Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Agricultural Sciences including Animal Production, Fisheries, Agronomy, Processing and Agricultural Mechanization. Related ...
Remolina-Millán, Aduljay; Hernández-Arroyo, Emil
The organizing committee of The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences – CIIMCA 2013 – are pleased to present CIIMCA-2013: the first international conference focused on subjects of materials science, mechanical engineering and renewable energy organized by Mechanical Engineering Faculty of the ''Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana'' in Bucaramanga, Colombia. This conference aims to be a place to produce discussions on whole topics of the congress, between the scientists of Colombia and the world. We strongly believe that knowledge is fundamental to the development of our countries. For that reason this multidisciplinary conference is looking forward to integrate engineering, agricultural science and nanoscience and nanotechnology to produce a synergy of this area of knowledge and to achieve scientific and technological developments. Agriculture is a very important topic for our conference; in Colombia, agricultural science needs more attention from the scientific community and the government. In the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering we are beginning to work on these issues to produce knowledge and improve the conditions in our country. The CIIMCA conference is a great opportunity to create interpersonal relationships and networks between scientists around the world. The interaction between scientists is very important in the process of the construction of knowledge. The general chairman encourages and invites you to make friends, relationships and participate strongly in the symposia and all program activities. PhD Aduljay Remolina-Millán Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress – CIIMCA Msc Emil Hernández-Arroyo Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress – CIIMCA Conferencephotograph Conferencephotograph 'Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana seccional Bucaramanga' host of the first
Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette
Humans live in constant interaction with nature. That is part and parcel of being a biological creature on this planet. On one hand, humans exploit the available resources to survive, and at the same time, humans are deeply dependent on the continued capacity of nature to sustain their lives......, about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...
Journal Camerounais des Sciences Agricoles The Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science publishes new information on all aspects of agricultural science – agronomy, breeding, crop protection, economics, rural sociology, forestry and animal science, health and production ...
Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Nuclear technique application in agriculture based on the development of related science and technology is of a high technical area, and also a meaningful aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique. Nuclear Agricultural Sciences is an important component of agricultural science and technology, and has been made a lot of significant achievements, which has made remarkable contribution to the development in economy, society and ecology of China. This article reviews the achievements and present situation of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China briefly. For promoting its development, the author strongly suggests that Chinese government bodies should put more attention to the study on the application of nuclear technique in agriculture to make further more contributions to Chinese society and agriculture. (authors)
Bolton, W C
This book gives comprehensive coverage of mechanical science for HNC/HND students taking mechanical engineering courses, including all topics likely to be covered in both years of such courses, as well as for first year undergraduate courses in mechanical engineering. It features 500 problems with answers and 200 worked examples. The third edition includes a new section on power transmission and an appendix on mathematics to help students with the basic notation of calculus and solution of differential equations.
Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Taylor, Michael J.
Technological advances developed through R&D have supplied the world with not only more food, but better food. This report looks at issues raised by this changing environment for agricultural productivity, agricultural R&D, and natural resource management.
Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. The Journal publishes peer reviewed papers with the aim of sharing new developments in the agricultural and environmental sciences which include forestry, fisheries, livestock, crops, environment, biotechnology, agricultural economics, agricultural engineering. The readership of ...
Items 1 - 50 of 53 ... Global Approaches to Extension Practice (GAEP), A publication of the Department of ... resources, Soil Science, Agricultural Engineering and Food Processing. ... Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research.
Agricultural Mechanization deals with the use of any mechanical aid in agricultural production. ... The productivity of each level depends on the power source. ... During Imperial Ethiopia, there were big farms operating as share companies, ... based agricultural mechanization system, where precision and efficiency are the ...
The Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana publishes papers describing research, observational or experimental and critical reviews in Agriculture and Food Science. Vol 10, No 1 (2017). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles ...
The Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences JAFS is a platform for scientists dealing with agriculture, food science and related technological and socioeconomic issues with focus on sub-Saharan Africa. Articles on these areas are published after critical peer review. JAFS targets researchers and policy makers.
BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.
Liu Jun; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai
Nuclear science and technology have been successfully applied to many subjects, nuclear agriculture being one of the most important applications. We present a general review of the applications of nuclear radiation and nuclear tracer techniques in agriculture. The development of nuclear agriculture in China is also reviewed briefly
The Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences (UJAS) (ISSN: 1026-0919) is a peer reviewed journal ... It should bear a background statement to originate the idea or research problem; ... Truly new procedures should be described in detail.
Williams, J.; Holmes, J.W.; Williams, B. G.; Winkworth, R.E.
This consideration of the applications of the neutron method in forestry, agriculture and environmental science, focusses on the analyses of the data which can be obtained with the neutron method and draws attention to problem situations associated with its use
Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology. ... Development of smart controller model for dual fuel generator systems · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Wireless transmission of metering data from a photovoltaic solar home system ...
Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...
Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002
Thirteen theme articles discuss integration of science and agriculture, the role of science in agricultural education, biotechnology, agriscience in Tennessee and West Virginia, agriscience and program survival, modernization of agricultural education curriculum, agriscience and service learning, and biotechnology websites. (SK)
Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.
This unit of instruction on drawing and sketching in agricultural mechanics is designed especially for use with freshman vocational agriculture students. A unit plan discusses the general aims and goals, lesson titles, student and teacher activities, a list of necessary special equipment and references. The unit consists of nine lessons. A lesson…
The Editors welcome critical views in Agriculture, Food Sciences and ... should be typed on single spaced A4 paper with an abstract of not more than 150 words. ... and type the abstract with single line spacing in times 10 font size and in italics.
With more than one reference to the same author, list them chronologically after the acknowledgement section but starting on a new page. ... Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology publishes short papers (reports) emphasizing significant new concepts, methods, applications and preliminary research findings.
Li, Xian-song; Bai, Li; Zhang, Li-ming
The status quo of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D (research and development)both at home and abroadï¼Œincluding the amount and function of agricultural science and technology research funds, human resources in the resources of agricultural science and technology R&D , the efficiency of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D, the management system of agricultural scientific innovation and the operation status of scientific funds, is analyz...
Hua Luo; Wang Xunqing
The concept, research scopes, research progress and achievement of nuclear agricultural sciences in past several decades in China, as well as the relationship between nuclear agriculture research and eco-environmental sciences were described. The disciplinary frontier, major research fields and priority developmental fields of nuclear agriculture in eco-environmental sciences was displayed. Suggestions were made to improve and strengthen nuclear agriculture research. Those provided basic source materials and consideration for application developmental strategy of nuclear agriculture in eco-environmental sciences
Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
Secondary agricultural education teachers were surveyed to examine if a relationship existed between the physical attributes of agricultural mechanics laboratories and agricultural education teachers' enjoyment of teaching agricultural mechanics. Teachers also indicated their competence to teach courses other than agricultural mechanics within the…
Investigating the improver mechanisms of agricultural water management in karaj county from the viewpoints of the farmers. ... farmers and people, technical improvement of hydraulic structures, improvement of local people participation, improvement of water management, controlling the disturbance of external factors and ...
McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan
Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…
Wheelus, Robin P.
The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of Agriculture Science course sequencing in high schools, as a preparatory factor for students enrolled in collegiate agriculture classes. With the variety of courses listed in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Agriculture Science, it has been possible for counselors,…
The Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences generally aims to foster progressive partnerships between different stake holders towards sustainable Agriculture. Papers in Animal husbandry, Fisheries, wild life, crop and Soil Science, agricultural economics, Extension, Forestry, environment and papers with a ...
Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 12 Number 3 ... agricultural field one could maintain a high level of soil fertility. ..... Journal of Applied Biosciences. 7: 202-206. ... International Journal of.
Sep 3, 2009 ... Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 8 ... 3 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, High Rainfall Station,. Onne, Rivers State ...... Biosciences proceedings. 6: 444-454.
The UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology is a publication of the Faculties of Agriculture, Health Sciences and Science of the University of Swaziland. It publishes results of original research or continuations of previous studies that are reproducible. Review articles, short communications and ...
The UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology is a publication of the Faculties of Agriculture, Health Sciences and Science of the University of Swaziland. It publishes results of original research or continuations of previous studies that are reproducible. Review articles, short communications and ...
If we focus on the agricultural field, we see a kaleidoscopic picture. Agriculture includes a wide variety of economic activities, ranging from crop husbandry to cattle breeding and industrial processing of non-food products. It is often used in a broad sense to include for example forestry, aquaculture and fisheries. Agricultural sciences use methods from a wide variety of disciplines ranging from sociology to genomics. Although agricultural sciences are applied sciences there is a gamut from more fundamental studies to understand underlying processes to applied work to produce results that can be used directly in agricultural practice. (Author)
Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon
Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…
Ji Xiaobing; Zhou Zhihong; Zhao Shoufeng
The economic effect of applied nuclear-agricultural science for 40 years in China have been summarized, analyzed and appraised. The economic regularity and features which are followed by research-development-production in the field of applied nuclear agricultural science in China are explored according to the essential characteristics of economics for input-output ratio and the itself-features of nuclear agricultural science. Some propositions for promoting the development and the economic effect of the applied nuclear-agricultural science in China are also given
Vsevolod Babushkin; Margarita Ignatyeva
In this paper, an estimation of condition and level of development of agricultural mechanical engineering is given; also an expert estimation of scales of the Russian market of agricultural machinery is given. The factors negatively influencing formation of the named market are designated. Features and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk region are defined. State regulation mechanisms of domestic agricultural mechanical engineering development are des...
This paper outlines the creation of our nuclear agricultural sciences and the development process as well as the main results for agricultural applications of nuclear technology. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China began in 1956, after 50 years of development, the collaborative research network, the academic exchange network, and the international exchange network have been formatted. These three networks comprehensively have promoted the formation and development of China nuclear agricultural sciences. Remarkable results have been achieved in the fields of radiation mutation breeding, space mutation breeding, isotope tracer technique application in agriculture, agricultural products storage and preservation of irradiation processing, irradiation sterile insect technique, low-doses of radiation to stimulate output. In addition, the concept of suggestions on the future development of China nuclear agricultural sciences, as well as the priorities of research fields are put forward. (authors)
Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 14 ... 3Department of Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka,. Nigeria ..... work was found to be 25.7%. This value is higher.
Johnson, Donald M.
Arkansas agriculture teachers (213 of 259 surveyed) expressed support for granting science credit for agriculture (88.8%); 65.6% supported science credit for a limited number of agriculture courses. Blanket endorsement for all certified agriculture teachers was favored by 71.5%; 56.6% preferred endorsement only for certified teachers completing an…
The objective of this study was to identify the career aspirations of agricultural science graduates from Nigerian Universities of Agriculture. A random sample of 215 graduating students of agriculture was selected using stratified random sampling method. Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and the ...
Sunitha, K. A., Dr.; Suraj, G. S. G. S.; Sowrya, CH P. N.; Atchyut Sriram, G.; Shreyas, D.; Srinivas, T.
In the field of agriculture, plantation begins with ploughing the land and sowing seeds. The old traditional method plough attached to an OX and tractors needs human involvement to carry the process. The driving force behind this work is to reduce the human interference in the field of agriculture and to make it cost effective. In this work, apart of the land is taken into consideration and the robot introduced localizes the path and can navigate itself without human action. For ploughing, this robot is provided with tentacles attached with saw blades. The sowing mechanism initiates with long toothed gears actuated with motors. The complete body is divided into two parts the tail part acts as a container for seeds. The successor holds on all the electronics used for automating and actuation. The locomotion is provided with wheels covered under conveyor belts. Gears at the back of the robot rotate in equal speed with respect to each other with the saw blades. For each rotation every tooth on gear will take seeds and will drop them on field. Camera at the front end tracks the path for every fixed distance and at the minimum distance it takes the path pre-programmed.
Anderson, Ryan; Williams, Robert
The researchers sought to find the Agricultural Science teachers' attitude toward five innovations (Computer-Aided Design, Record Books, E-Mail Career Development Event Registration, and World Wide Web) of information technology. The population for this study consisted of all 333 secondary Agricultural science teachers from Texas FFA Areas V and…
Wells, Trent; Perry, Dustin K.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Shultz, Matthew J.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
Agricultural mechanics coursework has historically been considered an important and necessary construct of the secondary agricultural education curriculum (Burris, Robinson, & Terry, 2005). With expectations of offering secondary agricultural mechanics coursework apparent, it is vital that agricultural education teachers be prepared to address…
Tucker, Linda Bart
Science had a variety of uses at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, a private, missionary school supported by northern whites and Virginia's black land grant school from 1872 to 1920. Samuel Chapman Armstrong, principal for the first twenty-five years (1868-1893), advocated not classical but scientific studies, primarily as applied science to improve lives and "civilize" blacks and Indians. Agriculture and mechanics were practiced in Hampton's industries, where students worked their way through school. They were organized for production rather than instruction, though Armstrong claimed that labor had a moral value and that practical experience was valuable learning. In contrast to works by James D. Anderson and Donald Spivey, this study stresses the pragmatic, business purposes of Hampton's industries rather than any ideological agenda. Problems with providing specialized facilities, apparatus, and teachers made it difficult for Hampton to provide rigorous, graded science instruction. Students learned of practical applications of science in agricultural lectures and in such classes as physiology. However, the curriculum was designed for teacher training, using broad, elementary science for general knowledge, to train minds, and to make adult remedial language lessons more effective. Not surprisingly, very few graduates pursued careers which required more than general science studies. Besides the utilitarian and disciplinary purposes, Hampton used science to discourage superstitious ideas in religion. Armstrong also argued for racially distinctive education for blacks and Indians on the basis of scientific ideas about cultural evolution and inheritance of the experience of past generations. In practice, however, Hampton teachers adapted mainstream tools and methods of instruction. Not all teachers shared Armstrong's racial views, and several demonstrated concern for students, confidence in their ability, and professional interest in advancing them as
Rasty, John; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
Preservice teacher candidates in agricultural education have expressed concerns with teaching agricultural mechanics content yet the number of required courses in agricultural mechanics has dwindled. To determine the root of current teachers' perceptions, it is important to look at the developmental experiences that have led to those perceptions.…
Journal Home > About the Journal > Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural ... for doing the work and the major objectives of the research or investigation; it should provide ... Acknowledgments, if any, may be given in a separate section immediately ...
Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 12 ... proper financial analysis of beneficiaries' enterprises with the view to effectively ascertaining the quantum of ..... Quantitative Analysis of the Major ...
UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology. ... Effect of early and Late Feed Restriction on Compensantory Ability of Broilers ... A Comparison of the Growth and Milk Conversion Rates of Lambs and Goat Kids in Malawi ...
Toungos, M.D., Sajo, A.A. and Gungula, D.T.. (2009). Recommended fertilizer levels on. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea. (L) Verde) in Yola Adamawa State,. Nigeria. Agricultural Journal 4 (1): 14 –. 21. Vietrneyer, N.D. (1986). Lesser known plants of potential use in agriculture and forestry. Science 232: 1379-1384.
Jongen, W.M.F.; Struik, P.C.; Wienk, J.F.
This paper first looks at the changes in agricultural research structures, research questions and research culture in the Netherlands. In the context of these changes, the future scope, readership and editorial policy of the Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science are discussed.
Soliman, S.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.
Sustainable agricultural systems employ natural processes to achieve acceptable levels of productivity and food quality while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Sustainable agriculture must, by definition, be ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially responsible. Sustainable agriculture must nurture healthy co systems and support the sustainable management of land, water and natural resources, while ensuring world food security. To be sustainable, agriculture must meet the needs of present and future generations for its products and services, while ensuring profitability, environmental health and social and economic equity. The global transition to sustainable food and agriculture will require major improvements in the efficiency of resource use, in environmental protection and in systems resilience. In Mediterrane an environments, crops are grown mainly in the semiarid and sub-humid are as. In arid and semiarid are as dry land farming, techniques are of renewed interest in the view of sustain ability. They are aimed to increase water accumulation in the soil, reduce runoff and soil evaporation losses, choose species and varieties able to make better use of rainwater, and rationalize fertilization plans, sowing dates, and weed and pest control. Fertilization plans should be based on well-defined principles of plant nutrition, soil chemistry, and chemistry of the fertilizer elements. Starting from the calculation of nutrient crop uptake (based on the actually obtainable yield), dose calculation must be corrected by considering the relation ship between the availability of the trace elements in soil and the main physical and chemical parameters of the soil (ph, organic matter content, mineralization rate, C/N, ratio of solubilization of phosphorus, active lime content, presence of antagonist ions, etc.). In the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Soil and Water Research Department, nuclear techniques including radio and stable isotopes in addition to
Henderson, S. M.
Describes the field of bioengineering with particular emphasis on agricultural engineering, and presents the results of a survey of schools that combine biology and engineering in their curricula. (JR)
Ye. Mishenin; I. Yarova
This paper deals with arguments that the most effective mechanism for greening use of land resources is to increase the level of social and environmental responsibility. The mechanisms for social and environmentally responsible agricultural land use are formed.
Maize and Sorghum are planted in April and the field operation continues till small .... story, no doubt that they have served in filing the gap in agricultural production, .... depressed yield as they will not be able to use the whole growing period.
Yang Xuexian; Liu Tuoyuan; Ji Xiaobing
The developmental history of nuclear-agricultural sciences (NAS) in China was introduced. The proportion of NAS estimated by the sensitometric is about 1%∼3% to the agricultural sciences, 3% to the nuclear science and technology, and below 0.3% to the foundational life science, respectively. Citation indexes of NAS in China were compared with those of other scientific literatures domestic and abroad with bibliometrics. The main achievements and outcomes of NAS in China were described. In the past 25 years, the contribution of the NAS to the gross agricultural production in China was up to 250 hundred millions yuan RMB, corresponding to the ratio of 1:31 of integrated scientific investments to the output. Comparison was made between the development of NAS in China and that abroad. Present situation and the prospect of the NAS were also discussed. (1 fig.; 5 tabs.)
The role of agricultural mechanization in a developing economy is examined in order to enhance the formulation of mechanization policy and strategy. As a result of the review and assessment of the mechanization process, seven distinct stages in the mechanization process are specified and
An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural mechanics (electric motors) are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…
Full Text Available A knowledge contribution is provided in order to understand agroecology as both a scientific discipline and a philosophical paradigm for promoting sustainability in agriculture. The peculiar character of agroecology as an applied science based on the systems paradigm is explored in the fields of research and tuition. As an organisational capability of connecting different hierarchical levels in accordance with the goal of sustainability, integration is shown as an emergent property of the evolution of agriculture as a human activity system.
Key words: food, constraints, mechanization, Sub-Saharan Africa, food security. Introduction ... ensure all-year-round food production. Agricultural .... her citizens to travel to the United States to ... downsize in the intake of students into these.
Foutz, Tim; Navarro, Maria; Hill, Roger B.; Thompson, Sidney A.; Miller, Kathy; Riddleberger, Deborah
An outcome of a 1998 forum sponsored by the National Research Council was a recognition that topics related to food production and agriculture are excellent mechanisms for integrating science topics taught in the K-12 education system and for providing many avenues for inquiry based and project based learning. The engineering design process is…
QIU, Meihuan; LIN, Minxia; ZHANG, Xiaodong; ZHANG, Hongyi; WANG, Zhunian
Industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology is an essential part of tropical agricultural technological innovation. This paper firstly analyzed development mode of industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology in Chin and then came up with recommendations for developing industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology.
This book collects the most recent advances in mechanism science and machine theory with application to engineering. It contains selected peer-reviewed papers of the sixth International Conference on Mechanism Science, held in Nantes, France, 20-23 September 2016, covering topics on mechanism design and synthesis, mechanics of robots, mechanism analysis, parallel manipulators, tensegrity mechanisms, cable mechanisms, control issues in mechanical systems, history of mechanisms, mechanisms for biomechanics and surgery and industrial and nonindustrial applications.
Nederlof, S.; Röling, N.; Huis, van A.
The impact of agricultural research on the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers in West Africa has been disappointing. This article reports on research on agricultural research that sought to identify an alternative pathway of science that would lead to greater impact. It is based on the analysis of
Wang Zhidong; Gao Meixu
The development status and existing problems in the field of nuclear agricultural sciences (NAS) are reviewed. Including the application of nuclear technology in mutation breeding by irradiation, isotopic technique application, food irradiation and sterile insect technique, etc. China has made great achievements in the research and application of nuclear technique in agriculture from 1950s to 1990s. Due to lack of enough financial support to the basic research and reformation of science and research system in China, the development of NAS now meets its tough time. Through analyzing the difference and reasons of NAS development between China and the USA, it is recognized that the innovation in research and scientific system is important for promoting the development speed and research level of NAS. (authors)
Arundhati Kaushik; Superna Sharma; Lokendra Singh Rajput
CAB Abstracts published by CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International) is the premier database for agricultural and allied sciences literature. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of index coverage in CAB Abstracts and to identify the core journals in the field of agricultural and allied sciences published in China. The study depicts the trend of Chinese agricultural and allied sciences journals, which is successfully proving a gateway of the agricultural rese...
Yunbi Xu; Jiayang Li; Jianmin Wan
The International Crop Science Congress (ICSC) is a regularly held event allowing crop scientists to integrate current knowledge into a global context and international applications. The 7th ICSC was held on August 14–19, 2016 in Beijing, China, with the theme "Crop Science: Innovation and Sustainability". As a companion production for this great congress, the nine papers collected in this special issue feature important fields of crop science in China. This editorial first briefly introduces the 7th ICSC, followed by a brief discussion of the current status of, constraints to, and innovations in Chinese agriculture and crop science. Finally, the main scientific points of the papers published in this special issue are surveyed, covering important advances in hybrid rice breeding, minor cereals, food legumes, rapeseed, crop systems, crop management, cotton, genomics-based germplasm research, and QTL mapping. In a section describing future prospects, it is indicated that China faces a full transition from traditional to modern agriculture and crop science.
However, unlike other developing countries in Asia, the level of agricultural mechanization in Sub-‐Sahara Africa is still very low and is faced with a number of constraints. It is important for the attention of governments and other institutions to be drawn to these for immediate intervention to be taken. The objective of this ...
Delgado-Callisaya Pedro Ángel1
Full Text Available Ciencia Animal o Zootecnia es la ciencia que trata de la producción, transformación y comercio eficiente de animales de interés humano, en el cual se toma en cuenta criterios éticos, de sostenibilidad y equidad. La ciencia animal tiene diversas denominaciones a nivel internacional, las cuales reflejan la estructura curricular y el énfasis en la formación profesional en cada país o grupo de países como: Zootecnia en Latinoamérica (Centroamérica. Brasil, Colombia, Argentina, Perú y Bolivia. Animal Science (Ciencia animal en Norteamérica (Estados Unidos y Canadá, Australia, Asia y Reino Unido. La producción animal está basada en cuatro pilares fundamentales: la nutrición y alimentación animal, la genética y mejoramiento animal, la infraestructura adecuada y la salud animal (Buxadé 1995a. La transformación de productos y subproductos de origen animal es hasta la fecha una necesidad vital, pues sin estos insumos ningún conglomerado humano hubiera podido subsistir, porque nos proveen alimentos de alto valor biológico y nutritivo, otros dan productos para el abrigo, para el trabajo e incluso para el esparcimiento. El comercio eficiente de animales de interés humano siempre tuvo, tiene y tendrá una finalidad utilitaria, En todos los casos, su explotación mueve capitales y suministra innumerables fuente de trabajo al hombre. Las ciencias animales consideran las leyes de herencia, ecología y alimentación, influencia del medio ambiente, procesos de multiplicación, la utilización de la fisiología de la nutrición y alimentación en función de una mejor y más económica producción (Besse 1986, Buxadé 1995a.. Además del mejor criterio de utilización de los productos y subproductos utilizando la más adecuada tecnología de procesamiento de alimentos obtenidos de los animales para obtener el precio más adecuado en el mercado. Asimismo, Sean cuales fueren las técnicas de la producción animal, existen una serie de factores
Wen Xianfang; Wang Xunqing
This paper reviewed the main achievements of nuclear agricultural sciences, analyzed its developmental gap and provided some thoughts on its future development in China. Since the research and application of nuclear agricultural sciences was initiated in 1956, it has penetrated into the main fields of agriculture and made outstanding achievements, in some fields, China keeps a leading place in the world. By the end of 2001, China obtained 625 mutant varieties and strains, accounting for 27.2% of the total number in the world. The total planting area of the mutant varieties amounted to about 9 million hectares, and brought about an annual increase of grains by 3-4 million tons, cotton by 1.5-1.8 million tons, oilseeds by 0.75 million tons, with total annual economic benefit of 3.3-4.0 billion RMB Yuan. Among the released mutant varieties, 18 were awarded the national innovation prize. China approved national hygiene standards for 6 classes of irradiated foods, and 17 national technological standards of irradiated foods. The annual amount of irradiated foods and agricultural commodities ranged from 80-100 thousand tons. In general, the application of nuclear agricultural sciences in mutation breeding, space breeding, agricultural isotope tracers, food irradiation, sterile insect technique and radiation hormesis, has made considerable advancement and gained tremendous economic, social as well as ecological benefits. As a result, the IAEA and its technical officials highly evaluated nuclear agriculture in China. In 1999, China was approved as the RCA lead country for thematic agriculture. In considering its future development, the focus should be placed on the applied basic research and the development of some key technologies, and endeavor to make some breakthroughs in the molecular mechanism of mutation breeding and space breeding, irradiation quarantine technology , isotope tracing in environmental protection, animal health and production. The general objective is
Nystrom, Lynn A.
Ishwar K. Puri, professor of mechanical engineering and executive associate dean of engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago, will become the head of Virginia Tech•À_ó»s Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics Aug. 1.
This article presents excerpts from the discussion on nuclear science and technology in food and agriculture. The discussions covered all aspects of nuclear applications in food and agriculture, namely, food preservation cultivation, animal husbandry and pest control
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.
This summer institute emphasizes the establishment of minimum measurable standards of attainment in agricultural engineering phases of teacher education in agriculture. Speeches presented are: (1) "Where We Are in Agricultural Mechanics Education," by Alfred H. Krebs, (2) "Research Offerings for More Effective Teaching in Agricultural Mechanics,"…
Full Text Available CAB Abstracts published by CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International is the premier database for agricultural and allied sciences literature. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of index coverage in CAB Abstracts and to identify the core journals in the field of agricultural and allied sciences published in China. The study depicts the trend of Chinese agricultural and allied sciences journals, which is successfully proving a gateway of the agricultural research in China to merge into the main stream of the world.
Wu, Shiuan-Huei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Nah, Sui-Lin; Chau, Chi-Fai
Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats to food security and intensifying the hunger crisis. Concerted efforts of scientists to improve agricultural and food productivity, technology, nutrition, and education are imperative to facilitate appropriate strategies for defeating hunger and malnutrition. This paper provides some aspects of world hunger issues and summarizes the efforts and measures aimed to alleviate food problems from the food and nutritional sciences perspectives. The prospects and constraints of some implemented strategies for alleviating hunger and achieving sustainable food security are also discussed. This comprehensive information source could provide insights into the development of a complementary framework for dealing with the global hunger issue.
Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.
Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities
The central argument of this thesis is that science and practice, as articulated in agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies, gradually broke apart. This process is visible in the organisation of agricultural research and education, as well as in the development of three
Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.
This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS... sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program support...
Teng, W.; Kempler, S.; Chiu, L.; Doraiswamy, P.; Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Tetrault, R.
Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of U.S. agricultural products and for global food security. Two major operational users of satellite remote sensing for global crop monitoring are the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and the U.N. World Food Programme (WFP). The primary goal of FAS is to improve foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products. The WFP uses food to meet emergency needs and to support economic and social development. Both use global agricultural decision support systems that can integrate and synthesize a variety of data sources to provide accurate and timely information on global crop conditions. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has begun a project to provide operational solutions to FAS and WFP, by fully leveraging results from previous work, as well as from existing capabilities of the users. The GES DAAC has effectively used its recently developed prototype TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) to provide ESE data and information to the WFP for its agricultural drought monitoring efforts. This prototype system will be evolved into an Agricultural Information System (AIS), which will operationally provide ESE and other data products (e.g., rainfall, land productivity) and services, to be integrated into and thus enhance the existing GIS-based, decision support systems of FAS and WFP. Agriculture-oriented, ESE data products (e.g., MODIS-based, crop condition assessment product; TRMM derived, drought index product) will be input to a crop growth model in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service, to generate crop condition and yield prediction maps. The AIS will have the capability for remotely accessing distributed data, by being compliant with community-based interoperability standards, enabling easy access to
Mohammed Saleh Shenaifi
Full Text Available The primary purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of students at the College of Agriculture toward agriculture programs and the field of agriculture in an effort to better identify, recruit, and retain students in the College of Agriculture. The population of the study was 110 students from the College of Agriculture freshmen enrolling in course 203 Ag. ext. Communication skills in 2009 and 60 students who transferred from the College of Agriculture to another College. Questionnaire was reviewed for content and face validity by a panel of experts from the department of Agricultural Extension at the College of Agriculture, King Saud University. A five-point Likert-type scale was used. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was found to be 0.89, which indicated the internal consistency of the scale. Ninety-six of the students were from cities and do not have a farm background. Many of them indicated that they were not happy in the College of Agriculture. Only 31.18% of the respondents (53 indicated that more students should be encouraged to enroll in the College of Agriculture, whereas nearly 69 disagreed or were uncertain. The attitudes of students toward the field of Agriculture were positive. Seventy-one of respondents viewed Agriculture as a scientific area of study, nearly 66% of respondents viewed the field of Agriculture as a blend of scientific principles and agricultural practices. Significant differences at the level of 0.01 were detected, in means of students who had been enrolled in Agricultural program and those students who had not. Students who had enrolled in Agriculture program displayed different attitudes toward the field of Agriculture than did students who were in non-Agriculture program. Generally, students who were studying Agriculture programs possessed attitudes, which were supportive of Agriculture as a career field. Freshmen of the College of Agriculture viewed agriculture as being both scientific and technical. It
Connecticut Univ., Storrs. Dept. of Educational Leadership.
