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Sample records for sciatic neuroma presenting

  1. Acoustic neuroma ingrowth in the cochlear nerve: does it influence the clinical presentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forton, G.E.J.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Offeciers, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the clinical presentation in patients with a histologically proven ingrowth of the cochlear nerve by acoustic neuroma to see whether this differs from what is known from large acoustic neuroma series. In total, 85 acoustic neuromas had an en bloc dissection to study histologically the

  2. Atypical Presentation of Traumatic Neuroma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Agrawal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Traumatic neuroma is a rare disorder that represents a reactive proliferation of neural tissue followingdamage to an adjacent nerve. Rarely these lesions appear in the oral cavity with certain predilection for the mental foramen and the tongue area. However, its presentation on lip is more unusual with only few cases being reported in the literature. Typically diagnosed in middle-aged women, patient complains of pain as a frequent symptom. Clinically, the lip lesions appear as a normal or grayish white nodule with a smooth surface that typically resembles a mucocele. We report here a case of a 37-year old female who presented with similar signs and symptoms and was diagnosed clinically as a mucocele. However, histopathological examination revealed it as a traumatic neuroma that was surgically excised. The patient is under follow-up with no signs of recurrence for 18 months. 

  3. T1-nerve root neuroma presenting with apical mass and Horner's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podnar Simon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appearance of dumbbell neuroma of the first thoracic root is extremely rare. The extradural component of a T1-dumbbell neuroma may present as an apical mass. The diagnosis of hand weakness is complex and may be delayed in T1-neuroma because of absence of the palpable cervical mass. One-stage removal of a T1-root neuroma and its intrathoracic extension demanded an extended posterior midline approach in the sitting position. Case presentation A 51-year old man had suffered a traumatic partial tendon rupture of his wrist flexor muscles 6 years ago. Since the incident he occasionally felt fullness and tenderness in the affected forearm with some tingling in his fingers bilaterally. During the last two years the hand weakness was continuous and hypotrophy of the medial flexor and intrinsic hand muscles had become apparent. Electrophysiological studies revealed an ulnar neuropathy in addition to mild median and radial nerve dysfunction, including a mild contralateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The diagnostic work-up for multiple mononeuropathy in the upper extremity was negative. Repeated electrophysiological studies revealed fibrillations in the C7 paravertebral muscles on the affected side. Chest x-ray revealed a large round apical mass on the affected side. A Horner's syndrome was noted at this point of diagnostic work-up. MRI of the cervical and thoracic spine revealed a dumbbell T1 neuroma enlarging the intervertebral foramen at T1-2 and a 5 cm large extradural tumor with extension into the apex of the ipsilateral lung. The patient underwent surgery in sitting position using a left dorsal midline approach. Although the T1 root could not be preserved, the patient's neurological condition was unchanged after the surgery. Conclusion Extended posterior midline exposure described here using hemilaminectomy, unilateral facetectomy and costo-transversectomy is efficient and safe for one-stage removal of dumbbell tumors at the T1

  4. Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  5. Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in June 1969 at Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Since then, more than 10,000 acoustic neuroma ... of neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, medical physicists and a nursing staff. Specialists in neuroimaging join the team when ...

  6. Acoustic Neuroma Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EVENTS DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing ... Brain Freeze ? READ MORE Read More What is acoustic neuroma? Identifying an AN Learn More Get Info ...

  7. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh S Manchanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN is a benign cutaneous or mucosal neural tumor which, usually, presents as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, papule or nodule showing striking predilection for the face. It occurs commonly in middle age, and there is no sex predilection. Oral PEN are not common, and these lesions must be distinguished from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as the neurofibroma, neurilemma (schwannoma, and traumatic neuroma. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of PEN is to avoid the misdiagnosis of neural tumors that may be associated with systemic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B. Here, we present a case of benign PEN of the gingiva in the left anterior mandibular region, laying importance on immunohistochemical staining in diagnosing such lesions.

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  9. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  10. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... resource Click to learn more... LOGIN CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN ... sponsors Become a Sponsor Acoustic Neuroma Association Latest News Join / Renew Login Contact Us Become a Sponsor ...

