursing, sociological, and philosophical theories to reflect the grounding of forensic nursing in the nursing, legal, psychological, and scientific communities. As Lynch's model is the first inception of forensic nursing theory, it is representative of a conceptual framework although the title implies a practice theory. The clarity and consistency displayed in the theory's structural components of assumptions, concepts, and propositions are analyzed. The model is described and evaluated. A summary of the strengths and limitations of the model is compiled followed by application to practice, education, and research with suggestions for ongoing theory development.

  19. A Brief Introduction to Building Information Modeling (BIM and its interoperability with TRNSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Naamane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Hand-drafted print, sketching and hand modeling were the standard  for building designs before the advent of computer aided design (CAD systems . Nowadays CAD systems are better understood, their adoption increased until the 2D, 3D CAD system  and the virtual reality became the norm. Their natural evolution has given rise to a new and more complex generation of building design tools known as building information modeling, or BIM. There is insufficient clarity about what BIM is, although this is improving, and there is much shared understanding. There is agreement that BIM is not just software. BIM is not just CAD, or geometric data. BIM is a collaboratively generated and maintained, data rich, information source for the life of the design process and beyond. In this paper , we present briefly the greatest value derived from BIM in the use and maintenance of buildings and the use of TRNSYS with BIM.

  20. A brief introduction to regression designs and mixed-effects modelling by a recent convert

    OpenAIRE

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of multiple regression designs over the factorial designs traditionally used in many psycholinguistic experiments. It is shown that regression designs are typically more informative, statistically more powerful and better suited to the analysis of naturalistic tasks. The advantages of including both fixed and random effects are demonstrated with reference to linear mixed-effects models, and problems of collinearity, variable distribution and variable sele...

  1. `Models of' versus `Models for'. Toward an Agent-Based Conception of Modeling in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvea, Julia; Passmore, Cynthia

    2017-03-01

    The inclusion of the practice of "developing and using models" in the Framework for K-12 Science Education and in the Next Generation Science Standards provides an opportunity for educators to examine the role this practice plays in science and how it can be leveraged in a science classroom. Drawing on conceptions of models in the philosophy of science, we bring forward an agent-based account of models and discuss the implications of this view for enacting modeling in science classrooms. Models, according to this account, can only be understood with respect to the aims and intentions of a cognitive agent (models for), not solely in terms of how they represent phenomena in the world (models of). We present this contrast as a heuristic— models of versus models for—that can be used to help educators notice and interpret how models are positioned in standards, curriculum, and classrooms.

  2. A brief introduction to regression designs and mixed-effects modelling by a recent convert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of multiple regression designs over the factorial designs traditionally used in many psycholinguistic experiments. It is shown that regression designs are typically more informative, statistically more powerful and better suited to the analysis of naturalistic...... tasks. The advantages of including both fixed and random effects are demonstrated with reference to linear mixed-effects models, and problems of collinearity, variable distribution and variable selection are discussed. The advantages of these techniques are exemplified in an analysis of a word...

  3. Brief report: biomarkers of aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection in a porcine model with Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, S. N.; Tønnesen, E. K.; Jensen, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI) with Staphylococcus aureus is a feared post-operative complication. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical signs and potential biomarkers of infection in a porcine AVPGI model. The biomarkers evaluated were: C-reactive protein (CRP......), fibrinogen, white blood cells (WBC), major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) density, lymphocyte CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in vitro responsiveness. Sixteen pigs were included in the study, and randomly assigned into four groups (n = 4): “SHAM” pigs had their infra...

  4. Numerical modelling techniques of soft soil improvement via stone columns: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukri, Azhani; Nazir, Ramli

    2018-04-01

    There are a number of numerical studies on stone column systems in the literature. Most of the studies found were involved with two-dimensional analysis of the stone column behaviour, while only a few studies used three-dimensional analysis. The most popular software utilised in those studies was Plaxis 2D and 3D. Other types of software that used for numerical analysis are DIANA, EXAMINE, ZSoil, ABAQUS, ANSYS, NISA, GEOSTUDIO, CRISP, TOCHNOG, CESAR, GEOFEM (2D & 3D), FLAC, and FLAC 3. This paper will review the methodological approaches to model stone column numerically, both in two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses. The numerical techniques and suitable constitutive model used in the studies will also be discussed. In addition, the validation methods conducted were to verify the numerical analysis conducted will be presented. This review paper also serves as a guide for junior engineers through the applicable procedures and considerations when constructing and running a two or three-dimensional numerical analysis while also citing numerous relevant references.

  5. State-Space Modelling in Marine Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    State-space models provide a natural framework for analysing time series that cannot be observed without error. This is the case for fisheries stock assessments and movement data from marine animals. In fisheries stock assessments, the aim is to estimate the stock size; however, the only data...... available is the number of fish removed from the population and samples on a small fraction of the population. In marine animal movement, accurate position systems such as GPS cannot be used. Instead, inaccurate alternative must be used yielding observations with large errors. Both assessment and individual...... animal movement models are important for management and conservation of marine animals. Consequently, models should be developed to be operational in a management context while adequately evaluating uncertainties in the models. This thesis develops state-space models using the Laplace approximation...

  6. Silkworm: A Promising Model Organism in Life Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xu; Zhu, Feifei; Chen, Keping

    2017-09-01

    As an important economic insect, silkworm Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) has numerous advantages in life science, such as low breeding cost, large progeny size, short generation time, and clear genetic background. Additionally, there are rich genetic resources associated with silkworms. The completion of the silkworm genome has further accelerated it to be a modern model organism in life science. Genomic studies showed that some silkworm genes are highly homologous to certain genes related to human hereditary disease and, therefore, are a candidate model for studying human disease. In this article, we provided a review of silkworm as an important model in various research areas, including human disease, screening of antimicrobial agents, environmental safety monitoring, and antitumor studies. In addition, the application potentiality of silkworm model in life sciences was discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Damsel: A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Quincey [The HDF Group, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-11-26

    The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. We will accomplish this through three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community.

  8. Damsel - A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samatova, Nagiza F

    2014-07-18

    The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. We will accomplish this through three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community.

  9. Generalized Linear Models with Applications in Engineering and the Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Raymond H; Vining, G Geoffrey; Robinson, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "The obvious enthusiasm of Myers, Montgomery, and Vining and their reliance on their many examples as a major focus of their pedagogy make Generalized Linear Models a joy to read. Every statistician working in any area of applied science should buy it and experience the excitement of these new approaches to familiar activities."-Technometrics Generalized Linear Models: With Applications in Engineering and the Sciences, Second Edition continues to provide a clear introduction to the theoretical foundations and key applications of generalized linear models (GLMs). Ma

  10. Nanoethics, Science Communication, and a Fourth Model for Public Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a fourth model of public engagement with science, grounded in the principle of nurturing scientific agency through participatory bioethics. It argues that social media is an effective device through which to enable such engagement, as it has the capacity to empower users and transforms audiences into co-producers of knowledge, rather than consumers of content. Social media also fosters greater engagement with the political and legal implications of science, thus promoting the value of scientific citizenship. This argument is explored by considering the case of nanoscience and nanotechnology, as an exemplar for how emerging technologies may be handled by the scientific community and science policymakers.

  11. Exploring persistence in science in CEGEP: Toward a motivational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rebecca A.

    There is currently a shortage of science teachers in North America and continually decreasing rates of enrollment in science programs. Science continues to be the academic domain that sees the highest attrition rates, particularly for women. The purpose of the present study was to examine male and female students' experiences in mathematics and science courses during a crucial time in their academic development in an attempt to explain the high attrition rates in science between the last year of high school and the first year of CEGEP (junior college). In line with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), as well as achievement-goal theory (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996) and research on academic emotions, the study examined the relation between a set of motivational variables (i.e., perceptions of autonomy-support, self-efficacy, achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation), affect, achievement, and persistence. A secondary objective was to test a motivational model of student persistence in science using structural equation modeling (SEM). The sample consisted of 603 male and 706 female students from four English-language CEGEPs in the greater Montreal area. Just prior to beginning CEGEP, participants completed a questionnaire that asked about the learning environment in high school mathematics and science classes as well as student characteristics including sources of motivation, personal achievement goals, and feelings of competence. All students expressed an initial interest in pursuing a career in science by enrolling in optional advanced mathematics and science courses during high school. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences among male and female students across the variables measured. Structural equation modeling was used to test the validity of a questionnaire designed specifically to gather information about CEGEP students' experiences with mathematics and science, and to evaluate the fit of a model designed to reflect the

  12. Sustaining librarian vitality: embedded librarianship model for health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Mi, Misa

    2013-01-01

    With biomedical information widely accessible from anywhere at any time, health sciences libraries have become less centralized, and they are challenged to stay relevant and vital to the mission and strategic goals of their home institution. One solution is to embed librarians at strategic points in health professions' education, research, and patient care. This article discusses a proposed five-level model of embedded librarianship within the context of health sciences libraries and describes different roles, knowledge, and skills desirable for health sciences librarians working as embedded librarians.

  13. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful......: as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  14. Computational Science Research in Support of Petascale Electromagnetic Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.-Q.

    2008-01-01

    Computational science research components were vital parts of the SciDAC-1 accelerator project and are continuing to play a critical role in newly-funded SciDAC-2 accelerator project, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS). Recent advances and achievements in the area of computational science research in support of petascale electromagnetic modeling for accelerator design analysis are presented, which include shape determination of superconducting RF cavities, mesh-based multilevel preconditioner in solving highly-indefinite linear systems, moving window using h- or p- refinement for time-domain short-range wakefield calculations, and improved scalable application I/O

  15. The illustrated brief application of defect distribution model for heterojunction device by admittance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oylumluoglu, Gorkem; Kavasoglu, A. Sertap; Kavasoglu, Nese

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Admittance data are used to determine shallow or deep energy levels in heterojunction device. ► We have suggested new equivalent circuit for heterojunction device to mimic the traps. ► The used analytical model is good formulation for display exact energetic location of traps. - Abstract: The dielectric properties of the devices can be studied by using admittance spectroscopy (AS). Majority carrier traps are experimentally analyzed without sophisticated mathematical manipulation. Experimental evidence obtained from AS of the devices may display several features that cannot be explained by the usual single RC circuits representing a depleted junction region and undepleted bulk elements. In this study, ac behavior of typical pn junction diode is simulated using temperature depended AS in a broad frequency range (5 Hz to 13 MHz). The frequency-dependent admittance data of typical pn junction has been discussed based on a discrete deep or shallow trap model. The analytically obtained frequency depended −dC/dω and tan δ (loss tangent) curves are peaks function. The position of the peak depends on the temperature and dc-bias. This peak position gives us information about deep or shallow trap states. The trapping time and trap energy levels can be deduced from −dC/dω versus ω or tan δ versus ω curves. This investigation shows that suitable complex admittance measurement data obtained during the capacitance–voltage measurement process are used to calculate the trapping time and energetic position of the traps. A theoretical analysis and computer simulation are presented in order to illustrate the nature of the trap and the technique by which accurate trapping time and energy position of the trap state can be obtained.

  16. US-Japan Seminar on Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao

    1995-01-01

    The articles in this volume treat various problems in combustion science that are of importance in applications to technology and to environmental sciences. The authors treat turbulence in premixed and non-premixed flames as well as pressure interactions and wave phenomena. Also supersonic flows and detonations are discussed. The main emphasis, however, is on the modelling and numerical treatment of combustion phenomena. The book addresses researchers in physics and engineering, and mathematicians from scientific computing.

  17. Surface science models of CoMoS hydrodesulfurisation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.M.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Veen, van J.A.R.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Froment, G.F.; Delmon, B.; Grange, P.

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of supported catalysts with surface spectroscopic techniques is often limited due to restraints imposed by the support material. The use of flat conducting substrates as a model support offers a way to apply these techniques to their full potential. Such surface science models of

  18. Conceptual Model of Artifacts for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of design science research artifacts. The model views an artifact at three levels. At the artifact level a selected artifact is viewed as a combination of material and immaterial aspects and a set of representations hereof. At the design level the selected artifact...

  19. Humanistic Model in Adult Education and Science and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanistic Model in Adult Education and Science and Technology: Challenges of the 21 st Century Developing Nation. ... Annals of Modern Education ... is the result of the scientific and technological advancement, this paper considers humanistic model in adult education as liberal education appropriate for adult age.

  20. COSEE-AK Ocean Science Fairs: A Science Fair Model That Grounds Student Projects in Both Western Science and Traditional Native Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublin, Robin; Sigman, Marilyn; Anderson, Andrea; Barnhardt, Ray; Topkok, Sean Asiqluq

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the traditional science fair format into an ocean science fair model that promoted the integration of Western science and Alaska Native traditional knowledge in student projects focused on the ocean, aquatic environments, and climate change. The typical science fair judging criteria for the validity and presentation of the…

  1. Usability Briefing for hospital design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    This PhD thesis is a contribution to an ongoing debate in Denmark about improving the building design processes of complex buildings, especially in relation to the current hospital developments. It provides knowledge about capturing user needs and defines the process model for usability briefing...... and evaluations, can be fed into briefing and design processes. This PhD thesis proposes methods for usability briefing.Usability is a concept similar to functionality, but usability depends on: subjective view of users, context, culture, situation and experience. Understanding usability is achieved by involving...... users. This PhD thesis extends the research in usability of buildings to include all building design phases, therefore not only proposes usability evaluations, but also defines usability briefing. Briefing, also called architectural programming, is usually understood as one of the first phases...

  2. Management Information, Decision Sciences, and Financial Economics : a connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper provides a brief review of the connecting literature in management information, decision sciences, and financial economics, and discusses some research that is related to the three cognate disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent

  3. Mixed models for predictive modeling in actuarial science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We start with a general discussion of mixed (also called multilevel) models and continue with illustrating specific (actuarial) applications of this type of models. Technical details on (linear, generalized, non-linear) mixed models follow: model assumptions, specifications, estimation techniques

  4. Transforming community access to space science models

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeice, Peter; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Maddox, Marlo; Rastaetter, Lutz; Berrios, David; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2012-04-01

    Researching and forecasting the ever changing space environment (often referred to as space weather) and its influence on humans and their activities are model-intensive disciplines. This is true because the physical processes involved are complex, but, in contrast to terrestrial weather, the supporting observations are typically sparse. Models play a vital role in establishing a physically meaningful context for interpreting limited observations, testing theory, and producing both nowcasts and forecasts. For example, with accurate forecasting of hazardous space weather conditions, spacecraft operators can place sensitive systems in safe modes, and power utilities can protect critical network components from damage caused by large currents induced in transmission lines by geomagnetic storms.

  5. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    by Dr L A Ballantyne, School of Agricultural and Wine. Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Australia. We also thank Professor Kalyanee Boruah for allowing us to use the facilities of the UHE Cosmic Ray Research Laboratory, and. Mr Simanta Hazarika and Mr Pradip Deka for their help in the laboratory. References. Barry J D ...

  6. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-12-01

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling in applied sciences a kinetic theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pulvirenti, Mario

    2000-01-01

    Modeling complex biological, chemical, and physical systems, in the context of spatially heterogeneous mediums, is a challenging task for scientists and engineers using traditional methods of analysis Modeling in Applied Sciences is a comprehensive survey of modeling large systems using kinetic equations, and in particular the Boltzmann equation and its generalizations An interdisciplinary group of leading authorities carefully develop the foundations of kinetic models and discuss the connections and interactions between model theories, qualitative and computational analysis and real-world applications This book provides a thoroughly accessible and lucid overview of the different aspects, models, computations, and methodology for the kinetic-theory modeling process Topics and Features * Integrated modeling perspective utilized in all chapters * Fluid dynamics of reacting gases * Self-contained introduction to kinetic models * Becker–Doring equations * Nonlinear kinetic models with chemical reactions * Kinet...

  8. Los Alamos National Lab: National Security Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKIP TO PAGE CONTENT Los Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect Museum New Hires Publications Research Library Mission Science & Innovation Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Lab Organizations Science Programs

  9. Science and Innovation at Los Alamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  10. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.

    2010-07-01

    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  11. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr

    2010-01-01

    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  12. Damsel: A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Alok [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Liao, Wei-keng [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2014-07-11

    Computational science applications have been described as having one of seven motifs (the “seven dwarfs”), each having a particular pattern of computation and communication. From a storage and I/O perspective, these applications can also be grouped into a number of data model motifs describing the way data is organized and accessed during simulation, analysis, and visualization. Major storage data models developed in the 1990s, such as Network Common Data Format (netCDF) and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) projects, created support for more complex data models. Development of both netCDF and HDF5 was influenced by multi-dimensional dataset storage requirements, but their access models and formats were designed with sequential storage in mind (e.g., a POSIX I/O model). Although these and other high-level I/O libraries have had a beneficial impact on large parallel applications, they do not always attain a high percentage of peak I/O performance due to fundamental design limitations, and they do not address the full range of current and future computational science data models. The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. The project consists of three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community. The product of this project, Damsel library, is openly available for download from http://cucis.ece.northwestern.edu/projects/DAMSEL. Several case studies and application programming interface

  13. Hierarchical modelling for the environmental sciences statistical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, James S

    2006-01-01

    New statistical tools are changing the way in which scientists analyze and interpret data and models. Hierarchical Bayes and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for analysis provide a consistent framework for inference and prediction where information is heterogeneous and uncertain, processes are complicated, and responses depend on scale. Nowhere are these methods more promising than in the environmental sciences.

  14. International workshop on learning by modelling in science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Biswas, G.; Bull, S.; Kay, J.; Mitrovic, A.

    2011-01-01

    Modelling is nowadays a well-established methodology in the sciences, supporting the inquiry and understanding of complex phenomena and systems in the natural, social and artificial worlds. Hence its strong potential as pedagogical approach fostering students' learning of scientific concepts and

  15. Didactic models in the discourse of science teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Margaret Avelar Guimarães

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research carried out among Science Teachers at Municipal Schools in Goiânia, State of Goiás. In 2000, questionnaires were sent out to all the teachers, of whom 56 (43% replied. Through an analysis of these questionnaires, an identification of the didactic models underlying their ideas on teaching/learning was made in the hope of delineating the profile of municipal science teaching which has been going through a process of curriculum re-structuring at primary school level, since 1998, with the implementation of formation cycles. Results show that teachers are going through a period of conception change which is probably a result of the experience of living through this process of curriculum restructuring. The profile is characterized as an eclectic didactic model, combining shades of different models identified in the literature: traditional, technological, spontaneous-activist and school research models; however, closer to the spontaneous model. The inclusion of certain presuppositions from other didactic models could further indicate a period of evolution in the professional development of Science teachers, which may constitute a significant space for reflection on the aims of education and on day-by-day classroom practices.

  16. Economic modeling of effects of climate change on the forest sector and mitigation options: a compendium of briefing papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig

    2010-01-01

    This report is a compilation of six briefing papers based on literature reviews and syntheses, prepared for U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service policy analysts and decisionmakers about specific questions pertaining to climate change. The main topics addressed here are economic effects on the forest sector at the national and global scales, costs of forest...

  17. Increasing Early Childhood Educators' Use of Communication-Facilitating and Language-Modelling Strategies: Brief Speech and Language Therapy Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David; Proctor, Penny; Gill, Wendy; Heaven, Sue; Marr, Jane; Young, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Intensive Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) training courses for Early Childhood Educators (ECEs) can have a positive effect on their use of interaction strategies that support children's communication skills. The impact of brief SLT training courses is not yet clearly understood. The aims of these two studies were to assess the impact of a brief…

  18. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A

    2014-11-13

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2014-10-06

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective.

  20. Taiwanese Students' Science Learning Self-Efficacy and Teacher and Student Science Hardiness: A Multilevel Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors accounting for science learning self-efficacy (the specific beliefs that people have in their ability to complete tasks in science learning) from both the teacher and the student levels. We thus propose a multilevel model to delineate its relationships with teacher and student science hardiness (i.e.,…

  1. How Does Science Learning Occur in the Classroom? Students' Perceptions of Science Instruction during the Implementation of REAPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Arizaga, Maria P.; Bahar, A. Kadir; Maker, C. June; Zimmerman, Robert; Pease, Randal

    2016-01-01

    In this qualitative study the researchers explored children's perceptions of their participation in a science class in which an elementary science curriculum, the Full Option Science System (FOSS), was combined with an innovative teaching model, Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS). The children were capable of articulating views…

  2. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2013-10-01

    Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral level in the fields of medicine, the humanities, education, and the social sciences, who devoted at least 50 percent of their working hours to research. They reported issues they face before, during, and after gathering data. Their range of issues is broader than generally discussed and points to the importance of researchers' ethical sensitivity.

  3. Eliciting physics students mental models via science fiction stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment which investigated the effects of the using science fiction stories in physics lessons. A questionnaire form containing 2 open-ended questions related to Jules Vernes story From the Earth to the Moon was used with 353, 9th and 10th grade students to determine their pre-conceptions about gravity and weightlessness. Mental models explaining students scientific and alternative views were constructed, according to students replies. After these studies, 6 students were interviewed. In this interview, researches were done about whether science fiction stories had an effect on bringing students pre-conceptions related to physics subjects out, on students inquiring their own concepts and on increasing students interest and motivation towards physics subjects. Studies in this research show that science fiction stories have an effect on arousing students interest and curiosity, have a role encouraging students to inquire their own concepts and are effective in making students alternative views come out

  4. Challenges of citizen science contributions to modelling hydrodynamics of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Thaine Herman; Popescu, Ioana; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2017-04-01

    Citizen science is an established mechanism in many fields of science, including ecology, biology and astronomy. Citizen participation ranges from collecting and interpreting data towards designing experiments with scientists and cooperating with water management authorities. In the environmental sciences, its potential has begun to be explored in the past decades and many studies on the applicability to water resources have emerged. Citizen Observatories are at the core of several EU-funded projects such as WeSenseIt, GroundTruth, GroundTruth 2.0 and SCENT (Smart Toolbox for Engaging Citizens into a People-Centric Observation Web) that already resulted in valuable contributions to the field. Buytaert et al. (2014) has already reviewed the role of citizen science in hydrology. The work presented here aims to complement it, reporting and discussing the use of citizen science for modelling the hydrodynamics of floods in a variety of studies. Additionally, it highlights the challenges that lie ahead to utilize more fully the citizen science potential contribution. In this work, focus is given to each component of hydrodynamic models: water level, velocity, flood extent, roughness and topography. It is addressed how citizens have been contributing to each aspect, mainly considering citizens as sensors and citizens as data interpreters. We consider to which kind of model (1D or 2D) the discussed approaches contribute and what their limitations and potential uses are. We found that although certain mechanisms are well established (e.g. the use of Volunteer Geographic Information for soft validation of land-cover and land-use maps), the applications in a modelling context are rather modest. Also, most studies involving models are limited to replacing traditional data with citizen data. We recommend that citizen science continue to be explored in modelling frameworks, in different case studies, taking advantage of the discussed mechanisms and of new sensor technologies

  5. Participatory modeling - engineering and social sciences in tandem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Konrad, Wilfried; Noack, Vera; Scheer, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The modeling of flow and transport processes in the context of engineering in the subsurface often takes place within a field of conflict from different interests, where societal issues are touched or involved. Carbon Capture and Storage, Fracking, or nuclear waste disposal are just a few prominent examples, where engineering (or: natural sciences) and social sciences have a common field of research. It is only consequent for both disciplines to explore methods and tools to achieve best possible mutual benefits. Participatory modeling (PM) is such an idea, where so-called stakeholders can be involved during different phases of the modeling process. This can be accomplished by very different methods of participation and for different reasons (public acceptance, public awareness, transparency, improved understanding through collective learning, etc). Therefore, PM is a generic approach, open for different methods to be used in order to facilitate early expert and stakeholder integration in science development. We have used PM recently in two examples, both in the context of Carbon Capture and Storage. The first one addressed the development and evaluation (by stakeholders) of a screening criterion for site selection. The second one deals with a regional-scale brine migration scenario where stakeholders have been involved in evaluating the general importance of brine migration, the design of a representative geological model for a case study and in the definition of scenarios to be simulated. This contribution aims at summarizing our experiences and share it with the modeling community. References: A Kissinger, V Noack, S Knopf, D Scheer, W Konrad, H Class Characterization of reservoir conditions for CO2 storage using a dimensionless gravitational number applied to the North German Basin, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 7, 209-220, 2014 D Scheer, W Konrad, H Class, A Kissinger, S Knopf, V Noack Expert involvement in science development: (re

  6. Aids Brief

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model also suggested that approximately 1% of patients taking TB treatment would develop multidrug-resistant. TB (MDR-TB), even with perfect adherence. The investigators believe that this is due to differences in the way drugs are processed between individual patients, meaning that some individuals do ...

  7. Nature of science in instruction materials of science through the model of educational reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, Nur; Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to reconstruct the science teaching materials charged view of the nature of science (VNOS). This reconstruction process using the Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER), which is the framework for research and development of science education as well as a guide for planning the teaching of science in the schools is limited in two stages, namely: content structure analysis, and empirical studies of learners. The purpose of this study is to obtain a pre-conception of learners and prospective scientists to the topic of the nature of the material and utilization. The method used to descriptive with the instruments is guidelines for interviews for 15 students of class VIII, text analysis sheet, sheet analysis of the concept, and the validation sheet indicators and learning objectives NOS charged on cognitive and affective aspects. The results obtained in the form of pre-conceptions of learners who demonstrate almost 100% of students know the types of materials and some of its nature, the results of the scientist's perspective on the topic of the nature of the material and its use, as well as the results of the validation indicators and learning objectives charged NOS and competencies PISA 2015 cognitive and affective aspects with CVI value of 0.99 and 1.0 after being validated by five experts. This suggests that the indicators and the resulting learning objectives feasible and can proceed to the reconstruction of teaching materials on the topic of material properties and utilization.

  8. Creating a brief rating scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items based on the Rasch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.

  9. Modeling for Integrated Science Management and Resilient Systems Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, M.; Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.

    2014-01-01

    Many physiological, environmental, and operational risks exist for crewmembers during spaceflight. An understanding of these risks from an integrated perspective is required to provide effective and efficient mitigations during future exploration missions that typically have stringent limitations on resources available, such as mass, power, and crew time. The Human Research Program (HRP) is in the early stages of developing collaborative modeling approaches for the purposes of managing its science portfolio in an integrated manner to support cross-disciplinary risk mitigation strategies and to enable resilient human and engineered systems in the spaceflight environment. In this talk, we will share ideas being explored from fields such as network science, complexity theory, and system-of-systems modeling. Initial work on tools to support these explorations will be discussed briefly, along with ideas for future efforts.

  10. Development of an Analysis Model from the Perspectives of Science, Individual and Society in the Teaching of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel do Carmo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic vision of learning science has changed as scientific culture concepts evolution and the nature of the teaching of science go along. From a model essentially based on information acquisition, science instruction has included the practice of the science method when the importance of emphasizing the development of personal skills, thinking processes, and action was considered. The concern about citizens’ education in matters referring to the relationship between science and society and enlightened social participation demanded a special attention in investigation and in students’ participation in issues related to urban, natural, and technological environment. This research seeks to develop an integrative model of curriculum organizations based on these three axes or perspectives: science, individual, and society. A matrix enabling the analysis of curricular proposals and organization plans of didactic units is built, as well as the observation of teachers’ representations in the teaching of science.

  11. A Knowledge-Based Representation Scheme for Environmental Science Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One of the primary methods available for studying environmental phenomena is the construction and analysis of computational models. We have been studying how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to assist in the development and use of environmental science models within the context of NASA-sponsored activities. We have identified several high-utility areas as potential targets for research and development: model development; data visualization, analysis, and interpretation; model publishing and reuse, training and education; and framing, posing, and answering questions. Central to progress on any of the above areas is a representation for environmental models that contains a great deal more information than is present in a traditional software implementation. In particular, a traditional software implementation is devoid of any semantic information that connects the code with the environmental context that forms the background for the modeling activity. Before we can build AI systems to assist in model development and usage, we must develop a representation for environmental models that adequately describes a model's semantics and explicitly represents the relationship between the code and the modeling task at hand. We have developed one such representation in conjunction with our work on the SIGMA (Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modeling Assistant) environment. The key feature of the representation is that it provides a semantic grounding for the symbols in a set of modeling equations by linking those symbols to an explicit representation of the underlying environmental scenario.