This curriculum guide provides the plant science components of the vocational agriculture curriculum for Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers. The curriculum is divided into exploratory units for students in the 9th and 10th grades and specialized units for students in grades 11 and 12. The five exploratory units are: agricultural pest control;…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 7. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Quantum Mechanics. Information and Announcements Volume 21 Issue 7 July 2016 pp 669-670. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Zhong-ming, Shen; Cheng-jun, Zhang
The establishment of the three-dimensional interlocking professional management mechanism of agricultural family-owned enterprise was studied through the following three mechanisms; the stimulation and restriction mechanism within the agricultural family-owned enterprises, the credit mechanism of professional manager and the social environment mechanism. The relationship between the agricultural family-owned enterprise, professional manager and the society was studied. In the first place, the...
Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady
The purpose of this study was to establish baseline data regarding the adoption of iPods and similar technologies by agricultural science and technology teachers. The population consisted of all agricultural science and technology teachers in Texas. A sample of 310 was randomly drawn from the population. Study findings reveal that while…
Alabi, Olugbenga Omotayo
This study examined adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by agricultural science and extension teachers in Abuja, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives are to: identify the background and demographic characteristics of agricultural science and extension teachers in the study area; examine the factors influencing adoption…
The present and history of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China were studied in order to explore its law of development. The conclusion is that the human resource was one of the key factors and the system of market economy or plan economy was not an important factor for restricting the development of nuclear agricultural sciences in China
The present and history of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China were studied in order to explore its law of development. The conclusion is that the human resource was one of the key factors and the system of market economy or plan economy was not an important factor for restricting the development of nuclear agricultural sciences in China. (authors)
McCubbins, O. P.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.; Wells, Trent
Agricultural mechanics is an important component of a well-rounded school-based agricultural education (SBAE) program. Within agricultural mechanics courses lies a plethora of topics and skills to be covered. Adequate tools and equipment are vital in preparing students to fill an expanding, 21st century workforce. The issue of inadequate teaching…
Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.; Shultz, Matthew J.
Preparing teachers to teach agricultural mechanics is a difficult task since many topic areas are included in the curriculum. This study examines the effect of the number of college courses taken on a teacher's perceived competence to teach agricultural mechanics. Agricultural education teachers in Iowa ranked themselves according to their…
Miller, Henry I
National and international regulation of recombinant DNA-modified, or 'genetically engineered' (also referred to as 'genetically modified' or GM), organisms is unscientific and illogical, a lamentable illustration of the maxim that bad science makes bad law. Instead of regulatory scrutiny that is proportional to risk, the degree of oversight is actually inversely proportional to risk. The current approach to regulation, which captures for case-by-case review organisms to be field tested or commercialized according to the techniques used to construct them rather than their properties, flies in the face of scientific consensus. This approach has been costly in terms of economic losses and human suffering. The poorest of the poor have suffered the most because of hugely inflated development costs of genetically engineered plants and food. A model for regulation of field trials known as the 'Stanford Model' is designed to assess risks of new agricultural introductions - whether or not the organisms are genetically engineered, and independent of the genetic modification techniques employed. It offers a scientific, rational, risk-based basis for field trial regulations. Using this sort of model for regulatory review would not only better protect human health and the environment, but would also permit more expeditious development and more widespread use of new plants and seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ernest, Byron L.
The lack of student achievement in science is often cited in U.S. educational reports. At the study site, low student achievement in science has been an ongoing concern for administrators. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate the impact of agricultural science education on student performance in a Biology course. Vygotsky's constructivist theory and Gardner's multiple intelligences theory provided the framework for the study. The quantitative research question examined the relationship between the completion of Fundamentals of Agriculture Science and Business course and student performance in Biology I. Teacher perceptions and experiences regarding the integration of science and agricultural curriculum and traditional science curriculum were examined qualitatively. A sequential explanatory design was employed using 3 years of data collected from 486 high school students and interviews with 10 teachers. Point-biserial correlation and chi square tests revealed statistically significant relationships between whether or not students completed Fundamentals of Agriculture Science and Business and Biology I course performance, as measured by the end of course assessment and the course grade. In the qualitative sequence, typological and inductive data analyses were applied to the interview data, and themes of student impact and teacher experience emerged. Social change implications may be possible through improved science education for students in this program. Agriculture science courses may be used to facilitate learning of complex science concepts, designing teacher collaboration and professional development for teaching science in a relevant context, and resultant improved student performance in science.
Assessing the Learning Needs of Student Teachers in Texas regarding Management of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: Implications for the Professional Development of Early Career Teachers in Agricultural Education
Saucier, P. Ryan; McKim, Billy R.
Skills needed to manage a laboratory are essential knowledge for all school-based, agriculture teachers who instruct agricultural mechanics curriculum (Saucier, Terry, & Schumacher, 2009). This research investigated the professional development needs of Texas agricultural education student teachers regarding agricultural mechanics laboratory…
Gwyther, J L; Williams, G
0.1 Mechanical Engineering Science covers various fundamental concepts that are essential in the practice of mechanical engineering. The title is comprised of 19 chapters that detail various topics, including chemical and physical laws. The coverage of the book includes Newtonian laws, mechanical energy, friction, stress, and gravity. The text also discusses the chemical aspects of mechanical engineering, which include gas laws, states of matter, and fuel combustion. The last chapter tackles concerns in laboratory experiments. The book will be of great use to students of mechanical eng
Full Text Available The importance of conservation agriculture (CA is discussed in the context of producing food for a growing population while, at the same time, conserving and improving the natural resource base: sustainable crop production intensification. CA requires mechanization, and the necessary equipment may be beyond the reach of the majority of smallholder farmers, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. A logical solution to this situation is to provide CA mechanization services from private sector entrepreneurs. These will be well-equipped with appropriate CA equipment and will usually benefit from specific training on the technical aspects of CA machinery operation and on the business skills needed to run a profitable venture. The technical skills to be reinforced include: equipment selection, calibration of planters, seeders and sprayers, field operation, maintenance and repair. Business skills needed include: market research and feasibility studies, business planning, calculation of operational costs, partial budgets, break-even points and cash flows. The case is made for local manufacture to reduce the costs of machinery acquisition and to encourage local adaptation. Start-up costs are discussed together with the options of obtaining finance. Guidelines for marketing and managing the mechanization service provision business are developed. These include the importance of contracts, work planning, regular maintenance schedules and record keeping. Finally the most appropriate vehicle for delivering the training and sustaining support is considered. Formal training courses are a good starting point, but can be expensive to organize and execute. Individual counselling from extension sources is a viable option when the quality of the service is high enough. Study groups of involved entrepreneurs should be encouraged and supported to overcome the problems that will inevitably arise in new business ventures.
The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.
1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology, School of Agriculture and ... farmers redeemed with agro-inputs under the electronic-wallet initiative of the Growth Enhancement Support ... allocative role of price following distortion created by ... the development of a private sector distribution channel.
Burlbaw, Lynn M.; Williams, Lauren; Kelly, Larry J.
Texas A&M University has long been known for its engineering and agricultural programs. Only in the last 50 years has its reputation included the preparation of teachers for general education in the public schools of Texas. However, agricultural education has been an integral part of the institution's mandate since early in the 20th century.…
Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Field, Harry
This longitudinal trend study sought to compare the perceptions of preservice agricultural education teachers, enrolled in a Metals and Welding course at a land grant university, on their welding related skills at the beginning of the semester to their final course grade at the end of the semester. Preservice agriculture teachers (N = 240) who…
April Hall Barczewski
Full Text Available AGsploration: The Science of Maryland Agriculture is a 24-lesson, peer-reviewed curriculum that includes experiential hands-on activities and built-in pre-/post-evaluation tools. Lesson topics include production agriculture, the environment and nutrition with emphasis on how science relates to each topic. Student pre-/post- evaluation data reflects participation in AGsploration positively affects students’ attitudes about agriculture and science. Separate evaluations were developed to survey two groups of trained teen teachers about the curriculum immediately following their training, 1-2 years after using the curriculum and another 3-4 years post involvement. The results demonstrated that teen teachers were an effective way to disseminate the curriculum and these same teens increased their agriculture knowledge, life skills and interest in agriculture science education and careers. A similar evaluation was conducted with adult educators following a training session and another 1-2 years after actively using the curriculum. This data suggests that the curriculum is well received and valued.
We review the current state of agricultural systems science, focusing in particular on the capabilities and limitations of agricultural systems models. We discuss the state of models relative to five different Use Cases spanning field, farm, landscape, regional, and global spatial scales and engaging questions in past, current, and future time periods. Contributions from multiple disciplines have made major advances relevant to a wide range of agricultural system model applications at various spatial and temporal scales. Although current agricultural systems models have features that are needed for the Use Cases, we found that all of them have limitations and need to be improved. We identified common limitations across all Use Cases, namely 1) a scarcity of data for developing, evaluating, and applying agricultural system models and 2) inadequate knowledge systems that effectively communicate model results to society. We argue that these limitations are greater obstacles to progress than gaps in conceptual theory or available methods for using system models. New initiatives on open data show promise for addressing the data problem, but there also needs to be a cultural change among agricultural researchers to ensure that data for addressing the range of Use Cases are available for future model improvements and applications. We conclude that multiple platforms and multiple models are needed for model applications for different purposes. The Use Cases provide a useful framework for considering capabilities and limitations of existing models and data.
It contributes to vegetation recovery after disturbances such as tree ... many regions particularly in the south eastern Nigeria. Presently, the .... temperate deciduous forest. Journal of ... Agriculture, Washington, D.C., Handbook No. 450. Steel ...
Wild vertebrate pests activities on agricultural crops at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. TF Ikpa, BI Dagba, JM Akusu, 33-37 ...
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 5, No 2 (2007) ... Marketing Of Bushmeat In Peri-Urban Areas Of Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, ... Sport Fisheries Potentials Of Agbokim Waterfalls, Cross River State, Nigeria ...
Trexler, Cary J.; Hess, Alexander J.; Hayes, Kathryn N.
Nationally, both science and agricultural education professional organizations have identified agriculture as a fundamental technology to be studied by students, with the goal of achieving an understanding of the agri-food system necessary for democratic participation. Benchmarks representing the content that K-12 children need to understand about…
Feldman, Shelley; Welsh, Rick
Issues raised by feminist epistemic critiques of social science are used to examine local (farmer-based) knowledge of agriculture and its contribution to analyses of agricultural sustainability. Focuses on the on-farm gender division of labor as critical in constituting the family farm, and elaborates how different experiences of men and women…
Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...
Full Text Available Agriculture and consumptive function of countryside (rural areas are connected which should be reflected in scientific research. In order to test relationships, we selected the topic of rural tourism (also agritourism, agrotourism, agricultural tourism considering sociological conceptualization (social sciences, sociology and methodological approaches of information sciences (bibliometrics, scientometrics in describing fields of science or scientific disciplines. We ascertained scatter of information in citation databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar. Functionalities were evaluated, affecting search precision and recall in information retrieval. We mapped documents to Scopus subject areas as well as Web of Science (WOS research areas and subject categories, and related publications (journals. Databases do not differ substantially in mapping this topic. Social sciences (including economics or business occupy by far the most important place. The strongest concentration was found in tourism-related journals (consistent with power laws. Agriculture-related publications are rare, accounting for some 10 % of documents. Interdisciplinarity seems to be weak. Results point to poor inclusion of emerging social topics in agricultural research whereby agriculture may lose out in possible venues of future research.
The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, ... frequency counts, Percentage and Pearson Product moment correlation. ... concluded that greater number of women crop farmers in the study area use indigenous coping ... Research findings have shown that ... Most studies assessing the potential effects.
Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...
Agricultural drought analysis for sustainable smallholder maize production in semi-arid areas: a case study of the Lower Moshi Irrigation Scheme, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Patrick Bell, Didas Kimaro, Rattan Lal ...
The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.
Bonnema, A.B.; Lin, Z.; Qu, L.; Jacobsen, E.
Scientific co-operation between the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and Wageningen University (WU) has been underway since 1990, especially in the field of plant sciences. In 2001, CAAS and WU initiated a formal joint PhD training programme to further structure their co-operation.
Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.
This curriculum guide, the second in a set of six, contains teacher and student materials for a unit on the electromagnetic spectrum prepared as part of a seventh- and eighth-grade agricultural science curriculum that is integrated with science instruction. The guide contains the state goals and sample learning objectives for each goal for…
This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science). Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.
Mechanical Self-Assembly: Science and Applications introduces a novel category of self-assembly driven by mechanical forces. This book discusses self-assembly in various types of small material structures including thin films, surfaces, and micro- and nano-wires, as well as the practice's potential application in micro and nanoelectronics, MEMS/NEMS, and biomedical engineering. The mechanical self-assembly process is inherently quick, simple, and cost-effective, as well as accessible to a large number of materials, such as curved surfaces for forming three-dimensional small structures. Mechanical self-assembly is complementary to, and sometimes offer advantages over, the traditional micro- and nano-fabrication. This book also: Presents a highly original aspect of the science of self-assembly Describes the novel methods of mechanical assembly used to fabricate a variety of new three-dimensional material structures in simple and cost-effective ways Provides simple insights to a number of biological systems and ...
Cooley, Zachary C.; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake
The main agricultural areas in South Florida are located within the fertile land surrounding Lake Okeechobee. The Atlantic Watershed monthly rainfall anomalies showed a weak but statistically significant correlation to the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI). No other watershed s anomalies showed significant correlations with ONI or the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). During La Nina months, less sea breeze days and more disturbed days were found to occur compared to El Nino and neutral months. The increase in disturbed days can likely by attributed to the synoptic pattern during La Nina, which is known to be favorable for tropical systems to follow paths that affect South Florida. Overall, neither sea breeze rainfall patterns nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida s main agricultural areas were found to be strongly influenced by the El Nino Southern Oscillation during our study time.
Sara Paulina Restrepo-Correa
Full Text Available Phosphorus, nitrogen, iron and potassium are some compounds necessary for plant growth and development; chemical fertilizers used to increase concentration significantly affect the environment and soil ecosystems. According to the scientific literature, microorganisms with biofertilizer potential have demonstrated various mechanisms of action to solubilize these compounds and thus meet the requirements of plants. This systematic review collects scientific information that describes the mechanisms of action of microbial fertilizers in agricultural soils, published between 2004 and 2014, in three different databases; ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and Scopus,using the search path (biofertilizer AND (bacteria OR fungi AND (effect OR action OR mechanism. After using different inclusion and exclusion criteria, the search displayed a total of 63 original articles, including six unindexed documents. As a result of the systematic review, it indicates that the production of various organic acids allows soil acidification, facilitating absorption of elements. It was also observed that solubilization of P is the most described mechanism, by obtaining a solubilizing of 726.5 mg/L of P due to P. pseudoalcaligenes
'Maputo, Declaration on Agriculture and food security in. Africa'. The Declaration ... last nine (9) years of military regime and the first nine (9) years of ... For Military. (1990-1998). 2.4. 1999. 2000. 2001. 2002. 2003. 2004. 2005. 2006. 2007. 2008. 947,690.0. 701,100.0. 1,018,000.0. 1,018,200.0. 1,226,000.0. 1,377,300.00.
Hersey, Mark D
Though they are often seen as foils for each other, ecology and agricultural science co-evolved. With shared roots in late nineteenth-century botany, ecologists and agronomists fostered important connections during the Progressive era that have been largely overlooked despite a number of finely nuanced studies of ecology's origins. But if 'applied ecology' once effectively meant agriculture, over the course of the first decades of the twentieth century the relationship between ecology and scientific agriculture grew strained. Agriculturists narrowed their focus to increasing yields, and ecologists sought to establish their discipline as a distant theoretical science and so distanced themselves from its agricultural applications. By the end of World War I, the process of disciplinary specialization was well underway. In time, the two disciplines diverged so completely that the once vital connections between them were obscured and forgotten.
Current developments as a direct result from the (binding) Paris Agreement1, adopted at the COP 21 December 2015, seem promising since the predominant role of science, technology and innovation in achieving the SDGs. Increasing farmers’ resilience toward climate change through new approaches as
Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E
Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project "LabelAgriWaste" revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process ("Quality I") and another one for plastic profile production process ("Quality II"). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This textbook teaches crucial statistical methods to answer research questions using a unique range of statistical software programs, including MINITAB and R. This textbook is developed for undergraduate students in agriculture, nursing, biology and biomedical research. Graduate students will also find it to be a useful way to refresh their statistics skills and to reference software options. The unique combination of examples is approached using MINITAB and R for their individual strengths. Subjects covered include among others data description, probability distributions, experimental design, regression analysis, randomized design and biological assay. Unlike other biostatistics textbooks, this text also includes outliers, influential observations in regression and an introduction to survival analysis. Material is taken from the author's extensive teaching and research in Africa, USA and the UK. Sample problems, references and electronic supplementary material accompany each chapter.
This book gives descriptions of future technology in Korea, by field : Life science, agriculture and forestry and fishery and health and medical treatment. It indicates the purpose of survey, survey system survey outline, characteristic of this survey, how to read the prediction of survey result, the result of survey with the tasks of survey object, field on important survey and development period of realizable prediction, obstacle of realization, propel ways for survey and development, policy tasks, important future technology chronological table, characteristic of respondent, the result of survey : Life science, agriculture and forestry and fishery and health and medical treatment.
Moore, Matthew D; Jaykus, Lee-Ann
Eukaryotic virus-bacteria interactions have recently become an emerging topic of study due to multiple significant examples related to human pathogens of clinical interest. However, such omnipresent and likely important interactions for viruses and bacteria relevant to the applied and agricultural sciences have not been reviewed or compiled. The fundamental basis of this review is that these interactions have importance and deserve more investigation, as numerous potential consequences and applications arising from their discovery are relevant to the applied sciences. The purpose of this review is to highlight and summarize eukaryotic virus-bacteria findings in the food/water, horticultural, and animal sciences. In many cases in the agricultural sciences, mechanistic understandings of the effects of virus-bacteria interactions remain unstudied, and many studies solely focus on co-infections of bacterial and viral pathogens. Given recent findings relative to human viral pathogens, further research related to virus-bacteria interactions would likely result in numerous discoveries and beneficial applications.
Bonnema, A.B.; Lin, Zhai; Qu, Liang; Jacobsen, E.
Scientific co-operation between the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and Wageningen University (WU) has been underway since 1990, especially in the field of plant sciences. In 2001, CAAS and WU initiated a formal joint PhD training programme to further structure their co-operation. The goals of this co-operation are to: (1) initiate long-term institutional collaboration through capacity building; (2) jointly establish a modern laboratory; (3) jointly develop a cross-cultural sc...
Mark Howden; Serena Schroeter; Steven Crimp; Ivan Hanigan
As the driest inhabited continent with a highly variable climate, Australia has had a long and evolving history of drought management in agriculture. This paper analyses the changing roles of science in the management of climate risk and uncertainty and how this may continue into the future. Initially science had a role in documenting the underlying nature of Australia׳s climate, and later broadening the understanding around the drivers of variability so as to provide useful climate forecasts...
Since the beginning of the twentieth century statistics has reshaped the experimental cultures of agricultural research taking part in the subtle dialectic between the epistemic and the material that is proper to experimental systems. This transformation has become especially relevant in field trials and the paper will examine the British agricultural institution, Rothamsted Experimental Station, where statistical methods nowadays popular in the planning and analysis of field experiments were developed in the 1920s. At Rothamsted statistics promoted randomisation over systematic arrangements, factorisation over one-question trials, and emphasised the importance of the experimental error in assessing field trials. These changes in methodology transformed also the material culture of agricultural science, and a new body, the Field Plots Committee, was created to manage the field research of the agricultural institution. Although successful, the vision of field experimentation proposed by the Rothamsted statisticians was not unproblematic. Experimental scientists closely linked to the farming community questioned it in favour of a field research that could be more easily understood by farmers. The clash between the two agendas reveals how the role attributed to statistics in field experimentation defined different pursuits of agricultural research, alternately conceived of as a scientists' science or as a farmers' science.
Full Text Available As an agricultural nation, the agricultural landscape is the basic appearance and existence in China, but the common existence often be neglected and contempted. As a new type of design and ideology, the development of urban agricultural landscape will greatly affect the texture and structure of the urban space. According to the urban agricultural production data and the socio-economic data of Weifang County, a set of evaluation index system that could analyze quantitatively the driving force of urban agricultural production changes and the internal drive mechanism was built. The original driving force indicators of economy, society, resources and environment from the time-series were chosen, and then 15 driving forces from the original driving forces by correlation analysis and principal component analysis were selected. The degree of influence was analyzed and the driving forces model by means of partial least squares(PLS was built. The results demonstrated that the factors greatly influenced the increase of urban agricultural output value in Weifang County were per capita net income of rural residents, agricultural machinery total power, effective irrigation area, centralized treatment rate of urban sewage, with the driving exponents 0.2509, 0.1019, 0.1655, 0.1332, respectively. The negative influence factor was the use amount of agricultural plastic film and the driving exponent was-0.2146. The research provides a reference for the development of urban agriculture, as well as a reference for the related study.
Full Text Available This article discusses a National 4-H Science agricultural biotechnology demonstration project and the impact of the pilot programs on the teenage leaders and teachers. A total of 82 teenagers were extensively trained, who in turn, engaged 620 youth participants with agricultural biotechnology education in afterschool and summer programs in five states. This article details the national and state level trainings for these teen teachers as well as the content rich partners from agribusinesses, agricultural commodity groups, and universities who supported their involvement. The impact on the content knowledge, science process and life skills, and program development and implementation skills of the teen leaders and teachers was evaluated using multiple instruments over multiple administrations (pre-training, post-training, and post-teaching. Results indicate significant gains in most areas assessed. Project recommendations and future plans are also discussed.
Daluba, Noah Ekeyi
The study investigated the effect of demonstration method of teaching on students' achievement in agricultural science in secondary school in Kogi East Education Zone of Kogi State. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design. The population for the study was 18225 senior…
Wingenbach, Gary J.; White, Judith McIntosh; Degenhart, Shannon; Pannkuk, Tim; Kujawski, Jenna
Self-efficacy beliefs are defined as context-specific assessments of one's competence to perform specific tasks, influence one's efforts, persistence, and resilience to succeed in a given task. Such beliefs are important determinants when considering agricultural science teachers' subject matter knowledge, teaching comfort levels, and their…
Ben, Camilus Bassey
The main purpose of this study is to investigate leadership among secondary school Agricultural Science teachers and their job performance in Akwa Ibom State. To achieve the aim of this study, three research hypotheses were generated to direct the study. Literature was reviewed based on the variables derived from the postulated hypotheses. Survey…
Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy
This grounded theory study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The most emergent phenomenon to surface from the data was the influence of beliefs on participants' PCK. This central phenomenon became the cornerstone for the model of what was shaping experienced agriculture…
Devendra Amatya; Wayne Skaggs; Carl Trettin
For more than a century, agricultural and biological engineers have provided major advances in science, engineering, and technology to increase food and fiber production to meet the demands of a rapidly growing global population. The land base for these technological advances has originated largely from forested lands, which have experienced dramatic declines over the...
Yu, W. S.; Luo, C. S.; Wei, Q. F.; Zheng, Y. M.; Cao, C. Z.
To deal with the “last kilometer” problem during the agricultural science and technology information service, the USB flash disk “Zixuntong”, which integrated five major consulting channels, i.e., telephone consultation, mutual video, message consultation, online customer service and QQ group was developed on the bases of capital experts and date resources. Since the products have the computer and telephone USB interface and are combined with localized information resources, users can obtain useful information on any terminal without the restriction of network. Meanwhile, the cartoon appearance make it friendly and attractive to people. The USB flash disk was used to provide agricultural expert consulting services and obtained a good preliminary application achievement. Finally, we concluded the creative application of USB flash disk in agricultural consulting services and prospected the future development direction of agricultural mobile consultation.
The accuracies of measurements of almost all fundamental physical constants have increased by factors of about 10,000 during the past 60 years. Although some of the improvements are due to greater care, most are due to new techniques based on quantum mechanics. In popular accounts of quantum mechanics, such great emphases is placed on the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle that it often appears that the primary effect of quantum mechanics should be to diminish measurement accuracy whereas in most cases it is the validity of quantum mechanics that makes possible the vastly improved measurement accuracies. Seven quantum features that have a profound influence on the science of measurements are: (1) Existence of discrete quantum states of energy W i . (2) Energy conservation in transitions between two states. (3) Electromagnetic radiation of frequency ν is quantized with energy hν per quantum. (4) The identity principle. (5) The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. (6) Addition of probability amplitudes (not probabilities) so P=vertical strokeψ 1 +ψ 2 vertical stroke 2 ≠vertical strokeψ 1 vertical stroke 2 +vertical strokeψ 2 vertical stroke 2 . (7) Wave and coherent phase phenomena. Of these seven quantum features, only the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle limits the accuracy of measurements, and its affect is often negligibly small. The other six features make possible much more accurate measurements of quantum systems than with almost all classical systems and the identity principle provides meaning and significance to highly precise measurements with quantized systems. These effects are discussed and illustrated. (orig.)
Viadero, Fernando; New Trends in Mechanism and Machine Science : from Fundamentals to Industrial Applications
This work presents the most recent research in the mechanism and machine science field and its applications. The topics covered include: theoretical kinematics, computational kinematics, mechanism design, experimental mechanics, mechanics of robots, dynamics of machinery, dynamics of multi-body systems, control issues of mechanical systems, mechanisms for biomechanics, novel designs, mechanical transmissions, linkages and manipulators, micro-mechanisms, teaching methods, history of mechanism science and industrial and non-industrial applications. This volume consists of the Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Mechanisms Science (EUCOMES), that was held in Guimarães, Portugal, from September 16 – 20, 2014. The EUCOMES is the main forum for the European community working in Mechanisms and Machine Science.
Ceccarelli, Marco; New Trends in Mechanism and Machine Science : Theory and Applications in Engineering
This book contains the papers of the European Conference on Mechanisms Science (EUCOMES 2012 Conference). The book presents the most recent research developments in the mechanism and machine science field and their applications. Topics addressed are theoretical kinematics, computational kinematics, mechanism design, experimental mechanics, mechanics of robots, dynamics of machinery, dynamics of multi-body systems, control issues of mechanical systems, mechanisms for biomechanics, novel designs, mechanical transmissions, linkages and manipulators, micro-mechanisms, teaching methods, history of mechanism science and industrial and non-industrial applications. This volume will also serve as an interesting reference for European activity in the fields of Mechanism and Machine Science as well as a source of inspiration for future works and developments.
Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady
The purpose of this study was to describe agricultural science and technology teachers' reaction to iPod and mp3 technology use and potential use in both curricular and cocurricular activities. A total of 112 unique respondents provided written responses to open-ended questions. Study findings reveal that agricultural science and technology…
Jian , Ma
International audience; First, current situation on Network of agricultural science and technology resources is described. Then we pay much attention to the quality of service monitoring and analysis system of network resources. And finally, we come to the conclusion that the construction of Quality of service monitoring, analysis of network of agricultural science and technology resources is in great need.
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.
Heelan, Patrick A.
An analysis of the hermeneutical aspect of quantum mechanical measurement reveals close analogs with the hermeneutical social/historical sciences. Suggests that the hermeneutical analysis of science requires the move from the epistemological attitude to an ontological view. (LZ)
Fernández Prieto, Leida
This essay explores the participation of Latin America and the Caribbean in the construction and circulation of tropical agricultural science during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. It uses the term "islands of knowledge" to underscore the idea that each producing region across the global tropics, including Latin America and the Caribbean, was instrumental in the creation, adoption, and application of scientific procedures. At the same time, it emphasizes the value of interchange and interconnection between these regions, as well as the many and heterogeneous local areas, for analyzing what it calls "global archipelago agricultural scientific knowledge." This focus challenges the traditional center/periphery hierarchy and opens it to a wider vision of science and practice in agriculture. This essay shows how writing in related areas of research--specifically, commodity histories, biological exchange studies, and knowledge exchange studies--introduces approaches and case studies that are useful for the history of tropical agricultural science. In particular, this work provides analytical frameworks for developing studies of exchanges across the Global South.
Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.
Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.
During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.
Saucier, P. Ryan; Vincent, Stacy K.; Anderson, Ryan G.