  11. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  12. Neurofibromatosis and the Painful Neuroma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belzberg, Allan J

    2007-01-01

    .... The pain is often due to the formation of a neuroma. To understand better how neuromas cause pain and what treatments may be provided, we have attempted to develop an animal model of a painful neuroma...

  13. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  14. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree Parkway Suite 108 Cumming, GA 30041 770-205-8211 info@ANAUSA.org The world's #1 acoustic ... Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree Parkway Suite 108 Cumming, GA 30041 ...

  15. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... more... LOGIN CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic ... Stories Keywords Shop ANA Discussion Forum About Back Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values ...

  16. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... Provider List Member Portal Back Webinar Library Newsletter Library ... About Back Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree ...

  17. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  18. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  19. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... Click to learn more... LOGIN CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts ... Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video Howard of NJ Gloria hiking ...

  20. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Choosing a healthcare provider Request a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a ...

  1. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  2. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree ... info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational ...

  3. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  4. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Educational Video Scott at the Grand Canyon Proton Center load more hold SHIFT key to load all load all Stay Connected with ANA Newly Diagnosed Living with AN Healthcare Providers Acoustic Neuroma Association Donate Now Newly Diagnosed ...

  5. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  6. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  7. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... Suite 108 Cumming, GA 30041 770-205-8211 info@ANAUSA.org The world's #1 acoustic neuroma resource ... List Member Portal Webinar Library Newsletter Library Patient Info Booklets Member Login Research ANA Survey/Registry AN ...

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... Click to learn more... LOGIN EVENTS DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts ... Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video Scott at the Grand Canyon ...

  9. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Request a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side ... Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a healthcare provider Request a patient ...

  10. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider Request a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms ... effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a healthcare provider Request a ...

  11. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA ... AN Healthcare Providers Acoustic Neuroma Association Donate Now Newly Diagnosed What is AN? Request a Patient Kit Treatment Options Get Support Find a Provider Discussion Forum Contact ANA Join ...

  12. Treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy-related sciatic nerve entrapment: presentation of an ultrasound-guided "Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis" application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Moreno, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis. In this article, the interventional procedure is presented in detail, and both the strengths and limits of the technique are discussed. US-guided EPI eliminates the fibrotic accumulation that causes PHTrSNE, without the semimembranosus tendon or the sciatic nerve being directly involved during the procedure. The technique is however of limited use in cases of compression neuropathy. US-guided EPI is a technique that is quick to perform, minimally invasive and does not force the patient to suspend their activities (work or sports) to make the treatment effective. This, coupled to the fact that the technique is generally well-tolerated by patients, supports use of US-guided EPI in the treatment of PHTrSNE.

  13. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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    Full Text Available ... Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects ... Groups Is a support group for me? Find a Group Upcoming Events Video Library Photo Gallery One-on-One Support ANetwork Peer Support Program Community Connections Overview Find a Meeting ...

  14. A traumatic neuroma in breast cancer patient after mastectomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su Young [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan , (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    A traumatic neuroma is a tangle of neural fibers and connective tissues which develop at the end of a proximal nerve stump following the nerve injury. The incidence of traumatic neuroma after breast cancer surgery is extremely low, and so far, there are only 11 cases being reported in literature. We present sonographic and pathologic features of a traumatic neuroma that mimics the recurrent breast carcinoma identified on follow-up ultrasound examinations after breast cancer surgery.

  15. Ureteral sciatic hernia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, So Young; Han, Hyun Young; Park, Suk Jin; Choe, Hyoung Shim; Kim, Eun Tak [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    A ureteral hernia that occurs through the sciatic foramen is very rare. We present a case of a ureteral sciatic hernia with hydronephrosis. Intravenous urography (IVU) showed the presence of a curved, laterally displaced ureter, and computed tomography (CT) clearly depicted the herniated ureter through the sciatic foramen. The patient was treated transiently with a double J catheter.