  12. A Conceptual Culture Model for Design Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of design science research (DSR in information systems is the user-centred creation of IT-artifacts with regard to specific social environments. For culture research in the field, which is necessary for a proper localization of IT-artifacts, models and research approaches from social sciences usually are adopted. Descriptive dimension-based culture models most commonly are applied for this purpose, which assume culture being a national phenomenon and tend to reduce it to basic values. Such models are useful for investigations in behavioural culture research because it aims to isolate, describe and explain culture-specific attitudes and characteristics within a selected society. In contrast, with the necessity to deduce concrete decisions for artifact-design, research results from DSR need to go beyond this aim. As hypothesis, this contribution generally questions the applicability of such generic culture dimensions’ models for DSR and focuses on their theoretical foundation, which goes back to Hofstede’s conceptual Onion Model of Culture. The herein applied literature-based analysis confirms the hypothesis. Consequently, an alternative conceptual culture model is being introduced and discussed as theoretical foundation for culture research in DSR.

  13. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  14. Models and applications of chaos theory in modern sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Zeraoulia, Elhadj

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a select group of papers that provide a comprehensive view of the models and applications of chaos theory in medicine, biology, ecology, economy, electronics, mechanical, and the human sciences. Covering both the experimental and theoretical aspects of the subject, it examines a range of current topics of interest. It considers the problems arising in the study of discrete and continuous time chaotic dynamical systems modeling the several phenomena in nature and society-highlighting powerful techniques being developed to meet these challenges that stem from the area of nonli

  15. The Problem with Briefs, in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    Policy briefs written by academics--the kind typically published in "Education Finance and Policy"--should be a crucial source of information for policy makers. Yet too frequently these briefs fail to garner the consideration they deserve. Their authors are too focused on the potential objections of their fellow academics, who are…

  16. Teaching Mathematical Modelling for Earth Sciences via Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-05-01

    Mathematical modelling is becoming crucially important for earth sciences because the modelling of complex systems such as geological, geophysical and environmental processes requires mathematical analysis, numerical methods and computer programming. However, a substantial fraction of earth science undergraduates and graduates may not have sufficient skills in mathematical modelling, which is due to either limited mathematical training or lack of appropriate mathematical textbooks for self-study. In this paper, we described a detailed case-study-based approach for teaching mathematical modelling. We illustrate how essential mathematical skills can be developed for students with limited training in secondary mathematics so that they are confident in dealing with real-world mathematical modelling at university level. We have chosen various topics such as Airy isostasy, greenhouse effect, sedimentation and Stokes' flow,free-air and Bouguer gravity, Brownian motion, rain-drop dynamics, impact cratering, heat conduction and cooling of the lithosphere as case studies; and we use these step-by-step case studies to teach exponentials, logarithms, spherical geometry, basic calculus, complex numbers, Fourier transforms, ordinary differential equations, vectors and matrix algebra, partial differential equations, geostatistics and basic numeric methods. Implications for teaching university mathematics for earth scientists for tomorrow's classroom will also be discussed. Refereces 1) D. L. Turcotte and G. Schubert, Geodynamics, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, (2002). 2) X. S. Yang, Introductory Mathematics for Earth Scientists, Dunedin Academic Press, (2009).

  17. Multifunctional Collaborative Modeling and Analysis Methods in Engineering Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers are challenged to produce better designs in less time and for less cost. Hence, to investigate novel and revolutionary design concepts, accurate, high-fidelity results must be assimilated rapidly into the design, analysis, and simulation process. This assimilation should consider diverse mathematical modeling and multi-discipline interactions necessitated by concepts exploiting advanced materials and structures. Integrated high-fidelity methods with diverse engineering applications provide the enabling technologies to assimilate these high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary results rapidly at an early stage in the design. These integrated methods must be multifunctional, collaborative, and applicable to the general field of engineering science and mechanics. Multifunctional methodologies and analysis procedures are formulated for interfacing diverse subdomain idealizations including multi-fidelity modeling methods and multi-discipline analysis methods. These methods, based on the method of weighted residuals, ensure accurate compatibility of primary and secondary variables across the subdomain interfaces. Methods are developed using diverse mathematical modeling (i.e., finite difference and finite element methods) and multi-fidelity modeling among the subdomains. Several benchmark scalar-field and vector-field problems in engineering science are presented with extensions to multidisciplinary problems. Results for all problems presented are in overall good agreement with the exact analytical solution or the reference numerical solution. Based on the results, the integrated modeling approach using the finite element method for multi-fidelity discretization among the subdomains is identified as most robust. The multiple-method approach is advantageous when interfacing diverse disciplines in which each of the method's strengths are utilized. The multifunctional methodology presented provides an effective mechanism by which domains with diverse idealizations are

  18. Proposal of a new model for dose calculation due to the inhalation of Ru-222, Ru-220 and their sons with brief half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1982-06-01

    The consequences of the radiation interactions upon the human body are studied. In order to simulate by computer the radiation interaction of the atoms of radon and thoron atoms and their Sons with a brief half life inhaled with the cells, the compartimental dosimetric model is used. The metabolic pathway of those radionuclides is described by continuous medium dynamic differential equation. The energy transfer processes are seen in details. The individual retention function is determined by bio-analysis. The results of internal dosimetry are consistents with the new international recommendations from ICRP-32. (L.F.S.) [pt

  19. Methods for model selection in applied science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Richard V., Jr.

    2004-10-01

    Mathematical models are developed and used to study the properties of complex systems and/or modify these systems to satisfy some performance requirements in just about every area of applied science and engineering. A particular reason for developing a model, e.g., performance assessment or design, is referred to as the model use. Our objective is the development of a methodology for selecting a model that is sufficiently accurate for an intended use. Information on the system being modeled is, in general, incomplete, so that there may be two or more models consistent with the available information. The collection of these models is called the class of candidate models. Methods are developed for selecting the optimal member from a class of candidate models for the system. The optimal model depends on the available information, the selected class of candidate models, and the model use. Classical methods for model selection, including the method of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, as well as a method employing a decision-theoretic approach, are formulated to select the optimal model for numerous applications. There is no requirement that the candidate models be random. Classical methods for model selection ignore model use and require data to be available. Examples are used to show that these methods can be unreliable when data is limited. The decision-theoretic approach to model selection does not have these limitations, and model use is included through an appropriate utility function. This is especially important when modeling high risk systems, where the consequences of using an inappropriate model for the system can be disastrous. The decision-theoretic method for model selection is developed and applied for a series of complex and diverse applications. These include the selection of the: (1) optimal order of the polynomial chaos approximation for non-Gaussian random variables and stationary stochastic processes, (2) optimal pressure load model to be

  20. Mathematical modeling and signal processing in speech and hearing sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give an accessible introduction of mathematical models and signal processing methods in speech and hearing sciences for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students with basic knowledge of linear algebra, differential equations, numerical analysis, and probability. Speech and hearing sciences are fundamental to numerous technological advances of the digital world in the past decade, from music compression in MP3 to digital hearing aids, from network based voice enabled services to speech interaction with mobile phones. Mathematics and computation are intimately related to these leaps and bounds. On the other hand, speech and hearing are strongly interdisciplinary areas where dissimilar scientific and engineering publications and approaches often coexist and make it difficult for newcomers to enter.

  1. Fuzzy expert systems models for operations research and management science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksen, I. B.

    1993-12-01

    Fuzzy expert systems can be developed for the effective use of management within the domains of concern associated with Operations Research and Management Science. These models are designed with: (1) expressive powers of representation embedded in linguistic variables and their linguistic values in natural language expressions, and (2) improved methods of interference based on fuzzy logic which is a generalization of multi-valued logic with fuzzy quantifiers. The results of these fuzzy expert system models are either (1) approximately good in comparison with their classical counterparts, or (2) much better than their counterparts. Moreover, for fuzzy expert systems models, it is only necessary to obtain ordinal scale data. Whereas for their classical counterparts, it is generally required that data be at least on ratio and absolute scale in order to guarantee the additivity and multiplicativity assumptions.

  2. The caBIG® Life Science Business Architecture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Lauren Becnel; Hunicke-Smith, Scott P; Stafford, Grace A; Freund, Elaine T; Ehlman, Michele; Chandran, Uma; Dennis, Robert; Fernandez, Anna T; Goldstein, Stephen; Steffen, David; Tycko, Benjamin; Klemm, Juli D

    2011-05-15

    Business Architecture Models (BAMs) describe what a business does, who performs the activities, where and when activities are performed, how activities are accomplished and which data are present. The purpose of a BAM is to provide a common resource for understanding business functions and requirements and to guide software development. The cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Life Science BAM (LS BAM) provides a shared understanding of the vocabulary, goals and processes that are common in the business of LS research. LS BAM 1.1 includes 90 goals and 61 people and groups within Use Case and Activity Unified Modeling Language (UML) Diagrams. Here we report on the model's current release, LS BAM 1.1, its utility and usage, and plans for future use and continuing development for future releases. The LS BAM is freely available as UML, PDF and HTML (https://wiki.nci.nih.gov/x/OFNyAQ).

  3. Social defeat models in animal science: What we have learned from rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    Studies on stress and its impacts on animals are very important in many fields of science, including animal science, because various stresses influence animal production and animal welfare. In particular, the social stresses within animal groups have profound impact on animals, with the potential to induce abnormal behaviors and health problems. In humans, social stress induces several health problems, including psychiatric disorders. In animal stress models, social defeat models are well characterized and used in various research fields, particularly in studies concerning mental disorders. Recently, we have focused on behavior, nutrition and metabolism in rodent models of social defeat to elucidate how social stresses affect animals. In this review, recent significant progress in studies related to animal social defeat models are described. In the field of animal science, these stress models may contribute to advances in the development of functional foods and in the management of animal welfare. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Computation of Probabilities in Causal Models of History of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pessoa Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available : The aim of this paper is to investigate the ascription of probabilities in a causal model of an episode in the history of science. The aim of such a quantitative approach is to allow the implementation of the causal model in a computer, to run simulations. As an example, we look at the beginning of the science of magnetism, “explaining” — in a probabilistic way, in terms of a single causal model — why the field advanced in China but not in Europe (the difference is due to different prior probabilities of certain cultural manifestations. Given the number of years between the occurrences of two causally connected advances X and Y, one proposes a criterion for stipulating the value pY=X of the conditional probability of an advance Y occurring, given X. Next, one must assume a specific form for the cumulative probability function pY=X(t, which we take to be the time integral of an exponential distribution function, as is done in physics of radioactive decay. Rules for calculating the cumulative functions for more than two events are mentioned, involving composition, disjunction and conjunction of causes. We also consider the problems involved in supposing that the appearance of events in time follows an exponential distribution, which are a consequence of the fact that a composition of causes does not follow an exponential distribution, but a “hypoexponential” one. We suggest that a gamma distribution function might more adequately represent the appearance of advances.

  5. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  6. Management Science, Economics and Finance: A Connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides a brief review of the connecting literature in management science, economics and finance, and discusses some research that is related to the three disciplines. Academics could develop theoretical models and subsequent econometric models to estimate the parameters in

  7. Reincarnation in America: A Brief Historical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Irwin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available American theories of reincarnation have a long and complex history, dating from 1680s to the present. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight the main currents of reincarnation theory in the American context, giving a brief historical survey. Sources surveyed begin with Native American traditions, and then move to immigrant traditions based in Western Esotericism, Christianity, Judaism, missionary Hinduism and Buddhism, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Rosicrucianism, and concludes with more current theoretical influences, based in paranormal science research. The paper demonstrates that current theories of reincarnation are increasingly less dependent upon religious support and increasingly based in direct personal experience, paranormal research, and new therapeutic models. The paper concludes with some reflections on the complexity of reincarnation theory and raises questions concerning the future development of such theory.

  8. Modeling economic growth fuelled by science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a simulation model to investigate how science and technology fuel economic growth. This model is built upon a synthesis of technological capabilities represented by national innovation systems. This paper gathers data of papers and patents for 183 countries between 1999 and 2003, as well as GDP and population for 2003. These data show a strong correlation between science, technology and income. Three simulation exercises are performed. Feeding our algorithm with data for population, patents and scientific papers, we obtain the world income distribution. These results support our conjecture on the role of science and technology as sources of the wealth of nations.Este artigo propõe um modelo de simulação para investigar a contribuição da ciência e da tecnologia para o crescimento econômico. O ponto de partida são os sistemas nacionais de inovação, um conceito que sintetiza a capacitação tecnológica das nações. Desta forma, o modelo pode preservar simplicidade e parcimônia. Os dados coletados (patentes, artigos e PIB e população, para 183 países indicam uma forte correlação entre ciência, tecnologia e renda. Três exercícios com simulações são realizados para diversos momentos do tempo, mostrando a progressiva aderência do modelo a essas variáveis tecnológicas.

  9. Development and Exemplification of a Model for Teacher Assessment in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. J.; Earle, S.; McMahon, K.; Howe, A.; Collier, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science project is funded by the Primary Science Teaching Trust and based at Bath Spa University. The study aims to develop a whole-school model of valid, reliable and manageable teacher assessment to inform practice and make a positive impact on primary-aged children's learning in science. The model is based on a…

  10. A standardized crisis management model for self-harming and suicidal individuals with three or more diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder: The Brief Admission Skåne randomized controlled trial protocol (BASRCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Sophie I; Helleman, Marjolein; Daukantaité, Daiva; Westrin, Åsa; Westling, Sofie

    2017-06-15

    Brief Admission is a crisis and risk management strategy in which self-harming and suicidal individuals with three or more diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder self-admit to hospital at times of increasing risk when other efforts to stay safe are failing. Standardized in the current randomized controlled trial, the intensity of Brief Admission Skåne is implemented in durations of three days, with a maximum frequency of three times a month. Brief Admission is integrated into existing treatment plans in advance of crises to prevent reliance on general psychiatric admissions for risk management, as these may be lengthy, unstructured, and of uncertain therapeutic value. The overall objective of the Brief Admission Skåne randomized controlled trial is to determine if Brief Admission can replace general psychiatric admission for self-harming and suicidal individuals with complex mental illness at times of escalating risk. Other objectives of the study are to evaluate whether Brief Admission increases daily functioning and enhances coping, reduces psychiatric symptoms including frequency and severity of self-harm and suicidal behaviours. A final objective is to determine if Brief Admission is an effective crisis management model for this population. Participants are randomized at an individual level to either Brief Admission Skåne plus Treatment as Usual or Treatment As Usual. Based on a priori power analyses, N = 124 participants will be recruited to the study. Data collection is in progress, and will continue until June 2018. All participant data are single-blinded and will be handled with intention-to-treat analysis. Based on the combined clinical experience of our international research group, the Brief Admission Skåne randomized controlled trial upon which the current protocol is based represents the first initiative to standardize, implement and evaluate Brief Admission amongst self-harming and suicidal individuals, including those with

  11. A brief history of Sandia National Laboratories and the Department of Energy%3CU%2B2019%3Es Office of Science : interplay between science, technology, and mission.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Myers, Samuel Maxwell, Jr.; Simmons, Jerry Alvon; McIlroy, Andrew; Vook, Frederick L.; Collis, Samuel Scott; Picraux, Samuel Thomas

    2011-08-01

    In 1957, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) initiated its first programs in fundamental science, in support of its primary nuclear weapons mission. In 1974, Sandia initiated programs in fundamental science supported by the Department of Energy's Office of Science (DOE-SC). These latter programs have grown to the point where, today in 2011, support of Sandia's programs in fundamental science is dominated by that Office. In comparison with Sandia's programs in technology and mission applications, however, Sandia's programs in fundamental science are small. Hence, Sandia's fundamental science has been strongly influenced by close interactions with technology and mission applications. In many instances, these interactions have been of great mutual benefit, with synergies akin to a positive 'Casimir's spiral' of progress. In this report, we review the history of Sandia's fundamental science programs supported by the Office of Science. We present: (a) a technical and budgetary snapshot of Sandia's current programs supported by the various suboffices within DOE-SC; (b) statistics of highly-cited articles supported by DOE-SC; (c) four case studies (ion-solid interactions, combustion science, compound semiconductors, advanced computing) with an emphasis on mutually beneficial interactions between science, technology, and mission; and (d) appendices with key memos and reminiscences related to fundamental science at Sandia.

  12. A Model-Driven, Science Data Product Registration Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, S.; Ramirez, P.; Hughes, J. S.; Joyner, R.; Cayanan, M.; Lee, H.; Crichton, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    artifacts above as well as offering the flexibility to support customer-defined artifacts. Key features for the Registry Service include: - Model-based configuration specifying customer-defined artifact types, metadata attributes to capture for each artifact type, supported associations and classification schemes. - A REST-based external interface that is accessible via the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). - Federation of Registry Service instances allowing associations between registered artifacts across registries as well as queries for artifacts across those same registries. A federation also enables features such as replication and synchronization if desired for a given deployment. In addition to its use as a core component of the PDS, the generic implementation of the Registry Service facilitates its applicability as a core component in any science data archive or science data system.

  13. Science Achievement and Occupational Career/Technical Education Coursetaking in High School: The Class of 2005. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2010-021

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Karen; Wun, Jolene; Green, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    The definition of CTE (career/technical education) used by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) includes, at the high school level, family and consumer sciences education, general labor market preparation, and occupational education (Bradby and Hoachlander 1999; Bradby and Hudson 2007). Most researchers focus on occupational…

  14. Paraconsistency, Pluralistic Models and Reasoning in Climate Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Brown

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific inquiry is typically focused on particular questions about particular objects and properties.  This leads to a multiplicity of models which, even when they draw on a single, consistent body of concepts and principles, often employ different methods and assumptions to model different systems.  Pluralists have remarked on how scientists draw on different assumptions to model different systems, different aspects of systems and systems under different conditions and defended the value of distinct, incompatible models within science at any given time. (Cartwright, 1999; Chang, 2012 Paraconsistentists have proposed logical strategies to avoid trivialization when inconsistencies arise by a variety of means.(Batens, 2001; Brown, 1990; Brown, 2002  Here we examine how chunk and permeate, a simple approach to paraconsistent reasoning which avoids heterodox logic by confining commitments to separate contexts in which reasoning with them is taken to be reliable while allowing ‘permeation’ of some conclusions into other contexts, can help to systematize pluralistic reasoning across the boundaries of plural contexts, using regional climate models as an example.(Benham et al., 2014; Brown & Priest 2004, 2015  The result is a kind of unity for science—but a unity achieved by the constrained exchange of specified information between different contexts, rather than the closure of all commitments under some paraconsistent consequence relation. 

  15. Increasing women's aspirations and achievement in science: The effect of role models on implicit cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Julie E.

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating men more than women with science) was linked to more negative (implicit and explicit) attitudes towards science and less identification with science. For men, stereotypes were either non-significantly or positively related to science attitudes and identification. Time 2 examined the influence of implicit and explicit science cognitions on students' science aspirations and achievement, and found that implicit stereotyping, attitudes, and identification were all unique predictors of science aspirations, but not achievement. Of more importance, Time 2 examined the influence of science role models, and found that identification with a role model of either gender reduced women's implicit science stereotyping and increased their positive attitudes toward science. Implications for decreasing the gender gap in advanced science achievement are discussed.

  16. Understanding science teacher enhancement programs: Essential components and a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Samuel Albert

    Researchers and practioners alike recognize that "the national goal that every child in the United States has access to high-quality school education in science and mathematics cannot be realized without the availability of effective professional development of teachers" (Hewson, 1997, p. 16). Further, there is a plethora of reports calling for the improvement of professional development efforts (Guskey & Huberman, 1995; Kyle, 1995; Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1997). In this study I analyze a successful 3-year teacher enhancement program, one form of professional development, to: (1) identify essential components of an effective teacher enhancement program; and (2) create a model to identify and articulate the critical issues in designing, implementing, and evaluating teacher enhancement programs. Five primary sources of information were converted into data: (1) exit questionnaires, (2) exit surveys, (3) exit interview transcripts, (4) focus group transcripts, and (5) other artifacts. Additionally, a focus group was used to conduct member checks. Data were analyzed in an iterative process which led to the development of the list of essential components. The Components are categorized by three organizers: Structure (e.g., science research experience, a mediator throughout the program), Context (e.g., intensity, collaboration), and Participant Interpretation (e.g., perceived to be "safe" to examine personal beliefs and practices, actively engaged). The model is based on: (1) a 4-year study of a successful teacher enhancement program; (2) an analysis of professional development efforts reported in the literature; and (3) reflective discussions with implementors, evaluators, and participants of professional development programs. The model consists of three perspectives, cognitive, symbolic interaction, and organizational, representing different viewpoints from which to consider issues relevant to the success of a teacher enhancement program. These

  17. Bayesian Hierarchical Random Effects Models in Forensic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin G. G. Aitken

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical modeling of the evaluation of evidence with the use of the likelihood ratio has a long history. It dates from the Dreyfus case at the end of the nineteenth century through the work at Bletchley Park in the Second World War to the present day. The development received a significant boost in 1977 with a seminal work by Dennis Lindley which introduced a Bayesian hierarchical random effects model for the evaluation of evidence with an example of refractive index measurements on fragments of glass. Many models have been developed since then. The methods have now been sufficiently well-developed and have become so widespread that it is timely to try and provide a software package to assist in their implementation. With that in mind, a project (SAILR: Software for the Analysis and Implementation of Likelihood Ratios was funded by the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes through their Monopoly programme to develop a software package for use by forensic scientists world-wide that would assist in the statistical analysis and implementation of the approach based on likelihood ratios. It is the purpose of this document to provide a short review of a small part of this history. The review also provides a background, or landscape, for the development of some of the models within the SAILR package and references to SAILR as made as appropriate.

  18. Bayesian Hierarchical Random Effects Models in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Colin G G

    2018-01-01

    Statistical modeling of the evaluation of evidence with the use of the likelihood ratio has a long history. It dates from the Dreyfus case at the end of the nineteenth century through the work at Bletchley Park in the Second World War to the present day. The development received a significant boost in 1977 with a seminal work by Dennis Lindley which introduced a Bayesian hierarchical random effects model for the evaluation of evidence with an example of refractive index measurements on fragments of glass. Many models have been developed since then. The methods have now been sufficiently well-developed and have become so widespread that it is timely to try and provide a software package to assist in their implementation. With that in mind, a project (SAILR: Software for the Analysis and Implementation of Likelihood Ratios) was funded by the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes through their Monopoly programme to develop a software package for use by forensic scientists world-wide that would assist in the statistical analysis and implementation of the approach based on likelihood ratios. It is the purpose of this document to provide a short review of a small part of this history. The review also provides a background, or landscape, for the development of some of the models within the SAILR package and references to SAILR as made as appropriate.

  19. Regression-Based Norms for a Bi-factor Model for Scoring the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnani, Ashita S; John, Samantha E; Gavett, Brandon E

    2015-05-01

    The current study developed regression-based normative adjustments for a bi-factor model of the The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT). Archival data from the Midlife Development in the United States-II Cognitive Project were used to develop eight separate linear regression models that predicted bi-factor BTACT scores, accounting for age, education, gender, and occupation-alone and in various combinations. All regression models provided statistically significant fit to the data. A three-predictor regression model fit best and accounted for 32.8% of the variance in the global bi-factor BTACT score. The fit of the regression models was not improved by gender. Eight different regression models are presented to allow the user flexibility in applying demographic corrections to the bi-factor BTACT scores. Occupation corrections, while not widely used, may provide useful demographic adjustments for adult populations or for those individuals who have attained an occupational status not commensurate with expected educational attainment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Surface science models of CoMoS hydrodesulfurisation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, A.M.; De Beer, V.H.J.; Van Veen, J.A.R.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W. [Schuit Institute of Catalysis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    Characterization of supported catalysts with surface spectroscopic techniques is often limited due to restraints imposed by the support material. The use of flat conducting substrates as a model support offers a way to apply these techniques to their full potential. Such surface science models of silica and alumina supported CoMoS catalysts have been made by impregnating thin SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with a solution of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes of cobalt and molybdenum. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) spectra indicate that the order in which cobalt and molybdenum transfer to the sulfided state is reversed with respect to oxidic Co and Mo systems prepared by conventional methods, implying that NTA complexation retards the sulfidation of cobalt to temperatures where MoS{sub 2} is already formed. Catalytic tests show that the CoMoS model catalysts exhibit activities for thiophene desulfurisation and product distributions similar to those of their high surface area counterparts. 25 refs.

  1. Science Education Using a Computer Model-Virtual Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruland, R.; Winn, W.; Oppenheimer, P.; Stahr, F.; Sarason, C.

    2002-12-01

    We created an interactive learning environment based on an oceanographic computer model of Puget Sound-Virtual Puget Sound (VPS)-as an alternative to traditional teaching methods. Students immersed in this navigable 3-D virtual environment observed tidal movements and salinity changes, and performed tracer and buoyancy experiments. Scientific concepts were embedded in a goal-based scenario to locate a new sewage outfall in Puget Sound. Traditional science teaching methods focus on distilled representations of agreed-upon knowledge removed from real-world context and scientific debate. Our strategy leverages students' natural interest in their environment, provides meaningful context and engages students in scientific debate and knowledge creation. Results show that VPS provides a powerful learning environment, but highlights the need for research on how to most effectively represent concepts and organize interactions to support scientific inquiry and understanding. Research is also needed to ensure that new technologies and visualizations do not foster misconceptions, including the impression that the model represents reality rather than being a useful tool. In this presentation we review results from prior work with VPS and outline new work for a modeling partnership recently formed with funding from the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP).

  2. Scientists as role models in space science outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.

    The direct participation of scientists significantly enhances the impact of any E/PO effort. This is particularly true when the scientists come from minority or traditionally under-represented groups and, consequently, become role models for a large number of students while presenting positive counter-examples to the usual stereotypes. In this paper I will discuss the impact of scientists as role models through the successful implementation of a set of space physics games and activities, called Solar Week. Targetted at middle-school girls, the key feature of Solar Week is the "Ask a Scientist" section enabling direct interaction between participating students and volunteer scientists. All of the contributing scientists are women, serving as experts in their field and providing role models to whom the students can relate. Solar Week has completed four sessions with a total of some 140 edcuators and 12,000+ students in over 28 states and 9 countries. A major success of the Solar Week program has been the ability of the students to learn more about the scientists as people, through online biographies, and to discuss a variety of topics ranging from science, to careers and common hobbies.

  3. Entering the Community of Practitioners: A Science Research Workshop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory; Pazos, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Science Research Workshop Program (SRW) and discusses how it provides students a legitimate science experience. SRW, which is funded by the National Science Foundation, is an apprenticeship-style program in which students write proposals requesting resources to research an original question. The program creates a…

  4. Professional Development. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In this professional development research brief, the author sets forth the overarching considerations that should be kept in mind when conceptualizing professional development for educators working with neglected or delinquent youth (N or D). The brief begins by defining professional development and demonstrating why it is a critical support for…

  5. 1. A brief history of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienstbier, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The milestones of history of nuclear medicine are dealt with. A brief account is given of the history of nuclear medicine abroad, and a more in-depth treatment is devoted to Czechoslovakia, where the beginning of this branch of science dates to 1951. (Z.S.)

  6. Using the instructional congruence model to change a science teacher's practices and English language learners' attitudes and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Hania Moussa

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.