The frequency and severity of accidents that occur in the agricultural mechanics laboratory can be reduced when these facilities are managed by educators who are competent in the area of laboratory safety and facility management (McKim & Saucier, 2011). To ensure teachers are technically competent and prepared to manage an agricultural…
Full Text Available As the driest inhabited continent with a highly variable climate, Australia has had a long and evolving history of drought management in agriculture. This paper analyses the changing roles of science in the management of climate risk and uncertainty and how this may continue into the future. Initially science had a role in documenting the underlying nature of Australia׳s climate, and later broadening the understanding around the drivers of variability so as to provide useful climate forecasts and developing metrics to measure and compare the severity of extreme climatic events. Over time this has shifted to providing effective integrating approaches to enhance social cohesion, rural economies, environmental protection, health, and food security under drought conditions. Institutional responses initially framed drought as a natural disaster, for which State and Federal funding for farmers was distributed; however, the need for farmers to proactively manage climate risk and build adaptive capacity has resulted in climate variability being seen as a risk to be managed as part of normal practise. The formulation of a national drought policy in 1992 placed responsibility for adaptation and education in the hands of the farmers, where science played various roles, including the provision of training for strategic business planning and decision-making, methods of managing uncertainty as well as via delivery of climate data and methods to integrate this into meaningful information that is embedded into the social and institutional processes through which decisions are made. This policy continues to evolve and science inputs will evolve with this. In particular, we anticipate that ongoing and projected climate changes will impact on drought frequency and severity and will require science integrated with stakeholder input into developing climate adaptation practices and technologies and effective adoption paths particularly to deal with climate extremes
Chen, Shu-Peng; He, Ling-Yun
Based on Partition Function and Multifractal Spectrum Analysis, we investigated the nonlinear dynamical mechanisms in China’s agricultural futures markets, namely, Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE for short) and Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE for short), where nearly all agricultural futures contracts are traded in the two markets. Firstly, we found nontrivial multifractal spectra, which are the empirical evidence of the existence of multifractal features, in 4 representative futures markets in China, that is, Hard Winter wheat (HW for short) and Strong Gluten wheat (SG for short) futures markets from ZCE and Soy Meal (SM for short) futures and Soy Bean No.1 (SB for short) futures markets from DCE. Secondly, by shuffling the original time series, we destroyed the underlying nonlinear temporal correlation; thus, we identified that long-range correlation mechanism constitutes major contributions in the formation in the multifractals of the markets. Thirdly, by tracking the evolution of left- and right-half spectra, we found that there exist critical points, between which there are different behaviors, in the left-half spectra for large price fluctuations; but for the right-hand spectra for small price fluctuations, the width of those increases slowly as the delay t increases in the long run. Finally, the dynamics of large fluctuations is significantly different from that of the small ones, which implies that there exist different underlying mechanisms in the formation of multifractality in the markets. Our main contributions focus on that we not only provided empirical evidence of the existence of multifractal features in China agricultural commodity futures markets; but also we pioneered in investigating the sources of the multifractality in China’s agricultural futures markets in current literature; furthermore, we investigated the nonlinear dynamical mechanisms based on spectrum analysis, which offers us insights into the underlying dynamical mechanisms in
Many historians today prefer to speak of knowledge and practice rather than science and technology. Here I argue for the value of reinstating the terms science, techniques and technology as tools for a more precise analysis of governmentality and the workings of power. My tactic is to use these three categories and their articulations to highlight flows between matter and ideas in the production and reproduction of knowledge. In any society, agriculture offers a wonderfully rich case of how ideas, material goods and social relations interweave. In China agronomy was a science of state, the basis of legitimate rule. I compare different genres of agronomic treatise to highlight what officials, landowners and peasants respectively contributed to, and expected from, this charged natural knowledge. I ask how new forms of textual and graphic inscription for encoding agronomic knowledge facilitated its dissemination and ask how successful this knowledge proved when rematerialized and tested as concrete artefacts or techniques. I highlight forms of innovation in response to crisis, and outline the overlapping interpretative frameworks within which the material applications of Chinese agricultural science confirmed and extended its truth across space and time.
Matthew D. Moore
Full Text Available Eukaryotic virus–bacteria interactions have recently become an emerging topic of study due to multiple significant examples related to human pathogens of clinical interest. However, such omnipresent and likely important interactions for viruses and bacteria relevant to the applied and agricultural sciences have not been reviewed or compiled. The fundamental basis of this review is that these interactions have importance and deserve more investigation, as numerous potential consequences and applications arising from their discovery are relevant to the applied sciences. The purpose of this review is to highlight and summarize eukaryotic virus–bacteria findings in the food/water, horticultural, and animal sciences. In many cases in the agricultural sciences, mechanistic understandings of the effects of virus–bacteria interactions remain unstudied, and many studies solely focus on co-infections of bacterial and viral pathogens. Given recent findings relative to human viral pathogens, further research related to virus–bacteria interactions would likely result in numerous discoveries and beneficial applications.
Images form important data and information in biological sciences. Until recently photography was the only method to reproduce and report such data. It is difficult to quantify or treat the photographic data mathematically. Digital image processing and image analysis technology based on recent advances in microelectronics and computers circumvents these problems associated with traditional photography. WIPSA (Workshop on Applications of Image Processing in Plant Sciences and Agriculture) will feature topics on the basic aspects of computers, imaging hardware and software as well advanced aspects such as colour image processing, high performance computing, neural networks, 3-D imaging and virtual reality. Imaging done using ultrasound, thermal, x-rays and γ rays, neutron radiography and the film-less phosphor-imager technology will also be discussed. Additionally application of image processing/analysis in plant sciences, medicine and satellite imagery are discussed. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Feb 28, 2013 ... A Refresher Course in Quantum Mechanics for college/university teachers ... The Course will cover the basic and advanced topics of Quantum ... Module 1:- Principles of Quantum Mechanics (with associated mathematics), ...
Olatomide Waheed Olowa
Full Text Available The paper reports a study carried out on the utilisation of the Internet by agricultural science teachers in Lagos state focusing on uses, practices, and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature and was administered to 300 agricultural science teachers in Lagos schools. 275 questionnaires properly completed were analyzed. Data reveal that 130 teachers are using the Internet for teaching agricultural science in classrooms as well as for various activities that enhance their professional development. Nevertheless, it was found that agricultural science teachers in Lagos State have not fully utilised the Internet because of barriers related to time factor, accessibility, and facilities. It is suggested that for the proliferation of Internet practices, there needs to be an increase in funding for technology, an introduction of computer/technology education, a provision of pedagogical training for teachers, and a provision of administrational support.
Stewart, Bob R.; McCaskey, Michael J.
These two units are designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. The first unit, on meat identification, is to be taught as part of the first year of instruction in agricultural science, while the second unit, advanced meats, was prepared for use with 11th- and 12th-grade students in…
Full Text Available Mechanical operations such as mowing, tilling, seeding, and harvesting are well-known sources of direct avian mortality in agricultural fields. However, there are currently no mortality rate estimates available for any species group or larger jurisdiction. Even reviews of sources of mortality in birds have failed to address mechanical disturbance in farm fields. To overcome this information gap we provide estimates of total mortality rates by mechanical operations for five selected species across Canada. In our step-by-step modeling approach we (i quantified the amount of various types of agricultural land in each Bird Conservation Region (BCR in Canada, (ii estimated population densities by region and agricultural habitat type for each selected species, (iii estimated the average timing of mechanical agricultural activities, egg laying, and fledging, (iv and used these values and additional demographical parameters to derive estimates of total mortality by species within each BCR. Based on our calculations the total annual estimated incidental take of young ranged from ~138,000 for Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris to as much as ~941,000 for Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis. Net losses to the fall flight of birds, i.e., those birds that would have fledged successfully in the absence of mechanical disturbance, were, for example ~321,000 for Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus and ~483,000 for Savannah Sparrow. Although our estimates are subject to an unknown degree of uncertainty, this assessment is a very important first step because it provides a broad estimate of incidental take for a set of species that may be particularly vulnerable to mechanical operations and a starting point for future refinements of model parameters if and when they become available.
In addition to their well-known uses in physiology, biochemistry, and medicine, short-lived radioisotopes have played an important part in promoting the authors knowledge of the agricultural and environmental sciences. Numerous investigators have found that the scientific rewards justify the additional demands associated with use of short-lived radioisotopes when novel or uniquely precise results can be achieved. This is best exemplified by examining the use of 13 N. Nitrogen-13 is the longest lived radioisotope of this very important element. The 10-min half-life of 13 N has required that the agricultural or environmental test model be brought to the laboratory where the isotope is made, but this has been done successfully in numerous instances. One major incentive for this research has probably been the fact that there is no analog of the very useful 14 C tracer to study nitrogen chemistry and biology
I reflect on several aspects of the general claim that a quantum-like approach to Cognitive Science is advantageous over classical approaches. The classical approaches refer to the symbolic approaches including models using a classical (Kolmogorov) probability calculus. The general claim seems to be
This article presents an Internet worm countermeasure mechanism that uses DNS activities as a behavioural technique to detect worm propagation. The mechanism also uses a data-link containment solution to block traffic from an infected host. The concept has been demonstrated using a developed prototype and tested in ...
An instructor's manual and student activity guide on seed germination are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…
El-Sakhawy, M.M.; Hassan, M.L.
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested
El-Sakhawy, M M; Hassan, M L [Cellulose and Paper Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested.
Full Text Available Africa remains an intensely agrarian continent, with two-thirds of its people directly or indirectly deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Higher agricultural education has thus emphasised production of graduates with the requisite skills to drive agricultural development. Despite these efforts, too few graduates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have the employable skills necessary to transition to the labour market. A similar situation is observable among agricultural science graduates, who are vital to serving rural smallholder farmers. Most Colleges of Agriculture in Africa offer field attachment internships in agriculture and related fields but they are largely designed to cater for undergraduate students and are not part of the training programs at graduate level. To ameliorate this gap, the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM, a network of 55 member universities in SSA, designed and rolled out an innovative field attachment program award (FAPA, launched in 2010, to serve graduate students. The FAPA is competitively based and designed to encourage students to follow through with the dissemination of their research and to enable them to link more closely with the communities and agencies working in the geographical area where the research was undertaken. During the period 2010–2015, five grant cycles were successfully implemented and 114 graduate students from 17 countries in SSA awarded. This article discusses the lessons learned during this period by examining two key areas: (1 the application process and implementation of the awards; and (2 the reported outcomes and challenges for grantees. Establishing the award has generated key technical and implementation lessons that the network and individual universities have been able to use to improve and institutionalise processes. Grantees have reported gaining a range of cross-cutting skills in personal mastery, initiative leadership and innovativeness
Feb 27, 2018 ... Post Graduate and Research Department of Physics. Bishop Moore ... The Course will cover the basic and advanced topics of Statistical. Mechanics ... Courses of good standing for promotion, vide notification. F3-1/2009 ...
research scholars will be held at the Post-Graduate ... The Course is primarily aimed at teachers involved in teaching quantum mechanics at ... Module 2: Scattering, time-independent perturbations, WKB, variational method;. Module 3: Symmetries ...
Kyle, P.; Calvin, K. V.; le Page, Y.; Patel, P.; West, T. O.; Wise, M. A.
The research, policy, and NGO communities have devoted significant attention to the potential for agricultural intensification, or closure of "yield gaps," to alleviate future global hunger, poverty, climate change impacts, and other threats. However, because the research to this point has focused on biophysically attainable yields—assuming optimal choices under ideal conditions—the presently available work has not yet addressed the likely responses of the agricultural sector to real-world conditions in the future. This study investigates endogenous agricultural intensification in response to global climate change impacts—that is, intensification independent of policies or other exogenous interventions to promote yield gap closure. The framework for the analysis is a set of scenarios to 2100 in the GCAM global integrated assessment model, enhanced to include endogenous irrigation, fertilizer application, and yields, in each of 283 land use regions, with maximum yields based on the 95th percentile of attainable yields in a recent global assessment. We assess three levels of agricultural climate impacts, using recent global gridded crop model datasets: none, low (LPJmL), and high (Pegasus). Applying formulations for decomposition of climate change impacts response developed in prior AgMIP work, we find that at the global level, availability of high-yielding technologies mitigates price shocks and shifts the agricultural sector's climate response modestly towards intensification, away from cropland expansion and reduced production. At the regional level, the behavior is more complex; nevertheless, availability of high-yielding production technologies enhances the inter-regional shifts in agricultural production that are induced by climate change, complemented by commensurate changes in trade patterns. The results highlight the importance of policies to facilitate yield gap closure and inter-regional trade as mechanisms for adapting to climate change
Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia
Research often assumes that, in rural areas of developing countries, adverse climatic conditions increase (climate driver mechanism) rather than reduce (climate inhibitor mechanism) migration, and that the impact of climate on migration is moderated by changes in agricultural productivity (agricultural pathway). Using representative census data in combination with high-resolution climate data derived from the novel Terra Populus system, we explore the climate-migration relationship in rural Burkina Faso and Senegal. We construct four threshold-based climate measures to investigate the effect of heat waves, cold snaps, droughts and excessive precipitation on the likelihood of household-level international outmigration. Results from multi-level logit models show that excessive precipitation increases international migration from Senegal while heat waves decrease international mobility in Burkina Faso, providing evidence for the climate inhibitor mechanism. Consistent with the agricultural pathway, interaction models and results from a geographically weighted regression (GWR) reveal a conditional effect of droughts on international outmigration from Senegal, which becomes stronger in areas with high levels of groundnut production. Moreover, climate change effects show a clear seasonal pattern, with the strongest effects appearing when heat waves overlap with the growing season and when excessive precipitation occurs prior to the growing season.
Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia
Research often assumes that, in rural areas of developing countries, adverse climatic conditions increase (climate driver mechanism) rather than reduce (climate inhibitor mechanism) migration, and that the impact of climate on migration is moderated by changes in agricultural productivity (agricultural pathway). Using representative census data in combination with high-resolution climate data derived from the novel Terra Populus system, we explore the climate-migration relationship in rural Burkina Faso and Senegal. We construct four threshold-based climate measures to investigate the effect of heat waves, cold snaps, droughts and excessive precipitation on the likelihood of household-level international outmigration. Results from multi-level logit models show that excessive precipitation increases international migration from Senegal while heat waves decrease international mobility in Burkina Faso, providing evidence for the climate inhibitor mechanism. Consistent with the agricultural pathway, interaction models and results from a geographically weighted regression (GWR) reveal a conditional effect of droughts on international outmigration from Senegal, which becomes stronger in areas with high levels of groundnut production. Moreover, climate change effects show a clear seasonal pattern, with the strongest effects appearing when heat waves overlap with the growing season and when excessive precipitation occurs prior to the growing season. PMID:28943813
Full Text Available Smallholder farmers are the main producers of the world’s food and they will have to increase production by up to 100 percent by 2050 to feed the growing population. This must be achieved while preserving natural resources and that is why sustainable agricultural mechanization (SAM will be fundamental to the process. SAM is climate-smart and environmentally benign and essentially means no-till conservation agriculture, which requires specific mechanization inputs. Principally, these are seeders and planters capable of penetrating soil surface vegetative cover to deposit seed and fertilizer at the required depth and spacing; and equipment for management of cover crops and weeds. Mechanization is required not only for crop production, but also for processing and along the entire value chain. Mechanization inputs are usually expensive and so specialist service provision will be the indicated way forward. This will need collaboration from both the private and public sectors and will involve public-private partnerships to be developed in one form or another. Given the poor track record of public sector mechanization provision, the delivery of SAM should be firmly in the hands of the private sector that should be committed to SAM principles or otherwise be incentivized to the concept through smart subsidies. Improved information flows via smallholder farmer-friendly innovation platforms; and continuing development and testing of SAM technologies via regional centres of excellence will both be required—especially for sub-Saharan Africa.
Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.
Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is
Full text: The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations
Full text:The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations
Emo, Kenneth Roy
Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.
Wood, Brennon A; Blair, Hugh T; Gray, David I; Kemp, Peter D; Kenyon, Paul R; Morris, Steve T; Sewell, Alison M
Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group's members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant implications for theorizing
Brennon A Wood
Full Text Available Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group's members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant
McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan
For more than 20 years, the 50 agricultural mechanics laboratory management competencies identified by Johnson and Schumacher in 1989 have served as the basis for numerous needs assessments of secondary agriculture teachers. This study reevaluated Johnson and Schumacher's instrument, as modified by Saucier, Schumacher, Funkenbusch, Terry, and…
Trexler, Cary J.; Meischen, Deanna
Interviews with eight preservice elementary teachers regarding benchmarks related to agricultural technology for food and fiber showed that those from rural areas had more complex understanding of the trade-offs in technology use; urban residents were more concerned with ethical dilemmas. Pesticide pollution was most understood, genetic…
Full Text Available The article analyzes the structure of the potential of innovative development of the of ukrainian agroindustrial sector. There was studied scientific potential and agribusiness production capacity in order to identify significant disparities hamper scientific and industrial cooperation. The author considers the market and the state priorities of innovation and constructed cross-section. The recommendations for areas of improvement of the innovative development organizational-economic mechanism of the sector, which will enhance the competitiveness of agribusiness sector, providing a high level of scientific and technological development of the agricultural sector as one of the priorities in Ukraine.
This highly multidisciplinary volume contains contributions from leading researchers in STEAM-H disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, Mathematics and Health). The volume explores new frontiers in multidisciplinary research, including: the mathematics of cardiac arrhythmia; brain research on working memory; penalized ordinal regression to classify melanoma skin samples; forecasting of time series data; dynamics of niche models; analysis of chemical moieties as anticancer agents; study of gene locus control regions; qualitative mathematical modelling; convex quadrics and group circle systems; remanufacturing planning and control; complexity reduction of functional differential equations; computation of viscous interfacial motion; and differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells. An extension of a seminar series at Virginia State University, the collection is intended to foster student interest and participation in interdisciplinary research, and to stimulate new research. The content wi...
Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J
The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. © 2016 J. E. Parker and D. J. Wagner. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Lamm, Alexa J.
The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of cognitive style and problem complexity on Oklahoma State University preservice agriculture teachers' (N = 56) ability to solve problems in small gasoline engines. Time to solution was operationalized as problem solving ability. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was…
Grady, Julie R.
The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to investigate the practice of scientific inquiry in two secondary biology classes and one agriculture class from different schools in different communities. The focus was on teachers' interests and intentions for the students' participation in inquiry, the voices contributing to the inquiry, and students' opportunities to confront their conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP) served as the context by providing students with opportunities to design and conduct original experiments to help elucidate the function(s) of a disabled gene in Arabidopsis thaliana . Transcripts of teacher and student semi-structured interviews, field notes of classroom observations and classroom conversations, and documents (e.g., student work, teacher handouts, school websites, PREP materials) were analyzed for evidence of the practice of scientific inquiry. Teachers were interested in implementing inquiry because of potential student learning about scientific research and because PREP supports course content and is connected to a larger scientific project outside of the school. Teachers' intentions regarding the implementation of inquiry reflected the complexity of their courses and the students' previous experiences. All inquiries were student-directed. The biology students' participation more closely mirrored the practice of scientists, while the agriculture students were more involved with the procedural display of scientific inquiry. All experiences could have been enhanced from additional knowledge-centered activities regarding scientific reasoning. No activities brought explicit attention to NOS. Biology activities tended to implicitly support NOS while the agriculture class activities tended to implicitly contradict NOS. Scientists' interactions contributed to implied support of the NOS. There were missed opportunities for explicit attention to NOS in all classes
Pearson, Camilla E.
Little is known about the concerns and needs of early career agricultural teachers associated with the various routes to certification and how these routes address those concerns. The purpose of this study is to determine how selected early career agriculture teachers perceive their teacher preparation program and how effective their programs were at addressing these concerns during their first year of teaching. The sample consisted of secondary agricultural teachers in Texas FFA Areas V and VI, who self-identified themselves as an early career agricultural teacher in their first 3 years of teaching. The first phase included a web-based survey administered to assess the concerns of early career agricultural teachers. Two Likert-type scales were used, and these were used to assess the perceived importance of problems faced by early career agricultural teachers and the frequency in which they encounter those problems. The second phase included a qualitative interview to better understand the perceived relationship between participants' undergraduate preparation, experiences in agriculture and related organizations, and other related activities in preparing them as agriculture science teachers. The teachers interviewed in this study indicated that overall, they were pleased with their preparation. Teacher educators from both programs should address the concerns presented from all teachers to further prepare them for issues faced by early career teachers because it is evident that these issues are not going away.
The Mode Reform of Cultivating Marketing Talents in Agricultural Vocational Colleges Based on the Perspective of Agricultural Enterprises——A Case Study of Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology
We conduct survey on the characteristics of demand of agricultural enterprises for agricultural marketing talents from the following 6 aspects:the professional marketing talents needed urgently by the agricultural enterprises,the amount of demand of agricultural enterprises for the marketing talents,the jobs offered by the agricultural enterprises,the educational background of agricultural marketing talents favored by the agricultural enterprises,the requirements posed by the agricultural enterprises on the work experience of agricultural marketing talents,and the quality requirements posed by the agricultural enterprises on the agricultural marketing talents.We analyse the problems existing in the cultivation mode of marketing talents in agricultural vocational colleges as follows:the feature of major is not outstanding;the contradiction between supply and demand is prominent;it is disconnected with the practical needs of agricultural enterprises;the cultivation form of practical ability is simple.On the basis of this,taking Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology as an example,we advance the new mode of cultivating inter-disciplinary talents integrating "marketing technique+technique marketing",and establish characteristic agricultural course combo system on the basis of vocational position orientation.In the meantime,we propose that we should conduct close college-enterprise cooperation with the local leading agricultural enterprises.This cultivation mode reform of talents is favorable for the agricultural enterprises,especially small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises to foster "marketable" agricultural marketing talents,elevate the comprehensive competitiveness of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises,serve the local economy,and promote the development of modern agriculture,and China’s agriculture,farmer,and countryside.
Band, Yehuda B
Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information th...
Full Text Available Abstract Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced. It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct
Recognizing the vital role that a herbarium plays in instruction, research, and public service, the Cebu State College of Science and Technology College of Agriculture (CSCSTCA) in Lahug, Cebu City, the Philippines, founded a herbarium in June 1987. It is a very humble scientific project of the
Bedgood, Leslie; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Dooley, Kim E.
Technological advances have created unlimited opportunities in education. Training and technology have merged to create new methods referred to as technology-based training. The purpose of this study was to identify organizations that hire agriculture and life sciences students for positions involving technology-based training and identify…
Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.
This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…
Hess, Alexander Jay
Science and agriculture professional organizations have argued for agricultural literacy as a goal for K-12 public education. Due to the complexity of our modern agri-food system, with social, economic, and environmental concerns embedded, an agriculturally literate society is needed for informed decision making, democratic participation, and system reform. While grade-span specific benchmarks for gauging agri-food system literacy have been developed, little attention has been paid to existing ideas individuals hold about the agri-food system, how these existing ideas relate to benchmarks, how experience shapes such ideas, or how ideas change overtime. Developing a body of knowledge on students' agri-food system understandings as they develop across K-12 grades can ground efforts seeking to promote a learning progression toward agricultural literacy. This study compares existing perceptions held by 18 upper elementary students from a large urban center in California to agri-food system literacy benchmarks and examines the perceptions against student background and experiences. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Constructivist theoretical perspectives framed the study. No student had ever grown their own food, raised a plant, or cared for an animal. Participation in school fieldtrips to farms or visits to a relative's garden were agricultural experiences most frequently mentioned. Students were able to identify common food items, but could not elaborate on their origins, especially those that were highly processed. Students' understanding of post-production activities (i.e. food processing, manufacturing, or food marketing) was not apparent. Students' understanding of farms reflected a 1900's subsistence farming operation commonly found in a literature written for the primary grades. Students were unaware that plants and animals were selected for production based on desired genetic traits. Obtaining
Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig
Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…
Sarkar, Sara F; Poon, Jacquelyne S; Lepage, Etienne; Bilecki, Lori; Girard, Benoit
Science and innovation are important components underpinning the agricultural and agri-food system in Canada. Canada's vast geographical area presents diverse, regionally specific requirements in addition to the 21st century agricultural challenges facing the overall sector. As the broader needs of the agricultural landscape have evolved and will continue to do so in the next few decades, there is a trend in place to transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy, contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emission and our dependency on non-renewable resources. We highlight some of the key policy drivers on an overarching national scale and those specific to agricultural research and innovation that are critical to fostering a supportive environment for innovation and a sustainable bioeconomy. As well, we delineate some major challenges and opportunities facing agriculture in Canada, including climate change, sustainable agriculture, clean technologies, and agricultural productivity, and some scientific initiatives currently underway to tackle these challenges. The use of various technologies and scientific efforts, such as Next Generation Sequencing, metagenomics analysis, satellite image analysis and mapping of soil moisture, and value-added bioproduct development will accelerate scientific development and innovation and its contribution to a sustainable and prosperous bioeconomy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ronalds W. Gonzalez
Full Text Available The use of thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP, an existing and well known technology in the pulp and paper industry, is proposed as a potential pretreatment pathway of agriculture biomass for monomeric sugar production in preparation for further fermentation into alcohol species. Three agricultural biomass types, corn stover, wheat straw, and sweet sorghum bagasse, were pretreated in a TMP unit under two temperature conditions, 160 ºC and 170 ºC, and hydrolyzed using cellulase at 5, 10, and 20 FPU/g OD biomass. Wheat straw biomass was further pretreated at different conditions including: i soaking with acetic acid, ii longer steaming residence time (15 and 30 min, and iii refined at lower disk gap (0.0508 and 0.1524 mm. Preliminary results showed that carbohydrate conversion increased from 25% to 40% when the TMP temperature was increased from 160 to 170 ºC. Carbohydrate conversion was relatively similar for the three biomasses under the same pretreatment conditions and enzyme loading. Acetic acid soaking and refining at a reduce disk gap increases carbohydrate conversion. Further studies within this technological field to identify optimum process and TMP conditions for pretreatment are suggested.
Better methods of agricultural production, availability of hybrid and mutant varieties of crop plants, irrigation, fertilizers and pesticides have all helped boost up agricultural production, and famines and droughts remain restricted to a few pockets in the world. Innovative approach to step up agricultural production, especially of food crops symbolize synergy and synthesis of conventional and mutation breeding aided by modern biotechnological tools like DNA markers and gene manipulation in tune with the policy of environmental and soil conservation. It has increased the production of oil seeds in India during the last decade with a shift from groundnut and mustard to soybean and sunflower. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai which has strongly pursued the important societal programmes using nuclear technology in agriculture and health, has made a very significant impact on the country's agriculture by developing 27 new crop varieties mostly of oil seeds and pulses. Further, radiation processing of food, pioneered in India by BARC, is now gaining global acceptance and has opened new vistas for agriculture exports. The present symposium is dedicated to trends in research of technologies in agriculture and food sciences. The papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Hayman, P. [Climate Change Risk and Vulnerability, Allen Consulting Group, Melbourne (Australia)
Overview of the impacts, adaptive capacity and vulnerability at crop, farm, industry and community level in the agricultural sector of the Murray-Darling basin and other key Australian agricultural areas.
Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA is an increasingly adopted production system to meet the goals of sustainable crop production intensification in feeding a growing world population whilst conserving natural resources. Mechanization (especially power units, seeders, rippers and sprayers is a key input for CA and smallholder farmers often have difficulties in making the necessary investments. Donors may be able to provide mechanization inputs in the short term, but this is not a sustainable solution as a machinery input supply chain needs to be built up to continue availability after external interventions cease. Local manufacture should be supported, as was the case in Brazil, but this is a slow development process, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. A more immediate solution is to equip and train CA service provision entrepreneurs. With the right equipment, selected for the needs of their local clientele, and the right technical and business management training, such entrepreneurs can make a livelihood by supplying high quality CA and other mechanization services on a fully costed basis. Elements of the required training, based on extensive field experience, are provided. To catalyse the growth of CA providers’ business, the market can be stimulated for an initial period by issuing e-vouchers for services and inputs.
Full Text Available This paper discusses a number of aspects concerning the analysis, interpretation and reporting of correlations in agricultural sciences. Various problems that one might encounter with these aspects are identified, and suggestions of how to overcome these problems are proposed. Some of the examples presented show how mistaken and even misleading the interpretation of correlation can be when one ignores simple rules of analysis.Este artigo discute uma série de aspectos relacionados a análise, interpretação e forma de relatar correlações em ciências Agrárias. São identificados vários problemas que podem ser encontrados, bem como feitas sugestões de como superá-los. Alguns dos exemplos apresentados mostram quão erradas e mesmo enganosas podem ser as interpretações de correlação quando regras simples de análise são ignoradas.
Sharifzadeh, Aboulghasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein
According to empirical evidence and noted implications of sustainable agricultural development as a systemic and multi-actor process, integration of the research function of higher agricultural education in Iranian agricultural research systems seems to be an ongoing and considerable necessity. With the aim of identification and analysis of…
John D. Hodges
Full Text Available Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research comparing subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing treatments. A total of 4,320 bare-root Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley, Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckley, and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt. seedlings were planted in February 2008 on three Mississippi sites. All sites were of comparable soils and received above average precipitation throughout the three-year duration of the study. Four site preparation treatments were replicated at each site, with 480 seedlings planted in each of nine replications, and a total of 1,440 seedlings per species planted across all sites. Mechanical treatments were installed using 3.1 m row centers, with treatments as follows: control, subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing. Treatment effects on seedling height, groundline diameter (GLD, and survival were analyzed. Seedlings exhibited greater height in bedded and combination plowed areas (79.7 cm to 102.7 cm and 82.6 cm to 100.1 cm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (70.4 cm to 84.6 cm and 71.4 cm to 86.9 cm, respectively. Greater GLD was observed in bedded and combination plowed areas (11.9 mm to 18.4 mm and 12.2 mm to 18.3 mm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (10.2 mm to 14.6 mm and 10.5 mm to 15.6 mm, respectively. Survival was high for this study (94.%, and no differences were detected among treatments.