  16. Treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy-related sciatic nerve entrapment: presentation of an ultrasound-guided “Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis” application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Moreno, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Methods Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis. In this article, the interventional procedure is presented in detail, and both the strengths and limits of the technique are discussed. Results US-guided EPI eliminates the fibrotic accumulation that causes PHTrSNE, without the semimembranosus tendon or the sciatic nerve being directly involved during the procedure. The technique is however of limited use in cases of compression neuropathy. Conclusion US-guided EPI is a technique that is quick to perform, minimally invasive and does not force the patient to suspend their activities (work or sports) to make the treatment effective. This, coupled to the fact that the technique is generally well-tolerated by patients, supports use of US-guided EPI in the treatment of PHTrSNE. PMID:27900300

  17. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  18. Traumatic Neuroma around the Celiac Trunk after Gastrectomy Mimicking a Nodal Metastasis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Ryu, Seung Wan; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Traumatic neuroma is a well-known disorder that occurs after trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerve and develops from a nonneoplastic proliferation of the proximal end of a severed, partially transected, or injured nerve. However, in the abdomen, traumatic neuromas have been sporadically reported to occur in the bile duct. We present here a case of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk after gastrectomy that mimicks a nodal metastasis. In conclusion, the imaging finding of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk was a homogeneous hypovascular mass without narrowing or irregularity of encased arteries and without increased uptake on PET-CT. Although from a clinical standpoint, establishing an accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult to perform, the presence of a traumatic neuroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass around the celiac trunk in a patient that has undergone celiac nodal dissection.

  19. Management of painful clitoral neuroma after female genital mutilation/cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Petignat, Patrick

    2017-02-08

    Traumatic neuromas are the result of regenerative disorganized proliferation of the proximal portion of lesioned nerves. They can exist in any anatomical site and are responsible for neuropathic pain. Post-traumatic neuromas of the clitoris have been described as an uncommon consequence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). FGM/C involves partial or total removal of the female genital organs for non-therapeutic reasons. It can involve cutting of the clitoris and can cause psychological, sexual, and physical complications. We aimed to evaluate the symptoms and management of women presenting with a clitoral neuroma after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). We identified women who attended our specialized clinic for women with FGM/C who were diagnosed with a traumatic neuroma of the clitoris between April 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016. We reviewed their medical files and collected socio-demographic, clinical, surgical, and histopathological information. Seven women were diagnosed with clitoral neuroma. Six attended our clinic to undergo clitoral reconstruction, and three of these suffered from clitoral pain. The peri-clitoral fibrosis was removed during clitoral reconstruction, which revealed neuroma of the clitoris in all six subjects. Pain was ameliorated after surgery. The seventh woman presented with a visible and palpable painful clitoral mass diagnosed as a neuroma. Excision of the mass ameliorated the pain. Sexual function improved in five women. One was not sexually active, and one had not yet resumed sex. Post-traumatic clitoral neuroma can be a consequence of FGM/C. It can cause clitoral pain or be asymptomatic. In the case of pain symptoms, effective treatment is neuroma surgical excision, which can be performed during clitoral reconstruction. Surgery should be considered as part of multidisciplinary care. The efficacy of neuroma excision alone or during clitoral reconstruction to treat clitoral pain should be further assessed among symptomatic

  20. Traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alcalá-Galiano, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Montalvo-Moreno, Juan José

    2008-03-01

    Traumatic neuromas are rare entities which characteristically arise subsequently to surgery and are usually accompanied by pain, typically neuralgic. We present an unusual case of an intraosseous traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve following tooth extraction. A 56-year-old man consulted for paresthesias and hyperesthesia in the left mandibular region following extraction of the left mandibular third molar (#38). The panoramic radiograph revealed a radiolucent lesion in the inferior alveolar nerve canal, and CT demonstrated the existence of a mass within the canal, producing widening of the same. Nerve-sparing excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with traumatic neuroma of the left inferior alveolar nerve. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic and there are no signs of recurrence.