  7. Role Models in Science - An Effective Dissemination Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzichristou, Eleni; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Balasis, George; Bourdarie, Sebastien; Horne, Richard B.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Mann, Ian R.; Santolik, Ondrej; Turner, Drew L.; Giannakis, Omiros; Ropokis, George

    2014-05-01

    We present the outreach efforts of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, intended to provide the general public with simplified information concerning the scientific objectives of the project and its expected outcomes, to strengthen their understanding of space science, as well as to engage and inspire the next generation of scientists. MAARBLE involves monitoring of the geospace environment through space and ground-based observations, in order to understand various aspects of the radiation belts, an important element of the space weather system, which have direct impact on human endeavors in space (spacecraft and astronauts exposure). The public outreach website of MAARBLE, besides instructive text and regular updates with relevant news, also employs a variety of multimedia (image and video galleries) and characteristic sounds of space related to very low and ultra low frequency (VLF/ULF) electromagnetic waves. It also provides links to some of the most interesting relevant educational activities, including those at partner institutions such as the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at UCLA, the University of Alberta, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics and the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. We will focus on a specific activity: "Interviewing a MAARBLE Scientist", which enriches and broadens the scope of the MAARBLE outreach website. The profile of a MAARBLE scientist appears every month through an inspired interview, the scientists relating to the public their real stories, aspirations and endeavors. The intimacy of this approach is very effective in catching the attention of an otherwise indifferent public, and to inspire young people to pursue science careers by identifying themselves with "real" scientists. We cover one interview per month, featuring either a high-profile scientist from each partner institute, or a young researcher on a

  8. Learning Activities That Combine Science Magic Activities with the 5E Instructional Model to Influence Secondary-School Students' Attitudes to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jang-Long; Cheng, Meng-Fei; Chang, Ying-Chi; Li, Hsiao-Wen; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Deng-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how learning materials based on Science Magic activities affect student attitudes to science. A quasi-experimental design was conducted to explore the combination of Science Magic with the 5E Instructional Model to develop learning materials for teaching a science unit about friction. The participants…

  9. Lorenz curves in a new science-funding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2017-12-01

    We propose an agent-based model to theoretically and systematically explore the implications of a new approach to fund science, which has been suggested recently by J. Bollen et al.[?] We introduce various parameters and examine their effects. The concentration of funding is shown by the Lorenz curve and the Gini coefficient. In this model, all scientists are treated equally and follow the well-intended regulations. All scientists give a fixed ratio of their funding to others. The fixed ratio becomes an upper bound for the Gini coefficient. We observe two distinct regimes in the parameter space: valley and plateau. In the valley regime, the fluidity of funding is significant. The Lorenz curve is smooth. The Gini coefficient is well below the upper bound. The funding distribution is the desired result. In the plateau regime, the cumulative advantage is significant. The Lorenz curve has a sharp turn. The Gini coefficient saturates to the upper bound. The undue concentration of funding happens swiftly. The funding distribution is the undesired results, where a minority of scientists take the majority of funding. Phase transitions between these two regimes are discussed.

  10. Ground Contact Model for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Way, David

    2012-01-01

    The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2) has been successful in simulating the flight of launch vehicles and entry bodies on earth and other planets. POST 2 has been the primary simulation tool for the Entry Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of numerous Mars lander missions such as Mars Pathfinder in 1997, the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (MER-A and MER-B) in 2004, Mars Phoenix lander in 2007, and it is now the main trajectory simulation tool for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2012. In all previous missions, the POST 2 simulation ended before ground impact, and a tool other than POST 2 simulated landing dynamics. It would be ideal for one tool to simulate the entire EDL sequence, thus avoiding errors that could be introduced by handing off position, velocity, or other fight parameters from one simulation to the other. The desire to have one continuous end-to-end simulation was the motivation for developing the ground interaction model in POST 2. Rover landing, including the detection of the postlanding state, is a very critical part of the MSL mission, as the EDL landing sequence continues for a few seconds after landing. The method explained in this paper illustrates how a simple ground force interaction model has been added to POST 2, which allows simulation of the entire EDL from atmospheric entry through touchdown.

  11. Can the History of Science Contribute to Modelling in Physics Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Juliana; Braga, Marco Antônio Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    A characterization of the modelling process in science is proposed for science education, based on Mario Bunge's ideas about the construction of models in science. Galileo's Dialogues are analysed as a potentially fruitful starting point to implement strategies aimed at modelling in the classroom in the light of that proposal. It is argued that a modelling process for science education can be conceived as the evolution from phenomenological approaches towards more representational ones, emphasizing the role of abstraction and idealization in model construction. The shift of reference of theories—from sensible objects to conceptual objects—and the black-box models construction process, which are both explicitly presented features in Galileo's Dialogues, are indicated as highly relevant aspects for modelling in science education.

  12. The lure of rationality: Why does the deficit model persist in science communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simis, Molly J; Madden, Haley; Cacciatore, Michael A; Yeo, Sara K

    2016-05-01

    Science communication has been historically predicated on the knowledge deficit model. Yet, empirical research has shown that public communication of science is more complex than what the knowledge deficit model suggests. In this essay, we pose four lines of reasoning and present empirical data for why we believe the deficit model still persists in public communication of science. First, we posit that scientists' training results in the belief that public audiences can and do process information in a rational manner. Second, the persistence of this model may be a product of current institutional structures. Many graduate education programs in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields generally lack formal training in public communication. We offer empirical evidence that demonstrates that scientists who have less positive attitudes toward the social sciences are more likely to adhere to the knowledge deficit model of science communication. Third, we present empirical evidence of how scientists conceptualize "the public" and link this to attitudes toward the deficit model. We find that perceiving a knowledge deficit in the public is closely tied to scientists' perceptions of the individuals who comprise the public. Finally, we argue that the knowledge deficit model is perpetuated because it can easily influence public policy for science issues. We propose some ways to uproot the deficit model and move toward more effective science communication efforts, which include training scientists in communication methods grounded in social science research and using approaches that engage community members around scientific issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The use of laboratory adsorption data and models to predict radionuclide releases from a geological repository: A brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmuir, D.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclide (RN) adsorption has long been recognized as important to assure the isolation of nuclear wastes in a geological repository. Laboratory measured RN adsorption data have generally been expressed as distribution coefficient (K d ) values or adsorption isotherms. The surface complexation (SC) adsorption models were introduced in the late 1970''s. The best known of these models incorporate electrical double layer (EDL) theory. Their use requires that the water chemistry and surface properties of adsorbing rocks and minerals be fully characterized. Because the SC models are relatively mechanistic, they may allow extrapolation of adsorption results to repository conditions that lie outside the limited experimental range used to parameterize a given model. Turner has shown that the diffuse layer model (the simplest SC model) fits a wide range of RN adsorption data as well as the more complex models. Others have suggested ways to generalize and estimate SC model parameters for a variety of minerals, rocks and engineered materials. Degueldre and Werlni and Degueldre et al. have proposed a simplified SC model for RN adsorption that avoids EDL theory, in which the adsorption of RN species is estimated from linear free energy relationships. It is appropriate to ask how accurately RN adsorption behavior must be known or understood for total system performance analysis (TSPA). In most geological settings now being considered for repository development globally, it may suffice to select bounding K d values for the different rock types. Use of the SC models to describe RN adsorption can provide one with increased confidence that minimum K d ''s and the distribution of K d values the author might propose for TSPA are in fact conservative. 68 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. On track for success: an innovative behavioral science curriculum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedy, John R; Carek, Peter J; Dickerson, Lori M; Mallin, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the behavioral science curriculum currently in place at the Trident/MUSC Family Medicine Residency Program. The Trident/MUSC Program is a 10-10-10 community-based, university-affiliated program in Charleston, South Carolina. Over the years, the Trident/MUSC residency program has graduated over 400 Family Medicine physicians. The current behavioral science curriculum consists of both required core elements (didactic lectures, clinical observation, Balint groups, and Resident Grand Rounds) as well as optional elements (longitudinal patient care experiences, elective rotations, behavioral science editorial experience, and scholars project with a behavioral science focus). All Trident/MUSC residents complete core behavioral science curriculum elements and are free to participate in none, some, or all of the optional behavioral science curriculum elements. This flexibility allows resident physicians to tailor the educational program in a manner to meet individual educational needs. The behavioral science curriculum is based upon faculty interpretation of existing "best practice" guidelines (Residency Review Committee-Family Medicine and AAFP). This article provides sufficient curriculum detail to allow the interested reader the opportunity to adapt elements of the behavioral science curriculum to other residency training programs. While this behavioral science track system is currently in an early stage of implementation, the article discusses track advantages as well as future plans to evaluate various aspects of this innovative educational approach.

  15. FMCSA Safety Program Effectiveness Measurement: Carrier Intervention Effectiveness Model, Version 1.1-Report for FY 2014 Interventions - Analysis Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The Carrier Intervention Effectiveness Model (CIEM) provides the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) with a tool for measuring the safety benefits of carrier interventions conducted under the Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) e...

  16. Brief Communication: Upper Air Relaxation in RACMO2 Significantly Improves Modelled Interannual Surface Mass Balance Variability in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, W. J.; Medley, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  17. Brief Report: Bifactor Modeling of General vs. Specific Factors of Religiousness Differentially Predicting Substance Use Risk in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; Holmes, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Religiousness is important to adolescents in the U.S., and the significant link between high religiousness and low substance use is well known. There is a debate between multidimensional and unidimensional perspectives of religiousness (Gorsuch, 1984); yet, no empirical study has tested this hierarchical model of religiousness related to adolescent health outcomes. The current study presents the first attempt to test a bifactor model of religiousness related to substance use among adolescents...

  18. Science as a Model for Rational, Legitimate Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscomb, Lewis

    2009-05-01

    Before WWII science was largely dependent on support through teaching, and a few foundations. In the last half century, thanks to the contribution of applied science to winning the second world war, government became a deep-pockets source of support for science. While many academic scientists were deeply suspicious of government as a sponsor, the research universities saw an opportunity to build their institutions around government support. Government saw science as a means for sustaining its military primacy. Thus a marriage was consummated by partners -- science and politics -- who needed each other, but for quite different and to some degree conflicting motives. In the U.S. democracy, the relationship between science and politics has never been easy. The search for truth in science and for legitimacy in politics both require systems for generating public trust, but these systems are not the same, and indeed they are often incompatible. The most profound area of mismatch between science and politics is found not in conflicts over what kinds of research are deserving of public funding, but rather in conflicts over the advice government receives from scientific and technical experts. It is no accident that democratic America fostered progress in science and technology. Both American democracy and modern science are products of the Enlightenment, with its emphasis on reason and openness rather than on prejudice and traditional authority. American democracy has always benefited from a pragmatic willingness to learn from experience, very much as science relies on experiment. Progress in science is based transparency and accountability; these are also basic principles of democratic government. If science is corrupted by government, government itself is in danger of becoming corrupt. In recent years we seemed to be going down that path. It is no accident that President Obama and media commentators speak often of the ``new pragmatism,'' or that he appointed exceptionally

  19. Coteaching as a Model for Preservice Secondary Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Gallo-Fox, Jennifer; Wassell, Beth

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on a 3-year, longitudinal study of the implementation of coteaching, as an innovative approach for preparing high school science teachers enrolled in an undergraduate science teacher education programme located in the United States. The coteaching/co-generative dialogue/co-respect/co-responsibility dialectic is introduced as a…

  20. A Cognitive Model for Problem Solving in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in…

  1. Science and technology awareness for preschool children: a working model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Skills shortages exist in the areas of Science and Technology, not only in South Africa but globally. This creates a need for more people to follow careers in Science and Technology. We need to do something to make sure that we do not loose...

  2. Correlation Educational Model in Primary Education Curriculum of Mathematics and Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinko Kovac, Maja; Eret, Lidija

    2012-01-01

    This article gives insight into methodical correlation model of teaching mathematics and computer science. The model shows the way in which the related areas of computer science and mathematics can be supplemented, if it transforms the way of teaching and creates a "joint" lessons. Various didactic materials are designed, in which all…

  3. The Value of Conceptual Models in Coping with Complexity and Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Karen P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.; Leemans, Rik

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual models are useful for facing the challenges of environmental sciences curriculum and course developers and students. These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. In this article, we review the merits of conceptual models in facing these challenges. These…

  4. Process-Based Development of Competence Models to Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendler, Andreas; Seitz, Cornelia; Klaudt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    A process model ("cpm.4.CSE") is introduced that allows the development of competence models in computer science education related to curricular requirements. It includes eight subprocesses: (a) determine competence concept, (b) determine competence areas, (c) identify computer science concepts, (d) assign competence dimensions to…

  5. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  6. Methodical Approaches to Teaching of Computer Modeling in Computer Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimzhanova, B. Lyazzat; Issabayeva, N. Darazha; Khakimova, Tiyshtik; Bolyskhanova, J. Madina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to justify of the formation technique of representation of modeling methodology at computer science lessons. The necessity of studying computer modeling is that the current trends of strengthening of general education and worldview functions of computer science define the necessity of additional research of the…

  7. The Evaluation of Modelling Competences: Difficulties and Potentials for the Learning of the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J. Bernardino; Costa, Nilza

    2007-01-01

    Modelling is an inherent process for the construction and use of science concepts that mobilize diverse specific competences. The aims of this work are to put forward a means of evaluating modelling competences that is relevant for physics teaching and science education research and to identify the potentials and constraints in the development of…

  8. Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modelling of quantal and graded sub-lethal endpoints - a brief discussion of concepts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashauer, R.; Agatz, A.; Albert, C.; Ducrot, V.; Galic, N.; Hendriks, A.J.; Jager, T.; Kretschmann, A.; O'Connor, I.; Rubach, M.N.; Nyman, A.M.; Schmitt, W.; Stadnicka, J.; van den Brink, P.; Preuss, T.G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the advantages and problems of using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models for the analysis, understanding, and simulation of sublethal effects. Only a few toxicodynamic approaches for sublethal effects are available. These differ in their effect mechanism and emphasis on linkages

  9. Brief report: Bifactor modeling of general vs. specific factors of religiousness differentially predicting substance use risk in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S; Holmes, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Religiousness is important to adolescents in the U.S., and the significant link between high religiousness and low substance use is well known. There is a debate between multidimensional and unidimensional perspectives of religiousness (Gorsuch, 1984); yet, no empirical study has tested this hierarchical model of religiousness related to adolescent health outcomes. The current study presents the first attempt to test a bifactor model of religiousness related to substance use among adolescents (N = 220, 45% female). Our bifactor model using structural equation modeling suggested the multidimensional nature of religiousness as well as the presence of a superordinate general religiousness factor directly explaining the covariation among the specific factors including organizational and personal religiousness and religious social support. The general religiousness factor was inversely related to substance use. After accounting for the contribution of the general religiousness factor, high organizational religiousness related to low substance use, whereas personal religiousness and religious support were positively related to substance use. The findings present the first evidence that supports hierarchical structures of adolescent religiousness that contribute differentially to adolescent substance use. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Explaining Variance and Identifying Predictors of Children's Communication via a Multilevel Model of Single-Case Design Research: Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie; Ferron, John M.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the variability in data collected from a single-case design study and to identify predictors of communicative outcomes for children with developmental delays or disabilities (n = 4). Using SAS® University Edition, we fit multilevel models with time nested within children. Children's level of baseline…

  11. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…

  12. Utilising the `3P-model' to Characterise the Discipline of Didactics of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Mercè

    In our research within didactics of science, we have been exploring contributions of the so called cognitive models from contemporary philosophy of science. We have used these philosophical frameworks on different levels. As an outcome, we have formulated a model of didactics of science according to which this discipline adapts and transforms theoretical contributions from different scholarly fields. In this paper, we concentrate on this description of didactics of science, which we have called the 3P-model (i.e., philosophy + psychology + pedagogy). This model of the internal functioning of the discipline may be useful to make innovations in science curriculum design and re-conceptualise the role of science teachers as professionals. We see didactics of science as a set of interrelated activities, performed by different individuals, and ranging from theoretical production to practice of science education at school. We find the concept of technoscience suitable to account for this diversity of goals. According to this concept, scientific disciplines are identified both with generation of knowledge and with active intervention on the world. Within current didactics of science, we recognise several kinds of research, having goals more or less directed to practical intervention in science education.

  13. A brief review of 210Pb sediment dating models and uncertainties in a world of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Irrespective of the model names used, assumptions and (usually forgotten) uncertainties, the fact is that 210Pb sediment dating is an increasingly relevant tool in our world of global change. 210Pb dating results are needed to assess historical trends of sea level rise, quantify blue carbon fluxes and reconstruct environmental records of biogeochemical proxies for diverse processes in the aquatic ecosystems (such as ocean acidification, hypoxia and pollution). Although in the past 210Pb profiles departing from "ideal" decay trends were usually discarded, all profiles have useful information. In this work we review the principles and assumptions of the most common 210Pb dating models, and propose a logical formulation and classification of the models. 210Pb dating models provide two kinds of results: chronologies (i.e. age models) and accumulation rates. In many cases, the use of sediment and/or mass accumulation rates (SAR and MAR) is needed to assess environmental fluxes or, simply, to describe changes, such as catchment erosion or saltmarsh accretion. Although uncertainty quadratic propagation is a well-known technique, it requires that all variables are fully independent and requires demanding mathematical expressions which might lead to wrong results. We present here a Monte Carlo method that makes calculation easier and, likely, error-free. Not unexpectedly, the most important uncertainty sources are measurement uncertainties, which impose limitations on common techniques such as gamma spectrometry. 210Pb chronology does not cover all anthropogenic impacts, such as those caused by ancient civilizations, so radiocarbon also plays an important role in this kind of work. We also conceptually revise the limitations of both techniques and encourage scientists to link both dating techniques with a symmetrically open mind. Acknowledgements: projects CONACYT PDCPN2013-01/214349 and CB2010/153492, UNAM PAPIIT-IN203313, PRODEP network "Aquatic contamination: levels and

  14. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent nuclear industry briefs are presented. These briefs include: Swiss voters reject phaseout; EdF confirms order for Civaux 1; NDP surprise victor in Ontario; Czechoslovakia joins Foratom; Poland abandons Zarnowiec; Cogema's UP3 facility operationa; Wismut to clsoe mining operations; court rules in favor of US government in Yucca Mountain waste site; Italian government ratifies ENEL reactor shutdowns; and Seabrook enters commercial operation

  15. What you see may not be what you get: a brief, nontechnical introduction to overfitting in regression-type models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyak, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models, such as linear or logistic regression or survival analysis, are frequently used as a means to answer scientific questions in psychosomatic research. Many who use these techniques, however, apparently fail to appreciate fully the problem of overfitting, ie, capitalizing on the idiosyncrasies of the sample at hand. Overfitted models will fail to replicate in future samples, thus creating considerable uncertainty about the scientific merit of the finding. The present article is a nontechnical discussion of the concept of overfitting and is intended to be accessible to readers with varying levels of statistical expertise. The notion of overfitting is presented in terms of asking too much from the available data. Given a certain number of observations in a data set, there is an upper limit to the complexity of the model that can be derived with any acceptable degree of uncertainty. Complexity arises as a function of the number of degrees of freedom expended (the number of predictors including complex terms such as interactions and nonlinear terms) against the same data set during any stage of the data analysis. Theoretical and empirical evidence--with a special focus on the results of computer simulation studies--is presented to demonstrate the practical consequences of overfitting with respect to scientific inference. Three common practices--automated variable selection, pretesting of candidate predictors, and dichotomization of continuous variables--are shown to pose a considerable risk for spurious findings in models. The dilemma between overfitting and exploring candidate confounders is also discussed. Alternative means of guarding against overfitting are discussed, including variable aggregation and the fixing of coefficients a priori. Techniques that account and correct for complexity, including shrinkage and penalization, also are introduced.

  16. Mathematical Model of the Public Understanding of Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisniakov, V.; Prisniakova, L.

    science. The boundary sectioning area of effective and unefficient modes of training and education of the population of country in space spirit is determined. The mathematical model of quality of process of education concern to an outer space exploration is reviewed separately. The coefficient of quality of education in an estimation of space event is submitted as relation Δ I' to mismatch of the universal standard of behavior with the information, which is going to the external spectator, about the applicable reacting of the considered individual Δ I''. The obtained outcomes allow to control a learning process and education of the society spirit of adherence to space ideals of mankind.

  17. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media; Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that

  18. Should students design or interact with models? Using the Bifocal Modelling Framework to investigate model construction in high school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Tamar; Schneider, Bertrand; Blikstein, Paulo

    2018-05-01

    The Bifocal Modelling Framework (BMF) is an approach for science learning which links students' physical experimentation with computer modelling in real time, focusing on the comparison of the two media. In this paper, we explore how a Bifocal Modelling implementation supported learning outcomes related to both content and metamodeling knowledge, focusing on the role of designing models. Our study consisted of three conditions implemented with a total of 69 9th grade high-school students. The first and second classes were assigned two implementation modes of BMF: with and without a model design module. The third condition, employed as a control, consisted of a class that received instruction in the school's traditional approach. Our results indicate that students participating in both BMF implementations demonstrated improved content knowledge and a better understanding of metamodeling. However, only the 'BMF-with-design' group improved significantly in both content and metamodeling knowledge. Our qualitative analyses indicate that both BMF groups designed detailed models that included scientific explanations. However only students who engaged in the model design component: (1) completed a detailed model displaying molecular interaction; and (2) developed a critical perspective about models. We discuss the implications of those results for teaching scientific science concepts and metamodeling knowledge.

  19. Meta-Theoretical Contributions to the Constitution of a Model-Based Didactics of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Yefrin; Lorenzano, Pablo; Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2016-10-01

    There is nowadays consensus in the community of didactics of science (i.e. science education understood as an academic discipline) regarding the need to include the philosophy of science in didactical research, science teacher education, curriculum design, and the practice of science education in all educational levels. Some authors have identified an ever-increasing use of the concept of `theoretical model', stemming from the so-called semantic view of scientific theories. However, it can be recognised that, in didactics of science, there are over-simplified transpositions of the idea of model (and of other meta-theoretical ideas). In this sense, contemporary philosophy of science is often blurred or distorted in the science education literature. In this paper, we address the discussion around some meta-theoretical concepts that are introduced into didactics of science due to their perceived educational value. We argue for the existence of a `semantic family', and we characterise four different versions of semantic views existing within the family. In particular, we seek to contribute to establishing a model-based didactics of science mainly supported in this semantic family.

  20. Models and Materials: Bridging Art and Science in the Secondary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D.; Cavazos, L.

    2006-12-01

    Creating and sustaining student engagement in science is one challenge facing secondary teachers. The visual arts provide an alternative means of communicating scientific concepts to students who may not respond to traditional formats or identify themselves as interested in science. We have initiated a three-year teacher professional development program at U C Santa Barbara focused on bridging art and science in secondary curricula, to engage students underrepresented in science majors, including girls, English language learners and non-traditional learners. The three-year format provides the teams of teachers with the time and resources necessary to create innovative learning experiences for students that will enhance their understanding of both art and science content. Models and Materials brings together ten secondary art and science teachers from six Santa Barbara County schools. Of the five participating science teachers, three teach Earth Science and two teach Life Science. Art and science teachers from each school are teamed and challenged with the task of creating integrated curriculum projects that bring visual art concepts to the science classroom and science concepts to the art classroom. Models and Materials were selected as unifying themes; understanding the concept of models, their development and limitations, is a prominent goal in the California State Science and Art Standards. Similarly, the relationship between composition, structure and properties of materials is important to both art and science learning. The program began with a 2-week institute designed to highlight the natural links between art and science through presentations and activities by both artists and scientists, to inspire teachers to develop new ways to present models in their classrooms, and for the teacher teams to brainstorm ideas for curriculum projects. During the current school year, teachers will begin to integrate science and art and the themes of modeling and materials

  1. Quasi-optical converters for high-power gyrotrons: a brief review of physical models, numerical methods and computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabchevski, S; Zhelyazkov, I; Benova, E; Atanassov, V; Dankov, P; Thumm, M; Arnold, A; Jin, J; Rzesnicki, T

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-optical (QO) mode converters are used to transform electromagnetic waves of complex structure and polarization generated in gyrotron cavities into a linearly polarized, Gaussian-like beam suitable for transmission. The efficiency of this conversion as well as the maintenance of low level of diffraction losses are crucial for the implementation of powerful gyrotrons as radiation sources for electron-cyclotron-resonance heating of fusion plasmas. The use of adequate physical models, efficient numerical schemes and up-to-date computer codes may provide the high accuracy necessary for the design and analysis of these devices. In this review, we briefly sketch the most commonly used QO converters, the mathematical base they have been treated on and the basic features of the numerical schemes used. Further on, we discuss the applicability of several commercially available and free software packages, their advantages and drawbacks, for solving QO related problems

  2. Ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep water: A brief review of present knowledge from observations and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Burchard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep wateris driven by either gale-forced barotropic or baroclinic salt water inflows.During the past two decades, the frequency of large barotropic inflows(mainly in winter has decreased and the frequency of medium-intensity baroclinic inflows(observed in summer has increased. As a result of entrainment of ambient oxygen-rich water,summer inflows are also important for the deep water ventilation.Recent process studies of salt water plumes suggest that the entrainmentrates are generally smaller than those predicted by earlier entrainment models.In addition to the entrance area, the Słupsk Sill andthe Słupsk Furrow are important locations for the transformation of water masses. Passing the Słupsk Furrow, both gravity-driven dense bottom flows and sub-surface cyclonic eddies,which are eroded laterally by thermohaline intrusions,ventilate the deep water of the eastern Gotland Basin.A recent study of the energy transfer from barotropic to baroclinicwave motion using a two-dimensional shallow water model suggests thatabout 30% of the energy needed below the halocline for deep water mixingis explained by the breaking of internal waves.In the deep water decade-long stagnation periods with decreasingoxygen and increasing hydrogen sulphide concentrations might be caused by anomalously largefreshwater inflows and anomalously high mean zonal wind speeds. In differentstudies the typical response time scale of average salinity was estimated tobe between approximately 20 and 30 years.The review summarizes recent research resultsand ends with a list of open questions and recommendations.

  3. The Learning Assistant Model for Science Teacher Recruitment and Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Valerie

    2006-04-01

    There is a shortage of high quality physical science teachers in the United States. In 2001, less than 50% of teachers who taught physics held a major or minor in physics or physics education (Neuschatz & McFarling, 2003). Studies point to content knowledge as one of the two factors that is positively correlated with teacher quality. However, those directly responsible for the science content preparation of teachers, specifically science research faculty, are rarely involved in focused efforts to improve teacher quality or to create alternative paths for becoming a teacher. What role should science research faculty play in the recruitment and preparation of science teachers? How might teacher recruitment and preparation be conceived so that science research faculty members' participation in these efforts is not at odds with the traditional scientific research foci of science research departments? To address this issue, we have coupled our teacher recruitment and preparation efforts with our efforts for transforming our large-enrollment, undergraduate science courses. This is achieved through the undergraduate Learning Assistant (LA) program, where talented mathematics and science majors are hired to assist in transforming large enrollment courses to student-centered, collaborative environments. These LAs are the target of our teacher recruitment efforts. Science research faculty, in collaboration with faculty from the school of education have established a community that supports LAs in making decisions to explore K12 teaching as a career option. Fifteen percent of the LAs who have participated in this program have entered teaching credential programs and now plan to become K12 teachers. An added effect of this program is that research faculty have developed skills and knowledge regarding inquiry-based and student-centered pedagogy and theories of student learning. The Learning Assistant program has led to increased subject matter knowledge among learning

  4. CSIR ScienceScope: Art and science of modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available -2780 I CSRR Ma)ewialx Science and Manufac)uwing Pretoria 012 841-4392 Johannesburg 011 482-1300 Port olizabeth 041 508-3200 Cape Town 021 685-4329 I CSRR Na)uwal Rexouwcex and )he En0iwonmen) Pretoria 012 841-4005 Johannesburg 011 358...) En0iwonmen) Pretoria 012 841-3871 Stellenbosch 021 888-2508 I CSRR Defencec Neacec Safe)y and Secuwi)y Pretoria 012 841-2780 I CSRR Ma)ewialx Science and Manufac)uwing Pretoria 012 841-4392 Johannesburg 011 482-1300 Port olizabeth 041 508...