Full Text Available The present investigation, by reviewing 22,617 records indexed between 2000 and 2008 in the Web of Science database and employing citation analysis methods attempts to identify key authors and institutes and their degree of collaboration, core journals, rate of scientific output, publishing forms and languages and leading countries in this field. It also attempts to draw a histographic outline of the agricultural science. The average annual growth in publications for the period studied was shown to be seven percent. Total of 22,617 records were presented in 15 different formats in 25 languages. 173 countries were involved. All agricultural articles retrieved from WOS had been submitted from 14,852 institutes and published in 3252 journals. 51,655 authors were identified who had cited 658381 sources. The clusters formed in the histographic outline based on LCS and GCS also included five clusters.
Beachy, Roger N
The high rate of return on investments in research and development in agriculture, estimated at between 20- and 40-fold, provides a strong rationale for increasing financial support for such research. Furthermore, the urgency to provide sufficient nutrition for a growing population amid growing demands for an expanding bioeconomy, while facing population growth and changing global weather patterns heightens the urgency to expand research and development in this field. Unfortunately, support by governments for research has increased at a fraction of the rate of increases in support of research for health, energy, etc. Although there have been significant increases in investments by the private sector over the past two decades, much of the foundational research that supports private-sector activities is generated in the public sector. To achieve the greatest benefits of breakthroughs in research, it may be necessary to reconfigure research funding and technology transfer mechanisms in order to more rapidly apply discoveries to local needs as well as to global challenges. Some changes will likely require significant organizational, administrative and operational changes in education and research institutions.
Beachy, Roger N.
The high rate of return on investments in research and development in agriculture, estimated at between 20- and 40-fold, provides a strong rationale for increasing financial support for such research. Furthermore, the urgency to provide sufficient nutrition for a growing population amid growing demands for an expanding bioeconomy, while facing population growth and changing global weather patterns heightens the urgency to expand research and development in this field. Unfortunately, support by governments for research has increased at a fraction of the rate of increases in support of research for health, energy, etc. Although there have been significant increases in investments by the private sector over the past two decades, much of the foundational research that supports private-sector activities is generated in the public sector. To achieve the greatest benefits of breakthroughs in research, it may be necessary to reconfigure research funding and technology transfer mechanisms in order to more rapidly apply discoveries to local needs as well as to global challenges. Some changes will likely require significant organizational, administrative and operational changes in education and research institutions. PMID:24535386
Tan, Dun-Xian; Hardeland, Rudiger; Manchester, Lucien C; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Ma, Shuran; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Reiter, Russel J
The presence of melatonin in plants is universal. Evidence has confirmed that a major portion of the melatonin is synthesized by plants themselves even though a homologue of the classic arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) has not been identified as yet in plants. Thus, the serotonin N-acetylating enzyme in plants may differ greatly from the animal AANAT with regard to sequence and structure. This would imply multiple evolutionary origins of enzymes with these catalytic properties. A primary function of melatonin in plants is to serve as the first line of defence against internal and environmental oxidative stressors. The much higher melatonin levels in plants compared with those found in animals are thought to be a compensatory response by plants which lack means of mobility, unlike animals, as a means of coping with harsh environments. Importantly, remarkably high melatonin concentrations have been measured in popular beverages (coffee, tea, wine, and beer) and crops (corn, rice, wheat, barley, and oats). Billions of people worldwide consume these products daily. The beneficial effects of melatonin on human health derived from the consumption of these products must be considered. Evidence also indicates that melatonin has an ability to increase the production of crops. The mechanisms may involve the roles of melatonin in preservation of chlorophyll, promotion of photosynthesis, and stimulation of root development. Transgenic plants with enhanced melatonin content could probably lead to breakthroughs to increase crop production in agriculture and to improve the general health of humans.
Timko, Joseph J.; Stewart, Bob R.
This unit is designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. Intended to be taught to ninth-grade students of vocational agriculture, the unit contains six lessons for developing competencies needed in poultry production. The lessons are as follows: (1) the importance of the poultry…
Naamala, Judith; Jaiswal, Sanjay K; Dakora, Felix D
The use of high-quality rhizobial inoculants on agricultural legumes has contributed substantially to the N economy of farming systems through inputs from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Large populations of symbiotically effective rhizobia should be available in the rhizosphere for symbiotic BNF with host plants. The rhizobial populations should also be able to compete and infect host plants. However, the rhizosphere comprises large populations of different microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms naturally produce antibiotics which are lethal to susceptible rhizobial populations in the soil. Therefore, intrinsic resistance to antibiotics is a desirable trait for the rhizobial population. It increases the rhizobia's chances of growth, multiplication and persistence in the soil. With a large population of rhizobia in the soil, infectivity of host plants and the subsequent BNF efficiency can be guaranteed. This review, therefore, puts together findings by various researchers on antibiotic resistance in bacteria with the main emphasis on rhizobia. It describes the different modes of action of different antibiotics, the types of antibiotic resistance exhibited by rhizobia, the mechanisms of acquisition of antibiotic resistance in rhizobia and the levels of tolerance of different rhizobial species to different antibiotics.
Pérez Perdomo, Silvia Andrea; Farrow, Andrew; Trienekens, Jacques H.; Omta, Onno S.W.F.; Velde, van der Gerben
We tested three innovation network governance mechanisms for exploring and exploiting innovation opportunities. We analysed household-level panel data from agricultural innovation networks in Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda. We found that first-order governed networks
Hanagriff, Roger D.; Rayfield, John; Briers, Gary; Murphy, Tim
Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) is a well-documented, valuable, and integral part of agricultural education programs (Bryant, 2003; Cheek, Arrington, Carter, & Randall, 1994; Deyoe, 1953; Dyer & Osborne, 1996; Moore, 1988; Roberts & Harlin, 2007). Cole and Connell (1993) found that there was little research regarding the…
Biscotti, Dina Louise
Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices
Jacqueline A. Ashby
Full Text Available The thesis of this paper is that the "rational fool" syndrome can be applied to mainstream public sector agricultural research that is conducted in a way that is rational in the short term, but acts against its own long-term viability. Historically, a main concern of such research has been to maximize high levels of food production together with low prices to consumers. As a result, mainstream agricultural science has ignored negative impacts or externalities, which has contributed to a crisis of credibility with the general public and politically sensitive decision makers. A long-term strategic research agenda for the public sector is being defined that is new and relevant to present efforts to integrate natural resource management and sustainable agricultural production. Such an agenda must be understood as a way of managing natural resources for the production of food and environmental services essential to human well-being. If agricultural systems are viewed and managed as parts of whole ecosystems, the key properties of complex systems that need to be taken into account will force researchers to consider long-term effects and environmental externalities. Research products will then be increasingly strategic in nature, and the research process will be "democratized" as it involves and gains the support of a broad set of stakeholders. Private sector research cannot be expected to meet this need because strategic studies of resource management are required that cannot be made exclusive or proprietary and are, in other words, public goods. Several innovative research initiatives are under way that signal opportunities for change. This paper first elaborates on this argument and then illustrates key elements of the integrated natural resource management approach, with examples of approaches that show promise as alternatives to mainstream agricultural science. Although numerous and diverse, integrated approaches manifest several properties that
Evolving An Effective Trade Policy Against Agricultural Subsidies Of ... An analysis of the cost effectiveness of replacing maize with wheat offal in broiler ... A D Ologhobo, O A Adebiyi, S T Ogunbanwo, 150-159 ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Saucier, P. Ryan; McKim, Billy R.; Tummons, John D.
According to the National Research Agenda for Agricultural Education and Communication, preservice agriculture teacher education programs should "prepare and provide an abundance of fully qualified and highly motivated agricultural educators at all levels" (Osborne, 2007, 8). The lack of preparation of entry career agricultural educators…
Wang, Nianfeng; Huang, Yanjiang
These proceedings collect the latest research results in mechanism and machine science, intended to reinforce and improve the role of mechanical systems in a variety of applications in daily life and industry. Gathering more than 120 academic papers, it addresses topics including: Computational kinematics, Machine elements, Actuators, Gearing and transmissions, Linkages and cams, Mechanism design, Dynamics of machinery, Tribology, Vehicle mechanisms, dynamics and design, Reliability, Experimental methods in mechanisms, Robotics and mechatronics, Biomechanics, Micro/nano mechanisms and machines, Medical/welfare devices, Nature and machines, Design methodology, Reconfigurable mechanisms and reconfigurable manipulators, and Origami mechanisms. This is the fourth installment in the IFToMM Asian conference series on Mechanism and Machine Science (ASIAN MMS 2016). The ASIAN MMS conference initiative was launched to provide a forum mainly for the Asian community working in Mechanism and Machine Science, in order to ...
Kasper, Pernille Lund; Oxbøl, Arne; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Feilberg, Anders
Alteration of the chemical composition of odor samples during storage in polymer sample bags can significantly impair the accuracy of subsequent odor evaluations. To overcome or minimize this effect, the mechanisms determining compound loss must be more thoroughly understood. The present study examines the storage stability of a selection of key odorants from livestock production in polymer sample bags of Nalophan, Tedlar, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The compounds included are acetic acid, butanoic acid, propanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, trimethylamine, and 4-methylphenol. The fate of the unrecovered compound fractions is clarified by means of thermal desorption and concentric double bags, allowing estimation of the magnitude of losses due to adsorption and diffusion, respectively. The degree of recovery was found to be PTFE > Tedlar > Nalophan, and smaller ratios of bag surface area to sample volume improved the recovery significantly. Furthermore, PTFE bags were found far superior for maintaining the original sample humidity and for storing 4-methylphenol. Analysis of sample humidity, partitioning coefficients, and thermal desorption suggested that the loss in PTFE bags was mainly controlled by adsorption, whereas for Nalophan and Tedlar, compound loss is a combined effect of adsorption and diffusion. It is suggested to heat the bags when evacuating the sample for analysis, as this was found to improve the recovery significantly. For a 5-L PTFE bag, all odorants could be found at concentration levels between 71.6 and 98.8% even after 48 h of storage when heated to 57°C prior to analysis. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Morgan, A. Christian; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; King, Diana L.; Flanders, Frank B.; Rudd, Rick D.
Agricultural science programs have provided many opportunities for leadership education through classroom, supervised agricultural experience (SAE), and FFA Organization activities. Past studies have focused on leadership developed through activities such as career development events (CDE), SAE activities, FFA Organization conventions, and other…
Bunch, James Charles
The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to compare the effectiveness of two teaching methods (i.e., lecture/discussion and digital game-based learning) on student achievement in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses offered through secondary agricultural education programs in Oklahoma; 2) to…
Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Jones, James W.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Antle, John M.; Ruane, Alexander C.; Mutter, Carolyn Z.
The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) was founded in 2010. Its mission is to improve substantially the characterization of world food security as affected by climate variability and change, and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. The objectives of AgMIP are to: Incorporate state-of-the-art climate, crop/livestock, and agricultural economic model improvements into coordinated multi-model regional and global assessments of future climate impacts and adaptation and other key aspects of the food system. Utilize multiple models, scenarios, locations, crops/livestock, and participants to explore uncertainty and the impact of data and methodological choices. Collaborate with regional experts in agronomy, animal sciences, economics, and climate to build a strong basis for model applications, addressing key climate related questions and sustainable intensification farming systems. Improve scientific and adaptive capacity in modeling for major agricultural regions in the developing and developed world, with a focus on vulnerable regions. Improve agricultural data and enhance data-sharing based on their intercomparison and evaluation using best scientific practices. Develop modeling frameworks to identify and evaluate promising adaptation technologies and policies and to prioritize strategies.
Climate and agriculture are inextricably linked: the climate affects agricultural production and is itself affected by agricultural emissions. Agriculture is responsible for 30 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. How agriculture is practised therefore has significant potential for mitigating climate change, for providing food security and for improving the livelihoods of millions of food producers worldwide. There is growing interest in the use of market governance mechanisms for tackling climate change by giving the financial incentives to make the kinds of changes that are required. But how widely are these mechanisms being used in agriculture, and are they effective in reducing emissions? What impact do they have on adaptation and other aspects of sustainable development? Are they able to balance the competing demands of producers and consumers, the environment and food security? The key messages emerging from this study are that economic measures have a vital part to play within this regulatory context, but they need to be designed with care. To be effective, emissions from food production and consumption must be addressed together. If not, emissions reduced in one region will simply be displaced elsewhere. A balance needs to be struck by applying a mix of approaches – regulatory, economic, voluntary, and information: no single measure will be effective in achieving emissions reductions on its own. 'Soft' measures, such as voluntary agreements and information have a part to play in providing an enabling context for action, but they must be backed up by 'harder' regulatory or economic measures. Regulation, in the form of a cap on emissions, is a prerequisite for other market governance measures to function well. To be effective, MGMs need to consider the social, cultural and economic context within which they operate.
Alison J. Duff
Full Text Available Working lands have potential to meet agricultural production targets while serving as reservoirs of biological diversity and as sources of ecological services. Yet agricultural policy creates disincentives for this integration of conservation and production goals. While necessary, the development of a policy context that promotes agroecosystem sustainability will take time, and successful implementation will depend on a receptive agricultural audience. As the demands placed on working lands grow, there is a need for regional support networks that build agricultural producers' capacity for land stewardship. We used a social-ecological system framework to illustrate the Healthy Grown Potato Program as an agricultural network case study. Our Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reflects a 20-year experience working in collaboration with potato growers certified under an ecolabel in Wisconsin, USA. The model applies an evolving, modular farm stewardship standard to the entire farm - croplands and noncroplands. The model demonstrates an effective process for facilitating communication and shared learning among program participants, including agricultural producers, university extension specialists, nonprofit conservation partners, and industry representatives. The limitation of the model in practice has been securing funding to support expansion of the program and to ensure that the ecolabel standard is responsive to changes in the social-ecological system. Despite this constraint, the Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reveals an important mechanism for building regional commitment to conservation, with agricultural producers in a leadership role as architects, adopters, and advocates for stewardship behavior. Our experience provides important insight for the application of agri-environment schemes on private lands. The durability of a conservation ethic on working farms is likely to be enhanced when networks engage and support producers in an
Full Text Available After accession to the EU in 2004 the demand for tractors and agricultural implements has grown, followed by increasing supply of them. In 2012, the supply of brand-new agricultural tractors was by 185.4% higher than in 2003. In 2012 the value of renovation index of tractor fleet in agriculture was by 149.3% higher than in 2003. In spite of significant increase of demand for tractors, their production in 2012 was by 39.2% lower than in 2003. The downfall in number of tractors produced in Poland caused that imported tractors achieved more and more important share in supplies on Polish market. In 2003 the share of imports amounted to 64.0% and in 2012 – 91.4%. Production of most other means of agricultural mechanization was in 2012 higher than in 2003. The increase in a case of manure spreaders amounted to 704.3%; self loading or unloading agricultural tractor trailers – 362.1%; fertilizer spreader – 335.2%; field sowing machines – 245.3%; pick-up balers – 222.1% and harvester threshers – 194.8. Decreases were noted in cases of steamers – by 73.3%; potato planters – by 49.7%; harrows other than disc ones – by 42.2%; potato diggers – by 31.2% and rototillers – by 22.8%.
Bocanumenth Puerta, A.
The interactions are analyzed among the human being and the ecological capital that wrap reactions and conflicts among the economic growth, the poverty and the environment and that they impact in the activity agricultural more that in any other sector of the production. It stands out as decisive factors in the evolution of the agriculture and the technology demand in an immediate future in the environment of Latin America, the nature change inside the national economies, the urbanization and the demand of foods and the liberation of markets and regional economic integration. The opportunities and technological limitations and the investigation structure are discussed in the agriculture and the technological development in the regional environment and the paper of CORPOICA in an institutional model of investigation and technological development framed in the previous reflections
Xie, Jian; Hu, Liangliang; Tang, Jianjun; Wu, Xue; Li, Nana; Yuan, Yongge; Yang, Haishui; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Chen, Xin
For centuries, traditional agricultural systems have contributed to food and livelihood security throughout the world. Recognizing the ecological legacy in the traditional agricultural systems may help us develop novel sustainable agriculture. We examine how rice-fish coculture (RF), which has been designated a "globally important agricultural heritage system," has been maintained for over 1,200 y in south China. A field survey demonstrated that although rice yield and rice-yield stability are similar in RF and rice monoculture (RM), RF requires 68% less pesticide and 24% less chemical fertilizer than RM. A field experiment confirmed this result. We documented that a mutually beneficial relationship between rice and fish develops in RF: Fish reduce rice pests and rice favors fish by moderating the water environment. This positive relationship between rice and fish reduces the need for pesticides in RF. Our results also indicate a complementary use of nitrogen (N) between rice and fish in RF, resulting in low N fertilizer application and low N release into the environment. These findings provide unique insights into how positive interactions and complementary use of resource between species generate emergent ecosystem properties and how modern agricultural systems might be improved by exploiting synergies between species.
Beza, Eskender; Steinke, Jonathan; van Etten, Jacob; Reidsma, Pytrik; Fadda, Carlo; Mittra, Sarika; Mathur, Prem; Kooistra, Lammert
explain around 20% of the variation in farmers motivations. For educated farmers, contributing to scientific research was a more important motivation to participate as citizen scientists compared to less educated farmers. We conclude that motivations to participate in citizen science are different for smallholders in agriculture compared to other sectors. Citizen science does have high potential, but easy to use mechanisms are needed. Moreover, gamification may increase the egoistic intrinsic motivation of farmers.
that explain around 20% of the variation in farmers motivations. For educated farmers, contributing to scientific research was a more important motivation to participate as citizen scientists compared to less educated farmers. We conclude that motivations to participate in citizen science are different for smallholders in agriculture compared to other sectors. Citizen science does have high potential, but easy to use mechanisms are needed. Moreover, gamification may increase the egoistic intrinsic motivation of farmers.
Ibezim, Don O.; McCracken, J. David
A study examined the extent to which international agricultural dimensions were taught in secondary agricultural programs and factors associated with the extent of integration. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a random sample of 332 of the 2,612 secondary agricultural teachers in 12 states of the North Central United States. Of…
National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board (USDA), Washington, DC.
Two areas which will have far reaching consequences for the future of United States agriculture are discussed: (1) biotechnology; and (2) critical economic research in world trade and commodity supply management. Topics in the first area include: controversies related to biotechnology; the relative importance of health, safety, and environmental…
Agricultural market integration and price communication: Case study of Cross border grain marketing between Nigeria and Niger Republic · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Z Abdusalam, JO Olukosi, AO Ogunbile, JP Voh, 32-41.
Properties of Prosopis juliflora and its potential uses in Asal areas of Kenya · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. D Shitanda, K Mukonyi, M Kagiri, M Gichua, L Simiyu, 15-27. Cashew nut shell liquid: an agricultural by-product with great potential for commercial ...
Paul H. Gobster
Landscape and Urban Planning encourages multiple perspectives and approaches to help understand landscapes as social-ecological systems, with the goal that by building a robust science of landscape we can provide sustainable solutions for guiding its change. But the link between science and practice, or more simply put, between knowledge and action, is not always clear...
Beza, Eskender; Steinke, Jonathan; Etten, Van Jacob; Reidsma, Pytrik; Fadda, Carlo; Mittra, Sarika; Mathur, Prem; Kooistra, Lammert
As the sustainability of agricultural citizen science projects depends on volunteer farmers who contribute their time, energy and skills, understanding their motivation is important to attract and retain participants in citizen science projects. The objectives of this study were to assess 1)
Beza, E.A.; Steinke, Jonathan; Etten, van Jacob; Reidsma, P.; Fadda, Carlo; Mittra, Sarika; Mathur, Prem; Kooistra, L.
As the sustainability of agricultural citizen science projects depends on volunteer farmers who contribute their time, energy and skills, understanding their motivation is important to attract and retain participants in citizen science projects. The objectives of this study were to assess 1)
Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui
Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop re-establishment) or negative effects (e.g., autotoxicity, soil sickness, or biological invasion). To ensure sustainable agricultural development, it is important to exploit cultivation systems that take advantage of the stimulatory/inhibitory influence of allelopathic plants to regulate plant growth and development and to avoid allelopathic autotoxicity. Allelochemicals can potentially be used as growth regulators, herbicides, insecticides, and antimicrobial crop protection products. Here, we reviewed the plant allelopathy management practices applied in agriculture and the underlying allelopathic mechanisms described in the literature. The major points addressed are as follows: (1) Description of management practices related to allelopathy and allelochemicals in agriculture. (2) Discussion of the progress regarding the mode of action of allelochemicals and the physiological mechanisms of allelopathy, consisting of the influence on cell micro- and ultra-structure, cell division and elongation, membrane permeability, oxidative and antioxidant systems, growth regulation systems, respiration, enzyme synthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, mineral ion uptake, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. (3) Evaluation of the effect of ecological mechanisms exerted by allelopathy on microorganisms and the ecological environment. (4) Discussion of existing problems and proposal for future research directions in this field to provide a useful reference for future studies on plant
Full Text Available Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop re-establishment or negative effects (e.g., autotoxicity, soil sickness, or biological invasion. To ensure sustainable agricultural development, it is important to exploit cultivation systems that take advantage of the stimulatory / inhibitory influence of allelopathic plants to regulate plant growth and development and to avoid allelopathic autotoxicity. Allelochemicals can potentially be used as growth regulators, herbicides, insecticides and antimicrobial crop protection products. Here, we reviewed the plant allelopathy management practices applied in agriculture and the underlying allelopathic mechanisms described in the literature. The major points addressed are as follows: (1 Description of management practices related to allelopathy and allelochemicals in agriculture. (2 Discussion of the progress regarding the mode of action of allelochemicals and the physiological mechanisms of allelopathy, consisting of the influence on cell micro- and ultra-structure, cell division and elongation, membrane permeability, oxidative and antioxidant systems, growth regulation systems, respiration, enzyme synthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, mineral ion uptake, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. (3 Evaluation of the effect of ecological mechanisms exerted by allelopathy on microorganisms and the ecological environment. (4 Discussion of existing problems and proposal for future research directions in this field to provide a useful reference for future studies on
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large amount of agriculturl wastewater containing high level nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 --N is produced from modern intensive agricultural production management due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and livestock scale farming. The hydroponic experiment of water hyacinth was conducted for analyzing the content of NO3 --N, soluble sugar content, N-transported the amino acid content and growth change in water hyacinth to explore its purification ability to remove NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater and physiological and biochemical mechanism of this plant to remove NO3 --N. The results showed that the water hyacinth could effectively utilize the NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater. Compared with the control, the contents of NO3 -change to NO3 --N in the root, leaf petiole and leaf blade of water hyacinth after treatment in the wastewater for a week was significantly higher than that in the control plants treated with tap water, and also the biomass of water hyacinth increased significantly, indicating that the accumulation of biomass due to the rapid growth of water hyacinth could transfer some amount of NO3 --N.13C-NMR analysis confirmed that water hyacinth would convert the part nitrogen absorbed from agriculture eutrophic wastewater to ammonia nitrogen, which increased the content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid, decreased the content of soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose and the content of N-storaged asparagine and glutamine, lead to enhance the synthesis of plant amino acids and promote the growth of plants. These results indicate that the nitrate in agriculture eutrophic wastewater can be utilized by water hyacinth as nitrogen nutrition, and can promote plant growth by using soluble sugar and amide to synthesis amino acids and protein.
Full Text Available It is well-known that the use of incentives should lead to an improvement of the existing economic, environmental and social status, to raising the level of economic indicators for the benefit of the person who provides incentives and who is the object of stimulation. The current socio-economic conditions dictate the need to find effective forms of land management and rational land use management, correcting mistakes and resolving existing issues. This is possible only after all agricultural land use is fully provided with the necessary land management works. These issues can be solved by implementing the planning documents for the development of territories (national, regional, local, etc.. They put in place an algorithm of action to address the issue, but the greatest advantage of the proposed development program is the possibility of developing a land management process on agricultural lands. Clear financing of development programs, allows to ensure the implementation of the outlined plans for the implementation of land management works that are necessary on agricultural land. But in the context of the limited economic opportunities of Ukraine, the financing of land management measures provided for by the program should be only partially depending on the possibilities and level of environmental issues of land use.
Hakonson, T.E.; Foster, G.R.; Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.
Studies have shown that the hydrologic erosion of soil is a major factor in the translational movement of environmental plutonium deposited on the ground surface and, as a consequence of rain splash of soil, also greatly influences transport of plutonium to plants including vegetable crops. This paper discusses the use of CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems), in developing environmental research programs at Los Alamos and in designing and monitoring the performance of shallow land burial (SLB) sites for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Discussion is also presented on research needs and ongoing studies involving Los Alamos to supply some of those needs. 37 references, 7 figures, 3 tables
Turner, R Steven
By the mid-1980s nucleic-acid based methods were penetrating the farthest reaches of biological science, triggering rivalries among practitioners, altering relationships among subfields, and transforming the research front. This article delivers a "bottom up" analysis of that transformation at work in one important area of biological science, plant pathology, by tracing the "molecularization" of efforts to understand and control one notorious plant disease -- the late blight of potatoes. It mobilizes the research literature of late blight science as a tool through which to trace the changing typography of the research front from 1983 to 2003. During these years molecularization intensified the traditional fragmentation of the late blight research community, even as it dramatically integrated study of the causal organism into broader areas of biology. In these decades the pathogen responsible for late blight, the oomycete "Phytophthora infestans," was discovered to be undergoing massive, frightening, and still largely unexplained genetic diversification -- a circumstance that lends the episode examined here an urgency that reinforces its historiographical significance as a case-study in the molecularization of the biological sciences.
Downs, Holly A.
Demands for online graduate degrees have increased pressure on universities to launch web degrees quickly and, at times, without attending to their quality. Scarce research exists identifying what evaluation activities are being done by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) online graduate degree programs that are accustomed to…
Balschweid, Mark; Knobloch, Neil A.; Hains, Bryan J.
Insignificant numbers of college students declaring STEM majors creates concern for the future of the U.S. economy within the global marketplace. This study highlights the educational development and teaching strategies employed by STEM faculty in teaching first-year students in contextualized life science courses, such as animal, plant, and food…
Full Text Available This study explored the social science-orientated literature on genetically modified (GM crops in Europe and compared it with the corresponding literature on GM crops in African contexts, in order to determine the nature and extent of north-south cross-fertilisation in the literature. A total of 1625 papers on GM crops and agriculture falling within the ‘social science and humanities’ subject area in the Scopus abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature were analysed for major trends relating to geographical areas. More detailed analysis was performed on papers discussing African (56 papers and European (127 papers contexts. The analysis revealed that studies on policy and politics were common in both strands of the literature, frequently focusing on effects of the relatively restrictive European Union regulations on GM crops. There were also clear differences, however. For example, papers focusing on Africa frequently examined farm-level impacts and production, while this theme was almost non-existent in the Europe literature. It focused instead on policy impacts on trade and consumer attitudes to GM products. The lack of farm-level studies and of empirical studies in general in the European literature indicates a need for empirical research on GM crops in European farming. Social science research on GM crop production in Europe could draw lessons from the African literature.
Ahrens, Donald Louis
To determine the influence of high school vocational agriculture on college achievement and subsequent employment of agricultural engineering majors, data were collected from 419 graduates of Iowa State University representing the period from 1942 to 1964. The 112 graduates who had taken at least 3 or more semesters of high school vocational…
Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.
In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.
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Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture can modify the cycling and transport of nitrogen (N, due to associated water diversions, water losses, and changes in transport flow-paths. We investigate dominant processes behind observed long-term changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN concentrations and loads of the extensive (465,000 km2 semi-arid Amu Darya River basin (ADRB in Central Asia. We specifically considered a 40-year period (1960-2000 of large irrigation expansion, reduced river water flows, increased fertilizer application and net increase of N input into the soil-water system. Results showed that observed decreases in riverine DIN concentration near the Aral Sea outlet of ADRB primarily were due to increased recirculation of irrigation water, which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N attenuation. The observed DIN concentrations matched a developed analytical relation between concentration attenuation and recirculation ratio, showing that a fourfold increase in basin-scale recirculation can increase DIN attenuation from 85 to 99%. Such effects have previously only been observed at small scales, in laboratory experiments and at individual agricultural plots. These results imply that increased recirculation can have contributed to observed increases in N attenuation in agriculturally dominated drainage basins in different parts of the world. Additionally, it can be important for basin scale attenuation of other pollutants, including phosphorous, metals and organic matter. A six-fold lower DIN export from ADRB during the period 1981-2000, compared to the period 1960-1980, was due to the combined result of drastic river flow reduction of almost 70%, and decreased DIN concentrations at the basin outlet. Several arid and semi-arid regions around the world are projected to undergo similar reductions in discharge as the ADRB due to climate change and agricultural intensification, and may therefore undergo comparable shifts in DIN export as shown here
Full Text Available This article first presents reflections on the joint work carried out by Michael Cernea and this paper's author over 8-9 years for gaining "room, recognition and resources" within the CGIAR for sociological and socio-anthropological research on farmers, their practices and needs. The status of social research inside the CGIAR has gone through ups and downs in the uphill battle for expanding social research within this organization. Social scientists have constantly worked to feed their findings into the Centers' biophysical research. The paper documents the contribution of Michael Cernea, the first sociologist who acceded to CGIAR's top science and policy bodies, to strengthening the presence and influence of sociological and anthropological knowledge within CGIAR's institutional architecture and scientific products.The second part of this study presents the high promise of Conservation Agriculture (CA - a new paradigm for non-tillage agricultural production that offers improved productivity and environmental protection. CA principles are universally applicable. The author offers global data on the impressive advances and distribution of CA, which covers already some 125 million ha distributed across all continents and agro-ecologies. CA is a farmer-driven socio-cultural phenomenon which has expanded at a yearly rate of 7 mil. ha during the past decade.