  1. Acoustic Neuroma Mimicking Orofacial Pain: A Unique Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveenkumar Ramdurg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic neuroma (AN, also called vestibular schwannoma, is a tumor composed of Schwann cells that most frequently involve the vestibular division of the VII cranial nerve. The most common symptoms include orofacial pain, facial paralysis, trigeminal neuralgia, tinnitus, hearing loss, and imbalance that result from compression of cranial nerves V–IX. Symptoms of acoustic neuromas can mimic and present as temporomandibular disorder. Therefore, a thorough medical and dental history, radiographic evaluation, and properly conducted diagnostic testing are essential in differentiating odontogenic pain from pain that is nonodontogenic in nature. This article reports a rare case of a young pregnant female patient diagnosed with an acoustic neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle that was originally treated for musculoskeletal temporomandibular joint disorder.

  2. Surdez súbita unilateral como manifestação de schwannoma vestibular: relato de caso Sudden deafness as a presenting symptom of acoustic neuroma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Marquez Nascentes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O schwannoma vestibular, também conhecido como neuroma ou neurinoma do acústico, é o tumor mais freqüente do ângulo pontocerebelar correspondendo a aproximadamente a 9% de todos os tumores intracranianos. APRESENTAÇÃO DO CASO: Os autores apresentam um relato de caso de surdez súbita e zumbido unilateral com melhora dos sintomas através de tratamento clínico com Prednisona e Pentoxifilina e posterior diagnóstico por exame de imagem de schwannoma vestibular. DISCUSSÃO: A surdez súbita pode ser descrita como uma perda neurossensorial abrupta e intensa. Costuma ser acima de 30 dB, em três ou mais freqüências contíguas e se desenvolve em menos de três dias. CONCLUSÃO: É de grande importância a pesquisa da etiologia nos casos de surdez súbita para a boa condução do caso e orientação terapêutica.Vestibular schwannoma, also known as acoustic neurinoma, is the most frequent tumor of the cerebellopontine angle, and represents 9% of all intracranial tumors. CASE REPORT: The authors report a case of sudden deafness with unilateral tinnitus. The patients responded to therapy with Prednisone and Pentoxifylline after the diagnosis of acoustic neurinoma by imaging exams. DISCUSSION: Sudden deafness can be described as an intense and abrupt sensorineural loss. Usually it is higher than 30 dB at three or more frequencies and develops in less than three days. CONCLUSION: Investigation of the etiology of sudden deafness is extremely important to establish the adequate strategy for the case.

  3. LAPAROSCOPIC APPENDECTOMY: NEUROMA : CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUKSEL ALTINEL

    2017-09-01

    as a result of the triggering of the appendix , it consists of neural hyperplasia. Obliterated in the appendix, a small appendix of recurrent inflammatory attacks causing proliferation of neuroendocrine cells in the stroma has been suggested to lead to appendicitis. This case report describes an appendix neuroma treated with laparoscopic appendectomy. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(3.000: 12-12

  4. MRI features of peripheral traumatic neuromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Shivani [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology Section, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Montgomery, Elizabeth A. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Pathology, Oncology and Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fayad, Laura M. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Musculoskeletal Imaging Section Chief, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-04-15

    To describe the MRI appearance of traumatic neuromas on non-contrast and contrast-enhanced MRI sequences. This IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study retrospectively reviewed 13 subjects with 20 neuromas. Two observers reviewed pre-operative MRIs for imaging features of neuroma (size, margin, capsule, signal intensity, heterogeneity, enhancement, neurogenic features and denervation) and the nerve segment distal to the traumatic neuroma. Descriptive statistics were reported. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the relationship between size of neuroma and parent nerve. Of 20 neuromas, 13 were neuromas-in-continuity and seven were end-bulb neuromas. Neuromas had a mean size of 1.5 cm (range 0.6-4.8 cm), 100 % (20/20) had indistinct margins and 0 % (0/20) had a capsule. Eighty-eight percent (7/8) showed enhancement. All 100 % (20/20) had tail sign; 35 % (7/20) demonstrated discontinuity from the parent nerve. None showed a target sign. There was moderate positive correlation (r = 0.68, p = 0.001) with larger neuromas arising from larger parent nerves. MRI evaluation of the nerve segment distal to the neuroma showed increased size (mean size 0.5 cm ± 0.4 cm) compared to the parent nerve (mean size 0.3 cm ± 0.2 cm). Since MRI features of neuromas include enhancement, intravenous contrast medium cannot be used to distinguish neuromas from peripheral nerve sheath tumours. The clinical history of trauma with the lack of a target sign are likely the most useful clues. (orig.)