  5. Professional Development in Climate Science Education as a Model for Navigating the Next Generations Science Standards - A High School Science Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards attempt to move the American K12 education system into the 21st century by focusing on science and engineering practice, crosscutting concepts, and the core ideas of the different disciplines. Putting these standards into practice will challenge a deeply entrenched system and science educators will need significant financial support from state and local governments, professional development from colleges and universities, and the creation of collegial academic networks that will help solve the many problems that will arise. While all of this sounds overwhelming, there are proven strategies and mechanisms already in place. Educators who tackle challenging topics like global climate change are turning to scientists and other like-minded teachers. Many of these teachers have never taken a class in atmospheric science but are expected to know the basics of climate and understand the emerging science as well. Teachers need scientists to continue to reach out and provide rigorous and in-depth professional development opportunities that enable them to answer difficult student questions and deal with community misconceptions about climate science. Examples of such programs include Earthworks, ICEE (Inspiring Climate Education Excellence) and ESSEA (Earth System Science Education Alliance). Projects like CLEAN (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network) provide excellent resources that teachers can integrate into their lessons. All of these benefit from the umbrella of documents like Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Support from the aforementioned networks has encouraged the development of effective approaches for teaching climate science. From the perspective of a Geoscience master teacher and instructional coach, this presentation will demonstrate how scientists, researchers, and science education professionals have created models for professional development that create long-term networks supporting

  6. The role of models/and analogies in science education: implications from research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; France, Bev; Taylor, Ian

    2005-02-01

    Models and modelling are key tools for scientists, science teachers and science learners. In this paper we argue that classroom-based research evidence demonstrates that the use of models and analogies within the pedagogy of science education may provide a route for students to gain some understanding of the nature of science. A common theme to emerge from the literature reviewed here is that in order to successfully develop conceptual understandings in science, learners need to be able to reflect on and discuss their understandings of scientific concepts as they are developing them. Pedagogies that involve various types of modelling are most effective when students are able to construct and critique their own and scientists' models. Research also suggests that group work and peer discussion are important ways of enhancing students' cognitive and metacognitive thinking skills. Further we argue that an understanding of science models and the modelling process enables students to develop a metacognitive awareness of knowledge development within the science community, as well as providing the tools to reflect on their own scientific understanding.

  7. A New Model of Master of Philosophy in Physiological Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H R; Arain, F M; Khan, N A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Physiological Sciences are: 1) to describe the new ways in which anatomy, biochemistry and physiology on one hand, and microbiology, pathology and pharmacology on other hand meet their functional requirements through multidisciplinary integrated concepts; 2) to elucidate relationships between cell biology, molecular biology and molecular genetics by connecting dots of how cell functions are driven by molecules and being controlled by genes. This forms the basis of cell, molecular and genetics [CMG] module upon which 7 multidisciplinary modules of Physiological Sciences follow; 3) these 24 credit hours provide the physiological basis for PhD studies as well as faculty development to enhance learning abilities of medical student; 4) the modules constitute Cardio- Respiratory Physiological Sciences, GI and Renal Physiological Sciences, Neurosciences, Endo-Reproductive Physiological Sciences.; 5) it has integrated microbiology, pathology and pharmacology in a unique way through CMG of microbes leading to associated pathology and mechanisms of prescribed drugs; 6) it has additional synopsis and thesis friendly course work leading to comprehensive examinations; 7) the year two deals with research work of 6 credit hours leading to defense of thesis; 8) The MPhil in Physiological Sciences is fundamentally different from what is being offered elsewhere. It prepares and offers a good spring board to dovetail PhD studies as well as faculty and institutional development. This is the first study that deals with innovative programmes in research, learning and education in the field of physiological sciences. This broad-based MPhil would make its recipients competent, critical, confident and productive learner. This is a completely unique design of a curriculum that has no comparable examples elsewhere. Our mission is to educate graduate students in the field of Physiological Sciences such that they have a complete grasp over the

  8. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  9. Validation of the What Matters Index: A brief, patient-reported index that guides care for chronic conditions and can substitute for computer-generated risk models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John H; Ho, Lynn; Soloway, Laura; Moore, L Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Current health care delivery relies on complex, computer-generated risk models constructed from insurance claims and medical record data. However, these models produce inaccurate predictions of risk levels for individual patients, do not explicitly guide care, and undermine health management investments in many patients at lesser risk. Therefore, this study prospectively validates a concise patient-reported risk assessment that addresses these inadequacies of computer-generated risk models. Five measures with well-documented impacts on the use of health services are summed to create a "What Matters Index." These measures are: 1) insufficient confidence to self-manage health problems, 2) pain, 3) bothersome emotions, 4) polypharmacy, and 5) adverse medication effects. We compare the sensitivity and predictive values of this index with two representative risk models in a population of 8619 Medicaid recipients. The patient-reported "What Matters Index" and the conventional risk models are found to exhibit similar sensitivities and predictive values for subsequent hospital or emergency room use. The "What Matters Index" is also reliable: akin to its performance during development, for patients with index scores of 1, 2, and ≥3, the odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) for subsequent hospitalization within 1 year, relative to patients with a score of 0, are 1.3 (1.1-1.6), 2.0 (1.6-2.4), and 3.4 (2.9-4.0), respectively; for emergency room use, the corresponding odds ratios are 1.3 (1.1-1.4), 1.9 (1.6-2.1), and 2.9 (2.6-3.3). Similar findings were replicated among smaller populations of 1061 mostly older patients from nine private practices and 4428 Medicaid patients without chronic conditions. In contrast to complex computer-generated risk models, the brief patient-reported "What Matters Index" immediately and unambiguously identifies fundamental, remediable needs for each patient and more sensibly directs the delivery of services to patient categories based on

  10. A Black Feminist Book Club as a Multicultural Professional Development Model for Inservice Secondary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, Althea B.

    According to science teacher educators, science teachers often struggle to embrace and implement multicultural teaching practices due to limited awareness of the biases, assumptions, and oppressive structures that hinder the success of Students of Color in science classrooms. At its core, teachers lack this awareness due to incomplete understanding of the ways identity markers, such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status, work together to shape one's coming into, understanding of, and success in the sciences. To this end, this case study features four science teachers of diverse backgrounds who engaged in a book club structured to support their understanding of their intersectionality and their identity development. These four science teachers met as a science department to engage with the text Black Feminist Thought (BFT) (Collins, 2009) and other critical texts over a six-month period at a New York City, charter high school. The findings revealed the ways racial stereotypes, propagated by many factors--including images of scientists, relationships with teachers, and expectations of peers and family--influenced their coming into and understanding of science. Additionally, the findings show the ways teachers discovered their intersectionality--particularly the interplay of their race and gender--influenced their approaches to teaching science. As teachers learned about the multidimensionality of their positional identities, they became aware of discriminatory structures of power that disadvantage their Black female science students and reported implementing more student-centered pedagogical practices. Altogether, this study offers a professional development model for building critical consciousness with inservice secondary science teachers.

  11. Applying Catastrophe Theory to an Information-Processing Model of Problem Solving in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we test an information-processing model (IPM) of problem solving in science education, namely the working memory overload model, by applying catastrophe theory. Changes in students' achievement were modeled as discontinuities within a cusp catastrophe model, where working memory capacity was implemented as asymmetry and the degree…

  12. From Scientific Innovation to Popularization of Science: a Theoretical Model TOC \\o "1-5" \\h \\z of Science Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Medvedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Science communication is process of promotion of scientific ideas from a scientist through scientific community to muss public. Now this research area attracts a lot of attention from scientists. At the same time science communication suffers from the lack of theoretical framework, which can integrate it. In this article we try to contribute to the further theoretical integration of this area. Here we discuss a model of motion and transformation of ideas from the moment of their generation to the time of their appearance in public movies and literature. The model consists of 5 elements: phase of a scientist (generation of ideas; phase of scientific community (promotion of the ideas among scientists; phase of interested groups (communication with business and government, education of future scientists; phase of popular science (promotion of ideas into mass culture; phase of fiction (subject of communication becomes not scientific knowledge, but myth about science. Each phase is conceived as equal in value stage of existence of scientific ideas. There is a consistent interaction between all phases. The ideas can flow sequentially through all five phases. But independent communication among separate stages is also possible. Furthermore, the ideas can flow in both directions from scientific community to public and visa verse. As a result, scientific communication becomes a real dialogue with equal partners.

  13. A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.J.; Ji-zehn, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE (ISSN 1009-3095, Monthly) 2004 Vol. 5 No. 3 p.358-364 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and educationDE BOER Sirp J.1, QIU Ji-zhen 2(1International

  14. Science Inquiry into Local Animals: Structure and Function Explored through Model Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Tallakson, Denise A.; Glascock, Alex L.; Chao, Astoria

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an arts- and spatial thinking skill--integrated inquiry project applied to life science concepts from the Next Generation Science Standards for fourth grade students that focuses on two unifying or crosscutting themes: (1) structure (or "form") and function and (2) use of models. Students made observations and…

  15. Are We Teaching Them Anything?: A Model for Measuring Methodology Skills in the Political Science Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siver, Christi; Greenfest, Seth W.; Haeg, G. Claire

    2016-01-01

    While the literature emphasizes the importance of teaching political science students methods skills, there currently exists little guidance for how to assess student learning over the course of their time in the major. To address this gap, we develop a model set of assessment tools that may be adopted and adapted by political science departments…

  16. Predicting Stereotype Endorsement and Academic Motivation in Women in Science Programs: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Marie-Noelle; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a model based on stereotype threat theory. The hypothesis is that women who are exposed to a low percentage of women in a science program are more likely to endorse the gender stereotype that science is a male domain, which will in turn undermine their autonomous academic motivation. A total of 167 women university…

  17. Research on Educational Standards in German Science Education--Towards a Model of Student Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…

  18. Understanding Korean Transnational Girls in High School Science Classes: Beyond the Model Minority Stereotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    This study examines six Korean transnational girls enrolled in two advanced placement (AP) biology classes to understand their experiences in science classrooms at the intersection of race, language, and gender. Confronting the model minority stereotype for Asian students, which is particularly salient in science, technology, engineering, and…

  19. Teaching Writing in the Social Sciences: A Comparison and Critique of Three Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristine; Adams, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates three approaches to teaching writing in the social sciences, particularly psychology: an English department-based course for all social science majors; a team-teaching model that embeds writing in core courses in psychology; and a stand-alone course dedicated to teaching writing in psychology, often taken…

  20. The Role of Emotion in Informal Science Learning: Testing an Exploratory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staus, Nancy L.; Falk, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial research on the effect of emotions on educational outcomes in the classroom, relatively little is known about how emotion affects learning in informal science contexts. We examined the role of emotion in the context of an informal science learning experience by utilizing a path model to investigate the relationships…

  1. The Effectiveness of CBL Model to Improve Analytical Thinking Skills the Students of Sport Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudibyo, Elok; Jatmiko, Budi; Widodo, Wahono

    2016-01-01

    Sport science undergraduate education, one of which purposes is to produce an analyst in sport. However, generally analytical thinking skills of sport science's students is still relatively very low in the context of sport. This study aimed to describe the effectiveness of Physics Learning Model in Sport Context, Context Based Learning (CBL)…

  2. Using the Mixture Rasch Model to Explore Knowledge Resources Students Invoke in Mathematic and Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danhui; Orrill, Chandra; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mixture Rasch models followed by qualitative item-by-item analysis of selected Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics and science items offered insight into knowledge students invoke in mathematics and science separately and combined. The researchers administered an…

  3. Towards a pedagogical model for science education: bridging educational contexts through a blended learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidarra, José; Rusman, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a design framework to support science education through blended learning, based on a participatory and interactive approach supported by ICT-based tools, called Science Learning Activities Model (SLAM). The development of this design framework started as a response to complex

  4. Validity of "Hi_Science" as instructional media based-android refer to experiential learning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamariah, Jumadi, Senam, Wilujeng, Insih

    2017-08-01

    Hi_Science is instructional media based-android in learning science on material environmental pollution and global warming. This study is aimed: (a) to show the display of Hi_Science that will be applied in Junior High School, and (b) to describe the validity of Hi_Science. Hi_Science as instructional media created with colaboration of innovative learning model and development of technology at the current time. Learning media selected is based-android and collaborated with experiential learning model as an innovative learning model. Hi_Science had adapted student worksheet by Taufiq (2015). Student worksheet had very good category by two expert lecturers and two science teachers (Taufik, 2015). This student worksheet is refined and redeveloped in android as an instructional media which can be used by students for learning science not only in the classroom, but also at home. Therefore, student worksheet which has become instructional media based-android must be validated again. Hi_Science has been validated by two experts. The validation is based on assessment of meterials aspects and media aspects. The data collection was done by media assessment instrument. The result showed the assessment of material aspects has obtained the average value 4,72 with percentage of agreement 96,47%, that means Hi_Science on the material aspects is in excellent category or very valid category. The assessment of media aspects has obtained the average value 4,53 with percentage of agreement 98,70%, that means Hi_Science on the media aspects is in excellent category or very valid category. It was concluded that Hi_Science as instructional media can be applied in the junior high school.

  5. The Knowledge Production Model of the New Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous achievements of life sciences research in the last 40 years have brought relatively little improvements to medical practice, suggesting a deficiency of the medical innovation system in capitalizing on these fundamental advances. We argue that a major cause of the poor innovative...

  6. A model for education and promoting food science and technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... economics, hospitality management and nutrition/dietetics. FST operates at the .... strategy involved inviting food industry professionals to deliver talks and .... shared outcomes in this case is to see FST education and training alive ... in the concepts of food science and an awareness of food system will help ...

  7. Towards a Competency Model for Teaching Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Elena; Hubwieser, Peter; Schaper, Niclas; Margaritis, Melanie; Berges, Marc; Ohrndorf, Laura; Magenheim, Johannes; Schubert, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    To address the special challenges of teaching computer science, adequate development of teachers' competencies during their education is extremely important. In particular, pedagogical content knowledge and teachers' beliefs and motivational orientations play an important role in effective teaching. This research field has been sparsely…

  8. Multimodal Science Teachers' Discourse in Modeling the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Conxita; Izquierdo, Merce; Espinet, Mariona

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an intensive study of a micro-event aiming at the characterization of teacher's discourse from a multimodal communication perspective in a secondary school science classroom dealing with the topic of "water cycle." The research addresses the following questions: (a) What communicative modes are used by the teacher?, (b) what…

  9. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The January 1992 Industry Briefs includes brief articles on: (1) the startup of Chinese and Indian nuclear units, (2) agreements between China and Pakistan for the construction of a nuclear unit, (3) international safeguards agreements, (4) restart of a nuclear unit in Armenia, (5) closure of a German nuclear waste site, (6) restructuring of the Hungarian state-owned utility MVMT, (7) requests for bids for Wolsong Units 3 and 4, (8) signing of the European Energy charter, (9) continued operation of the MAGNOX reactors, and (10) changing Canadian requirements on uranium

  10. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously

  11. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously

  12. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.

  13. Health and Environmental Science: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-27

    The detonation of the first atomic bomb heralded the beginning of a new age. Almost everyone agreed that the enormous energy released by the "atomic reaction" would create opportunities and problems far larger than man faced in previous history. However, few foresaw the explosion of knowledge that would also be part of this new age.

  14. Can the History of Science Contribute to Modelling in Physics Teaching? The Case of Galilean Studies and Mario Bunge's Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Juliana; Braga, Marco Antônio Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    A characterization of the modelling process in science is proposed for science education, based on Mario Bunge's ideas about the construction of models in science. Galileo's "Dialogues" are analysed as a potentially fruitful starting point to implement strategies aimed at modelling in the classroom in the light of that proposal. It is…

  15. Building Science Identity in Disadvantaged Teenage Girls using an Apprenticeship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, E. C.; Conner, L.; Tzou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Expeditionary science differs from laboratory science in that expeditionary science teams conduct investigations in conditions that are often physically and socially, as well as intellectually, challenging. Team members live in close quarters for extended periods of time, team building and leadership affect the scientific process, and research tools are limited to what is available on site. Girls on Ice is an expeditionary science experience primarily for disadvantaged girls; it fully immerses girls in a mini scientific expedition to study alpine, glacierized environments. In addition to mentoring the girls through conducting their own scientific research, we encourage awareness and discussion of different sociocultural perspectives on the relation between the natural world, science, and society. The experience aligns closely with the apprenticeship model of learning, which can be effective in enhancing identification with science. Using a mixed-methods approach, we show that the Girls on Ice model helps girls (1) increase their interest and engagement in science and build a stronger science identity, (2) develop confidence, importantly they develop a combined physical and intellectual confidence; (3) engage in authentic scientific thinking, including critical thinking and problem solving; and (4) enhance leadership self-confidence. We discuss these results in a learning sciences framework, which posits that learning is inseparable from the social and physical contexts in which it takes place.

  16. Briefing paper for universities on Core Maths

    OpenAIRE

    Glaister, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This briefing paper outlines the rationale for and development of the new Core Maths qualifications, the characteristics of Core Maths, and why Core Maths is important for higher education. It is part of a communication to university vice-chancellors from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) comprising this paper and a joint Ministerial letter from Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities and Science in BIS, and Nick Gibb, Minister of State for Schools in the Departm...

  17. ISAF Overview Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Eager Afghans NEW PA STUDENTS NATO / ISAF UNCLASSIFIED NATO / ISAF UNCLASSIFIED ISAF Overview Brief, MHS Conference 2011 – Attrition, Leader deficit...doctors (male/fem), 2 nurses, 2 midwives. 100k-300k XRAY, surgery, OB, physiotherapy , pediatrician, pharmacist, dentist. 10k-15k An extension of the BHC

  18. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is the February 1992 'Industry Briefs' portion of the 'Recent Developments' section. Issues mentioned are: (1) closure of San Onofre Unit 1, (2) start-up of Penly Unit 2, (3) signing of a safeguards agreement with North Korea, (4) Canadian nuclear activities in Romania, and (5) the merger of two Japanese fuel cycle companies

  19. A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalouris, Nicolaos

    1996-01-01

    Provides a brief but concise overview of the historical development of the Olympic Games in ancient Greece. Originally conceived as a one day, single-race event, the Games grew to the point where they represented an apotheosis of Greek culture. Discusses the role played by conflict within the city-states. (MJP)

  20. A Brief Taxometrics Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2007-01-01

    Taxometric procedures provide an empirical means of determining which psychiatric disorders are typologically distinct from normal behavioral functioning. Although most disorders reflect extremes along continuously distributed behavioral traits, identifying those that are discrete has important implications for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, early identification of risk, and improved understanding of etiology. This article provides (a) brief descriptions of the conceptual bases of s...

  1. Aspects of Mathematical Modelling Applications in Science, Medicine, Economics and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J

    2008-01-01

    The construction of mathematical models is an essential scientific activity. Mathematics has long been associated with developments in the exact sciences and engineering, but more recently mathematical modelling has been used to investigate complex systems that arise in many other fields. The contributors to this book demonstrate the application of mathematics to modern research topics in ecology and environmental science, health and medicine, phylogenetics and neural networks, theoretical chemistry, economics and management.

  2. Science teachers' knowledge about teaching models and modelling in the context of a new syllabus on Public Understanding of Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henze, I.; van Driel, J.H.; Verloop, N.

    2007-01-01

    As teachers' knowledge determines to a large extent how they respond to educational innovation, it is necessary for innovators to take this knowledge into account when implementing educational changes. This study aimed at identifying patterns in the content and the structure of science teachers'

  3. The Integration of Environmental Education in Science Materials by Using "MOTORIC" Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarjita, I. Wayan; Ardi, Muhammad; Rachman, Abdul; Supu, Amiruddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2015-01-01

    The research of the integration of Environmental Education in science subject matter by application of "MOTORIC" Learning models has carried out on Junior High School Kupang Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia. "MOTORIC" learning model is an Environmental Education (EE) learning model that collaborate three learning approach i.e.…

  4. Review: To be or not to be an identifiable model. Is this a relevant question in animal science modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Tamayo, R; Puillet, L; Daniel, J B; Sauvant, D; Martin, O; Taghipoor, M; Blavy, P

    2018-04-01

    What is a good (useful) mathematical model in animal science? For models constructed for prediction purposes, the question of model adequacy (usefulness) has been traditionally tackled by statistical analysis applied to observed experimental data relative to model-predicted variables. However, little attention has been paid to analytic tools that exploit the mathematical properties of the model equations. For example, in the context of model calibration, before attempting a numerical estimation of the model parameters, we might want to know if we have any chance of success in estimating a unique best value of the model parameters from available measurements. This question of uniqueness is referred to as structural identifiability; a mathematical property that is defined on the sole basis of the model structure within a hypothetical ideal experiment determined by a setting of model inputs (stimuli) and observable variables (measurements). Structural identifiability analysis applied to dynamic models described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a common practice in control engineering and system identification. This analysis demands mathematical technicalities that are beyond the academic background of animal science, which might explain the lack of pervasiveness of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling. To fill this gap, in this paper we address the analysis of structural identifiability from a practitioner perspective by capitalizing on the use of dedicated software tools. Our objectives are (i) to provide a comprehensive explanation of the structural identifiability notion for the community of animal science modelling, (ii) to assess the relevance of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling and (iii) to motivate the community to use identifiability analysis in the modelling practice (when the identifiability question is relevant). We focus our study on ODE models. By using illustrative examples that include published

  5. Microsimulation Modeling for Health Decision Sciences Using R: A Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijkamp, Eline M; Alarid-Escudero, Fernando; Enns, Eva A; Jalal, Hawre J; Hunink, M G Myriam; Pechlivanoglou, Petros

    2018-04-01

    Microsimulation models are becoming increasingly common in the field of decision modeling for health. Because microsimulation models are computationally more demanding than traditional Markov cohort models, the use of computer programming languages in their development has become more common. R is a programming language that has gained recognition within the field of decision modeling. It has the capacity to perform microsimulation models more efficiently than software commonly used for decision modeling, incorporate statistical analyses within decision models, and produce more transparent models and reproducible results. However, no clear guidance for the implementation of microsimulation models in R exists. In this tutorial, we provide a step-by-step guide to build microsimulation models in R and illustrate the use of this guide on a simple, but transferable, hypothetical decision problem. We guide the reader through the necessary steps and provide generic R code that is flexible and can be adapted for other models. We also show how this code can be extended to address more complex model structures and provide an efficient microsimulation approach that relies on vectorization solutions.

  6. Levels of prospective science teachers’ ability to structure 5E model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaçan Sibel Demir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with 3rd year prospective science students, who study at the science teaching department of a university in Istanbul province. For that purpose, 34 prospective science teachers cooperated and participated in the study. In the study, the prospective teachers were asked to select a certain subject and plan that subject in accordance with the 5E model. Therefore, the objective of the study is to determine the levels of prospective science teachers’ ability to structure the 5E model. The data retrieved from the study were analyzed ad compared through content analysis and percentages. The results of the study suggest that some prospective teachers are not sufficient at each phase of the 5E model, thereby the researchers made suggestions for that situation.

  7. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  8. Climate Science: How Earth System Models are Reshaping the Science Policy Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This talk is oriented at a general audience including the largest French utility company, and will describe the basics of climate change before moving into emissions scenarios and agricultural impacts that we can test with our earth system models and impacts models.

  9. Networks of Practice in Science Education Research: A Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we employ cultural sociology and Braj Kachru's model of World Englishes as theoretical and analytical tools for considering English as a form of capital necessary for widely disseminating research findings from local networks of practice to the greater science education research community. We present a brief analysis of recent…

  10. Enabling interoperability in planetary sciences and heliophysics: The case for an information model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Raugh, Anne C.; Cecconi, Baptiste; Guinness, Edward A.; Isbell, Christopher E.; Mafi, Joseph N.; Gordon, Mitchell K.; Hardman, Sean H.; Joyner, Ronald S.

    2018-01-01

    The Planetary Data System has developed the PDS4 Information Model to enable interoperability across diverse science disciplines. The Information Model is based on an integration of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) level standards for trusted digital archives, information model development, and metadata registries. Where controlled vocabularies provides a basic level of interoperability by providing a common set of terms for communication between both machines and humans the Information Model improves interoperability by means of an ontology that provides semantic information or additional related context for the terms. The information model was defined by team of computer scientists and science experts from each of the diverse disciplines in the Planetary Science community, including Atmospheres, Geosciences, Cartography and Imaging Sciences, Navigational and Ancillary Information, Planetary Plasma Interactions, Ring-Moon Systems, and Small Bodies. The model was designed to be extensible beyond the Planetary Science community, for example there are overlaps between certain PDS disciplines and the Heliophysics and Astrophysics disciplines. "Interoperability" can apply to many aspects of both the developer and the end-user experience, for example agency-to-agency, semantic level, and application level interoperability. We define these types of interoperability and focus on semantic level interoperability, the type of interoperability most directly enabled by an information model.

  11. Science motivation by discussion and controversy (SMDC) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Mora Ley, César Eduardo; Ramírez Díaz, Mario Humberto

    2017-05-01

    Succeeding theories and empirical investigations have often been built over conceptual understanding to develop talent education. Opportunities provided by society are crucial at every point in the talent-development process. Abilities differ and can vary among boys and girls. Although they have some responsibility for their own growth and development, the educational system and psychosocial variables influence on the successful development of high levels of education. This research explores students’ attitudes to science education to establish why many disengage with the subject in class and what can be done to reverse this trend to produce unimaginable scientific and practical benefits to society. The control group is students from several schools with traditional education in Iran and the experimental group is teams who have taken part in several activities such as national and international tournaments (2005-2013). This research has two parts: 1—how innovation in teaching and 2—discussion and controversy in class can improve science education and cause motivation. The average scores are divided into 5 ranges in both experimental and traditional groups. As shown by Spearman’s correlation rank (ρ) the difference between boys’ and girls’ average scores is about (2.71) in the control group but it has decreased to (0.29) in the experimental group. The main point of discussion is on problems in class which advance a set of interrelated scientific arguments for outstanding achievement.

  12. The science and politics of linear radiation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike religion or politics, science is thought to be value free, and free of subjectivity. The author's thesis is that scientists carry the same cultural baggage as do other human beings. Where uncertainty exists, we often invent explanatory myths; we call them knowledge, or science. An example is our belief in the harmfulness of radiation at low (environmental or occupational exposure) levels. This thesis (myth) is widely accepted as established fact, not only among the lay public, but among the scientific community as well. Historically, it was thought that radiation effects obeyed a threshold response. Occupational exposure standards were based upon such a presumption. Following the second world war, however, this strategy was reconsidered, based on genetic studies and the observation that genetic phenomena were important in carcinogenesis. On the basis of prudence, public policy authorities adopted a policy in which it was assumed that even very low doses of radiation might be harmful. Evidence to the contrary has been suppressed. Indeed, the literature is full of reports suggesting that animals exposed to low doses of radiation benefit from those exposures. Such benefits include enhancement of the immune system, increased resistance to infection, and increased longevity. Several mechanisms have been proposed which might explain how such effects could occur. There is now a new wave of interest in low dose phenomena, and in the adaptive mechanisms which exist. Whether this shall result in a reconsideration of the radiation paradigm is still to be seen

  13. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientif ic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing & Media Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier and Science Press. General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s) that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals. The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications. All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical analyses. Scopes ? Crop Germplasm Resources ? Crop Genetics, Genomics and Molecular Biology

  14. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at

  15. An Innovative Model of Professional Development to Enhance the Teaching and Learning of Primary Science in Irish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Greg

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of a two-year professional development programme on primary teachers' attitudes towards primary science, their confidence and competence in teaching science, and pupils' attitudes towards school science. Unlike the traditional "one-size-fits all" model of professional development, the model developed…

  16. A Science for Citizenship Model: Assessing the Effects of Benefits, Risks, and Trust for Predicting Students' Interest in and Understanding of Science-Related Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lee, Ling; Yang, Kuay-Keng; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2017-10-01

    This study showcases the Science for Citizenship Model (SCM) as a new instructional methodology for presenting, to secondary students, science-related technology content related to the use of science in society not taught in the science curriculum, and a new approach for assessing the intercorrelations among three independent variables (benefits, risks, and trust) to predict the dependent variable of triggered interest in learning science. Utilizing a 50-minute instructional presentation on nanotechnology for citizenship, data were collected from 301 Taiwanese high school students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and paired-samples t-tests were used to analyze the fitness of data to SCM and the extent to which a 50-minute class presentation of nanotechnology for citizenship affected students' awareness of benefits, risks, trust, and triggered interest in learning science. Results of SCM on pre-tests and post-tests revealed acceptable model fit to data and demonstrated that the strongest predictor of students' triggered interest in nanotechnology was their trust in science. Paired-samples t-test results on students' understanding of nanotechnology and their self-evaluated awareness of the benefits and risks of nanotechology, trust in scientists, and interest in learning science revealed low significant differences between pre-test and post-test. These results provide evidence that a short 50-minute presentation on an emerging science not normally addressed within traditional science curriculum had a significant yet limited impact on students' learning of nanotechnology in the classroom. Finally, we suggest why the results of this study may be important to science education instruction and research for understanding how the integration into classroom science education of short presentations of cutting-edge science and emerging technologies in support of the science for citizenship enterprise might be accomplished through future investigations.