Rosaine N. Yegbemey
Full Text Available Nowadays climate variability and change are amongst the most important threats to sustainable development, with potentially severe consequences on agriculture in developing countries. Among many available coping mechanisms, farmers adjust some of their farming practices. This article aims at exploring observed changes in the agricultural calendar as a response to climate variability in northern Benin. Interviews with local experts (agricultural extension officers and local leaders such as heads of farmer and village organisations and group discussions with farmers were organised. A household survey was also conducted on 336 maize producers to highlight the factors affecting decisions to adjust the agricultural calendar as a coping mechanism against climate variability. As a general trend, the duration of the cropping season in northern Benin is getting longer with slight differences among and within agro-ecological zones, implying a higher risk of operating under time-inefficient conditions. Farmers receive very limited support from agricultural extension services and therefore design their agricultural calendar on the basis of personal experience. Socio-economic characteristics, maize farming characteristics as well as farm location determine the decision to adjust the agricultural calendar. Consequently, providing farmers with climate related information could ensure a rational and time-efficient management of the agricultural calendar. Moreover, research and extension institutions should help in establishing and popularising clear agricultural calendars while taking into account the driving forces of behaviours towards the adjustment of farming practices as a climate variability response.
Luis Eduardo Acosta Muñoz
Full Text Available The relationship of indigenous peoples to the global market is a reality and it sets strategies of appropriation of traditional knowledge, without any rule mediating the restitution of rights that knowledge holders have, while indigenous people are asking a sui generis system for protection and equitable participation in these markets. The paper presents the results of a participatory research carried out with Ticuna communities of the south of the Colombian Amazon, in the border with Brazil and Peru, in the upper part of the Amazon River. From the knowledge about the use and management of chagra agriculture, the research analyzes how the productive chain of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz is structured. It also explains how indigenous people discuss the intellectual property rights they have on it, and how the geographical indications and the collective trademarks can help to protect traditional knowledge associated to biodiversity.
El-Eskandarany, M Sherif
This book is a detailed introduction to mechanical alloying, offering guidelines on the necessary equipment and facilities needed to carry out the process and giving a fundamental background to the reactions taking place. El-Eskandarany, a leading authority on mechanical alloying, discusses the mechanism of powder consolidations using different powder compaction processes. A new chapter will also be included on thermal, mechanically-induced and electrical discharge-assisted mechanical milling. Fully updated to cover recent developments in the field, this second edition also introduces new a
Allen, Keith; Fielding, Marvin R.
A project was conducted at State Fair Community College (SFCC) in Sedalia, Missouri, to develop an associate of science degree curriculum in renewable energy resources and their application in agriculture. A pilot study, designed to verify and rate the importance of 138 competencies in fuel alcohol production and to ascertain employment…
Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture
Full Text Available Bayer CropScience is carrying out a Model Village Project (MVP in rural India as part of their supply chain management and their corporate social responsibility activities. The MVP includes actions related to future business cases and higher competitiveness as well as philanthropic activities. The preparation of future business case actions aims at creating prerequisites for win-win-situations. In the long run, these prerequisites, such as long-term business relations with suppliers based on trust from both sides, can lead to a higher competitiveness of the whole supply chain and simultaneously improve human development. The impacts on the latter are evaluated using the capability approach (CA developed by Amartya Sen (2000, c1999. The case of the MVP indicates the potential of companies to contribute to human development on a strategic win-win basis. Actions have to be distinguished based on the living and financial conditions different supplier groups face. In the future, the MVP aims at assessing whether and how MNCs may be able to combine competitive enhancement with human development, provided that potential corporate risks for the villagers’ human development are also taken into account.
Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S
Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions
Silva, Jair Rosas da; Silva, Deise Paula da [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Agricola; Bormio, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia
The lubricant oil analysis are an indicator of the conditions how the lubricant is, may to allow the prevision of damages that occurred into machine due to the internal abrasion of hydraulic and mechanical components of the machines. The present study had the objective to determine the kind and quantity of the metallic particles that occurred into the lubricant oil of the mechanical and hydraulic compartments of the energy transmission systems of three kinds of machines: a tracked-tractor, a sugarcane harvester and a group of power-shovels. The metallic particles presents into these compartments were determined under laboratory tests and concerning to the following elements: iron, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, aluminum, silex, tin and molybdenum. About to the tracked-tractor, the metallic contaminators into to the oil charges surpasses the tolerate levels, considering the technical standards adopted in this evaluation. In the sugarcane harvester only a metallic element in excess was identified and, in a power-shovel group it was showed the need to correct air false entrances in the hydraulic or mechanical systems due the high presence of silex element. (author)
Coupe, Richard; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Babcsányi, Izabella; Imfeld, Gwenaël
Modern agriculture activities are constantly changing as producers try to produce a crop, keep their soils fertile, control pests, and prevent contamination of air and water resources. Because most of the world's arable land is already in production we must become more efficient if we are to feed and clothe the world's growing population as well as do this in a sustainable manner; leaving a legacy of fertile soil and clean water resources for our descendants. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of historical datasets and of developing new strategies to understand the effects of changing agricultural systems on the environment. Scientists who study agriculture and its effects on water must constantly adapt their strategies and evaluate how changing agricultural activities impact the environment. As well as understand from historical datasets on hydrology and agriculture how a changing climate or agricultural activity such as a change in tillage method might impact the processes that determine the movement of agricultural chemicals off of the target site. The 42.7 ha Hohrain (Rouffach, Alsace, France) vineyard experimental catchment offers several examples of how scientists have used historical data from this catchment to understand how the transport of agricultural chemicals may change due to a changing climate as well as how new strategies are developed for understanding the transport of agricultural chemicals. Runoff is a major process of pesticide transport from agricultural land to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The impact of rainfall characteristics on the transport of runoff-related pesticides is crucial to understanding how to prevent or minimize their movement now, but also in understanding how climate change might affect runoff. If we understand how rainfall characteristics affect the transport of pesticides, we can use climate change models to predict how those characteristics might change in the future and be better prepared for
Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per
highly skewed. Across tyres, the maximum stress in the contact area correlated linearly with, but was much higher than, the mean ground pressure. For each of the three soil depths, the maximum stresses under the tyres were significantly correlated with the wheel load, but not with other loading......Subsoil compaction is a serious long-term threat to soil functions. Only a few studies have quantified the mechanical stresses reaching deep subsoil layers for modern high wheel load machinery. In the present study we measured the vertical stresses in the tyre–soil contact area and at 0.3, 0...
Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Rose, C.E.; Coupe, R.H.
In many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10. m from the pond within 2. months. Within 1. month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5. m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10. weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12. m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through
We reflect on several aspects of the general claim that a quantum-like approach to Cognitive Science is advantageous over classical approaches. The classical approaches refer to the symbolic approaches including models using a classical (Kolmogorov) probability calculus. The general claim seems to
Contucci, P.; Giardinà, C.
Is modern science able to study social matters like those related to immigration phenomena on solid mathematical grounds? Can we for instance determine cultural robustness and the causes behind abrupt changes from cultural legacies? Can we predict, cause or avoid swings? A novel approach is under
Feb 20, 2016 ... Quantum Mechanics is essential for understanding Physics, Chemistry and even modern Biology. A brief outline of the course is as follows: Schrödinger equation, Hydrogen atom, mathematics of linear vector space, principles and postulates of quantum mechanics, angular momentum, perturbation theory.
Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.
This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…
The Journal of Agricultural Research and Development aims at publishing research reports, short communications, Critical Reviews in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Agronomy, Forestry, Animal Science, Food Technology, Soil Science, Home Economics, Agricultural Extension, Rural development, ...
Imhoff, Silvia; da Silva, Alvaro Pires; Ghiberto, Pablo J; Tormena, Cássio A; Pilatti, Miguel A; Libardi, Paulo L
Mollisols of Santa Fe have different tilth and load support capacity. Despite the importance of these attributes to achieve a sustainable crop production, few information is available. The objectives of this study are i) to assess soil physical indicators related to plant growth and to soil mechanical behavior; and ii) to establish relationships to estimate the impact of soil loading on the soil quality to plant growth. The study was carried out on Argiudolls and Hapludolls of Santa Fe. Soil samples were collected to determine texture, organic matter content, bulk density, water retention curve, soil resistance to penetration, least limiting water range, critical bulk density for plant growth, compression index, pre-consolidation pressure and soil compressibility. Water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration were linearly and significantly related to clay and organic matter (R2 = 0.91 and R2 = 0.84). The pedotransfer functions of water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration allowed the estimation of the least limiting water range and critical bulk density for plant growth. A significant nonlinear relationship was found between critical bulk density for plant growth and clay content (R2 = 0.98). Compression index was significantly related to bulk density, water content, organic matter and clay plus silt content (R2 = 0.77). Pre-consolidation pressure was significantly related to organic matter, clay and water content (R2 = 0.77). Soil compressibility was significantly related to initial soil bulk density, clay and water content. A nonlinear and significantly pedotransfer function (R2 = 0.88) was developed to predict the maximum acceptable pressure to be applied during tillage operations by introducing critical bulk density for plant growth in the compression model. The developed pedotransfer function provides a useful tool to link the mechanical behavior and tilth of the soils studied.
Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.
The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural…
Leiby, Brian L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Key, James P.
This study sought to assess the perceptions of Oklahoma pre-service agricultural education teachers regarding the importance of identified welding skills standards and their confidence to teach them, based on a semester-long course on metals and welding. This study also sought to determine pre-service teachers' knowledge of welding prior to and at…
Working lands have potential to meet agricultural production targets while serving as reservoirs of biological diversity and as sources of ecological services. Yet agricultural policy creates disincentives for this integration of conservation and production goals. While necessary, the development of...
In this article, author Bill Robertson attempts to help readers understand some of the Earth's heating and cooling mechanisms and how they relate to global warming. Figures are provided to help facilitate learning.
Salvia of Labiatae in China Xiaojuan Li, Ning Xu, Guofu Zhou, Ming Wan, Qi Lin, Fanyun Meng, Jianxiu Li 15 Three pulling resistance models of pioneer plant in landslide area Yichang Chen, Koayung Yu, Chunpin Chang 16 The comparison of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of Reaumuria soongorica and Salsola passerine in different growth pattern Zijuan Zhou, Peixi Su, Rui Shi, Tingting Xie 17 Resources use efficiency of the cosmopolitan plant Potentilla anserina L. in different alpine habitats in China Rui Shi, Peixi Su, Zijuan Zhou 18 Cloning of PPDK gene from Red Amaranand transformation of Alfalfa Xuelan Liu, Yan Zhang, Xiangfa Wei 19 Variation and cluster analysis of morphological characters and nutrient content of Chucrasia tabularis seed Chong Wu, Yanlei Yin, Lijuan Feng, Xuemei Yang, Fei Wang 20 Effect of the planting density of the areca nut on the growth of intercropped Vanilla Hua Wang, Huifa Zhuang, Zihui Zhu, Hui Wang
Álvarez, Víctor Pérez
The invention and spread of the mechanical clock is a complex and multifaceted historical phenomenon. Some of these facets, such as its social impact, have been widely studied, but their scientific dimensions have often been dismissed. The mechanical clock was probably born as a scientific instrument for driving a model of the universe, and not only natural philosophers but also kings, nobles and other members of the social elites showed an interest in clocks as scientific instruments. Public clocks later spread a new way of telling time based on equal hours, laying the foundations for changes in time consciousness that would accelerate scientific thinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.
Klett, M. G.; Bourgeois, S. V.
Several science demonstrations performed on Skylab III and IV were concerned with the behavior of fluid drops free floating in microgravity. These demonstrations, with large liquid drops, included the oscillation, rotation, impact and coalescence, and air injection into the drops. Rayleigh's analysis of the oscillation of spherical drops of a liquid predicts accurately the effect of size and surface tension on the frequency of vibrated water globules in the Skylab demonstration. However, damping occurred much faster than predicted by Lamb's or Scriven's analyses of the damping time for spherical drops. The impact demonstrations indicated that a minimum velocity is necessary to overcome surface forces and effect a coalescence, but a precise criterion for the coalescence of liquids in low g could not be determined.
Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.
The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance
Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K. [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)
The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.
Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.
The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.
The journal publishes current and emerging issues in the following areas: Animal science, crop science, weed science, biological science, food science, Biotechnology in agriculture and apiculture, agricultural extension, agricultural economics, soil science, agricultural technology and aquaculture. It aims to promote the ...
During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.
Kant believed that the ultimate processes that regulate the behavior of material bodies can be characterized exclusively in terms of mechanics. In 1790, turning his attention to the life sciences, he raised a potential problem for his mechanically-based account, namely that many of the operations described in the life sciences seemed to operate teleologically. He argued that the life sciences do indeed require us to think in teleological terms, but that this is a fact about us, not about the processes themselves. Nevertheless, even were we to concede his account of the life sciences, this would not secure the credentials of mechanics as a general theory of matter. Hardly any material properties studied in the second half of the eighteenth century were, or could have been, conceived in mechanical terms. Kant's concern with teleology is tangential to the problems facing a general matter theory grounded in mechanics, for the most pressing issues have nothing to do with teleology. They derive rather from a lack of any connection between mechanical forces and material properties. This is evident in chemistry, which Kant dismisses as being unscientific on the grounds that it cannot be formulated in mechanical terms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hassink, J.; Grin, J.; Hulsink, W.
Care farming is a promising example of multifunctional agriculture: it is an innovation at the crossroads of the agricultural and healthcare sectors. Our objective is to develop a framework for understanding the success of initiatives in this field. We link empirical data with the multi-level
The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more seriou...
Full Text Available The agricultural sector has a relatively high importance in the economic structure of Serbia. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, Common Agricultural Policy is one of the main policies of the European Union. It is very important to point out the fundamental principles and objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy. Harmonization of the national agricultural policy of Serbia with the Common Agricultural Policy and acceptance of its mechanisms is crucial for the development of the agricultural sector as a whole.
Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.
Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades
During the same period that Surrealism originated and flourished between the wars, great advances were being made in the field of physics. This book offers the first full history, analysis and interpretation of Surrealism's engagement with the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, and its reception of the philosophical consequences of those two major turning points in our understanding of the physical world. After surveying the revolution in physics in the early twentieth century and the discoveries of Planck, Bohr, Einstein, Schrodinger, and others, Gavin Parkinson explores the diverse uses of physics by individuals in and around the Surrealist group in Paris. In so doing, he offers exciting new readings of the art and writings of such key figures of the Surrealist milieu as André Breton, Georges Bataille, Salvador Dalí, Roger Caillois, Max Ernst, and Tristan Tzara.
Agricultural research conducted after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. An approach integrating all of the departments and facilities in Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, the University of Tokyo
Nakanishi, Tomoko M.
After Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, more than 40 academic staffs at Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The Univ. of Tokyo, have been conducted agricultural research integrating all of the departments and facilities. They were divided into several groups, such as grain, animal stock, fishery, trees, wild lives, etc. The agricultural research is highly related to nature itself; therefore, cooperative research gathering several kinds of researchers is needed. For example, to analyze the radioactive accumulation in rice, not only rice breeding researcher but also soil researcher, water management researcher, etc. are needed to discuss the movement or pathway of radioactive nuclides in the field. We found that the fallout was adsorbed at the surface of anything expanded and exposed to the air at the time of the accident, such as soil surface, plant leaves, tree trunks, etc. The adsorption comes stronger with time so that the radioactivity in soil does not move downward any more after several months, in spite of much rain. In the case of plants, the radioactivity still remains as dots on the surface of the tissue and it is very difficult to remove the nuclides even by washing with acids. Mushrooms were found to accumulate high radioactivity, not only the fallout from Fukushima's accident but also the fallout in 1960's after nuclear test bomb. (author)
Ianchenko Zinayida B.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is revealing reasons for the low payoff of science in terms of the effectiveness of the research activity and demand for its results in economic spheres, identifying problems in the innovation activity of research institutions and reasons for their arising, searching for fundamental approaches to the development of a strategy and mechanisms for realization of the innovative potential of science to strengthen its position in the real sector. The study used general scientific methods, including: systems approach — to systematize the problems of the innovation activity of research institutions; methods of theoretical generalization — to study the theoretical principles of the scientific and innovation activity; methods of analysis and synthesis — to search for fundamental approaches to the development of mechanisms for realization of the innovative potential of science. The used concepts of scientific activity and innovations are generalized. The author’s definition of the term “innovation” is proposed. The main reasons of the minor impact of science on the economy are systematized, the mechanisms for their elimination are offered. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the reasons for losing by science its impact on the economy, the ways of realizing the innovative potential of science are improved. The results of the research can be used in reforming domestic scientific research institutions.
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.
Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Liebscher, Hugh; Cox, Stephen E.
The rate and mechanism of nitrate removal along and between groundwater flow paths were investigated using a series of well nests screened in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Intensive agricultural activity in this area has resulted in nitrate concentrations in groundwater often exceeding drinking water standards. Both the extent and rate of denitrification varied depending on the groundwater flow path. While little or no denitrification occurred in much of the upland portions of the aquifer, a gradual redox gradient is observed as aerobic upland groundwater moves deeper in the aquifer. In contrast, a sharp shallow redox gradient is observed adjacent to a third‐order stream as aerobic groundwater enters reduced sediments. An essentially complete loss of nitrate concurrent with increases in excess N2 provide evidence that denitrification occurs as groundwater enters this zone. Electron and mass balance calculations suggest that iron sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation is the primary source of electrons for denitrification. Denitrification rate estimates were based on mass balance calculations using nitrate and excess N2 coupled with groundwater travel times. Travel times were determined using a groundwater flow model and were constrained by chlorofluorocarbon‐based age dates. Denitrification rates were found to vary considerably between the two areas where denitrification occurs. Denitrification rates in the deep, upland portions of the aquifer were found to range from from 1.0 to 2.7 mM of N per year. Potential denitrification rates in groundwater adjacent to the stream may be much faster, with rates up to 140 mM per year based on an in situ experiment conducted in this zone.
Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.
Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo
As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…
Martínez Martínez, María del Rosario; Martí, Vicens; Giménez Izquierdo, Francisco Javier
Excess of natural and synthetic fertilizers applied to agricultural soils is a well-known source of contamination of nitrates and potential source of contamination of metals (copper and zinc) and phosphates (Alloway 2010). Mineral phases such as iron oxides, are present in agricultural soils and they might play a main role in the retardation of the transport of different contaminants (Giménez et al. 2007). The present communication shows the experimental study of sorption of phosp...
Full Text Available The present study seeks to understand the determinants of land agricultural suitability in Malta before heavy mechanization. A GIS-based Logistic Regression model is built on the basis of the data from mid-1800s cadastral maps (cabreo. This is the first time that such data are being used for the purpose of building a predictive model. The maps record the agricultural quality of parcels (ranging from good to lowest, which is represented by different colours. The study treats the agricultural quality as a depended variable with two levels: optimal (corresponding to the good class vs. non-optimal quality (mediocre, bad, low, and lowest classes. Seventeen predictors are isolated on the basis of literature review and data availability. Logistic Regression is used to isolate the predictors that can be considered determinants of the agricultural quality. Our model has an optimal discriminatory power (AUC: 0.92. The positive effect on land agricultural quality of the following predictors is considered and discussed: sine of the aspect (odds ratio 1.42, coast distance (2.46, Brown Rendzinas (2.31, Carbonate Raw (2.62 and Xerorendzinas (9.23 soils, distance to minor roads (4.88. Predictors resulting having a negative effect are: terrain elevation (0.96, slope (0.97, distance to the nearest geological fault lines (0.09, Terra Rossa soil (0.46, distance to secondary roads (0.19 and footpaths (0.41. The model isolates a host of topographic and cultural variables, the latter related to human mobility and landscape accessibility, which differentially contributed to the agricultural suitability, providing the bases for the creation of the fragmented and extremely variegated agricultural landscape that is the hallmark of the Maltese Islands. Our findings are also useful to suggest new questions that may be posed to the more meagre evidence from earlier periods.
Alberti, Gianmarco; Grima, Reuben; Vella, Nicholas C
The present study seeks to understand the determinants of land agricultural suitability in Malta before heavy mechanization. A GIS-based Logistic Regression model is built on the basis of the data from mid-1800s cadastral maps (cabreo). This is the first time that such data are being used for the purpose of building a predictive model. The maps record the agricultural quality of parcels (ranging from good to lowest), which is represented by different colours. The study treats the agricultural quality as a depended variable with two levels: optimal (corresponding to the good class) vs. non-optimal quality (mediocre, bad, low, and lowest classes). Seventeen predictors are isolated on the basis of literature review and data availability. Logistic Regression is used to isolate the predictors that can be considered determinants of the agricultural quality. Our model has an optimal discriminatory power (AUC: 0.92). The positive effect on land agricultural quality of the following predictors is considered and discussed: sine of the aspect (odds ratio 1.42), coast distance (2.46), Brown Rendzinas (2.31), Carbonate Raw (2.62) and Xerorendzinas (9.23) soils, distance to minor roads (4.88). Predictors resulting having a negative effect are: terrain elevation (0.96), slope (0.97), distance to the nearest geological fault lines (0.09), Terra Rossa soil (0.46), distance to secondary roads (0.19) and footpaths (0.41). The model isolates a host of topographic and cultural variables, the latter related to human mobility and landscape accessibility, which differentially contributed to the agricultural suitability, providing the bases for the creation of the fragmented and extremely variegated agricultural landscape that is the hallmark of the Maltese Islands. Our findings are also useful to suggest new questions that may be posed to the more meagre evidence from earlier periods.
The Bible is full of accounts clearly in violation of our scientific understanding of fluid mechanics. Examples include the floating axe head, Jesus walking on the water and immediately calming a storm. ``Jesus of Nazareth was the most scientific man that ever trod the globe. He plunged beneath the material surface of things, and found the spiritual cause,'' wrote Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910), the founder of a now well-established religion known as Christian Science, in her seminal work Science & Health with Key to the Scriptures. She asserted that Jesus' miracles were in accord with the, ``Science of God's unchangeable law.'' She also proclaimed that matter is a derivative of consciousness. Independently with the discovery of quantum mechanics, physicists such as Max Planck and Sir James Jeans began to make similar statements (``The Mental Universe'', Nature, 2005). More recently, Max Tegmark (MIT) theorized that consciousness is a state of matter (New Scientist, April 2014). Using a paradigm shift from matter to consciousness as the primary substance, one can scientifically explain how a mental activity (i.e. prayer) could influence the physical. Since this conference is next door to the original church of Christian Science (Const. 1894), this talk will discuss various fluid-mechanic miracles in the Bible and provide an explanation based on divine metaphysics while providing an overview of scientific Christianity and its unifying influence to the fields of science, theology and medicine.
Nielsen, Lisbeth; Riddle, Melissa; King, Jonathan W; Aklin, Will M; Chen, Wen; Clark, David; Collier, Elaine; Czajkowski, Susan; Esposito, Layla; Ferrer, Rebecca; Green, Paige; Hunter, Christine; Kehl, Karen; King, Rosalind; Onken, Lisa; Simmons, Janine M; Stoeckel, Luke; Stoney, Catherine; Tully, Lois; Weber, Wendy
The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation. These principles serve as the foundation for our vision for a unified science of behavior change at the NIH and in the broader research community. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Enormous quantities of food and agricultural produce are spoiled by microbial activity, which is a major challenge to food security today. Besides, contamination of foods by pathogens or their toxins pose serious problems affecting food safety worldwide. Development of cost effective, reliable, and user friendly methods for detection and identification of microbial pathogens has always remained a challenge in microbiology. Microbial research has also aided development of probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals, which are important for health. The objective of the symposium was to address and dwell upon the recent advances in some of the mentioned research areas pertaining to microbiology of food, agriculture, health and environment. The major themes of the symposium were: Adaptation to Stresses, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Sustainable Agriculture, Food Safety, Food Security and Nutrition, Environmental Microbiology etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
The Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The 26 papers in this proceedings are arranged in the following topical sections: superconductors (4 papers); materials (7); controls (4); fluid mechanics (7); and thin films (4). Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.
Sandlin, M'Randa R.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lindner, James R.; Dooley, Kim E.
Faculty abroad programs are becoming a popular method to provide faculty in colleges of agriculture with international experiences so they may internationalize their curricula. These programs also serve to provide experiential faculty development opportunities. Eight faculty members from Texas A&M University participated in a faculty abroad…
The “farmer-back-to-farmer” model of agricultural development, pioneered by Robert Rhoades and Robert Booth, urged technologists to use farmers' knowledge and practices as both the starting point for technological innovations as well as the ultimate measure of the value of innovation. This approach
Jeeroburkhan, M. Fazal
This study evaluated the Agricultural Curriculum Project which is being implemented in 16 secondary schools in Mauritius. Specific areas examined included: (1) the relevance, appropriateness, and practicability of the project's general objectives; (2) the relevance, balance, and organization of the course content; (3) the effectiveness and…
Ledington, Richard L.
The 24 units that comprise this crop and soil science curriculum guide are not geared to a particular age level and must be adapted to the students for whom they are used. Units 1 through 6 are general units covering topics common to soil science. Units 7 through 24 are units covering topics common to crop production. Each unit includes objectives…
Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei
Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.
Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei
Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739
Agro-Science, the journal of the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Nigeria, ... Health; Soil and Environment, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Home Economics, Food and Nutrition; Post Harvest Technology; Agricultural ...
Lu Yanting; Xiong Lidong; Wu Qing; Jin Qingsheng
The discipline development, main progress and achievements of nuclear agricultural sciences in past 50 years in Zhejiang Province were reviewed in the paper. The great progress were obtained in radiation mutation breeding and related heredity mechanism, radiation sterile insect technique and related molecular biology mechanism, the agricultural products storage and preservation of irradiation processing. There were remarkable achievements in isotope tracer technique for animal and plant physiology and biochemistry research and agricultural chemicals safety usage standard. There was also distinct progress in space mutation breeding. From now on, there will be a close combination for the nuclear agricultural sciences with the modern bio-technology and the information technology, which will unceasingly promote the nuclear agricultural sciences development. (authors)
Du, Qiang; Luo, Min; Wang, Ping
Taking agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as research object, on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China's southwestern mountainous regions, we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science, we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally w...
Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.
von Secker, Clare Elaine
The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.
Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard
Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.
Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard
Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139
Ken E Giller
Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.
Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Turcanu, Catrinel
The options adopted for recovery of agricultural land after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents are compared by examining their technical and socio-economic aspects. The analysis highlights commonalities such as the implementation of tillage and other types of countermeasures and differences in approach, such as preferences for topsoil removal in Fukushima and the application of K fertilizers in Chernobyl. This analysis shows that the recovery approach needs to be context-specific to best suit the physical, social, and political environment. The complex nature of the decision problem calls for a formal process for engaging stakeholders and the development of adequate decision support tools. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:662-666. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.
Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S
Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.
Full Text Available When the World Wide Web provides suitable methods for producing and publishing information to scientists, the Web has become a mediator to publishing information. This environment has been formed billions of web pages that each of them has a special title, special content, special address and special purpose. Search engines provide a variety of facilities limit search results to raise the possibility of relevance in the retrieval results. One of these facilities is the limitation of the keywords and search terms to the title or URL. It can increase the possibility of results relevance significantly. Search engines claim what are limited to title and URL is most relevant. This research tried to compare the results relevant between results limited in title and URL in agricultural and Humanities areas from their users sights also it notice to Comparison of the presence of keywords in the title and URL between two areas and the relationship between search query numbers and matching keywords in title and their URLs. For this purpose, the number of 30 students in each area whom were in MA process and in doing their thesis was chosen. There was a significant relevant of the results that they limited their information needs to title and URL. There was significantly relevance in URL results in agricultural area, but there was not any significant difference between title and URL results in the humanities. For comparing the number of keywords in title and URL in two areas, 30 keywords in each area were chosen. There was not any significantly difference between the number of keywords in the title and URL of websites in two areas. To show relationship between number of search keyword and the matching of title and URL 45 keywords in each area were chosen. They were divided to three parts (one keyword, two keywords and three keywords. It was determined that if search keyword was less, the amount of matching between title and URL was more and if the matching
The Department of Atomic Energy through its research, development and deployment activities in nuclear science and technology, has been contributing towards enhancing the production of agricultural commodities and their preservation. Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture which is often referred to as nuclear agriculture is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area. 41 new crop varieties developed at BARC have been released and Gazette notified by the MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation and are popular among the farming community and grown through out the country
Modern continuum mechanics is the topic of this book. After its introduction it will be applied to a few typical systems arising in the environmental sciences and in geophysics. In large lake/ocean dynamics peculiar effects of the rotation of the Earth will be analyzed in linear/nonlinear processes of a homogenous and inhomogenous water body. Strong thermomechanical coupling paired with nonlinear rheology affects the flow of large ice sheets (such as Antarctica and Greenland) and ice shelves. Its response to the climatic forcing in an environmental of greenhouse warming may significantly affect the life of future generations. The mechanical behavior of granular materials under quasistatic loadings requires non-classical mixture concepts and encounters generally complicated elastic-plastic-type constitutive behavior. Creeping flow of soils, consolidation processes and ground water flow are described by such theories. Rapid shearing flow of granular materials lead to constitutive relations for the stresses whic...
Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.
William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, firstname.lastname@example.org, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities
Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.