  5. Ultrasonographic features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy

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    Sung, Hwa Sung; Kim, Young Seon [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. This study was performed with approval from our Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Six traumatic neuromas in five patients were included in this study. The US findings of traumatic neuromas were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The final assessment was also recorded. On US, all six lesions presented as a mass within the pectoralis muscle layer (mean size, 4.8 mm; range, 3.9 to 5.5 mm). Of the six masses, four had an oval shape with a circumscribed margin, and two had an irregular shape and an indistinct margin. They were all hypoechoic. Two lesions showed a non-parallel orientation. On color Doppler examinations, two lesions showed internal vascularity. Strain elastography was performed for four neuromas, resulting in scores of 1 (n=1), 4 (n=2), and 5 (n=1). The final assessment categories were BI-RADS 3 (n=2), 4A (n=2), and 4B (n=2). On US, an oval shape, circumscribed margin, parallel orientation, and hypoechogenicity were the most frequent features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Neuromas may show increased vascularity on color Doppler imaging and present as a hard mass on elastography.

  6. Ultrasonographic features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Sung Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Methods This study was performed with approval from our Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Six traumatic neuromas in five patients were included in this study. The US findings of traumatic neuromas were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. The final assessment was also recorded. Results On US, all six lesions presented as a mass within the pectoralis muscle layer (mean size, 4.8 mm; range, 3.9 to 5.5 mm. Of the six masses, four had an oval shape with a circumscribed margin, and two had an irregular shape and an indistinct margin. They were all hypoechoic. Two lesions showed a non-parallel orientation. On color Doppler examinations, two lesions showed internal vascularity. Strain elastography was performed for four neuromas, resulting in scores of 1 (n=1, 4 (n=2, and 5 (n=1. The final assessment categories were BI-RADS 3 (n=2, 4A (n=2, and 4B (n=2. Conclusion On US, an oval shape, circumscribed margin, parallel orientation, and hypoechogenicity were the most frequent features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Neuromas may show increased vascularity on color Doppler imaging and present as a hard mass on elastography.

  7. Schwannomatosis of the sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Maruyama, Shigeki; Mizuno, Kosaku [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    A 52-year-old woman with schwannomatosis in the left sciatic nerve is presented. The patient had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 or 2. Cutaneous or spinal schwannomas were not detected. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the sciatic nerve revealed more than 15 tumors along the course of the nerve. Histological examination revealed schwannomas consisting of Antoni A and B areas. Immunohistochemical study showed most cells reacting intensely for S-100 protein. The patient underwent conservative follow-up treatment due to the minimal symptoms. The relationship of the disease with NF-2 and plexiform schwannoma is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Dosimetric comparison of different radiation treatment modalities for acoustic neuromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Weon Kuu [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Oh [Kyung Hee Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongho [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The dosimetric differences for intensity-modulatedradiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), proton therapy(PROTON) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patient with acoustic neuroma (AN) were compared by using the dose-volume histogram (DVH). In the present study, we estimated the dosimetric differences for patient with AN who received different treatment modalities. In this study, we found proton therapy is relatively effective treatment techniques than the other.