  17. My brief history

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking’s improbable journey, from his postwar London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty, and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him Einstein; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a particular black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of physics and cosmology. Writing with characteristic humility and humor, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of ALS at age twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onward through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece A Brief History of Time—one of the iconic books of the twentieth century.

  18. Briefing package for the Yucca Flat pre-emptive review, including overview, UZ model, SZ volcanics model and summary and conclusions sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keating, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-02

    Much progress has been made in the last several years in modeling radionuclide transport from tests conducted both in the unsaturated zone and saturated volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat, Nevada. The presentations to the DOE NNSA pre-emptive review panel contained herein document the progress to date, and discuss preliminary conclusions regarding the present and future extents of contamination resulting from past nuclear tests. The presentations also discuss possible strategies for addressing uncertainty in the model results.

  19. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is the 'Industry Briefs' portion of Nuexco's July 1992 'Recent Developments' section. Specific items mentioned include: (1) the merger of Entergy and Gulf States Utilities, (2) restart of the Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, (3) development of the 7th and 8th nuclear units in Taiwan, (4) purchase of interest in Rio Algom, Ltd, and (5) acquisition of the Italian firm AGIP by a Canadian company

  20. Modeling the Office of Science ten year facilities plan: The PERI Architecture Tiger Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supinski, Bronis R de; Gamblin, Todd; Schulz, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The Performance Engineering Institute (PERI) originally proposed a tiger team activity as a mechanism to target significant effort optimizing key Office of Science applications, a model that was successfully realized with the assistance of two JOULE metric teams. However, the Office of Science requested a new focus beginning in 2008: assistance in forming its ten year facilities plan. To meet this request, PERI formed the Architecture Tiger Team, which is modeling the performance of key science applications on future architectures, with S3D, FLASH and GTC chosen as the first application targets. In this activity, we have measured the performance of these applications on current systems in order to understand their baseline performance and to ensure that our modeling activity focuses on the right versions and inputs of the applications. We have applied a variety of modeling techniques to anticipate the performance of these applications on a range of anticipated systems. While our initial findings predict that Office of Science applications will continue to perform well on future machines from major hardware vendors, we have also encountered several areas in which we must extend our modeling techniques in order to fulfill our mission accurately and completely. In addition, we anticipate that models of a wider range of applications will reveal critical differences between expected future systems, thus providing guidance for future Office of Science procurement decisions, and will enable DOE applications to exploit machines in future facilities fully.

  1. Climate sciences, observation and modelling: an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, P.; Le Treut, H.; Charles, L.

    2013-01-01

    At a time when the public perception of climate change is recovering from the controversies and vocal dissent aired during the recent years, we thought it would be interesting to begin this special issue with an interview of Pierre Morel. As the originator of physical climate studies in France, he established and led (until 1975) the Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory of CNRS, a component of the Pierre-Simon Laplace Institute (IPSL), which has become the focus of climate research in France. However his professional activities were pursued largely in an international context. Alumnus of Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, physicist, first director of scientific research and advanced technology programs in the French space agency CNES from 1962 to 1964 and then Professor at the University of Paris, he specialized in the field of geophysical fluid dynamics. In 1967, he became a member of the international Joint Organizing Committee for the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP) and eventually vice-chairman of the Committee until 1982. He conceived and promoted a number of satellite projects, in particular the operational ARGOS navigation and data collection System on NOAA polar-orbiting meteorological satellites and the European geostationary meteorological satellite Meteosat. In 1982, he became the first director of the international World Climate Research Programme that followed upon GARP and continued in this function until 1994. He then joined NASA Headquarters in the capacity as Senior Visiting Scientist in the Office of Mission to Planet Earth. This unorthodox professional career gave Pierre Morel an exceptionally broad, possibly unmatched, view of all facets of climate science and global observations. Herve Le Treut, with whom this interview was prepared and conducted, is the current director of IPSL, a member of the French Academy of Sciences, and professor at Ecole Polytechnique and University Pierre and Marie Curie of Paris. We are grateful to both for

  2. Systems in Science: Modeling Using Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)

  3. A comparison of major petroleum life cycle models | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have attempted to develop an accurate well-to-pump life cycle model of petroleum products in order to inform decision makers of the consequences of its use. Our paper studies five of these models, demonstrating the differences in their predictions and attempting to evaluate their data quality. Carbon dioxide well-to-pump emissions for gasoline showed a variation of 35 %, and other pollutants such as ammonia and particulate matter varied up to 100 %. Differences in allocation do not appear to explain differences in predictions. Effects of these deviations on well-to-wheels passenger vehicle and truck transportation life cycle models may be minimal for effects such as global warming potential (6 % spread), but for respiratory effects of criteria pollutants (41 % spread) and other impact categories, they can be significant. A data quality assessment of the models’ documentation revealed real differences between models in temporal and geographic representativeness, completeness, as well as transparency. Stakeholders may need to consider carefully the tradeoffs inherent when selecting a model to conduct life cycle assessments for systems that make heavy use of petroleum products. This is a qualitative and quantitative comparison of petroleum LCA models intended for an expert audience interested in better understanding the data quality of existing petroleum life cycle models and the quantitative differences between these models.

  4. Generating Testable Questions in the Science Classroom: The BDC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, ChingMei; Chen, Shu-Bi Shu-Bi; Chang, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Guiding students to generate testable scientific questions is essential in the inquiry classroom, but it is not easy. The purpose of the BDC ("Big Idea, Divergent Thinking, and Convergent Thinking") instructional model is to to scaffold students' inquiry learning. We illustrate the use of this model with an example lesson, designed…

  5. Attitude Research in Science Education: Contemporary Models and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Frank E.; Kobala, Thomas R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a summary of models and methods of attitude research which are embedded in the theoretical tenets of social psychology and in the broader framework of constructivism. Focuses on the construction of social reality rather than the construction of physical reality. Models include theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and…

  6. Open Science and Open Data: Evolving Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Melero, Remedios

    2013-01-01

    The rise of ICT has changed the way scientific inputs and outputs are disseminated and diffused. As a consequence, new business models for open access to Scientific publications and datasets are emerging. This session will explore the new features of the business models for open access and open data as well as the associated benefits and risks.

  7. An electricity billing model | Adetona | Journal of Applied Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linear regression analysis has been employed to develop a model for predicting accurately the electricity billing for commercial consumers in Ogun State (Nigeria) at faster rate. The electricity billing model was implement-ed, executed and tested using embedded MATLAB function blocks. The correlations between the ...

  8. Is `Learning' Science Enough? - A Cultural Model of Religious Students of Science in an Australian Government School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Joseph Paul; Kameniar, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the cognitive experiences of four religious students studying evolutionary biology in an inner city government secondary school in Melbourne, Australia. The participants in the study were identified using the Religious Background and Behaviours questionnaire (Connors, Tonigan, & Miller, 1996). Participants were interviewed and asked to respond to questions about their cognitive experiences of studying evolutionary biology. Students' responses were analysed using cultural analysis of discourse to construct a cultural model of religious students of science. This cultural model suggests that these students employ a human schema and a non-human schema, which assert that humans are fundamentally different from non-humans in terms of origins and that humans have a transcendental purpose in life. For these students, these maxims seem to be challenged by their belief that evolutionary biology is dictated by metaphysical naturalism. The model suggests that because the existential foundation of these students is challenged, they employ a believing schema to classify their religious explanations and a learning schema to classify evolutionary biology. These schemas are then hierarchically arranged with the learning schema being made subordinate to the believing schema. Importantly, these students are thus able to maintain their existential foundation while fulfilling the requirements of school science. However, the quality of this "learning" is questionable.

  9. Vanishing Boundaries between Science and Art: Modelling Effective Middle Years of Schooling Practice in Pre-Service Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Kathryn; Whitney, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an innovation in science pre-service education that endeavours to increase student engagement in learning and doing science in the middle years through integrating science, mathematics and art. (Contains 8 figures.)

  10. Model of training of computer science teachers by means of distant education technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т А Соловьева

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Training of future computer science teachers in conditions of informatization of education is analyzed. Distant educational technologies (DET and traditional process of training, their advantages and disadvantages are considered, active functions of DET as the basis of the model of training by means of DET is stressed. It is shown that mixed education combining both distant ant traditional technologies takes place on the basis of the created model. Practical use of the model is shown on the example of the course «Recursion» for future computer science teachers.

  11. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Health Studies | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Breen is leading the development of air pollution exposure models, integrated with novel personal sensor technologies, to improve exposure and risk assessments for individuals in health studies. He is co-investigator for multiple health studies assessing the exposure and effects of air pollutants. These health studies include participants with asthma, diabetes, and coronary artery disease living in various U.S. cities. He has developed, evaluated, and applied novel exposure modeling and time-activity tools, which includes the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) and Exposure Tracker models. At this seminar, Dr. Breen will present the development and application of these models to predict individual-level personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) for two health studies in central North Carolina. These health studies examine the association between PM and adverse health outcomes for susceptible individuals. During Dr. Breen’s visit, he will also have the opportunity to establish additional collaborations with researchers at Harvard University that may benefit from the use of exposure models for cohort health studies. These research projects that link air pollution exposure with adverse health outcomes benefit EPA by developing model-predicted exposure-dose metrics for individuals in health studies to improve the understanding of exposure-response behavior of air pollutants, and to reduce participant

  12. Modelling episodic acidification of surface waters: the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, K N; Wigington, P J; Davies, T D; Tranter, M

    1992-01-01

    Field studies of chemical changes in surface waters associated with rainfall and snowmelt events have provided evidence of episodic acidification of lakes and streams in Europe and North America. Modelling these chemical changes is particularly challenging because of the variability associated with hydrological transport and chemical transformation processes in catchments. This paper provides a review of mathematical models that have been applied to the problem of episodic acidification. Several empirical approaches, including regression models, mixing models and time series models, support a strong hydrological interpretation of episodic acidification. Regional application of several models has suggested that acidic episodes (in which the acid neutralizing capacity becomes negative) are relatively common in surface waters in several regions of the US that receive acid deposition. Results from physically based models have suggested a lack of understanding of hydrological flowpaths, hydraulic residence times and biogeochemical reactions, particularly those involving aluminum. The ability to better predict episodic chemical responses of surface waters is thus dependent upon elucidation of these and other physical and chemical processes.

  13. Modeling and simulation the computer science of illusion

    CERN Document Server

    Raczynski, Stanislaw

    2006-01-01

    Simulation is the art of using tools - physical or conceptual models, or computer hardware and software, to attempt to create the illusion of reality. The discipline has in recent years expanded to include the modelling of systems that rely on human factors and therefore possess a large proportion of uncertainty, such as social, economic or commercial systems. These new applications make the discipline of modelling and simulation a field of dynamic growth and new research. Stanislaw Raczynski outlines the considerable and promising research that is being conducted to counter the problems of

  14. SimSketch & GearSketch: Sketch-based modelling for early science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joolingen, Wouter; Bollen, Lars; Leenaars, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this interactive demo, we will present two modelling and drawing applications - SimSketch & GearSketch, which exemplarily demonstrate our approaches to sketch-based learning and modelling in early (science) education. Since drawings and sketches denote are very basic and fundamental way of

  15. Conceptualization of an R&D Based Learning-to-Innovate Model for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Oiki Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to conceptualize an R & D based learning-to-innovate (LTI) model. The problem to be addressed was the lack of a theoretical L TI model, which would inform science pedagogy. The absorptive capacity (ACAP) lens was adopted to untangle the R & D LTI phenomenon into four learning processes: problem-solving via…

  16. Integrated Visualization Environment for Science Mission Modeling, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is emphasizing the use of larger, more integrated models in conjunction with systems engineering tools and decision support systems. These tools place a...

  17. Science teacher candidates' perceptions about roles and nature of scientific models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez Turkoglu, Ayse; Oztekin, Ceren

    2016-05-01

    Background: Scientific models have important roles in science and science education. For scientists, they provide a means for generating new knowledge or function as an accessible summary of scientific studies. In science education, on the other hand, they are accessible representations of abstract concepts, and are also organizational frameworks to teach and learn inaccessible facts. As being indispensable parts of learning and doing science, use of scientific models in science classes should be reinforced. At this point, uncovering pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) understandings of scientific models are of great importance since they will design and conduct teaching situations for their students. Purpose: The study aimed to provide an answer to the research question: What understandings do PSTs possess about scientific models? Sample: The sample of the study consisted of 14 PSTs enrolled in an Elementary Science Education program in a public university in Ankara, Turkey. Design and methods: Data were collected by using an open-item instrument and semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed by using qualitative data analysis methods. Results: Findings showed that PSTs held fragmented views of models by having informed views in some aspects while having naïve views on others. That is, although they displayed a constructivist orientation by acknowledging the presence of multiple models for the same phenomenon depending on scientists' perspectives or creativity involved in the production of scientific knowledge, PSTs also expressed logical positivist views by believing that models should be close to the real phenomena that they represent. Findings further revealed that PSTs generally conceptualized models' materialistic uses, yet they did not think much about their theoretical and conceptual uses. It was observed that roles like reifying and visualizing were overestimated and models were dominantly characterized as three-dimensional representations

  18. Preparing Middle School Teachers to Use Science Models Effectively when Teaching about Weather and Climate Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.

    2012-12-01

    According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES), teachers are encouraged to use science models in the classroom as a way to aid in the understanding of the nature of the scientific process. This is of particular importance to the atmospheric science community because climate and weather models are very important when it comes to understanding current and future behaviors of our atmosphere. Although familiar with weather forecasts on television and the Internet, most people do not understand the process of using computer models to generate weather and climate forecasts. As a result, the public often misunderstands claims scientists make about their daily weather as well as the state of climate change. Therefore, it makes sense that recent research in science education indicates that scientific models and modeling should be a topic covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. The purpose of this research study is to describe how three middle school teachers use science models to teach about topics in climate and weather, as well as the challenges they face incorporating models effectively into the classroom. Participants in this study took part in a week long professional development designed to orient them towards appropriate use of science models for a unit on weather, climate, and energy concepts. The course design was based on empirically tested features of effective professional development for science teachers and was aimed at teaching content to the teachers while simultaneously orienting them towards effective use of science models in the classroom in a way that both aids in learning about the content knowledge as well as how models are used in scientific inquiry. Results indicate that teachers perceive models to be physical representations that can be used as evidence to convince students that the teacher's conception of the concept is correct. Additionally, teachers tended to use them as ways to explain an idea to

  19. Organizational Structures to Support Oakland Community Schools. Knowledge Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This brief is part of a series that shares findings from a research collaboration between the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities at Stanford University and Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) focused on understanding implementation of the community school model in the district. This brief highlights findings related to…

  20. The PDS4 Information Model and its Role in Agile Science Data Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D.

    2017-12-01

    PDS4 is an information model-driven service architecture supporting the capture, management, distribution and integration of massive planetary science data captured in distributed data archives world-wide. The PDS4 Information Model (IM), the core element of the architecture, was developed using lessons learned from 20 years of archiving Planetary Science Data and best practices for information model development. The foundational principles were adopted from the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model (ISO 14721), the Metadata Registry Specification (ISO/IEC 11179), and W3C XML (Extensible Markup Language) specifications. These provided respectively an object oriented model for archive information systems, a comprehensive schema for data dictionaries and hierarchical governance, and rules for rules for encoding documents electronically. The PDS4 Information model is unique in that it drives the PDS4 infrastructure by providing the representation of concepts and their relationships, constraints, rules, and operations; a sharable, stable, and organized set of information requirements; and machine parsable definitions that are suitable for configuring and generating code. This presentation will provide an over of the PDS4 Information Model and how it is being leveraged to develop and evolve the PDS4 infrastructure and enable agile curation of over 30 years of science data collected by the international Planetary Science community.

  1. Integrated assessment briefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  2. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, Shelley (Sam) I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  3. Modeling Ships and Space Craft The Science and Art of Mastering the Oceans and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Hagler, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Modeling Ships and Space Craft: The Science and Art of Mastering the Oceans and Sky begins with the theories of Aristotle and Archimedes, moving on to examine the work of Froude and Taylor, the early aviators and the Wright Brothers, Goddard and the other rocket men, and the computational fluid dynamic models of our time. It examines the ways each used fluid dynamic principles in the design of their vessels. In the process, this book covers the history of hydrodynamic (aero and fluid) theory and its progression – with some very accessible science examples – including seminal theories. Hydrodynamic principles in action are also explored with examples from nature and the works of man. This is a book for anyone interested in the history of technology – specifically the methods and science behind the use of scale models and hydrodynamic principles in the marine and aeronautical designs of today.

  4. Recent progress and modern challenges in applied mathematics, modeling and computational science

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, Roman; Belair, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    This volume is an excellent resource for professionals in various areas of applications of mathematics, modeling, and computational science. It focuses on recent progress and modern challenges in these areas. The volume provides a balance between fundamental theoretical and applied developments, emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of modern trends and detailing state-of-the-art achievements in Applied Mathematics, Modeling, and Computational Science.  The chapters have been authored by international experts in their respective fields, making this book ideal for researchers in academia, practitioners, and graduate students. It can also serve as a reference in the diverse selected areas of applied mathematics, modelling, and computational sciences, and is ideal for interdisciplinary collaborations.

  5. Organizing intelligence: development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P

    2009-01-01

    Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered.

  6. Application of Model Project Based Learning on Integrated Science in Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Y.; Permanasari, A.; Redjeki, S.; Sopandi, W.

    2017-09-01

    The function of this research was to analyze the influence model Project Based Learning (PjBl) on integrated science about the concept mastery for junior high school students. Method used for this research constitutes the quasi of experiment method. Population and sample for this research are the students junior high school in Bandung as many as two classes to be experiment and control class. The instrument that used for this research is the test concept mastery, assessment questionnaire of product and the questionnaire responses of the student about learning integrated science. Based on the result of this research get some data that with accomplishment the model of PjBl. Learning authority of integrated science can increase the concept mastery for junior high school students. The highest increase in the theme of pollution water is in the concept of mixtures and the separation method. The students give a positive response in learning of integrated science for the theme of pollution of the water used model PjBL with questionnaire of the opinion aspect in amount of 83.5%, the anxiety of the students in amount of 95.5%, the profit learning model of PjBL in amount of 96.25% and profit learning of integrated science in amount of 95.75%.

  7. The Knowledge Production Model of the New Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2016-01-01

    , coexists with the standard model of knowledge production in clinical medicine. Our comparison of the two approaches finds that Translational Research allows investigations across diverse and cognitively distant knowledge bases, thanks to the intensive use of research technologies that emerge from...

  8. Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, in the discipline of chemistry, it has been of great utility. Its use dates back to the 17th Century and includes such wide areas as computational chemistry, chemoinformatics, molecular mechanics, chemical dynamics, molecular dynamics, molecular graphics and algorithms. Modeling has been employed ...

  9. Mapping and modelling ecosystem services for science, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkhard, B.; Crossman, N.; Nedkov, S.; Petz, K.; Alkemade, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem services are a significant research and policy topic and there are many modelling and mapping approaches aimed at understanding the stocks, demands and flows of ecosystem services on different spatial and temporal scales. The integration of geo-biophysical processes and structure

  10. The Whole Shebang: How Science Produced the Big Bang Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Offers an account of the accumulation of evidence that has led scientists to have confidence in the big bang theory of the creation of the universe. Discusses the early work of Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton, noting the rise of astrophysics, and highlighting the birth of the big bang model (the cosmic microwave background theory…

  11. Assessing model-based reasoning using evidence-centered design a suite of research-based design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mislevy, Robert J; Riconscente, Michelle; Wise Rutstein, Daisy; Ziker, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    This Springer Brief provides theory, practical guidance, and support tools to help designers create complex, valid assessment tasks for hard-to-measure, yet crucial, science education standards. Understanding, exploring, and interacting with the world through models characterizes science in all its branches and at all levels of education. Model-based reasoning is central to science education and thus science assessment. Current interest in developing and using models has increased with the release of the Next Generation Science Standards, which identified this as one of the eight practices of science and engineering. However, the interactive, complex, and often technology-based tasks that are needed to assess model-based reasoning in its fullest forms are difficult to develop. Building on research in assessment, science education, and learning science, this Brief describes a suite of design patterns that can help assessment designers, researchers, and teachers create tasks for assessing aspects of model-based...

  12. Keefektifan Model Children Learning in Science (Clis) Untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Berpikir Rasional Siswa

    OpenAIRE

    Marlina, Marlina; Zainuddin, Zainuddin; An'nur, Syubhan

    2013-01-01

    The low of rational thinking skills of students in learning physics models encourage researchers to carry out Children's Learning in Science (CLIS). This study aims to determine how the effectiveness of learning by using the model CLIS. The specific aims of research describing: (1) the ability of the teacher to manage the model CLIS, (2) rational thinking skills of students, (3) classical completeness student learning outcomes after participating in learning, (4) students' response to the mod...

  13. Human-centric decision-making models for social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    The volume delivers a wealth of effective methods to deal with various types of uncertainty inherently existing in human-centric decision problems. It elaborates on  comprehensive decision frameworks to handle different decision scenarios, which help use effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge and intuition, model perceptions and preferences in a more human-oriented style. The book presents original approaches and delivers new results on fundamentals and applications related to human-centered decision making approaches to business, economics and social systems. Individual chapters cover multi-criteria (multiattribute) decision making, decision making with prospect theory, decision making with incomplete probabilistic information, granular models of decision making and decision making realized with the use of non-additive measures. New emerging decision theories being presented as along with a wide spectrum of ongoing research make the book valuable to all interested in the field of advanced decision-mak...

  14. An investigation of a professional development model in science education: A systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Glenda Love

    The Mathematics and Science Cooperative (MSEC), a four year longevity model of professional development education for in-service teachers, is closely aligned with the spirit and tenets of science for all. This partnership of a university, a school district, and a higher education coordinating board, seeks to promote and improve science and mathematics achievement for underserved and underrepresented populations. This study sought to explore how this model affects elementary in-service teachers' feelings of self-efficacy toward science and science teaching. Interactive Qualitative Research (IQR), a systems approach of natural inquiry, was used for this study. Theory is grounded in the data collected and analyzed through group processes. A core group of teachers, key teachers representing grades one through six and lead teachers the campus contact representatives, received professional development education from university professors in semi-monthly after school workshops and in a three week summer science institute held on-site. In this study, (N = 18) key and lead teachers participated in a focus group, a picture board exercise (a projective type exercise), interviews, and classroom observations. Within the system of the MSEC professional development model, cause and effect relationships among eleven phenomena were identified which had the greatest impact on the teachers' feelings of self-efficacy and science teaching practices. Changed teaching practices were indicated by inquiry-based science lessons with students as active learners. Five principles of self-efficacy: (1) efficacy; (2) goals setting; (3) values; (4) expectancy; and, (5) control beliefs were used to evaluate efficacy beliefs. Findings from the data collection and analysis identified two phenomena, the university instructional leadership role and teacher time commitments and time constraints, both internally and externally imposed, which seemed to have the greatest impact on elementary teachers

  15. Topological and Orthomodular Modeling of Context in Behavioral Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narens, Louis

    2017-02-01

    Two non-boolean methods are discussed for modeling context in behavioral data and theory. The first is based on intuitionistic logic, which is similar to classical logic except that not every event has a complement. Its probability theory is also similar to classical probability theory except that the definition of probability function needs to be generalized to unions of events instead of applying only to unions of disjoint events. The generalization is needed, because intuitionistic event spaces may not contain enough disjoint events for the classical definition to be effective. The second method develops a version of quantum logic for its underlying probability theory. It differs from Hilbert space logic used in quantum mechanics as a foundation for quantum probability theory in variety of ways. John von Neumann and others have commented about the lack of a relative frequency approach and a rational foundation for this probability theory. This article argues that its version of quantum probability theory does not have such issues. The method based on intuitionistic logic is useful for modeling cognitive interpretations that vary with context, for example, the mood of the decision maker, the context produced by the influence of other items in a choice experiment, etc. The method based on this article's quantum logic is useful for modeling probabilities across contexts, for example, how probabilities of events from different experiments are related.

  16. GIA Model Statistics for GRACE Hydrology, Cryosphere, and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, L.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E.; Adhikari, S.; Nilsson, J.; Blewitt, G.

    2018-03-01

    We provide a new analysis of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) with the goal of assembling the model uncertainty statistics required for rigorously extracting trends in surface mass from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Such statistics are essential for deciphering sea level, ocean mass, and hydrological changes because the latter signals can be relatively small (≤2 mm/yr water height equivalent) over very large regions, such as major ocean basins and watersheds. With abundant new >7 year continuous measurements of vertical land motion (VLM) reported by Global Positioning System stations on bedrock and new relative sea level records, our new statistical evaluation of GIA uncertainties incorporates Bayesian methodologies. A unique aspect of the method is that both the ice history and 1-D Earth structure vary through a total of 128,000 forward models. We find that best fit models poorly capture the statistical inferences needed to correctly invert for lower mantle viscosity and that GIA uncertainty exceeds the uncertainty ascribed to trends from 14 years of GRACE data in polar regions.

  17. The structural bioinformatics library: modeling in biomolecular science and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazals, Frédéric; Dreyfus, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Software in structural bioinformatics has mainly been application driven. To favor practitioners seeking off-the-shelf applications, but also developers seeking advanced building blocks to develop novel applications, we undertook the design of the Structural Bioinformatics Library ( SBL , http://sbl.inria.fr ), a generic C ++/python cross-platform software library targeting complex problems in structural bioinformatics. Its tenet is based on a modular design offering a rich and versatile framework allowing the development of novel applications requiring well specified complex operations, without compromising robustness and performances. The SBL involves four software components (1-4 thereafter). For end-users, the SBL provides ready to use, state-of-the-art (1) applications to handle molecular models defined by unions of balls, to deal with molecular flexibility, to model macro-molecular assemblies. These applications can also be combined to tackle integrated analysis problems. For developers, the SBL provides a broad C ++ toolbox with modular design, involving core (2) algorithms , (3) biophysical models and (4) modules , the latter being especially suited to develop novel applications. The SBL comes with a thorough documentation consisting of user and reference manuals, and a bugzilla platform to handle community feedback. The SBL is available from http://sbl.inria.fr. Frederic.Cazals@inria.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. An organizing model for recent cognitive science work on the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageler, Ben

    2016-10-01

    An organizing model of 'the self' emerges from applying various kinds of brain injury to recent cognitive science and philosophical work on 'the self'. This model unifies various contents and mechanisms central to current notions of the self. The article then highlights several criteria and aspects of this notion of self. Qualities of the right type and level of psychological significance delineate 'the self' as an organizing concept useful for recent philosophical work and cognitive science research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analogies, Models and Metaphors in the Production of Social Science Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo Peixoto Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focus on discussing the legitimacy of the use of analogies, models and metaphors in the production of the scientific knowledge. These concepts have been widely debated philosophically and epistemologically, however, there are few papers regarding this subject from a social sciences’ point of view and approach. The analytical epistemological tradition has whether denied or minimized the importance of use of analogies, models and metaphors in the scientific “discoveries’” logic, in its different areas. Taking some historical and current aspects of this question we point out the heuristically importance of these three aspects to the production of science, including its use in social sciences.

  20. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  1. New Media and Models for Engaging Under-Represented Students in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Laurel M.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2008-10-01

    We describe the University of Colorado Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) program in which university students participate in classroom and after school science activities with local precollege children. Across several different formal and informal educational environments, we use new technological tools, such as stop action motion (SAM) movies [1] to engage children so that they may develop an understanding of science through play and "show and tell". This approach provides a complementary avenue for reaching children who are otherwise underrepresented in science and under-supported in more formal educational settings. We present the model of university community partnership and demonstrate its utility in a case study involving an African American third grade student learning about velocity and acceleration.