IntroductionMechanization in West Africa has been of limited importance and influence for farming and manual labour is the dominant power input. At present only about 0.07 kW per ha is applied, while at least about 0.37 kW is desirable to obtain high yield
The author discusses three different approaches to agricultural overpopulation: from the consumption side, from the production side and from the aspect of immobility of agricultural population. In the first approach agrarian overpopulation is defined from the consumption point of viewas the number of people living from agriculture that can live from aggregate agricultural income at a certain standard of consumption. In this connection the problem of measuring total agricultu...
Milosavljevic, Stephan; McBride, David I; Bagheri, Nasser; Vasiljev, Radivoj M; Mani, Ramakrishnan; Carman, Allan B; Rehn, Borje
The purpose of this study was to determine exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock in rural workers who use quad bikes and to explore how personal, physical, and workplace characteristics influence exposure. A seat pad mounted triaxial accelerometer and data logger recorded full workday vibration and shock data from 130 New Zealand rural workers. Personal, physical, and workplace characteristics were gathered using a modified version of the Whole Body Vibration Health Surveillance Questionnaire. WBVs and mechanical shocks were analysed in accordance with the International Standardization for Organization (ISO 2631-1 and ISO 2631-5) standards and are presented as vibration dose value (VDV) and mechanical shock (S(ed)) exposures. VDV(Z) consistently exceeded European Union (Guide to good practice on whole body vibration. Directive 2002/44/EC on minimum health and safety, European Commission Directorate General Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. 2006) guideline exposure action thresholds with some workers exceeding exposure limit thresholds. Exposure to mechanical shock was also evident. Increasing age had the strongest (negative) association with vibration and shock exposure with body mass index (BMI) having a similar but weaker effect. Age, daily driving duration, dairy farming, and use of two rear shock absorbers created the strongest multivariate model explaining 33% of variance in VDV(Z). Only age and dairy farming combined to explain 17% of the variance for daily mechanical shock. Twelve-month prevalence for low back pain was highest at 57.7% and lowest for upper back pain (13.8%). Personal (age and BMI), physical (shock absorbers and velocity), and workplace characteristics (driving duration and dairy farming) suggest that a mix of engineered workplace and behavioural interventions is required to reduce this level of exposure to vibration and shock.
Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.
To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…
Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 10 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about nuclear agriculture sub-volume
Donzeles, Sergio M.L. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (CTZM/EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico da Zona da Mata], E-mail: email@example.com; Silva, Juarez S.; Martin, Samuel; Nogueira, R.M.; Silva, Jadir N.; Zanata, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Actually, the coffee is one of the most important exportation crops of the country. The utilization of obsolete or unsuitable processes, specifically related to the coffee drying, it can to damage the final quality of the product, besides to result in a low profitability of the coffee growing. In this work a mechanical drier (flex) was built, for the familiar coffee growing, being subsequently evaluated, to the drying of peeled cherry coffee, by the realization of two tests: one with heating of the air using vegetable coal and other combining the use of solar heater with vegetable coal. Basing on the results, it was possible to conclude that the drying of coffee in the mechanical drier Flex can be carried out using vegetable coal as fuel as well as associating the use of the vegetable coal with the solar collector, to save energy. (author)
Muiño-García Berta Lina
Full Text Available The mission of INISAV is to contribute to the reduction of risks and losses by pests without affecting the environment on a sustainable basis. Its management is based on a science model linked with environment and characterized by 4 phases: the planning of research’s, their implementation, validation and adoption in the agriculture practice. Three main results of research are described: Biological control Program (PBC, Pest Management Programs (PMP and the Elimination of the use of methyl bromide. A national network of 251 Laboratories for reproduction of entomophagues and entomopathogens (CREE was designed and implemented, together with 4 biopesticide production plants. Thirteen (13 biological products and technologies were created. Furthermore, pest management programs (PMP were extended in more than 25 crops for conventional and agro-ecological systems, as well as adoption of PMP to replace methyl bromide. The impacts of the results to the environment, agricultural production, the country's economy, and rural communities, were confirmed by the significant reduction of imports of chemical pesticides, from 40 000 t in 1974 to about 3000 t in 2012. In 1988 the arable area benefited by bioproducts was 300 000 ha while in 2012 amounted to 1 354 000 ha. The elimination of 80 t of methyl bromide in tobacco, 35 t in the other sectors, the reduction of other agrochemicals, the incorporation of biological control applications and some management measures, are considered the main basis for sustainability in crops. At present, 72% of the total area planted is under applications of pesticides in PMP. Of these, 38% with only biological products, 34% the combination of biological and chemical pesticides and in the remaining 28% apply phytosanitary alternatives included in the pest management programs.
Barbera, Guiseppe; Butera, Federico M.
In order to develop small islands, not only must a vital agricultural system be maintained, but the range of opportunities for tourism must be increased with respect to both the seaside and the environmental features of the rural landscape. As an alternative to the traditional and economically declining ones, many innovative production processes can be identified, but their success depends on their interaction with the physical, biological, economic and social environment. In order to identify the main nodes and the most critical interactions, so as to increase the probability of success of a new productive process, a methodological approach based on the science of complexity is proposed for the cultivation of capers ( Capparis spinosa L.) on the island of Pantelleria. The methodology encompasses the identification of actors and factors involved. the quantitative evaluation of their interactions with the different stages of the productive process, and a quasiquantitative evaluation of the probability that the particular action will be performed successfully. The study of “traditional,” “modernized,” and “modernized-sustainable” processes, shows that the modernized-sustainable process offers mutually reinforcing opportunities in terms of an integrated development of high-quality agricultural products and the enhancement of environmental features, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in a way that suits the development of Pantelleria. There is a high probability of failure, however, as a result of the large number of critical factors. Nevertheless, the present study indicates which activities will enhance the probability of successful innovation in the production process.
Sayre, Laura B.
Eighteenth-century British gentleman farmer Jethro Tull (1674-1741) is popularly regarded as the inventor of the seed drill, widely cited by agricultural historians, soil scientists and school history textbooks alike. Whether Tull was in fact the first to experiment with a mechanical seed drill and the horse-drawn cultivators drilling made possible is doubtful, but he did do much to make their acceptance in the long run more widespread. What is less well known is that Tull’s mechanical innovations were accompanied by a theory of plant nutrition-and a social agenda-that were equally important to the adoption of the new machines. Although he came to be celebrated by later generations, Tull’s work attracted fierce critics in his own day and immediately after, not least because he categorically rejected the value of manures in maintaining soil fertility. Instead, he proposed a mechanistic theory of plant nutrition in which the stirring of the soil with the cultivator could substitute for the processes of decomposition thought to be contributed by manures, with less labor and expense. For Tull, the drill was part of an explicit strategy to minimize reliance on an unruly labor force. He also directly challenged the idea that Virgil and other classical authorities could be of any practical use in farm management. In other words, Tull was an anti-georgic improver, and could only be reinserted into the canon of agricultural history through the efforts of later agriculturists to gloss over the objectionable parts of his work. This paper explores how, a century before Liebig, Tull’s Horse-Hoeing Husbandry ( 1731 and later editions) sparked heated debates over a constellation of issues that are still with us today: no-till vs. tillage, net profits vs. gross yields, soil biology vs. soil chemistry, yield per acre vs. yield per unit of labor, rotation costs vs. input costs.
Christine M. Yukech
Full Text Available There is a lot of technological buzz over the past few years regarding taking care of lettuce and hydroponic greenhouse plants and fish. We first review and discuss the recent technologies in the field of hydroponics, especially the hydroponic sensor curriculum project. The College of Engineering at The University of Akron developed a sensor that can detect hydrology, ph, electrical conductivity, nutrient levels, and temperature of hydroponic plants and aquaponic systems. The sensor can optimize the healthy monitoring of plants and fish in greenhouses, homes, schools, and universities anywhere in the world. The goal is to provide sustainable monitoring for growing healthy greenhouse foods 24/7. In this paper, we propose a sustainable solution for optimizing plant growth by using computer simulations and smart phone applications for plant growers and fisheries to access data in real-time and provide guidance on how to manage healthy environments for plants, such as "electric conductivity is lower than the standard for the tomato, so please add 5ml of nutrients". The app will be extended to social media connection, which is enabled by the web access features, where the user can network with hydroponic and aquarium user groups to share information (how to grow a lettuce, ask questions (where can I buy seeds, and gaming for virtual fish and plant growing. The app can be used on a computer, a smart phone or a tablet and provides numerous features that currently need many separate apps, especially in emerging areas such as hydroponics and aquaponics. The data visualization component in the app can enhance the analysis of the variables and data collection. Using the app, plant growers can track results and grow better crops. The app also provides hands-on interactive simulations that connect to the national science standards, providing optimal use of nutrients by taking care of greenhouse plants and fish for hydroponics and aquaponics.
Tarolli, Paolo; Cecchin, Marco; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Masin, Roberta
Soil water erosion is one of the major threats to soil resources throughout the world. Conventional agriculture has worsened the situation. Therefore, agriculture is facing multiple challenges: it has to produce more food to feed a growing population, and, on the other hand, safeguard natural resources adopting more sustainable production practices. In this perspective, more conservation-minded soil management practices should be taken to achieve an environmental sustainability of crop production. Indeed, conservation agriculture is considered to produce relevant environmental positive outcomes (e.g. reducing runoff and soil erosion, improving soil organic matter content and soil structure, and promoting biological activity). However, as mechanical weed control is limited or absent, in conservation agriculture, dependence on herbicides increases especially in the first years of transition from the conventional system. Consequently, also the risk of herbicide losses via runoff or adsorbed to eroded soil particles could be increased. To better analyse the complexity of soil water erosion and runoff processes in landscapes characterised by conservation agriculture, first, it is necessary to demonstrate if such different practices can significantly affect the surface morphology. Indeed, surface processes such erosion and runoff strongly depend on the shape of the surface. The questions are: are the lands treated with conservation and conventional agriculture different from each other regarding surface morphology? If so, can these differences provide a better understanding of hydrogeomorphic processes as the basis for a better and sustainable land management? To give an answer to these questions, we considered six study areas (three cultivated with no-tillage techniques, three with tillage techniques) in an experimental farm. High-resolution topography, derived from low-cost and fast photogrammetric techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM), served as the basis to
Ahmed, Ahmed S. F.; Raghavan, Vijaya
Amendment of soil with biochar has been shown to enhance fertility and increase crop productivity, but the specific influence of biochar on soil workability remains unclear. Select physico-mechanical and chemical properties of clay loam and sandy loam soils were measured after amendment with wood-derived biochar of two particle size ranges (0.5-425 and 425-850 µm) at five dosages ranging from 0.5 to 10% dry weight. Whereas the clay loam soil workability decreased when the finer wood-derived biochar was applied at rates of 6 or 10%, soil fertility was not enhanced. The sandy loam soil, due to Proctor compaction, significantly decreased in bulk density with 6 and 10% wood-derived biochar amendments indicating higher soil resistance to compaction.
Lee, Jae-Hwang; Loya, Phillip E; Lou, Jun; Thomas, Edwin L
Multilayer graphene is an exceptional anisotropic material due to its layered structure composed of two-dimensional carbon lattices. Although the intrinsic mechanical properties of graphene have been investigated at quasi-static conditions, its behavior under extreme dynamic conditions has not yet been studied. We report the high-strain-rate behavior of multilayer graphene over a range of thicknesses from 10 to 100 nanometers by using miniaturized ballistic tests. Tensile stretching of the membrane into a cone shape is followed by initiation of radial cracks that approximately follow crystallographic directions and extend outward well beyond the impact area. The specific penetration energy for multilayer graphene is ~10 times more than literature values for macroscopic steel sheets at 600 meters per second. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Winter, Edward M; Abt, Grant; Brookes, F B Carl; Challis, John H; Fowler, Neil E; Knudson, Duane V; Knuttgen, Howard G; Kraemer, William J; Lane, Andrew M; van Mechelen, Willem; Morton, R Hugh; Newton, Robert U; Williams, Clyde; Yeadon, M R
Despite the Système International d'Unitès (SI) that was published in 1960, there continues to be widespread misuse of the terms and nomenclature of mechanics in descriptions of exercise performance. Misuse applies principally to failure to distinguish between mass and weight, velocity and speed, and especially the terms "work" and "power." These terms are incorrectly applied across the spectrum from high-intensity short-duration to long-duration endurance exercise. This review identifies these misapplications and proposes solutions. Solutions include adoption of the term "intensity" in descriptions and categorizations of challenge imposed on an individual as they perform exercise, followed by correct use of SI terms and units appropriate to the specific kind of exercise performed. Such adoption must occur by authors and reviewers of sport and exercise research reports to satisfy the principles and practices of science and for the field to advance.
Recent studies on policy changes have shown that there are limitations of incrementalism and that there no longer exists a general theory that can explain policy change. A number of studies have been conducted to examine policy changes in terms of drastic changes in budgets or policy agenda. According to the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET), policy change is punctuated by long periods of stability, and large, but rare, changes due to shifts in society or the government. Although the reasons for these drastic changes are interpreted mainly from external events, the exact mechanisms of these changes are still not known. In this study, we assume that the punctuated budget changes are a result of not only external events but also the bureaucratic power of government departments. We attempt to identify the regularity of budget change pattern due to these internal characteristics (bureaucratic power). In order to understand budget changes caused by external events, especially for science and technology, the ARIMA-Intervention analysis was implemented. The results showed that the ARIMA-Intervention analysis explained the abrupt change in budget well. This means that a change in budget cannot be explained as incrementalism. Also, we analyzed the budget change kurtosis of government department along with various policy and organization types. Normally, a high kurtosis means there is a high probability of a punctuated equilibrium. The results show that science and technology agency as well as productive, delivery, and transfer agencies have a relatively high kurtosis.;
There is agro-pastoral farming system prevalent in mountainous and sub-mountainous areas of Himalayan region including Azad Jammu and Kashmir. As such, Agriculture Sector includes Crop-husbandry, livestock farming and forestry in its ambit. There are varied forms of land uses, like crop farming, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, wildlife conservation etc. Therefore, the paper attempts to spotlight the interplay of these land uses with respect to the environment in general with specific reference to AJK and other mountainous and sub- mountainous regions of Northern Pakistan. Agricultural activities have both negative and beneficial effects on the environment. The negative effects in the forms of physical degradation of the soil due to agriculture are: soil erosion, desertification, water logging and salinity and soil compaction. The land use practices such as overgrazing, deforestation and some cultivation practices, removal of vegetative cover or hedgerows, lack of proper drainage outlets, accentuate these problems. The improper management of water use and sometimes excessive mechanization and Ploughing further aggravates problem of physical degradation of the soil. The chemical degradation, as a result of agricultural practices, include acidification, Salinization, contamination caused by pesticides and insecticides and resultantly water and air pollution, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. Further negative effects emerging out of agricultural practices are greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses and lowering of humus content, which makes soil susceptible to compaction and erosion. The beneficial environmental effects emanating from the use of best agricultural management practices and integrated farming systems are protection of soil fertility and stability, prevention of excessive run offs. It also provides habitats for varied forms of flora and fauna, reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2)/ and reduce the incidence and severity of natural
Muhammad Lebai Juri
This chapter discussed the basic principles and techniques of nuclear science and technology applied in food and agricultural study. The following subjects covered: 1) Utilization of radiation in plant breeding, pest control, food irradiation, moisture content, food contamination study; 2) Utilization of radioisotopes in soil and plant studies, animal research
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Transgenics in Agriculture. D Rex Arunraj B Gajendra Babu. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 83-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0083-0092 ...
This publication contains 23 papers related to the use of nuclear techniques in plant breeding in Turkey, effect of gamma irradiations on growing various plants, mutations and soil chemistry, etc., presented at 4. International Congress of Nuclear Agriculture and Animal Science in Bursa, Turkey, 25-27 Sep 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper
Some of the spectacular advances in agriculture in developing nations have stimulated wide interest both in basic as well as adaptive research and in harnessing all the tools that science can offer for progress of agriculture. The nuclear tools are relevant in this respect and also offer particular promise in some areas. Ionising radiations and isotopes have immense applications in agriculture. Both radioisotopes and stable isotopes are being used
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social processes in scientific investigation, and to relate the products of scientific activity to particular features of the social context in which that activity took place. The group of scientists under examination shared a common interest in the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. This is not a typical scientific speciality; it lacks both a cohesive social structure and an agreed set of theories and practices. It is argued that social and cognitive factors interact in a complex way to bring about and maintain this fragmented state. In particular, methodological differences are identified as a major cause of disputes in this field. A sub-group of physicists performed experimental tests of Quantum Mechanics. Accounts of the behavior of these physicists in terms of general codes of scientific conduct (norms) seem to be unsatisfactory; instead, we must refer to many specific features of their local social context. The construction and evaluation of knowledge-claims can also be best described by referring to the cultural context of this work. These conclusions support a relativist view, in which the outcome of scientific activity is not uniquely determined by empirical data, but is flexible, and can reflect social pressures from inside or outside science. (author)
African Research Review ... Instruments used were Career Decision Questionnaire, Agricultural Experience Questionnaire and ... in agriculture while poultry (β = -0.333) mostly predicted students career decision in Agricultural Science.
Nissar A. Darmani
Full Text Available Cannabinoids are used clinically on a subacute basis as prophylactic agonist antiemetics for the prevention of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapeutics. Cannabinoids prevent vomiting by inhibition of release of emetic neurotransmitters via stimulation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Cannabis-induced hyperemesis is a recently recognized syndrome associated with chronic cannabis use. It is characterized by repeated cyclical vomiting and learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior. Although considered rare, recent international publications of numerous case reports suggest the contrary. The syndrome appears to be a paradox and the pathophysiological mechanism(s underlying the induced vomiting remains unknown. Although some traditional hypotheses have already been proposed, the present review critically explores the basic science of these explanations in the clinical setting and provides more current mechanisms for the induced hyperemesis. These encompass: (1 pharmacokinetic factors such as long half-life, chronic exposure, lipid solubility, individual variation in metabolism/excretion leading to accumulation of emetogenic cannabinoid metabolites, and/or cannabinoid withdrawal; and (2 pharmacodynamic factors including switching of the efficacy of Δ9-THC from partial agonist to antagonist, differential interaction of Δ9-THC with Gs and Gi signal transduction proteins, CB1 receptor desensitization or downregulation, alterations in tissue concentrations of endocannabinoid agonists/inverse agonists, Δ9-THC-induced mobilization of emetogenic metabolites of the arachidonic acid cascade, brainstem versus enteric actions of Δ9-THC, and/or hypothermic versus hyperthermic actions of Δ9-THC. In addition, human and animal findings suggest that chronic exposure to cannabis may not be a prerequisite for the induction of vomiting but is required for the intensity of emesis.
Full Text Available Trichoderma spp. are well-known bio-control agents which promote the plant growth and suppress the pathogen infection. The beneficial effects are attributed to the production of phytohormones, antibiotics, siderophores and secondary metabolites (SM. Trichodermin and Harzianum A, SMs have documented anti-fungal activities as well. Tri5 gene encodes for trichodiene synthase (TS contains a terpene fold and involved at the initial step of the biosynthetic pathway of these molecules. Furthermore, domain analysis of proteins from diverse organisms showed that the terpene fold has functional diversity with diverse applications in agriculture, medicine and applied biotechnology. These proteins can be classified into single and multi-domains based on their structures. It was observed that multi-domain proteins carry additional helices which may regulate the catalytic efficiency. Further, activity enhancing mutations with potentially higher catalytic activities were screened. In an offshoot to the above work, we have analyzed binding of Trichodermin with the 25S rRNA that constitutes the petidyltransferase centre (PTC. The trichodermin resistance protein (60S ribosomal protein L3 was reported to overcome the inhibitory effects of trichothecene compounds. Normal mode analysis and MD of trichodermin resistance protein and 25S consisting of PTC showed that the W-finger region of the protein may move towards 25S rRNA and may block the binding pocket of the trichodermin. These results may lead to develop strategies for higher TS activity and the mechanism of action of these molecules involved in plant-microbe interactions. These may be further exploited for enhancing the efficiency of these biotechnological agents used in sustainable agriculture.
The Tropical Agro-Sciences Division has two functions: conduct research on the impact of air pollution on tropical agricultural and to provide training to UPR graduate students and visiting scientists. Since the reorientation of the Center's interests under ERDA, the Division has directed its research activities, with particular emphasis on the effects of atmospheric pollution on tropical agriculture in the Guayanilla-Penuelas region, which has a fossil-fuel power plant, petroleum refineries, and associated industries. This new area of research is important to ERDA because the knowledge gained regarding the effects of air pollution related to energy technology on the agricultural environment and productivity will be useful in planning future energy developments. Information about the potential harm of air pollutants to man through the food chain and about ways of alleviating their impact on agriculture are of practical importance. Studies of the mechanisms involved in pollution injury, protection, and tolerance are of basic significance
Cavallaro, N.; Melnick, R.
Farm Bill legislation establishes different funding mechanisms managed by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), which have changed over the years through reauthorization. Other legislation and executive initiatives, as well as recognition by both funders, funding recipients, private organizations, and non-government organizations have stressed the need for multi-, inter-, and trans-disciplinary research and outreach. This presentation will discuss how changes to NIFA legislative authority as well as changing needs and culture in the government and the scientific research community have led to new mechanisms and strategies for types of funded projects, eligibility for NIFA funding, interagency funding, and iterative changes in direction in research solicitations. For example, limited funding for important topics has prompted a need for interagency collaborations in research funding solicitations and jointly funded projects. New legislative authorities and requirements have led to new modes of collaboration with private industry, NGOs and commodity boards along with international alliances. Unlike most funding agencies, NIFA funds education and extension or outreach projects in addition to research projects. New authorities together with increased recognition of scientific research needed to inform societal challenges has led to new thinking and greater flexibility in funding for long-term research projects and larger regional, multi-institutional and multi-national projects. This, in addition to a shifting culture among researchers and research institutions, has aided in new policies, requirements and initiatives among research institutions and government agencies involving information, data sharing and public access. Examples of new mechanisms and programs and their successes along with their drawbacks will be presented.
Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.
Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act
Sergei V. Laptev
Full Text Available Mechanism of financial support of agriculturalenterprises has various content and structure indifferent countries require different levels of cost andhas signiﬁcantly different effects application. One of the practical problems of economic science is thestudy of the mechanism of such a structure to support agricultural enterprises in Russia, where whenavailable resource constraints support orientationmanufacturers will increase proﬁts, increase their competitiveness, improve skills in the organizationof the reproductive process. The article deﬁ nes the principles of an effective mechanism of state supportof agricultural enterprises, the ways of solving thepractical mechanical problem.
Fried, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B. [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
that the medfly attacking citrus, the olive fly, the codling moth attacking apples, the tsetse fly and a number of other insects can be eliminated in this way. Radiation can be used to attenuate parasitic larvae attacking animals. The parasites which have thus lost their virulence are used in the production of animal vaccines. In fact, this is still the only known method of producing such vaccines. Isotopic tracers are used to study the movement and metabolism of nutrients in animal production and are particularly useful in studies of essential micronutrients. This unique ability of isotopic tracers to enable detection of chemicals in minute quantities forms the basis for a new program on studies of harmful pesticide residues on plant and animal foods. The sterilizing and killing effect of radiation has been shown to be uniquely effective in preventing or delaying spoilage in a variety of food commodities. Radiation preservation can, for example, be applied to perishable products which do not tolerate cooking or freezing - even after the products are packed. To foster international activities in the field of nuclear science in food and agriculture, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture carries out a single joint program of work approved by the two parent organizations. To carry out work in all these fields, the Division relies heavily on the concept of coordinated research based on research contracts or research agreements. A large part of the work is carried out under various technical assistance projects including expert advice, equipment and training and through the two UNDP Special Fund Projects executed by the IAEA. The IAEA Laboratory plays an indispensable role in the Division’s programs by providing various coordinating services, research, and specialized training. (author) [French] Les méthodes nucléaires sont employées dans la recherche et la production à tous les niveaux successifs de la chaîhe alimentaire: sol et eau
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Other websites associated with this journal: http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals ... Phenotypic characterization of camels and their production system in Yabello and Melka Soda ...
Nutritional and physicochemical properties of stored solar-dried cowpea leafy vegetables · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H Natabirwa, J Mukiibi, E Zziwa, J Kabirizi, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ujas.v17i1.1 ...
Lovasz, E.-Ch.; Gruescu, C. M.; Ciupe, V.; Carabas, I.; Margineanu, D.; Maniu, I.; Dehelean, N.
The European project thinkMOTION works on the purpose of retrieving all-times content regarding mechanisms and machine science by means of creating a digital library, accessible to a broad public through the portal Europeana. DMG-Lib is intended to display the development in the field, from its very beginning up to now days. There is a large range of significant objects available, physically very heterogeneous and needing all to be digitized. The paper presents the workflow, the equipments and specific techniques used in digitization of documents featuring very different characteristics (size, texture, color, degree of preservation, resolution and so on). Once the workflow established on very detailed steps, the development of the workstation is treated. Special equipments designed and assembled at Universitatea "Politehnica" Timisoara are presented. A large series of software applications, including original programs, work for digitization itself, processing of images, management of files, automatic optoelectronic control of capture, storage of information in different stages of processing. An illustrating example is explained, showing the steps followed in order to obtain a clear, high-resolution image from an old original document (very valuable as a historical proof but very poor in quality regarding clarity, contrast and resolution).
The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.
Schröder, J.J.; Scholefield, D.; Cabral, F.; Hofmans, G.
The magnitude of current nutrient losses from agriculture to ground and surface water calls for effective environmental policy, including the use of regulation. Nutrient loss is experienced in many countries despite differences in the organisation and intensity of agricultural production. However,
Liu Zhen, Zhen; Hu, D.
This study analyzes the achievements of agricultural science and technology, the reform of agricultural research system and technology transfer system of agricultural in the Netherlands. With case studies, it tries to find the mode of Dutch agricultural research and technology transfer system, and aims to provide suggestions to optimize agricultural research and technology transfer system in China.
This book consists of chapters that focus specifically on single figures that worked on Descriptive Geometry and also in Mechanisms Sciences and contain biographical notes, a survey of their work and their achievements, together with a modern interpretation of their legacy. Since Vitruvius in ancient times, and with Brunelleschi in the Renaissance, the two disciplines began to share a common direction which, over the centuries, took shape through less well-known figures until the more recent times in which Gaspard Monge worked. Over the years, a gap has been created between Descriptive Geometry and Mechanism Science, which now appear to belong to different worlds. In reality, however, there is a very close relationship between the two disciplines, with a link based on extremely solid foundations. Without the theoretical foundations of Geometry it would not be possible to draw and design mechanical parts such as gears, while in Kinematics it would be less easy to design and predict the reciprocal movements of ...
EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.
Taking agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as research object,on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China’s southwestern mountainous regions,we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science,we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years.Finally we draw several general conclusions regarding structure innovation of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as follows:first,the structure innovation of agricultural organization,a gradual process,proceeds ceaselessly along with ongoing progress and development of agriculture,and in this process,farmers always play a fundamental role;second,the structure innovation of agricultural organization is affected by many factors,and government institutional arrangement and change in market conditions is undoubtedly the most critical factor;third,the probable evolving direction of structure innovation of agricultural organization includes internal differentiation of the same form of agricultural organization,association of different forms of agricultural organization,and emergence of other forms of agricultural organization.
Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R
Since the concept of team science gained recognition among biomedical researchers, social scientists have been challenged with investigating evidence of team mechanisms and functional dynamics within transdisciplinary teams. Identification of these mechanisms has lacked substantial research using grounded theory models to adequately describe their dynamical qualities. Research trends continue to favor the measurement of teams by isolating occurrences of production over relational mechanistic team tendencies. This study uses a social constructionist-grounded multilevel mixed methods approach to identify social dynamics and mechanisms within a transdisciplinary team. A National Institutes of Health-funded research team served as a sample. Data from observations, interviews, and focus groups were qualitatively coded to generate micro/meso level analyses. Social mechanisms operative within this biomedical scientific team were identified. Dynamics that support such mechanisms were documented and explored. Through theoretical and emergent coding, four social mechanisms dominated in the analysis-change, kinship, tension, and heritage. Each contains relational social dynamics. This micro/meso level study suggests such mechanisms and dynamics are key features of team science and as such can inform problems of integration, praxis, and engagement in teams. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Master of Professional Studies in Agriculture and Life Sciences Offered through the Field of Food Science and Technology at Cornell University: A Model for the Development of a Course-Based Graduate Degree in Food Science and Technology
Weller, Daniel; Robbins, Janette; Elmore, Andrea; Wiedmann, Martin
The shortage of highly qualified graduates with advanced training in food science is a pressing problem facing government agencies and the food industry. This has created a need to recruit and train food scientists at the graduate level. However, most graduate level programs are research-based and do not meet the needs of many students. The…
Literacy? What We Do Resources Sustainable Agriculture Food and Farm Facts Free Resources & Lesson Agriculture Food and Farm Facts Free Resources & Lesson Plans Bringing Biotech to Life Learn About Beef and their families about agriculture at the USA Science & Engineering Festival in April. Read More
Since the fall of 1957, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station has published a semi-scientific quarterly magazine, "Louisiana Agriculture," to present information on the station's research to Louisiana citizens, particularly public officials, members of the agribusiness sector, science-oriented farmers, agriculture and science…
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR), a biannual journal, is an official publication of Agricultural Volunteers of Nigeria (AgVON). The journal considers articles from the following areas: Agriculture, Home Economics/Food science, forestry, wildlife and fisheries, environment and waste management, economics, ...
Teng, W.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Pham, L.; Shen, S.; Zhu, T.