  9. Intratemporal facial nerve neuroma: anatomical location and radiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, T R; Shelton, C; Wiggins, R H; Salzman, K L; Glastonbury, C M; Harnsberger, R

    2001-07-01

    To present the imaging findings and anatomical locations of a series of 88 facial nerve neuromas from two centers over a 30-year period. We describe the salient radiological features of neuromas in each anatomical location and outline the ways in which modern imaging techniques have altered our perception of this entity. A retrospective review of tumors presenting to two tertiary care referral institutions since 1970. The charts and available imaging of patients with the diagnosis of facial neuroma were reviewed. These patients presented to the House Ear Clinic between 1970 and 1994 and to the University of Utah Medical Center (Salt Lake City, UT) between 1986 and August 2000. We examined anatomical location to determine patterns of tumor presentation and compared the findings before and after the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All segments of the facial nerve were represented. Overall, multiple-segment tumors were almost twice as common (63.6%) as single-segment tumors (36.4%). Before the advent of MRI, all segments of the nerve from the cerebellopontine angle to the tympanic portion were almost equally represented (29.5%-36.3%). After MRI, the geniculate ganglion (68.2%) and labyrinthine portion (52.3%) were by far the most commonly affected areas. Before MRI, there were, on average, 1.89 segments involved per tumor. After MRI, this average number increased to 2.57 segments per tumor. Radiologically, the high-resolution computed tomography and MRI features cannot be generalized. Rather, the imaging features depend on which segments are involved. This is because of the variation in the surrounding anatomical landscape of the facial nerve in its course through the temporal bone. The more sensitive imaging provided by newer radiological techniques has altered our perception of facial neuroma. It has provided us with an increased ability to diagnose and fully evaluate this neoplasm preoperatively, allowing improved patient counseling and surgical planning.

  10. Strategy for the diagnosis of small acoustic neuromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Sho; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Furukawa, Kanako; Takasaka, Tomonori (Dept. of Otolaryngology, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    Twenty small (extra-meatal size <15 mm) acoustic neuromas have been diagnosed since high-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became available in our clinic. Among these tumors, 18 had sensorineutral hearing loss and 16 enlarged internal auditory meatus in X-ray photo, but only 8 tumors out of 18 tested showed diminished caloric response. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) has been believed as the most reliable test for the diagnosis of acoustic neuroma despite several reports of false-negatives. In our series, 4 tumors out of 18 tested had normal ABR. The false-negative rate was 22%, which is much higher than expected. In CT, only 11 tumors were recognized. Although the total number is not large, present results clearly suggest the limits of these examinations. At present, HR-MRI is the most reliable diagnostic method for acoustic neuromas with no false-negative reported: ordinary MRI may have false-negatives. For the effective use of MRI, the results of audiometry, X-ray photo, ABR and other examinations must be evaluated properly. (au).

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Hyaluronic Acid Injection for the Management of Morton's Neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang; Hwang, Il-Yeong; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Lee, Jae Woo; Kang, Seung Woo

    2018-02-01

    Morton's neuroma is one of the common causes of forefoot pain. In the present study, hyaluronic acid injection was performed on patients to determine the efficacy and adverse effects of hyaluronic acid in management of Morton's neuroma. Eighty-three patients with Morton's neuroma in their third intermetatarsal space with definite Mulder's click were included in the study. Those with severe forefoot deformities such as forefoot cavus or hallux valgus on plain X-rays were excluded. Ultrasound-guided hyaluronic acid injections were performed on all patients weekly for 3 weeks. Pain during walking using visual analogue scale (VAS) and AOFAS Forefoot Scale were prospectively evaluated preinjection, and at 2, 4, 6, 12 months postinjection. Significant improvement in VAS and AOFAS Forefoot Scale were seen overall at 2 months after hyaluronic acid injections ( P < .05). Then, there were almost no changes after 4 months, continuing until 12 months. The mean VAS was decreased from 73.1 initially to 23.0 at 12 months and AOFAS Forefoot Scale was increased from 32.2 to 86.5. There were no complications which occurred. In the present study, ultrasound-guided hyaluronic injection was clinically effective for pain relief and functional improvement for at least 12 months in patients with Morton's neuroma. However, numbness associated with Morton's neuroma should be addressed more cautiously since it may persist without much improvement. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  12. Neuromas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TDI Public Health Fellowship American Public Health Association Disaster Relief Volunteering Humanitarian Missionary Community Medicine Databases Students & Residents A Career in Podiatry What ...