  2. Observatories, think tanks, and community models in the hydrologic and environmental sciences: How does it affect me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Multiple issues in hydrologic and environmental sciences are now squarely in the public focus and require both government and scientific study. Two facts also emerge: (1) The new approach being touted publicly for advancing the hydrologic and environmental sciences is the establishment of community-operated "big science" (observatories, think tanks, community models, and data repositories). (2) There have been important changes in the business of science over the last 20 years that make it important for the hydrologic and environmental sciences to demonstrate the "value" of public investment in hydrological and environmental science. Given that community-operated big science (observatories, think tanks, community models, and data repositories) could become operational, I argue that such big science should not mean a reduction in the importance of single-investigator science. Rather, specific linkages between the large-scale, team-built, community-operated big science and the single investigator should provide context data, observatory data, and systems models for a continuing stream of hypotheses by discipline-based, specialized research and a strong rationale for continued, single-PI ("discovery-based") research. I also argue that big science can be managed to provide a better means of demonstrating the value of public investment in the hydrologic and environmental sciences. Decisions regarding policy will still be political, but big science could provide an integration of the best scientific understanding as a guide for the best policy.

  3. NASA Tech Briefs, February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of innovations originating from research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. They emphasize information considered likely to be transferable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines and are issued to encourage commercial application. Topics covered include: Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water in Soil; The Mars Science Laboratory Touchdown Test Facility; Non-Contact Measurement of Density and Thickness Variation in Dielectric Materials; Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer; InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz; Combinatorial Generation of Test Suites; In-Phase Power-Combined Frequency Tripler at 300 GHz; Electronic System for Preventing Airport Runway Incursions; Smaller but Fully Functional Backshell for Cable Connector; Glove-Box or Desktop Virtual-Reality System; Composite Layer Manufacturing with Fewer Interruptions; Improved Photoresist Coating for Making CNT Field Emitters; A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability; Complex Multifunctional Polymer/Carbon-Nanotube Composites; Very High Output Thermoelectric Devices Based on ITO Nanocomposites; Reducing Unsteady Loads on a Piggyback Miniature Submarine; Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor; Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines; Pulsed Operation of an Ion Accelerator; Autonomous Instrument Placement for Mars Exploration Rovers; Mission and Assets Database; TCP/IP Interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP); Trajectory Calculator for Finite-Radius Cutter on a Lathe; Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit.

  4. A Multi-Year Study of the Impact of the Rice Model Teacher Professional Development on Elementary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Dana Viorica; Radigan, Judy; Suskavcevic, Milijana; Nichol, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    A teacher professional development program for in-service elementary school science teachers, the Rice Elementary Model Science Lab (REMSL), was developed for urban school districts serving predominately high-poverty, high-minority students. Teachers with diverse skills and science capacities came together in Professional Learning Communities, one…

  5. Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling: First Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, Dork

    1995-01-01

    Topics considered include: Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide - A global database; Carbon isotope discrimination during photosynthesis and the isotope ratio of respired CO2 in boreal forest ecosystems; Estimation of methane emission from rice paddies in mainland China; Climate and nitrogen controls on the geography and timescales of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling; Potential role of vegetation feedback in the climate sensitivity of high-latitude regions - A case study at 6000 years B.P.; Interannual variation of carbon exchange fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems; and Variations in modeled atmospheric transport of carbon dioxide and the consequences for CO2 inversions.

  6. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design proposals fulfil needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the preproject stage to create a basis for the project decision and can include...... by top management. The article describes the briefing processes and the methods for user involvement, identifies problem areas and points out possible improvements. The author was actively involved in the project as deputy project director, with responsibility for the briefing process, and is now...... includes a literature study on briefing and user involvement in building projects, and presents a case study of a major building project of a new headquarters and media centre for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation in Copenhagen. The building project was actively used as part of a corporate change process...

  7. Development and exemplification of a model for Teacher Assessment in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. J.; Earle, S.; McMahon, K.; Howe, A.; Collier, C.

    2017-09-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science project is funded by the Primary Science Teaching Trust and based at Bath Spa University. The study aims to develop a whole-school model of valid, reliable and manageable teacher assessment to inform practice and make a positive impact on primary-aged children's learning in science. The model is based on a data-flow 'pyramid' (analogous to the flow of energy through an ecosystem), whereby the rich formative assessment evidence gathered in the classroom is summarised for monitoring, reporting and evaluation purposes [Nuffield Foundation. (2012). Developing policy, principles and practice in primary school science assessment. London: Nuffield Foundation]. Using a design-based research (DBR) methodology, the authors worked in collaboration with teachers from project schools and other expert groups to refine, elaborate, validate and operationalise the data-flow 'pyramid' model, resulting in the development of a whole-school self-evaluation tool. In this paper, we argue that a DBR approach to theory-building and school improvement drawing upon teacher expertise has led to the identification, adaptation and successful scaling up of a promising approach to school self-evaluation in relation to assessment in science.

  8. Community Coordinated Modeling Center: A Powerful Resource in Space Science and Space Weather Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulaki, A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; MacNeice, P. J.; Shim, J. S.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Zheng, Y.; Mullinix, R.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Pembroke, A. D.; Wiegand, C.

    2015-12-01

    Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a NASA affiliated interagency partnership with the primary goal of aiding the transition of modern space science models into space weather forecasting while supporting space science research. Additionally, over the past ten years it has established itself as a global space science education resource supporting undergraduate and graduate education and research, and spreading space weather awareness worldwide. A unique combination of assets, capabilities and close ties to the scientific and educational communities enable this small group to serve as a hub for raising generations of young space scientists and engineers. CCMC resources are publicly available online, providing unprecedented global access to the largest collection of modern space science models (developed by the international research community). CCMC has revolutionized the way simulations are utilized in classrooms settings, student projects, and scientific labs and serves hundreds of educators, students and researchers every year. Another major CCMC asset is an expert space weather prototyping team primarily serving NASA's interplanetary space weather needs. Capitalizing on its unrivaled capabilities and experiences, the team provides in-depth space weather training to students and professionals worldwide, and offers an amazing opportunity for undergraduates to engage in real-time space weather monitoring, analysis, forecasting and research. In-house development of state-of-the-art space weather tools and applications provides exciting opportunities to students majoring in computer science and computer engineering fields to intern with the software engineers at the CCMC while also learning about the space weather from the NASA scientists.

  9. A study to modify, extend, and verify, an existing model of interactive-constructivist school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numedahl, Paul Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the effects an interactive-constructive teaching and learning approach, the use of children's literature in science teaching and parental involvement in elementary school science had on student achievement in and attitudes toward science. The study was done in the context of Science PALS, a professional development program for inservice teachers. An existing model for interactive-constructive elementary science was modified to include five model variables; student achievement, student attitudes, teacher perceptions, teacher performance, and student perceptions. Data were collected from a sample of 12 teachers and 260 third and fourth grade students. Data analysis included two components, (1) the examination of relationships between teacher performance, teacher perceptions, student achievement and attitudes, and (2) the verification of a model using path analysis. Results showed a significant correlation between teacher perceptions and student attitude. However, only one model path was significant; thus, the model could not be verified. Further examination of the significant model path was completed. Study findings included: (1) Constructivist notions of teaching and learning may cause changes in the traditional role relationship between teachers and students leading to negative student attitudes. (2) Children who perceive parental interest toward science education are likely to have a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (3) Students who perceive science instruction as relevant are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (4) Students who perceive their classroom as aligning with constructivist principles are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science, an increased self

  10. Surface science studies of ethene containing model interstellar ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puletti, F.; Whelan, M.; Brown, W. A.

    2011-05-01

    The formation of saturated hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium (ISM) is difficult to explain only by taking into account gas phase reactions. This is mostly due to the fact that carbonium ions only react with H_2 to make unsaturated hydrocarbons, and hence no viable route to saturated hydrocarbons has been postulated to date. It is therefore likely that saturation processes occur via surface reactions that take place on interstellar dust grains. One of the species of interest in this family of reactions is C_2H_4 (ethene) which is an intermediate in several molecular formation routes (e.g. C_2H_2 → C_2H_6). To help to understand some of the surface processes involving ethene, a study of ethene deposited on a dust grain analogue surface (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) held under ultra-high vacuum at 20 K has been performed. The adsorption and desorption of ethene has been studied both in water-free and water-dominated model interstellar ices. A combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) have been used to identify the adsorbed and trapped species and to determine the kinetics of the desorption processes. In all cases, ethene is found to physisorb on the carbonaceous surface. As expected water has a very strong influence on the desorption of ethene, as previously observed for other model interstellar ice systems.

  11. The evolution, approval and implementation of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Hutchison, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    This paper details how the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Community for Data Integration (CDI) Data Management Working Group developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model, and the role the Model plays in shaping agency-wide policies. Starting with an extensive literature review of existing data Lifecycle models, representatives from various backgrounds in USGS attended a two-day meeting where the basic elements for the Science Data Lifecycle Model were determined. Refinements and reviews spanned two years, leading to finalization of the model and documentation in a formal agency publication . The Model serves as a critical framework for data management policy, instructional resources, and tools. The Model helps the USGS address both the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) for increased public access to federally funded research, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 2013 Open Data directives, as the foundation for a series of agency policies related to data management planning, metadata development, data release procedures, and the long-term preservation of data. Additionally, the agency website devoted to data management instruction and best practices (www2.usgs.gov/datamanagement) is designed around the Model’s structure and concepts. This paper also illustrates how the Model is being used to develop tools for supporting USGS research and data management processes.

  12. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the first of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 1 provides a general overview of key issues.

  13. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle; Stauffer, Philip H.; Weaver, Douglas James; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Otto, Shawn; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Jordan, Amy B.; Chu, Shaoping; Zyvoloski, George Anthony; Johnson, Peter Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  14. Modeling, simulation and optimization for science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Yuri; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Pironneau, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains thirteen articles on advances in applied mathematics and computing methods for engineering problems. Six papers are on optimization methods and algorithms with emphasis on problems with multiple criteria; four articles are on numerical methods for applied problems modeled with nonlinear PDEs; two contributions are on abstract estimates for error analysis; finally one paper deals with rare events in the context of uncertainty quantification. Applications include aerospace, glaciology and nonlinear elasticity. Herein is a selection of contributions from speakers at two conferences on applied mathematics held in June 2012 at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The first conference, “Optimization and PDEs with Industrial Applications” celebrated the seventieth birthday of Professor Jacques Périaux of the University of Jyväskylä and Polytechnic University of Catalonia (Barcelona Tech), and the second conference, “Optimization and PDEs with Applications” celebrated the seventy-fi...

  15. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  16. Science dynamics and research production indicators, indexes, statistical laws and mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with methods to evaluate scientific productivity. In the book statistical methods, deterministic and stochastic models and numerous indexes are discussed that will help the reader to understand the nonlinear science dynamics and to be able to develop or construct systems for appropriate evaluation of research productivity and management of research groups and organizations. The dynamics of science structures and systems is complex, and the evaluation of research productivity requires a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and measures. The book has three parts. The first part is devoted to mathematical models describing the importance of science for economic growth and systems for the evaluation of research organizations of different size. The second part contains descriptions and discussions of numerous indexes for the evaluation of the productivity of researchers and groups of researchers of different size (up to the comparison of research productivities of research communiti...

  17. [The model of development of science by the example of limnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshutkin, V V; Levchenko, V F

    2010-01-01

    Limnology--the science about lakes is the young and relatively closed area of studies; its existence is owing to several hundreds of scientists. The International Society of Limnologists holds its meetings since 1922. We used materials of these meetings to find out the main stages of development of this science; among these stages there were both fast and relatively calm periods. Based on analysis of these data, we constructed a model of development of the science, the same data being used for tuning and verification of the model. We have suggested that the main regularities and of development of limnology can be extrapolated to other sciences. The main "acting person" in the model is population of scientists. Each scientist, with some probability, can propose new ideas as well as use in his elaborations some particular complex of the already accumulated knowledge and ideas. The model also takes into consideration how the scientific information is spreading, specifically some individual peculiarities of model scientists, such as age, experience, communicability. After the model parameters had been chosen in such a way that is described adequately the development of limnology, we performed a series of experiments by changing some of the characteristics and obtained rather unexpected results published preliminary in the short work (Levchenko V. F and Menshutkin V. V. Int. J. Comp. Anticip. Syst., 2008, vol. 22, p. 63-75) and discussed here in the greater detail. It is revealed, that the development of science is passing irregularly and sharply decelerated at low level of scientists communication and absence of scientific schools, and that the age of "scientific youth" of scientist begins usually only after 40 years.

  18. Science and animal models of marrow stimulation for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Lisa A; Cole, Brian J; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2012-03-01

    Microfracture of subchondral bone to enhance cartilage repair is a popular surgical technique used in human and animal patients. Clinical results with resolution or improvement in pain are promising and last on average for 2 to 3 years. Animal studies aimed at understanding microfracture indicate that the repair tissue continues to remodel toward chondrogenesis for at least a year, but longer term results are not available to gain insight into the mechanism of microfracture function or failure over time. Subchondral bone sclerosis and central lesional osteophyte formation following subchondral bone microfracture have been observed in animal models of microfracture, but studies do not provide any insight into the etiology of these pathologies. The continued maturation of microfracture repair tissue over time supports further investigation of microfracture or microfracture-augmented cartilage repair procedures with caution for the investigator and clinician to be observant for conditions that lead to subchondral bone sclerosis or central osteophyte formation, and what affect these boney reactions have on clinical outcome.

  19. Brief history of electronic stereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2012-02-01

    A brief history of recent developments in electronic stereoscopic displays is given concentrating on products that have succeeded in the market place and hence have had a significant influence on future implementations. The concentration is on plano-stereoscopic (two-view) technology because it is now the dominant display modality in the marketplace. Stereoscopic displays were created for the motion picture industry a century ago, and this technology influenced the development of products for science and industry, which in turn influenced product development for entertainment.

  20. Teaching science vs. the apprentice model--do we really have the choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckmann, G

    2001-01-01

    The debate about the appropriate methodology of medical education has been (and still is) dominated by the opposing poles of teaching science versus teaching practical skills. I will argue that this conflict between scientific education and practical training has its roots in the underlying, more systematic question about the conceptual foundation of medicine: how far or in what respects can medicine be considered to be a science? By analyzing the epistemological status of medicine I will show that the internal aim of medicine ("promoting health through the prevention and treatment of disease") differs from the internal aim of science ("the methodological and systematic acquisition of knowledge"). Therefore, medicine as a whole discipline should not be considered as a science. However, medicine can be conceptually and methodologically scientific in so much as it is based on scientific knowledge. There is evidence from cognitive science research that diagnostic reasoning not only relies on the application of scientific knowledge but also--especially in routine cases--on a process of pattern recognition, a reasoning strategy based on the memory of previously encountered patients. Hence, medical education must contain both: the imparting of scientific knowledge and the rich exposure to concrete cases during practical training. Hence, the question of teaching science vs. the apprentice model will not be "either-or" but rather "both--but in which proportion?"

  1. Pathway computation in models derived from bio-science text sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a system, OntoScape, serving to accomplish complex inference tasks on knowledge bases and bio-models derived from life-science text corpora. The system applies so-called natural logic, a form of logic which is readable for humans. This logic affords ontological representations...

  2. Information Processing: A Review of Implications of Johnstone's Model for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Overton, Tina; Botton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The current review is concerned with an information processing model used in science education. The purpose is to summarise the current theoretical understanding, in published research, of a number of factors that are known to influence learning and achievement. These include field independence, working memory, long-term memory, and the use of…

  3. A History of the Liberal Arts Computer Science Consortium and Its Model Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kim B.; Cupper, Robert D.; Scot Drysdale, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    With the support of a grant from the Sloan Foundation, nine computer scientists from liberal arts colleges came together in October, 1984 to form the Liberal Arts Computer Science Consortium (LACS) and to create a model curriculum appropriate for liberal arts colleges. Over the years the membership has grown and changed, but the focus has remained…

  4. Sustainability Transdisciplinary Education Model: Interface of Arts, Science, and Community (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Barbara; Button, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the components of a sustainability transdisciplinary education model (STEM), a contemporary approach linking art, science, and community, that were developed to provide university and K-12 students, and society at large shared learning opportunities. The goals and application of the STEM curriculum…

  5. Map Resource Packet: Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This packet of maps is an auxiliary resource to the "World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven." The set includes: outline, precipitation, and elevation maps; maps for locating key places; landform maps; and historical maps. The list of maps are…

  6. Reflections on science gateways sustainability through the business model canvas: case study of a neuroscience gateway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahand, S.; van Duffelen, J.; Olabarriaga, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainability of science gateways has been a topic of active discussion because they have been created and supported in the context of temporary research and infrastructure projects. As successful projects come to an end, it is necessary to find (new) models to secure continuous exploitation of

  7. Summer Teacher Enhancement Institute for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Using the Problem-Based Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard H.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the Institute were: (a) increase participants' content knowledge about aeronautics, science, mathematics, and technology, (b) model and promote the use of scientific inquiry through problem-based learning, (c) investigate the use of instructional technologies and their applications to curricula, and (d) encourage the dissemination of TEI experiences to colleagues, students, and parents.

  8. Weaving Together Science and English: An Interconnected Model of Language Development for Emergent Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores third-grade science and language instruction for emergent bilinguals designed through a framework of planning, lessons, and assessment in an interconnected model including content, linguistic features, and functions. Participants were a team of language specialist, classroom teacher, and researcher who designed…

  9. Encouraging Girls into Science and Technology with Feminine Role Model: Does This Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of a program that aimed to encourage girls to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career in Israel. The program involved school visits to a high-tech company and meeting with role model female scientists. Sixty ninth-grade female students from a Jewish modern-orthodox single-sex…

  10. A Community-University Exchange Project Modeled after Europe's Science Shops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Elizabeth; Ross, J. Ashleigh

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project of the Morgridge Center for Public Service at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for a new structure for community-based learning and research. It is based on the European-derived science shop model for democratizing campus-community partnerships using shared values of mutual respect and validation of…

  11. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and Their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation).…

  12. A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Laura Hall

    1988-01-01

    Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…

  13. State of science of phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  14. A Brief Taxometrics Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2009-01-01

    Taxometric procedures provide an empirical means of determining which psychiatric disorders are typologically distinct from normal behavioral functioning. Although most disorders reflect extremes along continuously distributed behavioral traits, identifying those that are discrete has important implications for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, early identification of risk, and improved understanding of etiology. This article provides (a) brief descriptions of the conceptual bases of several taxometric procedures, (b) example analyses using simulated data, and (c) strategies for avoiding common pitfalls that are often observed in taxometrics research. To date, most taxometrics studies have appeared in the adult psychopathology literature. It is hoped that this primer will encourage interested readers to extend taxometrics research to child and adolescent populations. PMID:18088222

  15. Editorial Commentary: A Model for Shoulder Rotator Cuff Repair and for Basic Science Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2018-04-01

    "Breaking the fourth wall" is a theater convention where the narrator or character speaks directly to the audience. As an Assistant Editor-in-Chief, as I comment on a recent basic science study investigating rotator cuff repair, I break the fourth wall and articulate areas of basic science research excellence that align with the vision that we hold for our journal. Inclusion of a powerful video strengthens the submission. We prefer to publish clinical videos in our companion journal, Arthroscopy Techniques, and encourage basic science video submissions to Arthroscopy. Basic science research requires step-by-tedious-step analogous to climbing a mountain. Establishment of a murine rotator cuff repair model was rigorous and research intensive, biomechanically, radiographically, histologically, and genetically documented, a huge step toward the bone-to-tendon healing research summit. This research results in a model for both rotator cuff repair and the pinnacle of quality, basic science research. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Community-based science education for fourth to sixth graders: Influences of a female role model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklie, Deanna S.

    Women in the United States are underrepresented in science related careers. The Wonderwise curriculum was designed to encourage young women to become more involved in science and science careers. The Wonderwise kits have won numerous awards for quality science curriculum for formal educational environments. In 2000 the kits were adapted and new kits were developed to meet the needs of a nonformal Teaming environment (i.e., 4-H). The kits contain a video field trip with a featured female scientist demonstrating her work, an activity guidebook with five activities based on this scientist's work, and a CD-Rom serving as an additional resource. This study contributes to our understanding of a group of 4H youth who used the Wonderwise curriculum. It describes their view on science, their perspective about people who do science, the importance of role models within their lives, and their career visions. This study was a multi-method case study design. The subjects were youth ages 9--11 involved in 4H events in a three state area. Events such as overnight camps, day camps, special events and after school programs featuring the Wonderwise curriculum were used as sites for this study. The subjects studied in the Wonderwise 4-H project were primarily female youth who had some interest in science. Nearly half were Caucasian; the remainder were Hispanic, African American and Native American. The 25 youth involved in this study took part in a semi-structure interview process including four research methodologies: open-ended questions, drawing or writing a story about the featured scientist, a card sort activity and a relationship map drawn by the youth. Youths' prior experiences in formal, informal and nonformal settings impacted how they made sense of and incorporated Wonderwise experiences in their frame of reference. Through the experiential learning process youth experienced science activities and connected to individuals with science backgrounds, particularly those

  17. Strategies for Effective Implementation of Science Models into 6-9 Grade Classrooms on Climate, Weather, and Energy Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.

    2011-12-01

    As atmospheric scientists, we depend on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. We use them to predict weather patterns, to understand external forcing on the atmosphere, and as evidence to make claims about atmospheric phenomenon. Therefore, it is important that we adequately prepare atmospheric science students to use computer models. However, the public should also be aware of what models are in order to understand scientific claims about atmospheric issues, such as climate change. Although familiar with weather forecasts on television and the Internet, the general public does not understand the process of using computer models to generate a weather and climate forecasts. As a result, the public often misunderstands claims scientists make about their daily weather as well as the state of climate change. Since computer models are the best method we have to forecast the future of our climate, scientific models and modeling should be a topic covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. According to the National Science Education Standards, teachers are encouraged to science models into the classroom as a way to aid in the understanding of the nature of science. However, there is very little description of what constitutes a science model, so the term is often associated with scale models. Therefore, teachers often use drawings or scale representations of physical entities, such as DNA, the solar system, or bacteria. In other words, models used in classrooms are often used as visual representations, but the purpose of science models is often overlooked. The implementation of a model-based curriculum in the science classroom can be an effective way to prepare students to think critically, problem solve, and make informed decisions as a contributing member of society. However, there are few resources available to help teachers implement science models into the science curriculum effectively. Therefore, this research project looks at

  18. Mathematical and computational modeling with applications in natural and social sciences, engineering, and the arts

    CERN Document Server

    Melnik, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    Illustrates the application of mathematical and computational modeling in a variety of disciplines With an emphasis on the interdisciplinary nature of mathematical and computational modeling, Mathematical and Computational Modeling: With Applications in the Natural and Social Sciences, Engineering, and the Arts features chapters written by well-known, international experts in these fields and presents readers with a host of state-of-the-art achievements in the development of mathematical modeling and computational experiment methodology. The book is a valuable guide to the methods, ideas,

  19. Science Court on ICRH [ion cyclotron resonance heating] modeling of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Sadowski, W.L.

    1987-10-01

    The Applied Plasma Physics (APP) Theory program in the Office of Fusion Energy is charged with supporting the development of advanced physics models for fusion research. One such effort is ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), which has seen substantial progress recently. However, due to serious questions about the adequacy of present models for CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak), a Science Court was formed to assess ICRH models, including: validity of theoretical and computational approximations; underlying physics assumptions and corresponding limits on the results; self-consistency; any subsidiary issues needing resolution (e.g., new computer tools); adequacy of the models in simulating experiments (especially CIT); and new or improved experiments to validate and refine the models. The Court did not review work by specific individuals, institutions, or programs, thereby avoiding any biases along these lines. Rather, the Science Court was carefully structured as a technical review of ICRH theory and modeling in the US. This paper discusses the Science Court process, findings, and conclusions

  20. Management briefs 2/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Brief reports inform about research activities and meetings. The German industry's alarm at the introduction of a carbon dioxide tax is expressed in an article, and a short note refers to the disquiet on the part of the natural gas industry. A brief account is given of the continuation and expansion of nuclear power generation in Japan. (DG) [de

  1. Performance-Based Funding Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A number of states have made progress in implementing performance-based funding (PFB) and accountability. This policy brief summarizes main features of performance-based funding systems in three states: Tennessee, Ohio, and Indiana. The brief also identifies key issues that states considering performance-based funding must address, as well as…

  2. 11th Biennial Conference on Emerging Mathematical Methods, Models and Algorithms for Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Manchanda, Pammy; Bhardwaj, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    The present volume contains invited talks of 11th biennial conference on “Emerging Mathematical Methods, Models and Algorithms for Science and Technology”. The main message of the book is that mathematics has a great potential to analyse and understand the challenging problems of nanotechnology, biotechnology, medical science, oil industry and financial technology. The book highlights all the features and main theme discussed in the conference. All contributing authors are eminent academicians, scientists, researchers and scholars in their respective fields, hailing from around the world.

  3. Hysteria, race, and phlogiston. A model of ontological elimination in the human sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2014-03-01

    Elimination controversies are ubiquitous in philosophy and the human sciences. For example, it has been suggested that human races, hysteria, intelligence, mental disorder, propositional attitudes such as beliefs and desires, the self, and the super-ego should be eliminated from the list of respectable entities in the human sciences. I argue that eliminativist proposals are often presented in the framework of an oversimplified "phlogiston model" and suggest an alternative account that describes ontological elimination on a gradual scale between criticism of empirical assumptions and conceptual choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A study to define and verify a model of interactive-constructive elementary school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Laura

    This study took place within a four year systemic reform effort collaboratively undertaken by the Science Education Center at the University of Iowa and a local school district. Key features of the inservice project included the use of children's literature as a springboard into inquiry based science investigations, activities to increase parents' involvement in children's science learning and extensive inservice opportunities for elementary teachers to increase content knowledge and content-pedagogical knowledge. The overarching goal of this elementary science teacher enhancement project was to move teachers towards an interactive-constructivist model of teaching and learning. This study had three components. The first was the definition of the prototype teacher indicated by the project's goals and supported by science education research. The second involved the generation of a model to show relationships between teacher-generated products, demographics and their subsequent teaching behaviors. The third involved the verification of the hypothesized model using data collected on 15 original participants. Demographic information, survey responses, interview and written responses to scenarios were among the data collected as source variables. These were scored using a rubric designed to measure constructivist practices in science teaching. Videotapes of science teaching and revised science curricula were collected as downstream variables and scored using an the ESTEEM observational rubric and a rubric developed for the project. Results indicate that newer teachers were more likely to implement features of the project. Those teachers who were philosophically aligned with project goals before project involvement were also more likely to implement features of the project. Other associations between reported beliefs, planning and classroom implementations were not confirmed by these data. Data show that teachers reported higher levels of implementation than their

  5. Implications of a Cognitive Science Model Integrating Literacy in Science on Achievement in Science and Reading: Direct Effects in Grades 3-5 with Transfer to Grades 6-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romance, Nancy; Vitale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reported are the results of a multiyear study in which reading comprehension and writing were integrated within an in-depth science instructional model (Science IDEAS) in daily 1.5 to 2 h daily lessons on a schoolwide basis in grades 3-4-5. Multilevel (HLM7) achievement findings showed the experimental intervention resulted in significant and…

  6. An Analysis of the Model and Enacted Curricula for a History of Science Course in a Nationwide Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Noushin

    2017-01-01

    The UTeach program, a national model for undergraduate teacher preparation, includes "Perspectives on Science and Mathematics," a class designed to share content about the History of Science (HOS) with preservice teachers. UTeach provides a model curriculum as a sample for instructors teaching "Perspectives." The purpose of…

  7. Using the Communication in Science Inquiry Project Professional Development Model to Facilitate Learning Middle School Genetics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dale R.; Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Uysal, Sibel; Purzer, Senay; Lang, Michael; Baker, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the effect of embedding content in the Communication in Inquiry Science Project professional development model for science and language arts teachers. The model uses four components of successful professional development (content focus, active learning, extended duration, participation by teams of teachers from the same school…

  8. Causal modeling of secondary science students' intentions to enroll in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Frank E.; Black, Carolyn B.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of the theory of planned behavior model developed by social psychologists for understanding and predicting the behavioral intentions of secondary science students regarding enrolling in physics. In particular, the study used a three-stage causal model to investigate the links from external variables to behavioral, normative, and control beliefs; from beliefs to attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control; and from attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to behavioral intentions. The causal modeling method was employed to verify the underlying causes of secondary science students' interest in enrolling physics as predicted in the theory of planned behavior. Data were collected from secondary science students (N = 264) residing in a central Texas city who were enrolled in earth science (8th grade), biology (9th grade), physical science (10th grade), or chemistry (11th grade) courses. Cause-and-effect relationships were analyzed using path analysis to test the direct effects of model variables specified in the theory of planned behavior. Results of this study indicated that students' intention to enroll in a high school physics course was determined by their attitude toward enrollment and their degree of perceived behavioral control. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were, in turn, formed as a result of specific beliefs that students held about enrolling in physics. Grade level and career goals were found to be instrumental in shaping students' attitude. Immediate family members were identified as major referents in the social support system for enrolling in physics. Course and extracurricular conflicts and the fear of failure were shown to be the primary beliefs obstructing students' perception of control over physics enrollment. Specific recommendations are offered to researchers and practitioners for strengthening secondary school students

  9. Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Mohammed

    The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.