The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are (1) area plot - averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; (2) time plot - time series averaged over any rectangular area; (3) Hovmoller plots - longitude-time and latitude-time plots; (4) ASCII
Sailors, Robert A.
This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in agriculture. The agriculture test was developed by the National Evaluation Systems, Inc. and educators in Georgia. The test covers 13 subareas: (1) plant science; (2) crop management; (3) animal science; (4) livestock and…
Bastidas O, G.; Obando D, R.; Alvarez F, A.
Since its beginnings, the Agricultural Area had a selected research team involved in the development of different agricultural techniques. Currently, there are two main branches engaged in the solution of agricultural problems: Soil fertility and induced mutations. Soil fertility: Within this branch, studies on soil nutrients and availability of water and light resources, have been made by using isotope methods. In the near future studies on nitrogen and potassium content in potato, rice and wheat plantations will be held. Induced mutations: The main objective of this team is to obtain through radioinduced mutations, as well as in vitro growth, improved rice and other cereal seeds to be used under hostile environmental conditions. The further goal will be to develop new genotypes straight from the mutants or by utilization of this material as breeding materials in interchange programs
Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim
The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)
After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked
Malmfors, Birgitta; Nilsson, Kjell-Arne
In Sweden, higher education in agriculture is provided exclusively by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The 130 students admitted to the Master of Science program in agriculture annually may choose to specialize in one of six specialty areas (plant science, animal science, food science, biotechnology, economics, and engineering),…
Elhafez, S E Abd; Hamad, H A; Zaatout, A A; Malash, G F
In the last decades, Egypt has been suffering from the phenomenon of black cloud resulting from burning rice husk and increasing the demand for water leading to the water crisis. An alternative, low-value and surplus agricultural byproduct (rice husk, RH) has an enormous potential for the removal of Cu(II) ions from water. The present study focuses on the chance of the use of rice husk as a bio-adsorbent without any chemical treatment instead of burning it and soiling the environment. The elemental, structural, morphological, surface functional, thermal, and textural characteristics of RH are determined by XRF, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and BET surface area, respectively, and contributed to the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution. Also, the performance analysis, adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, etc. are discussed in this article. The results obtained from optimization by batch mode are achieved under the following conditions: initial concentration, 150 ppm; amount of rice husk, 1 g; average particle size, 0.25 mm; temperature, 25 °C; pH, 4; agitation rate, 180 rpm; and contact time, 60 min. RH exhibits a high degree of selectivity for Cu(II) adsorption. The adsorption isotherm is fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich models with R 2 0.998 and 0.997, respectively. The adsorption is well governed by the pseudo-second-order kinetics. It is observed that the rate of adsorption improves with decreasing temperature, and the process is exothermic and non-spontaneous. Particular attention has being paid to factors as production processes, fixed/operational cost, production cost, and profit. The techno-economical analysis is presented in this study that provides precise demands on capital for a fixed investment, provisions for operational capital, and finally provisions for revenue. The social, economical, and environmental benefits by industrial point of view using low-cost adsorbent are also
Yuksel, Ibrahim; Ates, Salih
The purpose of this study is to determine relationship between scientific reasoning and mechanics problem solving skills of students in science education program. Scientific Reasoning Skills Test (SRST) and Basic Mechanics Knowledge Test (BMKT) were applied to 90 second, third and fourth grade students who took Scientific Reasoning Skills course at science teaching program of Gazi Faculty of Education for three successive fall semesters of 2014, 2015 and 2016 academic years. It was found a statistically significant positive (p = 0.038 <0.05) but a low correlation (r = 0.219) between SRST and BMKT. There were no significant relationship among Conservation Laws, Proportional Thinking, Combinational Thinking, Correlational Thinking, Probabilistic Thinking subskills of reasoning and BMKT. There were significant and positive correlation among Hypothetical Thinking and Identifying and Controlling Variables subskills of reasoning and BMKT. The findings of the study were compared with other studies in the field and discussed.
Ackermann, Mark R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Most national policy decisions are complex with a variety of stakeholders, disparate interests and the potential for unintended consequences. While a number of analytical tools exist to help decision makers sort through the mountains of data and myriad of options, decision support teams are increasingly turning to complexity science for improved analysis and better insight into the potential impact of policy decisions. While complexity science has great potential, it has only proven useful in limited case s and when properly applied. In advance of more widespread use, a national - level effort to refine complexity science and more rigorously establish its technical underpinnings is recommended.
the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields
SLEDGE, GEORGE W.; AND OTHERS
BRIEF ANNOTATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR MANY OF THE 107 REFERENCES LISTED UNDER THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES -- (1) ADULT EDUCATION, (2) AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, (3) ANIMAL SCIENCE, (4) CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND CURRICULUM IN CROPS, ENTOMOLOGY, FARM MANAGEMENT, FARM MECHANICS, AND LIVESTOCK, (5) FARM BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING, (6) FORESTRY, (7)…
Atkinson, D. H.; Babuscia, A.; Lazio, J.; Asmar, S.
Many Radio Science investigations, including the determinations of planetary masses, measurements of planetary atmospheres, studies of the solar wind, and solar system tests of relativistic gravity, rely heavily on precision Doppler tracking. Recent and currently proposed missions such as VERITAS, Bepi Colombo, Juno have shown that the largest error source in the precision Doppler tracking data is noise in the Doppler system. This noise is attributed to un-modeled motions of the ground antenna's phase center and is commonly referred to as "antenna mechanical noise." Attempting to reduce this mechanical noise has proven difficult since the deep space communications antennas utilize large steel structures that are already optimized for mechanical stability. Armstrong et al. (2008) have demonstrated the Time Delay Mechanical-noise Cancellation (TDMC) concept using Goldstone DSN antennas (70 m & 34 m) and the Cassinispacecraft to show that the mechanical noise of the 70 m antenna could be suppressed when two-way Doppler tracking from the 70 m antenna and the receive-only Doppler data from the smaller, stiffer 34 m antenna were combined with suitable delays. The proof-of-concept confirmed that the mechanical noise in the final Doppler observable was reduced to that of the stiffer, more stable antenna. Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) near Bishop, CA now has six 10.4 m diameter antennas, a consequence of the closure of Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA). In principle, a 10 m antenna can lead to an order-of-magnitude improvement for the mechanical noise correction, as the smaller dish offers better mechanical stability compared to a DSN 34-m antenna. These antennas also have existing Ka-band receiving systems, and preliminary discussions with the OVRO staff suggest that much of the existing signal path could be used for Radio Science observations.
Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Sorensen, Amanda; Newman, Greg; Mellor, David; Newman, Greg; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; LaDeau, Shannon; Biehler, Dawn; Crall, Alycia
Citizen science has generated a growing interest among scientists and community groups, and citizen science programs have been created specifically for conservation. We examined collaborative science, a highly interactive form of citizen science, which we developed within a theoretically informed framework. In this essay, we focused on 2 aspects of our framework: social learning and adaptive management. Social learning, in contrast to individual-based learning, stresses collaborative and generative insight making and is well-suited for adaptive management. Adaptive-management integrates feedback loops that are informed by what is learned and is guided by iterative decision making. Participants engaged in citizen science are able to add to what they are learning through primary data collection, which can result in the real-time information that is often necessary for conservation. Our work is particularly timely because research publications consistently report a lack of established frameworks and evaluation plans to address the extent of conservation outcomes in citizen science. To illustrate how our framework supports conservation through citizen science, we examined how 2 programs enacted our collaborative science framework. Further, we inspected preliminary conservation outcomes of our case-study programs. These programs, despite their recent implementation, are demonstrating promise with regard to positive conservation outcomes. To date, they are independently earning funds to support research, earning buy-in from local partners to engage in experimentation, and, in the absence of leading scientists, are collecting data to test ideas. We argue that this success is due to citizen scientists being organized around local issues and engaging in iterative, collaborative, and adaptive learning. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.
Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.
Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)
Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.
Bickerton, George E.
Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned
Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG)
Eriksson, Aa [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Radioecology (Sweden)
Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG). 56 refs.
Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Waldorf, Heidi A
Dermal fillers have provided a safe and effective means for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation, and have experienced a dramatic increase in popularity during the past 10 years. Much focus has been placed upon filler technique and patient outcomes. However, there is a relative lack of literature reviewing the basic science of dermal fillers, which is vital to a physician's understanding of how each product behaves in vivo. Part I of this article reviews the basic science and evolution of both historical and contemporary dermal fillers; Part II examines their adverse effects. We endeavor to provide the physician with a practical approach to choosing products that maximize both aesthetic outcome and safety.
Barker, J. L. (Editor)
The excellent quality of TM data allows researchers to proceed directly with applications analyses, without spending a significant amount of time applying various corrections to the data. The early results derived of TM data are discussed for the following applications: agriculture, land cover/land use, soils, geology, hydrology, wetlands biomass, water quality, and snow.
Ellsbury, Susan H.; And Others
A two-part text, "Science Resources: A Self-Paced Instructional Workbook," was designed to provide science students at Mississippi State University with: (1) instruction on basic library usage and reference tools common to most scientific disciplines; (2) materials adapted to specific disciplines; and (3) services available to them from the…
sciences, namely: Agricultural Sciences, Botany, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Computer Science,. Engineering, Environmental Sciences and Geography. Also, areas of Laboratory Science, Technology,. Mathematical Sciences, Microbiology, Physics, Medical Sciences and Zoology form part of the contents of the Journal.
Isotope experiments in agriculture have been carried out in Brazil since 1954. Since 1982, the IAEA has supported the agricultural sciences in Brazil through the projects financed under the IAEA's technical assistance and co-operation programme. These projects include: Radioisotopes in Agriculture; Biological Nitrogen Fixation; Animal Science; Medfly Eradication; and Soil Formation and Degradation. 26 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab
This report contains project summaries of the research projects in the Department of Mechanical Engineering A list of recent publications is also included, which consists of conference presentations...
Brunner, Julian W; Sankaré, Ibrahima C; Kahn, Katherine L
Much of dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) science is conducted by social scientists, healthcare practitioners, and biomedical researchers. While each of these groups has its own venues for sharing methods and findings, forums that bring together the diverse DII science workforce provide important opportunities for cross-disciplinary collaboration and learning. In particular, such forums are uniquely positioned to foster the sharing of three important components of research. First: they allow the sharing of conceptual frameworks for DII science that focus on the use and spread of innovations. Second: they provide an opportunity to share strategies for initiating and governing DII research, including approaches for eliciting and incorporating the research priorities of patients, study participants, and healthcare practitioners, and decision-makers. Third: they allow the sharing of outcome measures well-suited to the goals of DII science, thereby helping to validate these outcomes in diverse contexts, improving the comparability of findings across settings, and elevating the study of the implementation process itself. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Luebeck, Jennifer L.; Bice, Lawrence R.
This study examines the extent to which conceptual change is stimulated and achieved through online discussion in the context of an online graduate course. Transcripts of discussions among 15 graduate students studying assessment issues in mathematics and science education were analyzed using an interaction analysis model developed to assess…
Wardrip, Peter; Tobey, Jennifer
Many teachers fall into the pattern of "assumptive teaching" (Herber 1970), assuming that other instructors will teach students the important strategies they need for learning. In this case, tools and strategies may not be taught outside of reading or language arts because a science teacher can say, "It's not my job." However, a sixth-grade team…
Turner, J.A.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Rijswijk, Kelly; Williams, T.; Barnard, T.
This study identifies systemic problems in the New Zealand Agricultural Innovation System (AIS) in rela-tion to the AIS capacity to enact a co-innovation approach, in which all relevant actors in the agriculturalsector contribute to combined technological, social and institutional change. Systemic
Kolar, J.; Bernatik, O.
The proceedings contain 30 papers of which two deal with uranium mine problems, viz.: ''Current and prospective orientation of mechanized driving of mines and underground infrastructures'' and ''The operation of rail-less mine mechanization in the Hamr area''. (J.B.)
Liu Zhen, Zhen; Hu, D.
This study analyzes the achievements of agricultural science and technology, the reform of agricultural research system and technology transfer system of agricultural in the Netherlands. With case studies, it tries to find the mode of Dutch agricultural research and technology transfer system, and
The agriculture is defined as the art of desturbing the ecosystems in economical terms with the minimum of irreversible damage. Man survival in the biosphere will depend on its ability of using four technologies - mechanization, fertilizers, irrigation and pest disease control. The isotopes are usefull to establish means of producing more food and to preserve it; and clains of unbearable damages to the ecosystems caused by fertilizers and pesticides are not true, are presented. (author) [pt
Dr. Izharul Hasan
Now a day’s cupping therapy is an established therapeutic modality among Indian system of medicine as well as worldwide. Inspite of that, standard operative procedure (SOPs) for cupping therapy is yet to develop. In this paper author comprises the possible indications of cupping therapy along with procedures, application points, safety concerns, historical perspective, surgical operative standards described in traditional system of medicine as well as in the light of science. Cupping may be d...
Chen, Di; Tang, Shi-huan; Lu, Peng; Yang, Hong-jun
The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory of "treating heart and brain diseases with same methods (Nao Xin Tong Zhi: NXTZ)" has great significance to the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It has been proven effective by a great deal of clinical researches. However, the underlying mechanism for this theory is still unclear. To provide insights into the potential mechanism of "NXTZ", this study attempts to deeply investigate the mechanism from two representative cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebral apoplexy. First, various data resources were integrated to obtain different types of biomedical entities including drugs, targets, pathways and diseases. Then, three different approaches including text mining, biological network and enrichment analysis were utilized to recognize the potential common features between CHD and cerebral apoplexy, and the corresponding functions of drugs which could treat both diseases, thus unveiling the mechanism of NXTZ.
Tanzania Journal of Science (TJS), is professional, peer reviewed journal, published in ... Optics, Thin films, Zoography, Military sciences, Biological sciences, Biodiversity, ... animal and veterinary sciences, Geology, Agricultural Sciences, Cytology, ... available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
It is questioned: Is quantum mechanics a new science or a new (or rather old) philosophy of physical science? It is shown that Einstein's attempt in his article of 1935 to bring the concept of "element" from the classical (we call it Italic) philosophical-epistemological tradition, which goes under the names of Pythagoras Parmenides, Democritus, and Newton, into quantum mechanical theory is unclear, inadequate and contradictory.
Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of margin approach. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... and systematized to the management of production costs of agricultural products, the proposed definition ...
As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.
Ingram, Julie; Dwyer, Janet; Gaskell, Peter; Mills, Jane; Wolf, de Pieter
Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes
The Eleventh Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences was held on May 3--5, 1993, at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. These proceedings include the program, list of participants, and the papers that were presented during the eight technical sessions held at this meeting. This symposium was organized into eight technical sessions: Surfaces and interfaces; thermophysical properties and processes; inelastic behavior; nondestructive characterization; multiphase flow and thermal processes; optical and other measurement systems; stochastic processes; and large systems and control. Individual projects were processed separately for the databases.
Two general claims are made in this work. First, we need several different layers of "theory," in particular for understanding human behavior. These layers should concern: the cognitive (mental) representations and mechanisms; the neural underlying processes; the evolutionary history and adaptive functions of our cognition and behaviors; the emergent and complex social structures and dynamics, their relation and feedbacks on individual minds and behaviors, and the relationship between internal regulating goals and the external functions/roles of our conduct; the historical and cultural mechanisms shaping our minds and behaviors; the developmental paths. Second, we do not just need "predictions" and "laws" but also "explanations"; that is, we need to identify the mechanisms producing (here-and-now, or diachronically) a given phenomenon. "Laws" are not enough; they are simply descriptive and predictive; we need the "why" and "how." Correlations are not enough (and they are frequently misleading). We need computational models of the processes postulated in our theories.
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.
This document is designed for use by teachers of Agricultural Production and Management courses in North Carolina. It updates the competencies and content outlines from the previous guide. It lists core and optional competencies for two courses in seven areas as follows: leadership; supervised agricultural experience programs; animal science;…
Herman, Frederik; Priem, Karin; Thyssen, Geert
This paper unveils the body_machine as a key element of dynamic mental maps that have come to shape both educational praxis and research. It traces and analyses instances in which the human and the mechanical encountered each other in metaphorical, material and visual forms, thereby blurring to some extent the boundaries between them while…
The general topic of the symposium follows mechanisms development through all stages of conception, modeling, analysis, synthesis and control to advanced product design. This volume brings together the latest results in the field and celebrates a series of conferences that has been running for 40 years. The contributors and the editor are world leaders in their field. .
Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.
Crowdsourcing is a process in which a firm parcels out work to a "crowd" and offers payment for anyone within the crowd who completes the task determined by that firm. A growing number of behavioral scientists have begun using the Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to facilitate their research and practice, but there is apparently not one academic…
Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service
Although fuel reduction treatments are widespread, there is great variability and uncertainty in the cost of conducting treatments. Researchers from the Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, have developed a model for estimating the per-acre cost for mechanical fuel reduction treatments. Although these models do a good job of identifying factors that...
Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti
Full Text Available Auxin governs dynamic cellular processes involved at several stages of plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms employed by auxin in light of recent scientific advances, with a focus on synthetic auxins as herbicides and synthetic auxin resistance mechanisms. Two auxin receptors were reported. The plasma membrane receptor ABP1 (Auxin Binding Protein 1 alters the structure and arrangement of actin filaments and microtubules, leading to plant epinasty and reducing peroxisomes and mitochondria mobility in the cell environment. The second auxin receptor is the gene transcription pathway regulated by the SCFTir/AFB ubiquitination complex, which destroys transcription repressor proteins that interrupt Auxin Response Factor (ARF activation. As a result mRNA related with Abscisic Acid (ABA and ethylene are transcribed, producing high quantities of theses hormones. Their associated action leads to high production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, leading to tissue and plant death. Recently, another ubiquitination pathway which is described as a new auxin signaling route is the F-box protein S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2A (SKP2A. It is active in cell division regulation and there is evidence that auxin herbicides can deregulate the SKP2A pathway, which leads to severe defects in plant development. In this discussion, we propose that SFCSKP2A auxin binding site alteration could be a new auxinic herbicide resistance mechanism, a concept which may contribute to the current progress in plant biology in its quest to clarify the many questions that still surround auxin herbicide mechanisms of action and the mechanisms of weed resistance.
Oct 3, 2016 ... ... organized the side-event Science and Innovation to Transform African Agriculture to ... Participatory GIS for resource management in Africa: Taking stock. This ICT4D article series features results from innovative research on ...
Journal Homepage Image. The International Journal of Agricultureand Rural Development (IJARD) is an International Journal designed to provide ... Forestry and Wildlife resources, Soil Science, Agricultural Engineering and Food Processing.
Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065, India; School of Ecology and Conservation, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065, India; Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 ...
Hartog, J P Den
First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e
van Vuuren, Detlef; Ochola, Washington; Riha, Susan
The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science, and Technology for Development (IAASTD) looks realistically at how we could effectively use agriculture/AKST to help us meet development and sustainability goals. An unprecedented three-year collaborative effort, the IAASTD involved...
Prigent, Hélène; Maxime, Virginie; Annane, Djillali
This review describes current knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie glucocorticoid insufficiency in sepsis and the molecular action of glucocorticoids. In patients with severe sepsis, numerous factors predispose to glucocorticoid insufficiency, including drugs, coagulation disorders and inflammatory mediators. These factors may compromise the hypothalamic–pituitary axis (i.e. secondary adrenal insufficiency) or the adrenal glands (i.e. primary adrenal failure), or may impair glucocorticoi...
Full Text Available Two general claims are made in this work. First, we need several different layers of theory, in particular for understanding human behavior. These layers should concern: the cognitive (mental representations and mechanisms; the neural underlying processes; the evolutionary history and adaptive functions of our cognition and behaviors; the emergent and complex social structures and dynamics, their relation and feedbacks on individual minds and behaviors, and the relationship between internal regulating goals and the external functions/roles of our conduct; the historical and cultural mechanisms shaping our minds and behaviors; the developmental paths. Second, we do not just need predictions and laws but also explanations; that is, we need to identify the mechanisms producing (here-and-now, or diachronically a given phenomenon. Laws are not enough; they are simply descriptive and predictive; we need the why and how. Correlations are not enough (and they are frequently misleading. We need computational models of the processes postulated in our theories.Reductionism, Cognitive architecture, Emergence, Intentions, Functions, Computer modeling and simulation, Proximate causes
Jannati, E. D.; Setiawan, A.; Siahaan, P.; Rochman, C.
This study aims to determine the description of virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of Mechanical Engineering students on the concept of basic Physics. Quasi experimental method was employed in this research. The participants of this research were first semester students of mechanical engineering in Majalengka University. The research instrument was readability test of instructional media. The results of virtual laboratory learning media readability test show that the average score is 78.5%. It indicates that virtual laboratory learning media development are feasible to be used in improving science literacy skill of Mechanical Engineering students in Majalengka University, specifically on basic Physics concepts of material measurement.
Guz, A. N.
This article is devoted to the forthcoming (11/30/2018) 100th anniversary of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU). The recognition of the scientific results of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics by the world's scientific community is discussed. The historical stages of the institute development are considered. The staff, new books (monographs, textbooks, and tutorials), training achievements (new Doctors of Sciences and PhD), publications in scientific journals, etc. are briefly reviewed. The main scientific awards of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics are listed.
Huggel, Christian; Allen, Simon; Eicken, Hajo; Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí
proposals for mechanisms of financing suggested a role of causation and thus attribution of L&D to (anthropogenic) climate change. Yet, causation mechanisms are particularly delicate in terms of climate justice, development and implications of legal liabilities. Here, we outline potential contributions of science to L&D mechanisms in greater specificity, in particular for (i) threshold based mechanisms, and (ii) causation related mechanisms. We draw on recent concepts of L&D attribution suggesting a more comprehensive attribution framework based on risk concepts. We present a first-order proof-of-concept for the above mechanisms (i) and (ii), using case studies of recent disasters (both related to extreme events and gradual climate change) in the Indian Himalayas, Colombia, Alaska and Australia. We analyze whether science is in a position to substantially contribute to the different L&D policy proposals, including the question whether currently available data and datasets on climate and hazards, exposure and vulnerability are in line with such support, in particular with regards to developing country contexts. We conclude with a perspective on critical research and data needs to further strengthen L&D science and policy.
242 AFE BABALOLA UNIVERSITY: JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT LAW ... The book, Food and Agricultural Law is Nigeria's first authoritative book ... professions including law, economics, environmental science, development,.
Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)
Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.
Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.
Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)
Ochoa, K; Carrillo, S; Gutierrez, L
Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at ''La Primavera'' farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done
In 1892 Lord Kelvin said 'that the fundamental concepts of physics had been established'. However, quantum mechanics in 1900, and relativity in 1905 were going to profoundly upset this science. Jean-Claude Boudenot allows us to relive the essential discoveries, which have given rise to the majority of the technologies of the 20. century through the life of Max Planck (1858-1947). The first scientific hit of M.Planck was to solve the problem of the black body at the turn of last century, he postulated that the exchange of energy between radiation and the walls of the cavity had the form of a flow of very small and indivisible quantities of energy called energy quantum. This discovery allowed him to receive the Nobel prize of physics in 1918
Ernst Mach (1838–1916), the first scientist to study objects moving faster than the speed of sound, propounded a scientific philosophy which called for a strict adherence to observable data. He maintained that the sole purpose of scientific study is to provide the simplest possible description of detectable phenomena. In this work, first published in German in 1883 and here translated in 1893 by Thomas J. McCormack (1865–1932) from the 1888 second edition, Mach begins with a historical discussion of mechanical principles. He then proceeds to a critique of Newton's concept of 'absolute' space and time, reflecting Mach's rejection of theoretical concepts in the absence of definitive evidence. Although historically controversial, Mach's ideas and attitudes informed philosophers as influential as Russell and Wittgenstein, and his insistence upon a 'relative' idea of space and time provided much of the philosophical basis for Einstein's theory of general relativity decades later.
Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong
Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.
Chen, Goong; Wang, Yi-Ching; Gu, Cong; Perronnet, Alain; Yao, Pengfei; Bin-Mohsin, Bandar; Hajaiej, Hichem; Scully, Marlan O
Computational mathematics, physics and engineering form a major constituent of modern computational science, which now stands on an equal footing with the established branches of theoretical and experimental sciences. Computational mechanics solves problems in science and engineering based upon mathematical modeling and computing, bypassing the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory setups and experimental measurements. Furthermore, it allows the numerical simulations of large scale systems, such as the formation of galaxies that could not be done in any earth bound laboratories. This article is written as part of the 21st Century Frontiers Series to illustrate some state-of-the-art computational science. We emphasize how to do numerical modeling and visualization in the study of a contemporary event, the pulverizing crash of the Germanwings Flight 9525 on March 24, 2015, as a showcase. Such numerical modeling and the ensuing simulation of aircraft crashes into land or mountain are complex tasks as they involve both theoretical study and supercomputing of a complex physical system. The most tragic type of crash involves ‘pulverization’ such as the one suffered by this Germanwings flight. Here, we show pulverizing airliner crashes by visualization through video animations from supercomputer applications of the numerical modeling tool LS-DYNA. A sound validation process is challenging but essential for any sophisticated calculations. We achieve this by validation against the experimental data from a crash test done in 1993 of an F4 Phantom II fighter jet into a wall. We have developed a method by hybridizing two primary methods: finite element analysis and smoothed particle hydrodynamics . This hybrid method also enhances visualization by showing a ‘debris cloud’. Based on our supercomputer simulations and the visualization, we point out that prior works on this topic based on ‘hollow interior’ modeling can be quite problematic and, thus, not
Chen, Goong; Wang, Yi-Ching; Perronnet, Alain; Gu, Cong; Yao, Pengfei; Bin-Mohsin, Bandar; Hajaiej, Hichem; Scully, Marlan O.
Computational mathematics, physics and engineering form a major constituent of modern computational science, which now stands on an equal footing with the established branches of theoretical and experimental sciences. Computational mechanics solves problems in science and engineering based upon mathematical modeling and computing, bypassing the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory setups and experimental measurements. Furthermore, it allows the numerical simulations of large scale systems, such as the formation of galaxies that could not be done in any earth bound laboratories. This article is written as part of the 21st Century Frontiers Series to illustrate some state-of-the-art computational science. We emphasize how to do numerical modeling and visualization in the study of a contemporary event, the pulverizing crash of the Germanwings Flight 9525 on March 24, 2015, as a showcase. Such numerical modeling and the ensuing simulation of aircraft crashes into land or mountain are complex tasks as they involve both theoretical study and supercomputing of a complex physical system. The most tragic type of crash involves ‘pulverization’ such as the one suffered by this Germanwings flight. Here, we show pulverizing airliner crashes by visualization through video animations from supercomputer applications of the numerical modeling tool LS-DYNA. A sound validation process is challenging but essential for any sophisticated calculations. We achieve this by validation against the experimental data from a crash test done in 1993 of an F4 Phantom II fighter jet into a wall. We have developed a method by hybridizing two primary methods: finite element analysis and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This hybrid method also enhances visualization by showing a ‘debris cloud’. Based on our supercomputer simulations and the visualization, we point out that prior works on this topic based on ‘hollow interior’ modeling can be quite problematic and, thus, not
López, R.; San-Juan, J. F.
Astrodynamics Web Tools, AstrodyToolsWeb (http://tastrody.unirioja.es), is an ongoing collaborative Web Tools computing infrastructure project which has been specially designed to support scientific computation. AstrodyToolsWeb provides project collaborators with all the technical and human facilities in order to wrap, manage, and use specialized noncommercial software tools in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics fields, with the aim of optimizing the use of resources, both human and material. However, this project is open to collaboration from the whole scientific community in order to create a library of useful tools and their corresponding theoretical backgrounds. AstrodyToolsWeb offers a user-friendly web interface in order to choose applications, introduce data, and select appropriate constraints in an intuitive and easy way for the user. After that, the application is executed in real time, whenever possible; then the critical information about program behavior (errors and logs) and output, including the postprocessing and interpretation of its results (graphical representation of data, statistical analysis or whatever manipulation therein), are shown via the same web interface or can be downloaded to the user's computer.
Full Text Available Introduction:Scientificand practicaltrainingwith an emphasis onoperation andapplication of what is taught and having an empiricalapproachto education isa more suitable approach for creating jobs. Preparation of educational needs of the agricultural sector by scientificand practicaltraining and providingemploymentin agreement with education and skills is one of the most important programs in order to achieve the objectives of comprehensive development of the country. An imbalance seems to exist between the processes and materials in university courses and the skills and abilities needed by the labor market and this is the most importantreason for the failureof the university graduatesin finding employment. This studyhas beendone for understandingthe type of jobof agricultural graduatesof training center of Jihad-e-Keshavarzi in Mashhad and the factor saffecting their employment. Materials and Methods: This study is an applied research and the statistical population is 167 and includes all the students who had earned a Bachelor’s degree who had come to receive their graduation certificates in 2011. The dependent variable is type of job which includes five categories of employment in the public sector related to education, employ men unrelated to the government, employment related tothe privatesector andthe unemployed who were seeking workin the private sector. Independent variables includegender,quotainuniversityadmissions, the level of interestin thefield of study,satisfaction withthe discipline, evaluationand trainingof graduatesofvocational skillsacquired incollegegraduates'assessmentof thework culturein the societyand evaluation oflack ofcapitalas a factor preventingemployment in the academicfield. Information was collected through questionnaires and the multiple probit mode lwas used. Results and discussion: The results ofthe survey showthatjobsof graduates are divided intofour categoriesincluding:Related to the field of study and
From the point of view of agricultural civilization, the history of human civilization is the history of the development of the agricultural civilization. Accompanied by social progress and development of the times, the function of agriculture also experiences the expansion and deepening. In terms of economy, there is a process from mechanized farming to industrialization, then to informatization, modernization and internationalization. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has also experienced and witnessed this process. In terms of "agriculture, countryside and farmers", the content is complex, diverse, profound, sharp, and changing, constantly testing and challenging our wisdom. When the Document No.1 in 2007 targeted modern agriculture, it indicated that new connotation was integrated into agricultural multifunctionality, standing at a new starting point. At present, the function of agriculture is still deepening; there are tremendous achievements and outstanding problems concurrently in issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers. We take the agricultural multifunctionality as breakthrough point for exploration and research.
Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.
The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands
Jones, James W; Antle, John M; Basso, Bruno; Boote, Kenneth J; Conant, Richard T; Foster, Ian; Godfray, H Charles J; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E; Janssen, Sander; Keating, Brian A; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Porter, Cheryl H; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Wheeler, Tim R
Agricultural systems science generates knowledge that allows researchers to consider complex problems or take informed agricultural decisions. The rich history of this science exemplifies the diversity of systems and scales over which they operate and have been studied. Modeling, an essential tool in agricultural systems science, has been accomplished by scientists from a wide range of disciplines, who have contributed concepts and tools over more than six decades. As agricultural scientists now consider the "next generation" models, data, and knowledge products needed to meet the increasingly complex systems problems faced by society, it is important to take stock of this history and its lessons to ensure that we avoid re-invention and strive to consider all dimensions of associated challenges. To this end, we summarize here the history of agricultural systems modeling and identify lessons learned that can help guide the design and development of next generation of agricultural system tools and methods. A number of past events combined with overall technological progress in other fields have strongly contributed to the evolution of agricultural system modeling, including development of process-based bio-physical models of crops and livestock, statistical models based on historical observations, and economic optimization and simulation models at household and regional to global scales. Characteristics of agricultural systems models have varied widely depending on the systems involved, their scales, and the wide range of purposes that motivated their development and use by researchers in different disciplines. Recent trends in broader collaboration across institutions, across disciplines, and between the public and private sectors suggest that the stage is set for the major advances in agricultural systems science that are needed for the next generation of models, databases, knowledge products and decision support systems. The lessons from history should be
Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun
According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences is a multi-disciplinary specialist journal ... research in Biological Science, Agricultural Sciences, Chemical Sciences, ... Comparative study of the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of ...
Lagathu, Claire; Cossarizza, Andrea; Béréziat, Véronique; Nasi, Milena; Capeau, Jacqueline; Pinti, Marcello
: The increased prevalence of age-related comorbidities and mortality is worrisome in ageing HIV-infected patients. Here, we aim to analyse the different ageing mechanisms with regard to HIV infection. Ageing results from the time-dependent accumulation of random cellular damage. Epigenetic modifications and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups modulate ageing. In antiretroviral treatment-controlled patients, epigenetic clock appears to be advanced, and some haplogroups are associated with HIV infection severity. Telomere shortening is enhanced in HIV-infected patients because of HIV and some nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Mitochondria-related oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA mutations are increased during ageing and also by some nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Overall, increased inflammation or 'inflammageing' is a major driver of ageing and could result from cell senescence with secreted proinflammatory mediators, altered gut microbiota, and coinfections. In HIV-infected patients, the level of inflammation and innate immunity activation is enhanced and related to most comorbidities and to mortality. This status could result, in addition to age, from the virus itself or viral protein released from reservoirs, from HIV-enhanced gut permeability and dysbiosis, from antiretroviral treatment, from frequent cytomegalovirus and hepatitis C virus coinfections, and also from personal and environmental factors, as central fat accumulation or smoking. Adaptive immune activation and immunosenescence are associated with comorbidities and mortality in the general population but are less predictive in HIV-infected patients. Biomarkers to evaluate ageing in HIV-infected patients are required. Numerous systemic or cellular inflammatory, immune activation, oxidative stress, or senescence markers can be tested in serum or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The novel European Study to Establish Biomarkers of Human Ageing MARK
When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...
Fábio H. R. Baio
Full Text Available A seleção de uma máquina agrícola pode tornar-se uma tarefa árdua, pois há diversas variáveis que devem ser consideradas. A escolha do equipamento mais adequado para uma propriedade agrícola é uma das etapas mais importantes do processo produtivo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo de computador por programação linear em plataforma web para seleção automatizada de conjuntos mecanizados agrícolas, baseados no menor custo operacional. O programa, desenvolvido em linguagem ASP.NET, pode ser acessado gratuitamente pela Internet (http://www.maquinas.ufms.br. O usuário pode selecionar um conjunto mecanizado agrícola dentro de uma vasta lista de opções que contém suas especificações técnicas ou deixar que o programa lhe retorne automaticamente a melhor opção, pelo menor custo operacional. O programa desenvolvido proporciona ao usuário uma seleção racional via Internet de conjuntos mecanizados, permitindo o estudo econômico do uso das máquinas e implementos, sem a necessidade da instalação de programas dedicados no computador, que dificultariam a manutenção do banco de dados.The selection of an agricultural machine may become a challenging task, because there are several variables that must be considered. Choosing the more suitable equipment to a farm is one of the most important production process steps. The purpose of this study was to develop a computational model by linear programming based on web platform to select automatically mechanized agricultural systems founded on the lowest operational cost. The software was developed in ASP.NET language and can be accessed for free by the Internet (http://www.maquinas.ufms.br. The user can select a mechanized agricultural system in a list that contains the specifications or let the system returns automatically the best option at the lowest operational cost. The developed software brought to the user via Internet a rational selection of mechanized systems
Luis Díaz S
Full Text Available The project-based learning strategy, supported by virtual mediations and computer tools, was applied to 42 students of a program of Animal Science in the course poultry Production in which the degree of familiarization, academic productivity, e-mail asynchronous mediation, the domain of the excel spreadsheet and the appreciation against the implemented methodology. The results showed that 100% of the students did not know the learning strategy and showed fears at the beginning of the activity. The final grades obtained (4.44 ± 0.14, 38.09%; 3.67 ± 0.09; 38.09%; 2.8, 19.05%, delivered products and degree of achievement (100%, 31 students; 88.88%, 5 students; 77.77%, 3 students; 55.55%, 3 students were influenced by the degree of mastery of the spreadsheet (8 students showed mastery, 26 a basic level to elementary and scarce, the rest and the registered participation level. It was found that the strategy generated motivation in the students reflected in the accomplishment of the goals and objectives drawn at the beginning of the course, increased the student-teacher interaction and reached a high academic performance (final grades ≥3.7 in the majority of the participants (73.8%.
Bergerman, M.; Billingsley, J.; Reid, J.; Henten, van E.J.
Robotics for agriculture and forestry (A&F) represents the ultimate application of one of our society’s latest and most advanced innovations to its most ancient and important industries. Over the course of history, mechanization and automation increased crop output several orders of magnitude,
... and Food Systems (IJOTAFS) publishes high-quality peer reviewed articles, in English, in all areas of agriculture and food production and processing including tree production, pesticide science, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation, agricultural engineering, water resources management, marine ...
Chataway, Jo; Smith, James; Wield, David
Science and technology - and particularly biotechnology - are increasingly central to development agendas in Africa and elsewhere. Implicit within the centralitiy of science and technology lie a set of policy issues regarding how best to shape contextually appropriate, innovative and sustainable science and technological products in, with and for developing countries. The work of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is a case in point and we draw our empirical...
I examine the effects of R&D inputs on the subset of life-science outputs which demonstrably has influenced later technology, as evidenced by literature citations in agricultural biotechnology patents. Universities are found to be a principal seedbed for cutting-edge technology development. A university's life-science research budget strongly affects its technology-relevant life-science output as well as graduate education.
Full Text Available Repeated mowing is considered as one of the effective control methods against species of the genus Solidago. This paper evaluates the impact of the repeated mowing on selected morphometric and productive characteristics of the invasive neophyte Solidago canadensis in the district of Rimavská Sobota in Central Slovakia. Permanent research plots (PRPs were established within anthropogenic habitat on an abandoned land that was divided into two variants. In the first variant, the mechanical regulation - mowing was applied. The second variant was without the regulation. The mechanical regulation of the populations was carried out in June and August during the growing season 2011. The results showed that the mechanical regulation did not have a clear impact on the population density. The decreasing trend of the number of shoots within the mowed variant was found only in one research plot (PRP3. The other plots showed an increase in the number of individuals by 2.7 and 32.7% between the mowings. Statistically highly significant differences in terms of the mowing impact on the height of the individuals were found in all PRPs. The difference in the weight of dry aboveground biomass between the mowings was 221.87 g, which represents 36.41%. Double the difference (48.8% was recorded in the dry weight of the underground biomass in the regulated stand compared with the unregulated stand (165.1 and 322.5 g/m2, respectively. Although there was a short-term success achieved by the application of the two mowings during the growing period, the pursued objective was not reached.
De, S.; Agarwal, N. K.; Hazra, Anupam; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Sahai, A. K.
The interaction between cloud and large scale circulation is much less explored area in climate science. Unfolding the mechanism of coupling between these two parameters is imperative for improved simulation of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and to reduce imprecision in climate sensitivity of global climate model. This work has made an effort to explore this mechanism with CFSv2 climate model experiments whose cloud has been modified by changing the critical relative humidity (CRH) profile of model during ISM. Study reveals that the variable CRH in CFSv2 has improved the nonlinear interactions between high and low frequency oscillations in wind field (revealed as internal dynamics of monsoon) and modulates realistically the spatial distribution of interactions over Indian landmass during the contrasting monsoon season compared to the existing CRH profile of CFSv2. The lower tropospheric wind error energy in the variable CRH simulation of CFSv2 appears to be minimum due to the reduced nonlinear convergence of error to the planetary scale range from long and synoptic scales (another facet of internal dynamics) compared to as observed from other CRH experiments in normal and deficient monsoons. Hence, the interplay between cloud and large scale circulation through CRH may be manifested as a change in internal dynamics of ISM revealed from scale interactive quasi-linear and nonlinear kinetic energy exchanges in frequency as well as in wavenumber domain during the monsoon period that eventually modify the internal variance of CFSv2 model. Conversely, the reduced wind bias and proper modulation of spatial distribution of scale interaction between the synoptic and low frequency oscillations improve the eastward and northward extent of water vapour flux over Indian landmass that in turn give feedback to the realistic simulation of cloud condensates attributing improved ISM rainfall in CFSv2.
Full Text Available As agricultural mechanization accelerates the development of agriculture in China, to control the growth of the resulting energy consumption of mechanized agriculture without negatively affecting economic development has become a major challenge. A systematic analysis of the factors (total power, unit diesel consumption, etc. influencing diesel consumption using the SECA model, combined with simulations on agricultural diesel flows in China between 1996 and 2010 is performed in this work. Seven agricultural subsectors, fifteen categories of agricultural machinery and five farm operations are considered. The results show that farming and transportation are the two largest diesel consumers, accounting for 86.23% of the total diesel consumption in agriculture in 2010. Technological progress has led to a decrease in the unit diesel consumption and an increase in the unit productivity of all machinery, and there is still much potential for future progress. Additionally, the annual average working hours have decreased rapidly for most agricultural machinery, thereby influencing the development of mechanized agriculture.
Martínez W. Orlando
Full Text Available Scientilic papers of six wellknown international journal of agricultural research (Agronomy Journal, Crop Science, Plant Physiology, Phytopathology, Plant Disease, Journal of Economic Entomology and the Revista ICA of Colombia, were revised taking the 1990-1992 years as a sample periodo The objective of this review was to evaluate the frequency of the experimental designs commonly used in agricultural research, to observe the statistical techniques more frequently applied in data analysis, and to assess the importance and acceptance of these statistical tools in agronomy. According to the results, the Randomized Complete Block Design and the Completely Random Design were observed in 71% of the experiments. The Fisher LSD was used to separate treatment means in 49% of the cases.
The frequency of factorial experiments, regression analysis, subsampling techniques and repetitions in time and space were also analized. Despite of the size of some experiments with more than 50 treatments, the frequency of incomplete Block Designs was very low.
Con el fin de evaluar la frecuencia del uso de diferentes diseños experimentales y técnicas estadísticas aplicadas a la investigación agrícola, se realizó una revisión de los articulos de seis revistas científicas intemacionales (Agronomy Journal, Crop Science, Plant Physiology, Phytopathology, Plant Disease, Journal of Economic Entomology y de la revista ICA para el período 1990 - 1992. Se observó la concentración del uso de los diseños Completamente al Azar y Bloques al Azar en un 71% de los experimentos y la prueba DSM de Fisher en un 49% de los casos, para la comparación de medias de tratamientos. También, se midió la frecuencia del uso de los arreglos Factoriales y Análisis de Regresión, muestreo dentro del diseño y repeticiones en el tiempo y el espacio. Se destacó la poca utilización de diseños incompletos, a pesar de haber un gran número de ensayos con más de 50
Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD
Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...
Feipeng Guo; Qibei Lu
With more and more importance of correctly selecting partners in supply chain of agricultural enterprises, a large number of partner evaluation techniques are widely used in the field of agricultural science research. This study established a partner selection model to optimize the issue of agricultural supply chain partner selection. Firstly, it constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system after analyzing the real characteristics of agricultural supply chain. Secondly, a heuristic met...
Jung, Sun Mo
This book contains element of machine and machine design, machine standard, a safety factor, fatigue limit like notch, creep, limits and fits for engineering, design of shaft system machine, shaft coupling and clutch, journal and roller bearing such as needle bearing, flexible roller bearing and miniature ball bearing and sliding bearing. It also deals with brake like band brake, spring such as coil spring, torsion bar spring, ring spring and fly wheel, design of pipe system machine like pipe types, joint pipes, check valve, reductive valve and escape valve.
Hansen, Henning Otte
Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policy – objectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention...... in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...
Paulo R. Peloia
Full Text Available As organizações líderes dos mais diferentes setores têm como característica medir o próprio desempenho de modo sistêmico, porém nas empresas agrícolas ainda não é comum o emprego desse conceito, incluindo o setor de mecanização. A mecanização tem um forte impacto na composição dos custos de produção, e conhecer o seu desempenho é primordial para o sucesso de empresa agrícola. A importância que as medidas de desempenho têm no auxílio à gestão e o que a mecanização representa para os custos de produção justificaram o desenvolvimento deste trabalho, que tem como objetivo propor um sistema de medição de desempenho integrado para dar suporte à gestão da mecanização agrícola. A metodologia foi dividida em duas etapas: adaptação de um modelo conceitual sistêmico, com base no Balanced Scorecard - BSC; aplicação do modelo a um estudo de caso na agroindústria canavieira. A adaptação e a aplicação do modelo conceitual permitiu obter indicadores de desempenho de modo sistêmico e associados a: custo e prazo (tradicionalmente utilizados; controle e melhoria na qualidade de operações e processos de apoio; preservação ambiental; segurança, saúde, satisfação, motivação e capacitação de colaboradores; desenvolvimento de sistemas de informação. Conclui-se que o modelo auxiliou na elaboração do sistema de medição de desempenho para a gestão de sistemas mecanizados e que os indicadores permitem uma visão integrada da empresa e associada aos objetivos estratégicos.The leaders' organizations of several different sectors have as characteristic to measure their own performance in a systematic way. However, this concept is still unusual in agricultural enterprises, including the mechanization sector. Mechanization has an important role on the production costs and to know its performance is a key factor for the agricultural enterprise success. This work was generated by the importance that measurement of
Lukefahr, S D
Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed
Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen
While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.
Johansson, Annie-Maj; Wickman, Per-Olof
Purpose: This study examines how different purposes can support teachers in their work with progressions as a part of a teaching sequences in science in primary school. Design/Method: The study was carried out in two classes working with inquiry and the events that took place in the classroom were filmed. In the study, we have chosen to use the…
Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.
... that occur while living, working, or visiting agricultural work environments (primarily farms) are considered agricultural injuries, whether or ... of Labor's Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) supports safe and healthful working conditions by setting and enforcing standards and by ...
Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René
This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban
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Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.
Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD
Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the traditional division of labor within agricultural markets, where women farmers are primarily responsible for subsistence and household crop production while male farmers dominate the commercial sector. Challenging these gendered roles by increasing women farmers' acces...
Sheng, Ping-Ping; Li, Min; Liu, Run-Jin
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are rich in diversity in agricultural ecosystem, playing a vital role based on their unique community structure. Host plants and environmental factors have important effects on AM fungal community structure, so do the agricultural practices which deserve to pay attention to. This paper summarized the research advances in the effects of agricultural practices such as irrigation, fertilization, crop rotation, intercropping, tillage, and pesticide application on AM fungal community structure, analyzed the related possible mechanisms, discussed the possible ways in improving AM fungal community structure in agricultural ecosystem, and put forward a set of countermeasures, i.e., improving fertilization system and related integrated techniques, increasing plant diversity in agricultural ecosystem, and inoculating AM fungi, to enhance the AM fungal diversity in agricultural ecosystem. The existing problems in current agricultural practices and further research directions were also proposed.
Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei
Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading.
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World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development
Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in susta...
Author Guidelines. NATURE OF PAPERS. Papers should be of agricultural interest and include: full reports of original research not previously elsewhere, research notes which consist of brief or new findings; techniques and equipment of importance to agricultural workers; evaluations of problems and trends in agricultural ...
Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…
V. V. Al’t
Full Text Available The modern enterprises of agrarian and industrial complex are characterized by the high level of automation of technological processes. The technological development level conformto 5th and 6th technology revolutions. The automatic and automated technologies in crop production and livestock production use data of internet technologies, Global Positioning Satellite survey and observations, mashine and tractor aggregates automated operating. The models nucleus and row of information models of agricultural objects were designed on the basis of information streams systematization. The analysis of results of simulation of biological objects, cenosises, ecosystems, agro cenosises and agroecosystems showed that the most acceptable type of model is the systemically determined dynamic model of potentially effective type. The Internet-oriented database of innovative development of institutes of an agrarian profile is designed. It contains the information about sorts, machines, mechanization means, electrification and technologies in crop production, livestock production, forage production, feed processing, crop protection, biotechnologies, mechanization, veterinary science and agricultural production processing. The database is positioned as the subject-oriented, retrieval database in web space. The list of indices to which the created architecture of the database corresponds is defined. More than 20 various databases of agricultural purpose which are used in educational process and production are created. These databases are useful to agricultural producers and also organizers of agricultural production, scientists, teachers and students. Information on key indicators of innovative products and institutes – developers of innovative solutions is provided in a basis.
Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development
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career in research and work on the biochemistry of photosynthesis in relation to crop productivity since this process fascinated me. The chairman, Dr. ... area of Photosynthesis, crop physiology and abiotic stress physiology, especially drought.
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Remember me, or Register ... The Summary (abstract) of the paper should not be more than 150 words in length. It should be ... This is essential in other to see how the paper fits into the general picture of scientific progress in the subject.
Eloise T. Choice
Full Text Available Nanotechnology ( the mechanics of Quantum Theory is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers (1 billionth of a meter on the metric scale and involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale (10-9. Therefore, nanotechnology, nanoscience and nanobiology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules “the internal movement of matter with a certain external cause” (Tudor 227 at the nanoscale. The focus of this discussion is on the “miracles” described in the Judeo/ Christian Old Testament and the Christian New Testament. This paper postulates that God, Jesus, the heavenly angels, and their human emissaries (Moses, Aaron, Elijah, the disciples/apostles harnessed and applied similar scientific techniques (albeit far advanced beyond what mankind has done today to accomplish what are often referred to as “miracles” (secular “magic”. Therefore, what we in the religious communities have long referred to as “miracles” (as are recounted throughout Holy Scripture and non-canonical Scriptures were actually the result of advanced technologies applied. In the case of most of the Biblical “miracles,” the creation, restructuring and/or replication of physical matter were conducted at the atomic and molecular levels (10 -9. However, one in particular may have been conducted at the giga scale (10 9 when “… the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.” (Joshua 10:13. Nonetheless, this discussion proposes that these extraordinary events, manifestations of Divine intervention, were all accomplished in either of two ways: (1 A force of energy – referred to in Scripture as the Holy Spirit -- was tapped, harnessed, calibrated and channeled directly by way of Divine Word – the voices/ commands of God and Jesus -- to the intended target and (2 A force of energy – the Holy
Global food production has increased substantially over the past two decades, but factors such as population pressures and environmental degradation are undermining agriculture's current condition and future prospects. This chapter discusses the following: global trends; production trends (livestock and fisheries); per capita production trends (population density and agriculture); environmental trends (soil degradation, inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and freshwater); economic trends (agricultural commodity prices, declining investment in irrigation, World Bank lending); trade liberalization and the Gatt negotiations; conventional agriculture and alternative agriculture; problems with the conventional model (on-farm impacts, off-farm impacts); agricultural policies - creating a new environment; policy impacts - distorted price structures; new policy options (reducing input subsidies, land conservation programs, management agreements, taxes, fees, and tax incentives, strengthening regulations, subsidizing conversion); the economics of alternative agriculture
Berks County Schools, Reading, PA.
Student vocational interest and agricultural business surveys were conducted in Berks County, Pennsylvania to gauge career opportunities in off-farm agricultural occupations. The seven categories of businesses surveyed included agriculture supplies, agriculture mechanics, horticulture mechanics, floriculture, landscaping, turf, and garden center…
Agricultura e biodiversidade nas Ciências Sociais brasileiras: alimentando a comunicação entre ciência e políticas públicas Agriculture and biodiversity in Brazilian Social Sciences: fostering communication between science and public policies
Maria José Carneiro
Full Text Available O presente artigo decorre de uma reflexão sustentada em dois pressupostos: a que as ciências e, em particular, as sociais, podem contribuir para informar as tomadas de decisão e a formulação de políticas públicas visando a melhoria da vida das pessoas no planeta e b que o papel da agricultura na conservação da biodiversidade é uma questão atual de extrema relevância e que merece ser aprofundada. A relação entre a agricultura e a biodiversidade tem sido objeto de questionamentos recentes na sociedade e no campo das políticas públicas. Contudo, se os estudos relacionados à biodiversidade e à agricultura, separadamente, têm observado um considerável crescimento no Brasil, poucos são os investimentos de pesquisa sobre a relação entre esses dois grandes temas. A partir dessas considerações, seguimos dois objetivos principais: 1 investigar como o papel da agricultura familiar na preservação da biodiversidade tem sido abordado pelas Ciências Sociais no Brasil, particularmente nos artigos publicados em periódicos brasileiros nos últimos 20 anos; 2 testar uma metodologia de revisão bibliográfica, criteriosa, que possa ser útil aos tomadores de decisão em políticas públicas e demais interessados.The present article comes up from a reflection upon what lies in the intersection between two premises: a that science, and in particular, the social sciences, can contribute towards informing both decision making and the formulation of public policies, aiming at improving the welfare of people in the planet, and, b that the role of agriculture in the conservation of biodiversity is an extremely relevant contemporary issue, hence the need to study it in greater depth. The relationship between agriculture and biodiversity has been subjected to recent questionings, both in society and in the realm of public policies, as a result of growing concerns about the environmental changes caused by anthropic action. However, despite the
R. M. Hudzari
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the equations relating the Hue digital values of the fruits surface of the oil palm with maturity stage of the fruit in plantation. The FFB images were zoomed and captured using Nikon digital camera, and the calculation of Hue was determined using the highest frequency of the value for R, G, and B color components from histogram analysis software. New procedure in monitoring the image pixel value for oil palm fruit color surface in real-time growth maturity was developed. The estimation of day harvesting prediction was calculated based on developed model of relationships for Hue values with mesocarp oil content. The simulation model is regressed and predicts the day of harvesting or a number of days before harvest of FFB. The result from experimenting on mesocarp oil content can be used for real-time oil content determination of MPOB color meter. The graph to determine the day of harvesting the FFB was presented in this research. The oil was found to start developing in mesocarp fruit at 65 days before fruit at ripe maturity stage of 75% oil to dry mesocarp.
Hudzari, R. M.; Ssomad, M. A. H. A.; Syazili, R.; Fauzan, M. Z. M.
This experiment was conducted to determine the equations relating the Hue digital values of the fruits surface of the oil palm with maturity stage of the fruit in plantation. The FFB images were zoomed and captured using Nikon digital camera, and the calculation of Hue was determined using the highest frequency of the value for R, G, and B color components from histogram analysis software. New procedure in monitoring the image pixel value for oil palm fruit color surface in real-time growth m...
Sagaidachnaia, Z. A.
The use of agricultural specialists with leadership training from the social sciences was a key program in the socialization of the rural population in communist ideology and in the advancement of agricultural production. (MB)
Soo-Dong Woo1 Jae Young Choi2 Yeon Ho Je2 Byung Rae Jin3. Department of Plant Medicine, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea; School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul ...
Researches carried out in the 'Animal Science Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise : immunology and animal nutrition. Tracer techniques are employed in this study. (M.A.) [pt
Introduction. Agriculture is a key sector of economy in Tanzania. ... media to reach a wide audience, newspapers have additional advantages of being in permanent form ... advertisements, politics, entertainment, and crime events while ignoring developmental topics such as ..... Social Sciences, 3(8): 578–582. Kayode, J.
This publication contains 23 papers related to the use of nuclear techniques in plant breeding in Turkey, effect of gamma irradiations on growing various plants, mutations and soil chemistry, etc., presented at 4. International Congress of Nuclear Agriculture and Animal Science in Bursa, Turkey, 25-27 Sep 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.
... in technology-adopting households. Policymakers, however, need to be guided by more inter-disciplinary research to promote a greater understanding of how the links between agricultural technology and nutritional outcomes can be strengthened. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) Vol. XVII No.
The South African Journal of Agricultural Extensionaims to: * advance and apply the science of extension and of rural development as scientific discipline by stimulating thought, study, research, discussion and the publication and exchange of knowledge both nationally and internationally. * promote the professionalism ...
Mar 20, 2017 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 10(2): 262 – 275, 2017. ISSN:1998-0507 ... providing farmers with appropriate innovations on environmental management and protection. ..... Fish wealth solution. African Journal of. Environmental. Science and ... Agricultural Development Project.
Iqbal, M.M.; Idris, M.; Shah, S.M.
Agriculture is a profession which is open both to natural conditions and intense human activity. This has brought it in direct interface with the environment. The activities related to agriculture can have favorable as well as unfavorable influence on environment. Pressure of burgeoning population in demanding increased production from agriculture to feed and clothe the teeming millions. This has resulted in excessive use of soil, fertilizers and pesticides. The paper describes the effect of these productive resources on environment and human health. (author)
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...
Le Roux, E J
Agriculture is an important component of Canadian energy policy. There are many opportunities for both the production of energy from agricultural processes and the conservation of energy in agricultural production. These opportunities, as well as current practices and research in progress, are outlined in this report. Energy sources in agriculture include biomass (straw and other residues), methane production from manure, and oil and alcohol from crops. Alternate energy sources such as solar and wind power conserve conventional resources, and additional conservation opportunities exist in the use of greenhouses, waste heat and energy-efficient farming processes. Research programs and possible trends are outlined. 10 figs., 3 tabs.
Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.
The climatic effects of agriculture and nutritional habits of the West German population are investigated. Changes in solar UV-B radiation and methods of measuring them are described. The climatic relevance of ecological and conventional agricultural techniques are compared. The agricultural policy of the European Communities is presented and discussed. The climatic effects of the totality of agricultural production techniques and processing stages of the food industry, as well as of transport and trade, are analyzed. Sociological investigations are made of the nutritional habits of the population, and the consequences for the global climate are compared. (SR) [de
Howden, S Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger
The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists.
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... cheap interest rate polices has negative effect on credit supply while policies associated with plough ... credit was influenced mainly by the availability of credit subsidies and availability of guarantees.
This study has two objectives. First, to extract a cycle from agricultural GDP. Second, to compute the periodicity of the cycle. To achieve these objectives, a univariate time series procedure is applied. It is found that agricultural GDP is cyclic and that the cycle occurs every 8.25 years. (Eastern Africa Social Science Research ...
Kitchel, Tracy; Ball, Anna L.
The purpose of this philosophical paper was to articulate the disciplinary tenets for consideration when using theory in agricultural education quantitative research. The paper clarified terminology around the concept of theory in social sciences and introduced inaccuracies of theory use in agricultural education quantitative research. Finally,…
Impressive progress in the science of agriculture and food production has helped significantly in feeding the world's growing population over the past 50 years. Surprisingly, major challenges still remain. Though formal education or schooling and the cognitive skills it helps to develop, contributes to agricultural production ...
Andhra Pradesh, India, 1981, pp. 188–201 (referenced in Geno and Geno, 2001). 33 S. R. Gliessman, “Sustainable Agriculture: An Agroecological ...and Geno, 2001). 34 M. Liebman, “Polyculture Cropping Systems,” in Agroecology : The Science of Sustainable Agriculture, M. A. Altieri, ed
A Scientometric analysis of the Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences from volume 1 to 24 covering 279 papers is reported. The journal was covering all areas of agriculture with most papers having single, two or three authors and; in a rare cases up to nine and twelve authors. The number of papers in agronomy, field ...
This paper takes the viewpoint of a social scientist and looks at agricultural scientists' pathways for science impact. Awareness of these pathways is increasingly becoming part and parcel of the professionalism of the agricultural scientist, now that the pressure is on to mobilize smallholders and
Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...