  13. Traumatic neuroma in continuity injury model in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alant, Jacob Daniel de Villiers; Kemp, Stephen William Peter; Khu, Kathleen Joy Ong Lopez; Kumar, Ranjan; Webb, Aubrey A; Midha, Rajiv

    2012-05-20

    Traumatic neuroma in continuity (NIC) results in profound neurological deficits, and its management poses the most challenging problem to peripheral nerve surgeons today. The absence of a clinically relevant experimental model continues to handicap our ability to investigate ways of better diagnosis and treatment for these disabling injuries. Various injury techniques were tested on Lewis rat sciatic nerves. Optimal experimental injuries that consistently resulted in NIC combined both intense focal compression and traction forces. Nerves were harvested at 0, 5, 13, 21, and 65 days for histological examination. Skilled locomotion and ground reaction force (GRF) analysis were performed up to 9 weeks on the experimental (n=6) and crush-control injuries (n=5). Focal widening, disruption of endoneurium and perineurium with aberrant intra- and extrafascicular axonal regeneration and progressive fibrosis was consistently demonstrated in 14 of 14 nerves with refined experimental injuries. At 8 weeks, experimental animals displayed a significantly greater slip ratio in both skilled locomotor assessments, compared to nerve crush animals (pfeatures and poor functional recovery consistent with NIC formation in a rat model. The injury mechanism employed combines traction and compression forces akin to the physical forces at play in clinical nerve injuries. This model may serve as a tool to help diagnose this injury earlier and to develop intervention strategies to improve patient outcomes.

  14. Vestibular Schwannoma or acoustic neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular schwannoma is the most common tumor of the posterior fossa of the skull. Patients referred with the primary otologic symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, imbalance, and the cranial nerve palsy. Thirty-three patients were operated and treated by a team of otolaryngologist and neurosurgeon, anudiometrist, and internist. Patients'chiefcomplaint was due to 94% hearing loss and 27% tinnitus. They scarcely complain of vertigo. If a patient refers with the palsy or paralysis of facial nerve preoperation, we must think of the facial nerve schwannoma or hemangioma or congential cholestoma or malignant metastases rather than acoustic neuroma. The best way for preoperative diagnosis is audiometry, ABR (Auditory Brain Response, and SDS (speech discrimination score with 90% success, but computer Tomography (CT scan and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image are the valuable anatomic diagnostic radiographic devices. The best method of operation is translabirynthine approach (TLA, since it has the advantages such as an easy access to nerve paths and being the nearest path to CPA (Cerebellopontine Angle. Physicians ought to talk to patients about the importance of the microscopic surgery, surgical methods, and their probable diverse effects such as hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, and intracranial problems.

  15. Loud noise exposure and acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James L; Pettersson, David; Palmisano, Sadie; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Edwards, Colin G; Mathiesen, Tiit; Prochazka, Michaela; Bergenheim, Tommy; Florentzson, Rut; Harder, Henrik; Nyberg, Gunnar; Siesjö, Peter; Feychting, Maria

    2014-07-01

    The results from studies of loud noise exposure and acoustic neuroma are conflicting. A population-based case-control study of 451 acoustic neuroma patients and 710 age-, sex-, and region-matched controls was conducted in Sweden between 2002 and 2007. Occupational exposure was based on historical measurements of occupational noise (321 job titles summarized by a job exposure matrix) and compared with self-reported occupational noise exposure. We also evaluated self-reported noise exposure during leisure activity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. There was no statistically significant association between acoustic neuroma and persistent occupational noise exposure, either with or without hearing protection. Exposure to loud noise from leisure activity without hearing protection was more common among acoustic neuroma cases (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.03). Statistically significant odds ratios were found for specific leisure activities including attending concerts/clubs/sporting events (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.04) and participating in workouts accompanied by loud music (odds ratio = 2.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.37, 5.89). Our findings do not support an association between occupational exposure to loud noise and acoustic neuroma. Although we report statistically significant associations between leisure-time exposures to loud noise without hearing protection and acoustic neuroma, especially among women, we cannot rule out recall bias as an alternative explanation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Modern diagnostic strategy for acoustic neuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, M; Dauman, R; Duriez, F; Portmann, D; Dhillon, R