  10. The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task

  11. A Heuristic Model of Consciousness with Applications to the Development of Science and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Curreri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A working model of consciousness is fundamental to understanding of the interactions of the observer in science. This paper examines contemporary understanding of consciousness. A heuristic model of consciousness is suggested that is consistent with psycophysics measurements of bandwidth of consciousness relative to unconscious perception. While the self reference nature of consciousness confers a survival benefit by assuring the all points of view regarding a problem are experienced in sufficiently large population, conscious bandwidth is constrained by design to avoid chaotic behavior. The multiple hypotheses provided by conscious reflection enable the rapid progression of science and technology. The questions of free will and the problem of attention are discussed in relation to the model. Finally the combination of rapid technology growth with the assurance of many unpredictable points of view is considered in respect to contemporary constraints to the development of society.

  12. A Heuristic Model of Consciousness with Applications to the Development of Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    A working model of consciousness is fundamental to understanding of the interactions of the observer in science. This paper examines contemporary understanding of consciousness. A heuristic model of consciousness is suggested that is consistent with psycophysics measurements of bandwidth of consciousness relative to unconscious perception. While the self reference nature of consciousness confers a survival benefit by assuring the all points of view regarding a problem are experienced in sufficiently large population, conscious bandwidth is constrained by design to avoid chaotic behavior. The multiple hypotheses provided by conscious reflection enable the rapid progression of science and technology. The questions of free will and the problem of attention are discussed in relation to the model. Finally the combination of rapid technology growth with the assurance of many unpredictable points of view is considered in respect to contemporary constraints to the development of society.

  13. A new course and textbook on Physical Models of Living Systems, for science and engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip

    2015-03-01

    I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The only prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in a broad range of science and engineering majors. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional courses: Basic modeling skills Probabilistic modeling skills Data analysis methods Computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python Dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. These basic skills, which are relevant to nearly any field of science or engineering, are presented in the context of case studies from living systems, including: Virus dynamics Bacterial genetics and evolution of drug resistance Statistical inference Superresolution microscopy Synthetic biology Naturally evolved cellular circuits. Work supported by NSF Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS STUDENTS WITH PROJECT BASED LEARNING MODEL- BASED TRAINING IN LEARNING PHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Malawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve the physics Science Process Skills Students on cognitive and psychomotor aspects by using model based Project Based Learning training.The object of this study is the Project Based Learning model used in the learning process of Computationa Physics.The method used is classroom action research through two learning cycles, each cycle consisting of the stages of planning, implementation, observation and reflection. In the first cycle of treatment with their emphasis given training in the first phase up to third in the model Project Based Learning, while the second cycle is given additional treatment with emphasis discussion is collaboration in achieving the best results for each group of products. The results of data analysis showed increased ability to think Students on cognitive and Science Process Skills in the psychomotor.

  15. Virtue ethics, positive psychology, and a new model of science and engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-04-01

    This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students' moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by connecting the notion of morality and eudaimonic happiness. Thus this essay attempts to apply virtue ethics and positive psychology to science and engineering ethics education and to develop a new conceptual framework for more effective education. In addition to the conceptual-level work, this essay suggests two possible educational methods: moral modeling and involvement in actual moral activity in science and engineering ethics classes, based on the conceptual framework.

  16. Improving Science Process Skills for Primary School Students Through 5E Instructional Model-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisa, N. L.; Prabowo, P.; Suryanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to describe the effectiveness of 5E instructional model-based learning to improve primary school students’ science process skills. The science process skills is important for students as it is the foundation for enhancing the mastery of concepts and thinking skills needed in the 21st century. The design of this study was experimental involving one group pre-test and post-test design. The result of this study shows that (1) the implementation of learning in both of classes, IVA and IVB, show that the percentage of learning implementation increased which indicates a better quality of learning and (2) the percentage of students’ science process skills test results on the aspects of observing, formulating hypotheses, determining variable, interpreting data and communicating increased as well.

  17. A neuromathematical model of human information processing and its application to science content acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. Roger

    The rate of information processing during science learning and the efficiency of the learner in mobilizing relevant information in long-term memory as an aid in transmitting newly acquired information to stable storage in long-term memory are fundamental aspects of science content acquisition. These cognitive processes, moreover, may be substantially related in tempo and quality of organization to the efficiency of higher thought processes such as divergent thinking and problem-solving ability that characterize scientific thought. As a contribution to our quantitative understanding of these fundamental information processes, a mathematical model of information acquisition is presented and empirically evaluated in comparison to evidence obtained from experimental studies of science content acquisition. Computer-based models are used to simulate variations in learning parameters and to generate the theoretical predictions to be empirically tested. The initial tests of the predictive accuracy of the model show close agreement between predicted and actual mean recall scores in short-term learning tasks. Implications of the model for human information acquisition and possible future research are discussed in the context of the unique theoretical framework of the model.

  18. Briefing on superconductor developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbalestier, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the author covers the technology of the new oxide superconductors and how they might relate to the existing superconductors. He discusses old-fashioned superconductors; the material science of superconductors; the new oxide superconductors; and the future of oxide superconductors. 13 figures, 1 table

  19. Responsive Space Program Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dors, Eric E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-11

    The goal of the Responsive Space program is to make significant, integrated science and technology contributions to the end-to-end missions of the U.S. Government that protect against global emerging and nuclear threats, from the earliest adversary planning through resilient event response report describes the LANL space program, mission, and other activities. The report describes some of their activities.

  20. Increasing persistence in undergraduate science majors: a model for institutional support of underrepresented students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H; Hasson, Tama

    2015-01-01

    The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine the academic achievement and persistence of students enrolled in the Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS), an academic support program at the University of California, Los Angeles, for first- and second-year science majors from underrepresented backgrounds. Results indicate that PEERS students, on average, earned higher grades in most "gatekeeper" chemistry and math courses, had a higher cumulative grade point average, completed more science courses, and persisted in a science major at significantly higher rates than the comparison group. With its holistic approach focused on academics, counseling, creating a supportive community, and exposure to research, the PEERS program serves as an excellent model for universities interested in and committed to improving persistence of underrepresented science majors and closing the achievement gap. © 2015 B. Toven-Lindsey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Paul J.

    Path analysis techniques were used to test a hypothesized structural model of direct and indirect causal effects of student variables on science process skills. The model was tested twice using data collected at the beginning and end of the school year from 67 9th- and 10th-grade biology students who lived in a rural Franco-American community in New England. Each student variable was found to have significant effects, accounting for approximately 80% of the variance in science process skills achievement. Academic ability, biology knowledge, and language preference had significant direct effects. There were significant mediated effects by cognitive development, parents' education, and attitude toward science in school. The variables of cognitive development and academic ability had the greatest total effects on science process skills. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  2. The Anthropology of Science Education Reform: An Alabama Model for Building an Integrated Stakeholder Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, R. L.; Cox, G. N.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropologists are concerned with every aspect of the culture they are investigating. One of the five main branches of anthropology, socio-cultural anthropology, concerns itself with studying the relationship between behavior and culture. This paper explores the concept that changing the behavior of our culture - its beliefs and values - towards science is at the heart of science education reform. There are five institutions that socio-cultural anthropologists use to study the social organization of cultures: the educational system is only one of them. Its function - across all cultures - is to serve as a mechanism for implementing change in cultural beliefs and values. As leaders of science education reform, the Alabama model contends that we must stop the struggle with our purpose and get on with the business of leading culture change through an integrated stakeholder systems approach. This model stresses the need for the interaction of agencies other than education - including government, industry, the media and our health communities to operate in an integrated and systemic fashion to address the issues of living among a technically literate society. Twenty-five years of science education reform needs being voiced and programs being developed has not produced the desired results from within the educational system. This is too limited a focus to affect any real cultural change. It is when we acknowledge that students spend only an average of 12 percent of their life time in schools, that we can begin to ask ourselves what are our students learning the other 88 percent of their time - from their peers, their parents and the media - and what should we be doing to address this cultural crisis in these other arenas in addition to the educational system? The Alabama Math, Science and Technology Education Coalition (AMSTEC) is a non-profit 501c(3) organization operating in the state of Alabama to provide leadership in improving mathematics, science, and technology

  3. 3D animation model with augmented reality for natural science learning in elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendajani, F.; Hakim, A.; Lusita, M. D.; Saputra, G. E.; Ramadhana, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Many opinions from primary school students' on Natural Science are a difficult lesson. Many subjects are not easily understood by students, especially on materials that teach some theories about natural processes. Such as rain process, condensation and many other processes. The difficulty that students experience in understanding it is that students cannot imagine the things that have been taught in the material. Although there is material to practice some theories but is actually quite limited. There is also a video or simulation material in the form of 2D animated images. Understanding concepts in natural science lessons are also poorly understood by students. Natural Science learning media uses 3-dimensional animation models (3D) with augmented reality technology, which offers some visualization of science lessons. This application was created to visualize a process in Natural Science subject matter. The hope of making this application is to improve student's concept. This app is made to run on a personal computer that comes with a webcam with augmented reality. The app will display a 3D animation if the camera can recognize the marker.

  4. High school science teachers' perceptions of telecommunications utilizing a Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, Scott Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to describe high school science teachers' perceptions of telecommunications. The data were collected through open-ended ethnographic interviews with 24 high school science teachers from five different high schools in a single suburban school district who had been in an emerging telecommunications-rich environment for two and one-half years. The interview protocol was adapted from Honey and Henriquez (1993), with the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) (Bailey & Palsha, 1992) providing a conceptual framework for data analysis. For this study, the emerging telecommunications-rich environment included a district-wide infrastructure that had been in place for two and one-half years that included a secure district-wide Intranet, 24 network connections in each classroom, full Internet access from the network, four computers per classroom, and a variety of formal and informal professional development opportunities for teachers. Categories of results discussed include: (a) teacher's profession use of telecommuunications; (b) teachers' perceptions of student's use of telecommunications; (c) teachers' perceptions of barriers to the implementation of telecommunications; (d) teachers' perceptions of supporting conditions for the implementation of telecommunications; (e) teachers' perceptions of the effect of telecommunications on high school science instruction; (f) teachers' perceptions of the effect of telecommunications on student's learning in high school science; and (g) the demographic variables of the sex of the teacher, years of teaching experience, school assignment within the district, course assignment(s), and academic preparation. Implications discussed include: (a) telecommunications can be implemented successfully in a variety of high school science classrooms with adequate infrastructure support and sufficient professional development opportunities, including in classes taught by females and teachers who were not previously

  5. Brief review: delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz ED

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A significant number of patients develop a decline in cognitive function while hospitalized. Delirium in the intensive care increases mortality and healthcare costs and should be recognized and treated promptly (1,2. This is a brief review of delirium and important treatment options such as early percutaneous tracheostomy, neuroleptics, propofol, daily awakenings and reorientation by all team members. We recommend neither neuroimaging nor neurology consultation unless physical exam suggests an acute cerebral vascular accident or status epilepticus as the majority of these patients require no neurologic intervention and may be harmed by transportation to obtain additional testing. The DSM-5 defines delirium as a disturbance in attention (reduced ability to direct, focus, sustain, and shift attention and awareness (reduced orientation to the environment. The disturbance develops over a short period of time (usually hours to a few days, represents a change from baseline attention and awareness, and tends to fluctuate in severity ...

  6. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part I: A conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M

    2017-11-01

    There has been a call for forensic science to actively return to the approach of scientific endeavour. The importance of incorporating an awareness of the requirements of the law in its broadest sense, and embedding research into both practice and policy within forensic science, is arguably critical to achieving such an endeavour. This paper presents a conceptual model (FoRTE) that outlines the holistic nature of trace evidence in the 'endeavour' of forensic reconstruction. This model offers insights into the different components intrinsic to transparent, reproducible and robust reconstructions in forensic science. The importance of situating evidence within the whole forensic science process (from crime scene to court), of developing evidence bases to underpin each stage, of frameworks that offer insights to the interaction of different lines of evidence, and the role of expertise in decision making are presented and their interactions identified. It is argued that such a conceptual model has value in identifying the future steps for harnessing the value of trace evidence in forensic reconstruction. It also highlights that there is a need to develop a nuanced approach to reconstructions that incorporates both empirical evidence bases and expertise. A conceptual understanding has the potential to ensure that the endeavour of forensic reconstruction has its roots in 'problem-solving' science, and can offer transparency and clarity in the conclusions and inferences drawn from trace evidence, thereby enabling the value of trace evidence to be realised in investigations and the courts. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using hierarchical linear growth models to evaluate protective mechanisms that mediate science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Secker, Clare Elaine

    The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.

  8. Increasing the Use of Earth Science Data and Models in Air Quality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Jana B; Knight, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated the Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) as a 5-year, $17.5-million award with 19 principal investigators. AQAST aims to increase the use of Earth science products in air quality-related research and to help meet air quality managers' information needs. We conducted a Web-based survey and a limited number of follow-up interviews to investigate federal, state, tribal, and local air quality managers' perspectives on usefulness of Earth science data and models, and on the impact AQAST has had. The air quality managers we surveyed identified meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter, emissions from mobile sources, and interstate air pollution transport as top challenges in need of improved information. Most survey respondents viewed inadequate coverage or frequency of satellite observations, data uncertainty, and lack of staff time or resources as barriers to increased use of satellite data by their organizations. Managers who have been involved with AQAST indicated that the program has helped build awareness of NASA Earth science products, and assisted their organizations with retrieval and interpretation of satellite data and with application of global chemistry and climate models. AQAST has also helped build a network between researchers and air quality managers with potential for further collaborations. NASA's Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) aims to increase the use of satellite data and global chemistry and climate models for air quality management purposes, by supporting research and tool development projects of interest to both groups. Our survey and interviews of air quality managers indicate they found value in many AQAST projects and particularly appreciated the connections to the research community that the program facilitated. Managers expressed interest in receiving continued support for their organizations' use of

  9. Scientific Playworlds: a Model of Teaching Science in Play-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2017-09-01

    Eminent scientists, like Einstein, worked with theoretical contradiction, thought experiments, mental models and visualisation—all characteristics of children's play. Supporting children's play is a strength of early childhood teachers. Promising research shows a link between imagination in science and imagination in play. A case study of 3 preschool teachers and 26 children (3.6-5.9 years; mean age of 4.6 years) over 6 weeks was undertaken, generating 59.6 h of digital observations and 788 photographs of play practices. The research sought to understand (1) how imaginative play promotes scientific learning and (2) examined how teachers engaged children in scientific play. Although play pedagogy is a strength of early childhood teachers, it was found that transforming imaginary situations into scientific narratives requires different pedagogical characteristics. The study found that the building of collective scientific narratives alongside of discourses of wondering were key determinants of science learning in play-based settings. Specifically, the pedagogical principles of using a cultural device that mirrors the science experiences, creating imaginary scientific situations, collectively building scientific problem situations, and imagining the relations between observable contexts and non-observable concepts, changed everyday practices into a scientific narrative and engagement. It is argued that these unique pedagogical characteristics promote scientific narratives in play-based settings. An approach, named as Scientific Playworlds, is presented as a possible model for teaching science in play-based settings.

  10. The Sources of Science Teaching Self-efficacy among Elementary School Teachers: A mediational model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wei, Shih-Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors accounting for science teaching self-efficacy and to examine the relationships among Taiwanese teachers' science teaching self-efficacy, teaching and learning conceptions, technological-pedagogical content knowledge for the Internet (TPACK-I), and attitudes toward Internet-based instruction (Attitudes) using a mediational model approach. A total of 233 science teachers from 41 elementary schools in Taiwan were invited to take part in the study. After ensuring the validity and reliability of each questionnaire, the results indicated that each measure had satisfactory validity and reliability. Furthermore, through mediational models, the results revealed that TPACK-I and Attitudes mediated the relationship between teaching and learning conceptions and science teaching self-efficacy, suggesting that (1) knowledge of and attitudes toward Internet-based instruction (KATII) mediated the positive relationship between constructivist conceptions of teaching and learning and outcome expectancy, and that (2) KATII mediated the negative correlations between traditional conceptions of teaching and learning and teaching efficacy.

  11. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  12. Chemical Equilibrium Modeling of Hanford Waste Tank Processing: Applications of Fundamental Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Wang, Zheming; Dixon, David A.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2004-01-01

    The development of computational models based upon fundamental science is one means of quantitatively transferring the results of scientific investigations to practical application by engineers in laboratory and field situations. This manuscript describes one example of such efforts, specifically the development and application of chemical equilibrium models to different waste management issues at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The development of the chemical models is described with an emphasis on the fundamental science investigations that have been undertaken in model development followed by examples of different waste management applications. The waste management issues include the leaching of waste slurries to selective remove non-hazardous components and the separation of Sr90 and transuranics from the waste supernatants. The fundamental science contributions include: molecular simulations of the energetics of different molecular clusters to assist in determining the species present in solution, advanced synchrotron research to determine the chemical form of precipitates, and laser based spectroscopic studies of solutions and solids.

  13. Measurement Model of Reasoning Skills among Science Students Based on Socio Scientific Issues (SSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD AFIFI BAHURUDIN SETAMBAH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The lack of reasoning skills has been recognized as one of the contributing factors to the declined achievement in the Trends in Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA assessments in Malaysia. The use of socio-scientific issues (SSI as a learning strategy offers the potential of improving the level of students' reasoning skills and consequently improves students’ achievement in science subjects. This study examined the development of a measurement model of reasoning skills among science students based on SSI using the analysis of moment structure (AMOS approach before going to second level to full structured equation modelling (SEM. A total of 450 respondents were selected using a stratified random sampling. Results showed a modified measurement model of reasoning skills consisting of the View Knowledge (VK was as a main construct. The items that measure the level of pre-reflection of students fulfilled the elements of unidimensionality, validity, and reliability. Although the level of student reasoning skills was still low but this development of measurement model could be identified and proposed teaching methods that could be adopted to improve students’ reasoning skills.

  14. Improving science and mathematics education with computational modelling in interactive engagement environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Rui Gomes; Teodoro, Vítor Duarte

    2012-09-01

    A teaching approach aiming at an epistemologically balanced integration of computational modelling in science and mathematics education is presented. The approach is based on interactive engagement learning activities built around computational modelling experiments that span the range of different kinds of modelling from explorative to expressive modelling. The activities are designed to make a progressive introduction to scientific computation without requiring prior development of a working knowledge of programming, generate and foster the resolution of cognitive conflicts in the understanding of scientific and mathematical concepts and promote performative competency in the manipulation of different and complementary representations of mathematical models. The activities are supported by interactive PDF documents which explain the fundamental concepts, methods and reasoning processes using text, images and embedded movies, and include free space for multimedia enriched student modelling reports and teacher feedback. To illustrate, an example from physics implemented in the Modellus environment and tested in undergraduate university general physics and biophysics courses is discussed.

  15. Our Ocean Wealth - Background Briefing Documents: Part II: Sectoral Briefs

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine

    2012-01-01

    This briefing document provides a profile our marine sectors including an overview of current Government plans and policies in place (seafood, seaweed, shipping and maritime transport, renewable and non-renewable energy, marine ICT and biotechnology).

  16. What’s Needed from Climate Modeling to Advance Actionable Science for Water Utilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsugli, J. J.; Anderson, C. J.; Smith, J. B.; Vogel, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    “…perfect information on climate change is neither available today nor likely to be available in the future, but … over time, as the threats climate change poses to our systems grow more real, predicting those effects with greater certainty is non-discretionary. We’re not yet at a level at which climate change projections can drive climate change adaptation.” (Testimony of WUCA Staff Chair David Behar to the House Committee on Science and Technology, May 5, 2009) To respond to this challenge, the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA) has sponsored a white paper titled “Options for Improving Climate Modeling to Assist Water Utility Planning for Climate Change. ” This report concerns how investments in the science of climate change, and in particular climate modeling and downscaling, can best be directed to help make climate projections more actionable. The meaning of “model improvement” can be very different depending on whether one is talking to a climate model developer or to a water manager trying to incorporate climate projections in to planning. We first surveyed the WUCA members on present and potential uses of climate model projections and on climate inputs to their various system models. Based on those surveys and on subsequent discussions, we identified four dimensions along which improvement in modeling would make the science more “actionable”: improved model agreement on change in key parameters; narrowing the range of model projections; providing projections at spatial and temporal scales that match water utilities system models; providing projections that water utility planning horizons. With these goals in mind we developed four options for improving global-scale climate modeling and three options for improving downscaling that will be discussed. However, there does not seem to be a single investment - the proverbial “magic bullet” -- which will substantially reduce the range of model projections at the scales at which utility

  17. THE EFFECT OF INQUIRY TRAINING MODEL USE THE MEDIA PHET AGAINST SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND LOGICAL THINKING SKILLS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrul Wahdi Ginting

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of The study: science process skills and logical thinking ability of students who use inquiry learning model training using PhET media; science process skills and logical thinking ability of students who use conventional learning model; and the difference science process skills and logical thinking ability of students to use learning model Inquiry Training using PhET media and conventional learning models. This research is a quasi experimental. Sample selection is done by cluster random sampling are two classes of classes VIII-E and class VIII-B, where the class VIII-E is taught by inquiry training model using media PhET and VIII-B with conventional learning model. The instrument used consisted of tests science process skills such as essay tests and tests of the ability to think logically in the form of multiple-choice tests. The data were analyzed using t test. The results showed that physics science process skills use Inquiry Training models using PhET media is different and showed better results compared with conventional learning model, and logical thinking skills students use Inquiry Training model using PhET media is different and show better results compared with conventional learning, and there is a difference between the ability to think logically and science process skills of students who use Inquiry Training model using PhET media and conventional learning models.

  18. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-05-26

    May 26, 2017 ... Sponsored by Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Indian National Science ... Only 25 outstations and 10 Local ... a brief statement (between 250 and 500 words) as to why they think the Course will help to improve their.

  19. The Implementation of an Interdisciplinary Co-planning Team Model Among Mathematics and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle Cetner

    In recent years, Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education has become a significant focus of numerous theoretical and commentary articles as researchers have advocated for active and conceptually integrated learning in classrooms. Drawing connections between previously isolated subjects, especially mathematics and science, has been shown to increase student engagement, performance, and critical thinking skills. However, obstacles exist to the widespread implementation of integrated curricula in schools, such as teacher knowledge and school structure and culture. The Interdisciplinary Co-planning Team (ICT) model, in which teachers of different subjects come together regularly to discuss connections between content and to plan larger interdisciplinary activities and smaller examples and discussion points, offers a method for teachers to create sustainable interdisciplinary experiences for students within the bounds of the current school structure. The ICT model is designed to be an iterative, flexible model, providing teachers with both a regular time to come together as "experts" and "teach" each other important concepts from their separate disciplines, and then to bring their shared knowledge and language back to their own classrooms to implement with their students in ways that fit their individual classes. In this multiple-case study, which aims to describe the nature of the co-planning process, the nature of plans, and changes in teacher beliefs as a result of co-planning, three pairs of secondary mathematics and science teachers participated in a 10-week intervention with the ICT model. Each pair constituted one case. Data included observations, interviews, and artifact collection. All interviews, whole-group sessions, and co-planning sessions were transcribed and coded using both theory-based and data-based codes. Finally, a cross-case comparison was used to present similarities and differences across cases. Findings suggest that the

  20. Modelling with the master equation solution methods and applications in social and natural sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Haag, Günter

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the theory and practical applications of the Master equation approach, which provides a powerful general framework for model building in a variety of disciplines. The aim of the book is to not only highlight different mathematical solution methods, but also reveal their potential by means of practical examples. Part I of the book, which can be used as a toolbox, introduces selected statistical fundamentals and solution methods for the Master equation. In Part II and Part III, the Master equation approach is applied to important applications in the natural and social sciences. The case studies presented mainly hail from the social sciences, including urban and regional dynamics, population dynamics, dynamic decision theory, opinion formation and traffic dynamics; however, some applications from physics and chemistry are treated as well, underlining the interdisciplinary modelling potential of the Master equation approach. Drawing upon the author’s extensive teaching and research experience...

  1. The LAILAPS search engine: a feature model for relevance ranking in life science databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Spies, Karl; Colmsee, Christian; Flemming, Steffen; Klapperstück, Matthias; Scholz, Uwe

    2010-03-25

    Efficient and effective information retrieval in life sciences is one of the most pressing challenge in bioinformatics. The incredible growth of life science databases to a vast network of interconnected information systems is to the same extent a big challenge and a great chance for life science research. The knowledge found in the Web, in particular in life-science databases, are a valuable major resource. In order to bring it to the scientist desktop, it is essential to have well performing search engines. Thereby, not the response time nor the number of results is important. The most crucial factor for millions of query results is the relevance ranking. In this paper, we present a feature model for relevance ranking in life science databases and its implementation in the LAILAPS search engine. Motivated by the observation of user behavior during their inspection of search engine result, we condensed a set of 9 relevance discriminating features. These features are intuitively used by scientists, who briefly screen database entries for potential relevance. The features are both sufficient to estimate the potential relevance, and efficiently quantifiable. The derivation of a relevance prediction function that computes the relevance from this features constitutes a regression problem. To solve this problem, we used artificial neural networks that have been trained with a reference set of relevant database entries for 19 protein queries. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, this concepts are implemented in the LAILAPS search engine. It can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases. LAILAPS is publicly available for SWISSPROT data at http://lailaps.ipk-gatersleben.de.

  2. Preservice Teachers and Their Preconceptions of the NGSS Science and Engineering Practice of Developing and Using Models in Elementary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Lizette A.

    The science and engineering practice of developing and using models is a new science practice identified to achieve the vision of three-dimensional teaching and learning and as such should be an important new component of teacher preparation programs (NRC, 2012). Developing and using models is a high-leverage practice in teacher preparation because of the use of discourse in its implementation that is also used in other practices utilized within the NGSS (NGSS Lead States, 2013) science classroom. Additionally, the overlap between the other seven identified NGSS (NGSS Lead States, 2013) practices and the development and use of models along with the use of models represented in two of the overall three dimensions of the new vision for science education (NRC, 2012) contribute to its high leverage nature. The intent of this study was to examine elementary science preservice teachers' understandings and preconceptions about the practice of developing and using models. This study provides important information for teacher preparation to use this high-leverage practice. The study examined preservice teachers' preconceptions about the practice of developing and using models including discourse patterns the preservice teachers identified as being critical to the success of this practice in the classroom. Data were gathered through a written survey in which preservice teachers described their initial understanding about different components of modeling instruction. A video was used to elicit their initial understandings about certain components of modeling instruction. A sample of the preservice teachers were interviewed to elaborate on their responses to the survey. The results of the study indicated that when preservice teachers initially described how this practice might look in the classroom, only two of the six categories described in A Science Framework for K-12 Science Education (NRC, 2012) for this practice were described by most participants. Of those two

  3. Educational models in academic research on the teaching practices in science education in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Chiacchio Azevedo Fernandes; Jorge Megid Neto

    2013-01-01

    We intended to identify the features and pedagogical trends of the school practices proposed and implemented in thesis and dissertations directed to science education at elementary school level from 1972 to 2005. Thirty studies were analysed regarding the teaching methodology, instructional resources, teacher-student relationships, evaluation, theoretical framework, and educational model (traditional, rediscovery, constructivist, technicist, STS, socio-cultural). We found that the constructiv...

  4. Industrial leadership in Science-based Industries. A co-evolution model

    OpenAIRE

    Fatas-Villafranca , Francisco; Jarne , Gloria; Sanchez-Choliz , Julio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we seek to analyse the role of national university systems in combination with technological and market factors as sources of industrial leadership and industry growth in sciencebased industries. We propose a model in which national university systems and their respective national firms and industries are considered as co-evolving. National firms compete on a worldwide level and they rely on the progress of science and the availability of scientists to innov...

  5. Qualitative mathematics for the social sciences mathematical models for research on cultural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this book Lee Rudolph brings together international contributors who combine psychological and mathematical perspectives to analyse how qualitative mathematics can be used to create models of social and psychological processes. Bridging the gap between the fields with an imaginative and stimulating collection of contributed chapters, the volume updates the current research on the subject, which until now has been rather limited, focussing largely on the use of statistics. Qualitative Mathematics for the Social Sciences contains a variety of useful illustrative figures, in

  6. A MODEL OF THE INNOVATIVE AMBER CLUSTER AS A CENTRE OF COOPERATION OF AUTHORITIES - BUSINESS - SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb B. Trifonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of forming an innovative amber cluster was developed, including structural interconnections of cluster partners,a package of basic innovative technologies, which will createa new value chain, new vacancies, provide contributions to theregional budget.A method of analytical estimation was suggested to assess cluster synergism of partners: authorities, business, science/education, culture, which reflects potential possibilities of thecluster model of region development.

  7. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation

    OpenAIRE

    McNamee, Laura M.; Ledley, Fred D.

    2017-01-01

    This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded ...

  8. Neuroophthalmology A brief Vademecum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Urs

    2004-01-01

    The stunning, intricate interaction between the visual, vestibular and optomotor systems--each a miracle on its own--ensures maintenance of orientation in space as well as visual recognition and target selection despite a host of sensory conflicts and adversary disturbances. Their main goals are to keep a target of interest on the fovea by either maintaining or shifting the direction of gaze in order to produce an accurate internal representation of the visual surroundings, in particular the selected target, and to continuously mirror the spatial relationship between these various visual elements and the self. Not surprising, the implementation of this host of elaborate neural networks encompasses almost every part of the brain, including the brainstem, cerebellum, extrapyramidal system and many areas of the cerebral cortex. Thus far, these systems are among the best investigated in brain research; and enormous knowledge was amassed over the last century employing a variety of techniques, including single cell recordings, eye movement studies, functional imaging and neuropsychological observations. In addition, this prolific line of research has enlightened many fundamental principles of neural and neuronal processing, which have subsequently enriched other fields of brain research as well as computational neuroscience, e.g. the discovery of receptive fields, which have now become a ubiquitous concept in many other areas of neurophysiology. This (improperly) brief, fractional and undoubtedly biased Vademecum is meant to accompany the reader into this marvellous field of neurophysiology and neurology. In particular, it stresses the clinical application of its functional neuroanatomy at the bedside, which, in many respects, is superior to other means of investigating a patient

  9. Neuroophthalmology A brief Vademecum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Urs E-mail: us@neurol.unizh.ch

    2004-01-01

    The stunning, intricate interaction between the visual, vestibular and optomotor systems--each a miracle on its own--ensures maintenance of orientation in space as well as visual recognition and target selection despite a host of sensory conflicts and adversary disturbances. Their main goals are to keep a target of interest on the fovea by either maintaining or shifting the direction of gaze in order to produce an accurate internal representation of the visual surroundings, in particular the selected target, and to continuously mirror the spatial relationship between these various visual elements and the self. Not surprising, the implementation of this host of elaborate neural networks encompasses almost every part of the brain, including the brainstem, cerebellum, extrapyramidal system and many areas of the cerebral cortex. Thus far, these systems are among the best investigated in brain research; and enormous knowledge was amassed over the last century employing a variety of techniques, including single cell recordings, eye movement studies, functional imaging and neuropsychological observations. In addition, this prolific line of research has enlightened many fundamental principles of neural and neuronal processing, which have subsequently enriched other fields of brain research as well as computational neuroscience, e.g. the discovery of receptive fields, which have now become a ubiquitous concept in many other areas of neurophysiology. This (improperly) brief, fractional and undoubtedly biased Vademecum is meant to accompany the reader into this marvellous field of neurophysiology and neurology. In particular, it stresses the clinical application of its functional neuroanatomy at the bedside, which, in many respects, is superior to other means of investigating a patient.

  10. A Toolkit Modeling Approach for Sustainable Forest Management Planning: Achieving Balance between Science and Local Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Sturtevant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To assist forest managers in balancing an increasing diversity of resource objectives, we developed a toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management (SFM. The approach inserts a meta-modeling strategy into a collaborative modeling framework grounded in adaptive management philosophy that facilitates participation among stakeholders, decision makers, and local domain experts in the meta-model building process. The modeling team works iteratively with each of these groups to define essential questions, identify data resources, and then determine whether available tools can be applied or adapted, or whether new tools can be rapidly created to fit the need. The desired goal of the process is a linked series of domain-specific models (tools that balances generalized "top-down" models (i.e., scientific models developed without input from the local system with case-specific customized "bottom-up" models that are driven primarily by local needs. Information flow between models is organized according to vertical (i.e., between scale and horizontal (i.e., within scale dimensions. We illustrate our approach within a 2.1 million hectare forest planning district in central Labrador, a forested landscape where social and ecological values receive a higher priority than economic values. However, the focus of this paper is on the process of how SFM modeling tools and concepts can be rapidly assembled and applied in new locations, balancing efficient transfer of science with adaptation to local needs. We use the Labrador case study to illustrate strengths and challenges uniquely associated with a meta-modeling approach to integrated modeling as it fits within the broader collaborative modeling framework. Principle advantages of the approach include the scientific rigor introduced by peer-reviewed models, combined with the adaptability of meta-modeling. A key challenge is the limited transparency of scientific models to different participatory groups

  11. A shared-world conceptual model for integrating space station life sciences telescience operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki; Bosley, John

    1988-01-01

    Mental models of the Space Station and its ancillary facilities will be employed by users of the Space Station as they draw upon past experiences, perform tasks, and collectively plan for future activities. The operational environment of the Space Station will incorporate telescience, a new set of operational modes. To investigate properties of the operational environment, distributed users, and the mental models they employ to manipulate resources while conducting telescience, an integrating shared-world conceptual model of Space Station telescience is proposed. The model comprises distributed users and resources (active elements); agents who mediate interactions among these elements on the basis of intelligent processing of shared information; and telescience protocols which structure the interactions of agents as they engage in cooperative, responsive interactions on behalf of users and resources distributed in space and time. Examples from the life sciences are used to instantiate and refine the model's principles. Implications for transaction management and autonomy are discussed. Experiments employing the model are described which the authors intend to conduct using the Space Station Life Sciences Telescience Testbed currently under development at Ames Research Center.

  12. In silico environmental chemical science: properties and processes from statistical and computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratnyek, Paul G; Bylaska, Eric J; Weber, Eric J

    2017-03-22

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have long been used in the environmental sciences. More recently, molecular modeling and chemoinformatic methods have become widespread. These methods have the potential to expand and accelerate advances in environmental chemistry because they complement observational and experimental data with "in silico" results and analysis. The opportunities and challenges that arise at the intersection between statistical and theoretical in silico methods are most apparent in the context of properties that determine the environmental fate and effects of chemical contaminants (degradation rate constants, partition coefficients, toxicities, etc.). The main example of this is the calibration of QSARs using descriptor variable data calculated from molecular modeling, which can make QSARs more useful for predicting property data that are unavailable, but also can make them more powerful tools for diagnosis of fate determining pathways and mechanisms. Emerging opportunities for "in silico environmental chemical science" are to move beyond the calculation of specific chemical properties using statistical models and toward more fully in silico models, prediction of transformation pathways and products, incorporation of environmental factors into model predictions, integration of databases and predictive models into more comprehensive and efficient tools for exposure assessment, and extending the applicability of all the above from chemicals to biologicals and materials.

  13. The choices, choosing model of quality of life: linkages to a science base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Barry J; Gurland, Roni V

    2009-01-01

    A previous paper began with a critical review of current models and measures of quality of life and then proposed criteria for judging the relative merits of alternative models: preference was given to finding a model with explicit mechanisms, linkages to a science base, a means of identifying deficits amenable to rational restorative interventions, and with embedded values of the whole person. A conjectured model, based on the processes of accessing choices and choosing among them, matched the proposed criteria. The choices and choosing (c-c) process is an evolved adaptive mechanism dedicated to the pursuit of quality of life, driven by specific biological and psychological systems, and influenced also by social and environmental forces. In this paper the c-c model is examined for its potential to strengthen the science base for the field of quality of life and thus to unify many approaches to concept and measurement. A third paper in this set will lay out a guide to applying the c-c model in evaluating impairments of quality of life and will tie this evaluation to corresponding interventions aimed at relieving restrictions or distortions of the c-c process; thus helping people to preserve and improve their quality of life. The fourth paper will demonstrate empirical analyses of the relationship between health imposed restrictions of options for living and conventional indicators of diminished quality of life. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Next-Generation Climate Modeling Science Challenges for Simulation, Workflow and Analysis Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, D. M.; Anantharaj, V. G.; Bader, D. C.; Krishnan, H.; Leung, L. R.; Ringler, T.; Taylor, M.; Wehner, M. F.; Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    We will present two examples of current and future high-resolution climate-modeling research that are challenging existing simulation run-time I/O, model-data movement, storage and publishing, and analysis. In each case, we will consider lessons learned as current workflow systems are broken by these large-data science challenges, as well as strategies to repair or rebuild the systems. First we consider the science and workflow challenges to be posed by the CMIP6 multi-model HighResMIP, involving around a dozen modeling groups performing quarter-degree simulations, in 3-member ensembles for 100 years, with high-frequency (1-6 hourly) diagnostics, which is expected to generate over 4PB of data. An example of science derived from these experiments will be to study how resolution affects the ability of models to capture extreme-events such as hurricanes or atmospheric rivers. Expected methods to transfer (using parallel Globus) and analyze (using parallel "TECA" software tools) HighResMIP data for such feature-tracking by the DOE CASCADE project will be presented. A second example will be from the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project, which is currently addressing challenges involving multiple century-scale coupled high resolution (quarter-degree) climate simulations on DOE Leadership Class computers. ACME is anticipating production of over 5PB of data during the next 2 years of simulations, in order to investigate the drivers of water cycle changes, sea-level-rise, and carbon cycle evolution. The ACME workflow, from simulation to data transfer, storage, analysis and publication will be presented. Current and planned methods to accelerate the workflow, including implementing run-time diagnostics, and implementing server-side analysis to avoid moving large datasets will be presented.

  15. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2016-01-01

    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest "strong inference in mathematical modeling" as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century.

  16. Strong inference in mathematical modeling: a method for robust science in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly V. Ganusov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers [1], the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt [2], I suggest ``strong inference in mathematical modeling'' as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are 1 to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; 2 to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; 3 to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and 4 to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the 21st century.

  17. Limnogeology, news in brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Elizabeth Gierlowski-Kordesch,

    2015-01-01

    We've invited Michael R. Rosen, water quality specialist within the USGS Water Science Field Team in Carson City and Elizabeth Gierlowski-Kordesch, professor of geology at Ohio University, to take a look at the intriguing new developments that are emerging in limnogeologic studies. These studies are increasing our understanding of how climate and movements of the Earth's surface influence terrestrial environments, as well as how contaminants are distributed and retained in the environment. They present a selection of recent significant research on sediments, rock, and biota that have been preserved in modern and ancient lake basins.

  18. Struggles with learning about scientific models in a middle school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Suzanna Jane

    Two important goals in science education are teaching students about the nature of science and teaching students to do scientific inquiry. Learning about scientific models is central to both of these endeavors, but studies have shown that students have very flawed and limited understandings of the nature and purposes of scientific models (Carey & Smith, 1993; Grosslight, Unger, & Jay, 1991; Lederman, 1992). In this dissertation I investigate the processes of teaching and learning about scientific models in an 8th grade classroom in an urban middle school. In order to do so, I examine recordings of student and teacher talk about models across a period of two months in which students completed two independent inquiry projects, using the Inquiry Island software and curriculum (Eslinger, 2004; Shimoda, White, & Frederiksen, 2002; White, Shimoda, & Frederiksen, 2000). My analysis draws on video records of small-group work and whole-class interactions, as well as on students' written work. I find that in this classroom, students struggled to understand the nature and purpose of scientific models. I analyze episodes in the classroom talk in which models appeared to be a source of trouble or confusion, and describe the ways in which the teacher attempted to respond to these troubles. I find that in many cases students appeared to be able to produce scientific models of the proper form, yet still struggled with displaying an understanding of what a model was, or of the functions of models in scientific research. I propose directions for further research and curriculum development in order to build on these findings. In particular, I argue, we need to design ways to help students engage in scientific modeling as a social and communicative practice, and to find ways to build from their everyday reasoning and argumentation practices. My research also reinforces the importance of looking at classroom talk, not just pre- and post-assessments, in order to understand teaching and

  19. A Brief History of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, Keith A; Formal, Samuel B; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2018-01-01

    The history of Shigella , the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, is a long and fascinating one. This brief historical account starts with descriptions of the disease and its impact on human health from ancient time to the present. Our story of the bacterium starts just before the identification of the dysentery bacillus by Kiyoshi Shiga in 1898 and follows the scientific discoveries and principal scientists who contributed to the elucidation of Shigella pathogenesis in the first 100 years. Over the past century, Shigella has proved to be an outstanding model of an invasive bacterial pathogen and has served as a paradigm for the study of other bacterial pathogens. In addition to invasion of epithelial cells, some of those shared virulence traits include toxin production, multiple-antibiotic resistance, virulence genes encoded on plasmids and bacteriophages, global regulation of virulence genes, pathogenicity islands, intracellular motility, remodeling of host cytoskeleton, inflammation/polymorphonuclear leukocyte signaling, apoptosis induction/inhibition, and "black holes" and antivirulence genes. While there is still much to learn from studying Shigella pathogenesis, what we have learned so far has also contributed greatly to our broader understanding of bacterial pathogenesis.

  20. New approach to technology advocated at House briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine

    At a House Committee on Science, Space and Technology briefing on July 26, witnesses from the Institute for Policy Studies testified in support of a new approach to technology emphasizing science and technology for the public good and focusing on small, widely distributed projects.The testimony was based on the institute's recently published book, Technology for the Common Good, which concludes that in the wake of the Cold War era, technology policy should advance the broad public good over the narrow interests of a few businesses and budget-hungry agencies. The book echoes a report released by the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government several weeks ago.

  1. Modernizing Earth and Space Science Modeling Workflows in the Big Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinter, J. L.; Feigelson, E.; Walker, R. J.; Tino, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling is a major aspect of the Earth and space science research. The development of numerical models of the Earth system, planetary systems or astrophysical systems is essential to linking theory with observations. Optimal use of observations that are quite expensive to obtain and maintain typically requires data assimilation that involves numerical models. In the Earth sciences, models of the physical climate system are typically used for data assimilation, climate projection, and inter-disciplinary research, spanning applications from analysis of multi-sensor data sets to decision-making in climate-sensitive sectors with applications to ecosystems, hazards, and various biogeochemical processes. In space physics, most models are from first principles, require considerable expertise to run and are frequently modified significantly for each case study. The volume and variety of model output data from modeling Earth and space systems are rapidly increasing and have reached a scale where human interaction with data is prohibitively inefficient. A major barrier to progress is that modeling workflows isn't deemed by practitioners to be a design problem. Existing workflows have been created by a slow accretion of software, typically based on undocumented, inflexible scripts haphazardly modified by a succession of scientists and students not trained in modern software engineering methods. As a result, existing modeling workflows suffer from an inability to onboard new datasets into models; an inability to keep pace with accelerating data production rates; and irreproducibility, among other problems. These factors are creating an untenable situation for those conducting and supporting Earth system and space science. Improving modeling workflows requires investments in hardware, software and human resources. This paper describes the critical path issues that must be targeted to accelerate modeling workflows, including script modularization, parallelization, and

  2. 3rd International Conference on Modelling, Computation and Optimization in Information Systems and Management Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Tao; Nguyen, Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings set contains 85 selected full papers presented at the 3rd International Conference on Modelling, Computation and Optimization in Information Systems and Management Sciences - MCO 2015, held on May 11–13, 2015 at Lorraine University, France. The present part I of the 2 volume set includes articles devoted to Combinatorial optimization and applications, DC programming and DCA: thirty years of Developments, Dynamic Optimization, Modelling and Optimization in financial engineering, Multiobjective programming, Numerical Optimization, Spline Approximation and Optimization, as well as Variational Principles and Applications

  3. Modelling, abstraction, and computation in systems biology: A view from computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melham, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Systems biology is centrally engaged with computational modelling across multiple scales and at many levels of abstraction. Formal modelling, precise and formalised abstraction relationships, and computation also lie at the heart of computer science--and over the past decade a growing number of computer scientists have been bringing their discipline's core intellectual and computational tools to bear on biology in fascinating new ways. This paper explores some of the apparent points of contact between the two fields, in the context of a multi-disciplinary discussion on conceptual foundations of systems biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new direction in mathematics for materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first volume of the SpringerBriefs in the Mathematics of Materials and provides a comprehensive guide to the interaction of mathematics with materials science. The anterior part of the book describes a selected history of materials science as well as the interaction between mathematics and materials in history. The emergence of materials science was itself a result of an interdisciplinary movement in the 1950s and 1960s. Materials science was formed by the integration of metallurgy, polymer science, ceramics, solid state physics, and related disciplines. We believe that such historical background helps readers to understand the importance of interdisciplinary interaction such as mathematics–materials science collaboration. The middle part of the book describes mathematical ideas and methods that can be applied to materials problems and introduces some examples of specific studies—for example, computational homology applied to structural analysis of glassy materials, stochastic models for ...

  5. Gas-fired power. IEA ETSAP technology brief E02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebregts, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands)], E-mail: seebregts@ecn.nl

    2010-04-15

    This technology brief on gas-fired power is part of a series produced by the IEA called the energy technology data source (E-Tech-DS). The E-Tech-DS series consists of a number of 5-10 page technology briefs similar to the IEA Energy Technology Essentials. Based on the data collected for the models that the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) is known for, ETSAP also prepares technology briefs, called E-TechDS. The E-TechDS briefs are standardized presentations of basic information (process, status, performance, costs, potential, and barriers) for key energy technology clusters. Each brief includes an overview of the technology, charts and graphs, and a summary data table, and usually ending with some key references and further information. The E TechDS briefs are intended to offer essential, reliable and quantitative information to energy analysts, experts, policymakers, investors and media from both developed and developing countries. This specific brief focuses on the state of combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT). CCGT's have become the technology of choice for new gas-fired power plants since the 1990's.

  6. The Stewardship Science Academic Alliance: A Model of Education for Fundamental and Applied Low-energy Nuclear Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizewski, J.A., E-mail: cizewski@rutgers.edu

    2014-06-15

    The Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) were inaugurated in 2002 by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The purpose is to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper highlights some of the ways that the SSAA fosters education and training of graduate students and postdoctoral scholars in low-energy nuclear science, preparing them for careers in fundamental and applied research and development.

  7. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V.

    2016-01-01

    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest “strong inference in mathematical modeling” as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century. PMID:27499750

  8. Library & Information Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gaasbeck, Kalvin

    2013-01-01

    A brief introduction to the quarterly periodical, Library & Information Science Research (LISR) providing an overview of the scope of the publication. The current paper details the types of articles published in the journal and gives a general overview of the review process for articles published in the journal, concluding with a brief statement of the value of the publication to the LIS field for students.

  9. Modeling Sources of Teaching Self-Efficacy for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Graduate Teaching Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Koziol, Natalie; Needham, Mark; Enochs, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have a large impact on undergraduate instruction but are often poorly prepared to teach. Teaching self-efficacy, an instructor's belief in his or her ability to teach specific student populations a specific subject, is an important predictor of teaching skill and student achievement. A model of sources of teaching self-efficacy is developed from the GTA literature. This model indicates that teaching experience, departmental teaching climate (including peer and supervisor relationships), and GTA professional development (PD) can act as sources of teaching self-efficacy. The model is pilot tested with 128 GTAs from nine different STEM departments at a midsized research university. Structural equation modeling reveals that K-12 teaching experience, hours and perceived quality of GTA PD, and perception of the departmental facilitating environment are significant factors that explain 32% of the variance in the teaching self-efficacy of STEM GTAs. This model highlights the important contributions of the departmental environment and GTA PD in the development of teaching self-efficacy for STEM GTAs. © 2015 S. E. DeChenne et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Developing a Model of Tuition Fee Calculation for Universities of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to introduce and evaluate a practicable model for tuition fee calculation of each medical field in universities of medical sciences in Iran.Methods: Fifty experts in 11 panels were interviewed to identify variables that affect tuition fee calculation. This led to key points including total budgets, expenses of the universities, different fields’ attractiveness, universities’ attractiveness, and education quality. Tuition fees were calculated for different levels of education, such as post-diploma, Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D degrees, Medical specialty, and Fellowship. After tuition fee calculation, the model was tested during 2013-2015. Since then, a questionnaire including 20 questions was prepared. All Universities’ financial and educational managers were asked to respond to the questions regarding the model’s reliability and effectiveness.Results: According to the results, fields’ attractiveness, universities’ attractiveness, zone distinction and education quality were selected as effective variables for tuition fee calculation. In this model, tuition fees per student were calculated for the year 2013, and, therefore, the inflation rate of the same year was used. Testing of the model showed that there is a 92% of satisfaction. This model is used by medical science universities in Iran.Conclusion: Education quality, zone coefficient, fields’ attractiveness, universities’ attractiveness, inflation rate, and portion of each level of education were the most important variables affecting tuition fee calculation.Keywords: TUITION FEES, FIELD’S ATTRACTIVENESS, UNIVERSITIES’ ATTRACTIVENESS, ZONE DISTINCTION, EDUCATION QUALITY

  11. E-SCIENCE: AN INTRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    , Sarhan M. Musa

    2017-01-01

    E-science refers to the type of scientific research that uses large-scale computing infrastructure to process very large amount of data. It is an interdisciplinary branch of science that explores and implements information technology platforms, which include computer networks, computer information technology, telecommunication, and computational methods. This paper provides a brief introduction to e-science.

  12. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  13. Effect of 5E Learning Model on Academic Achievement, Attitude and Science Process Skills: Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Nevin Kozcu

    2017-01-01

    Today, with the development of science and technology and its rapid progress, the importance attached to science education has increased. This increase in interest has led to the development of the methods, techniques, and approaches that enable the students to be active, question and construct knowledge. The 5E learning model is one of them, and…

  14. Regression Levels of Selected Affective Factors on Science Achievement: A Structural Equation Model with TIMSS 2011 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilli, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the science success regression levels of chosen emotional features of 8th grade students using Structural Equation Model. The study was conducted by the analysis of students' questionnaires and science success in TIMSS 2011 data using SEM. Initially, the factors that are thought to have an effect on science…

  15. Using a motivation-based instructional model for teacher development and students' learning of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min-Jung

    2009-10-01

    Science teachers often have difficulty helping students participate in scientific practices and understand scientific ideas. In addition, they do not frequently help students value their science learning. As one way to address these problems, I designed and examined the effects of professional development using a motivation-based instructional model with teachers and students. This motivation-based inquiry and application instructional model (MIAIM) consists of four steps of activities and identifies instructional and motivational functions that teachers can use to engage their students in scientific inquiry and application and to help them value their science learning. In order to conduct this study, I worked with three teachers (4 th, 8th, and 8th) in both suburban and urban environments. This study consisted of three parts-an initial observation of teachers' classrooms, professional development with MIAIM, and an observation of teachers' classrooms after the professional development. Data analysis of class observations, interviews, and class artifacts shows that there was a moderate change in teachers' teaching approach after the intervention. The three teachers designed and enacted some inquiry and application lessons that fit the intent of MIAIM. They also used some instructional and motivational practices more frequently after the intervention than they did before the intervention. In particular, they more frequently established central questions for investigations, helped students find patterns in data by themselves, provided opportunities for application, related science to students' everyday lives, and created students' interests in scientific investigation by using interesting stories. However, there was no substantial change in teachers' use of some practices such as providing explanations, supporting students' autonomy, and using knowledge about students in designing and enacting science lessons. In addition, data analysis of students' surveys, class

  16. Enhancing Interoperability and Capabilities of Earth Science Data using the Observations Data Model 2 (ODM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Earth Science researchers require access to integrated, cross-disciplinary data in order to answer critical research questions. Partially due to these science drivers, it is common for disciplinary data systems to expand from their original scope in order to accommodate collaborative research. The result is multiple disparate databases with overlapping but incompatible data. In order to enable more complete data integration and analysis, the Observations Data Model Version 2 (ODM2 was developed to be a general information model, with one of its major goals to integrate data collected by 'in situ' sensors with those by 'ex-situ' analyses of field specimens. Four use cases with different science drivers and disciplines have adopted ODM2 because of benefits to their users. The disciplines behind the four cases are diverse – hydrology, rock geochemistry, soil geochemistry, and biogeochemistry. For each case, we outline the benefits, challenges, and rationale for adopting ODM2. In each case, the decision to implement ODM2 was made to increase interoperability and expand data and metadata capabilities. One of the common benefits was the ability to use the flexible handling and comprehensive description of specimens and data collection sites in ODM2’s sampling feature concept. We also summarize best practices for implementing ODM2 based on the experience of these initial adopters. The descriptions here should help other potential adopters of ODM2 implement their own instances or to modify ODM2 to suit their needs.

  17. Animal Models in Forensic Science Research: Justified Use or Ethical Exploitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Calvin Gerald; Heyns, Marise

    2018-05-01

    A moral dilemma exists in biomedical research relating to the use of animal or human tissue when conducting scientific research. In human ethics, researchers need to justify why the use of humans is necessary should suitable models exist. Conversely, in animal ethics, a researcher must justify why research cannot be carried out on suitable alternatives. In the case of medical procedures or therapeutics testing, the use of animal models is often justified. However, in forensic research, the justification may be less evident, particularly when research involves the infliction of trauma on living animals. To determine how the forensic science community is dealing with this dilemma, a review of literature within major forensic science journals was conducted. The frequency and trends of the use of animals in forensic science research was investigated for the period 1 January 2012-31 December 2016. The review revealed 204 original articles utilizing 5050 animals in various forms as analogues for human tissue. The most common specimens utilized were various species of rats (35.3%), pigs (29.3%), mice (17.7%), and rabbits (8.2%) although different specimens were favored in different study themes. The majority of studies (58%) were conducted on post-mortem specimens. It is, however, evident that more needs to be done to uphold the basic ethical principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in the use of animals for research purposes.

  18. Basic Definitions and Concepts of Systems Approach, Mathematical Modeling and Information Technologies in Sports Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Лопатьєв

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies to sports science. Materials and methods. The research has studied the availability of appropriate terms in shooting sports, which would meet the requirements of modern sports science. It has examined the compliance of the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions with the modern requirements and principles. Research results. The paper suggests the basic definitions adapted to the requirements of technical sports and sports science. The research has thoroughly analyzed the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions. The paper offers options to improve the training program in accordance with the modern tendencies of training athletes.  Conclusions. The research suggests to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies using the example of technical sports.

  19. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  20. Community effort endorsing multiscale modelling, multiscale data science and multiscale computing for systems medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Chorbev, Ivan; Stres, Blaz; Stalidzans, Egils; Vera, Julio; Tieri, Paolo; Castiglione, Filippo; Groen, Derek; Zheng, Huiru; Baumbach, Jan; Schmid, Johannes A; Basilio, José; Klimek, Peter; Debeljak, Nataša; Rozman, Damjana; Schmidt, Harald H H W

    2017-12-05

    Systems medicine holds many promises, but has so far provided only a limited number of proofs of principle. To address this road block, possible barriers and challenges of translating systems medicine into clinical practice need to be identified and addressed. The members of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action CA15120 Open Multiscale Systems Medicine (OpenMultiMed) wish to engage the scientific community of systems medicine and multiscale modelling, data science and computing, to provide their feedback in a structured manner. This will result in follow-up white papers and open access resources to accelerate the clinical translation of systems medicine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.