    1989-01-01

    We have reviewed the most recent 120 cases of acoustic neuromas operated upon in Bordeaux, France. In so doing, we have defined the strategy required to reach an accurate diagnosis as essentially comprising three stages. The first of these is to understand that the presenting symptom complex may be typical with progressive unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, etc., or atypical with sudden hearing loss (10%), recovering facial paralysis (3.3%) or a Menière's syndrome (3.3%). Included in the first stage of diagnosis are audiovestibular investigations. An absent stapedial reflex was noted in 41% of our cases and an abnormality in vestibular testing in 95% of cases tested. These findings would be clear indicators to proceed to the second stage of the diagnostic strategy. This second stage comprises electric response audiometry consisting of auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and electrocochleography (ECochG) employed as a filter for determining which patients should proceed to the third stage of testing. A combination of ABR and ECochG provides the clinician with results of high sensitivity and specificity. The false-negative rate for combined results in our experience has been less than 1%. The final diagnostic stage is radiological imaging, in particular using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast as the modality of choice. MRI is superior to CAT scanning, especially in the diagnosis of stage I intracanalicular tumors.

  17. Sciatica due to Schwannoma at the Sciatic Notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Haspolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rarely seen on the sciatic nerve and can cause sciatica. In this case report we aimed to present an unusual location of schwannoma along sciatic nerve that causes sciatica. A 60-years-old-man was admitted to us with complaints of pain on his thigh and paresthesia on his foot. Radiography of the patient revealed a solitary lesion on the sciatic nerve. The lesion was excised and the symptoms resolved after surgery.

  18. Neuroma de Morton: Diagnóstico por Imagen/Morton's neuroma. Diagnostic Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    César Hernández De La Peña; Maria Luisa Vega González

    2010-01-01

      A review is made of the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of metatarsal pain due to Morton's neuroma with special emphasis on the semiology and utility of techniques such as the MR and ultrasound...

  19. Coblation of Femoral and Sciatic Nerve for Stump Pain and Phantom Limb Pain: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuanjie; Wang, Xiaoping; Guo, Yuna; He, Liangliang; Ni, Jiaxiang

    2016-02-01

    There is currently no reliable treatment for stump pain and phantom limb pain. Peripheral factors play a significant role in the pathophysiology of stump pain and phantom limb pain. Coblation technology is a relatively new technology that has shown promise in treating neuropathic pain. This report describes the use of coblation technology on femoral and sciatic nerve for stump pain and phantom limb pain. An ultrasound-guided perineural infiltration anesthesia surrounding the neuroma was first performed and achieved approximately 60% stump pain relief that lasted for 2 hours, but no relief of the phantom limb pain. An ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve block was performed to obtain longer pain relief. The patient reported approximately 80% pain relief in both stump pain and phantom limb pain that lasted for 40 hours. This finding suggested other factors in addition to the ultrasound-detected neuroma in the residual limb generating pain for this patient. Coblation of femoral and sciatic nerves was performed. The stump pain was completely relieved immediately after operation. At 1, 3, and 6 months postoperative review, 80% relief of both stump and phantom limb pain was achieved. Overall activity was improved and there was no need for pain medications. The analgesic effect was stable during the 6-month follow-up period. Our report suggests that coblation technology may be useful treatment for stump pain and phantom limb pain. Treatments focusing on peripheral nerves may be more effective than those focusing on the neuroma. This finding needs additional study for confirmation. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Clitoral neuroma after female genital mutilation/cutting: a rare but possible event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Pusztaszeri, Marc; Vilarino, Raquel; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse

    2012-04-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), in particular, type III, also called infibulation, can cause various long-term complications. However, posttraumatic neuroma of the clitoris is extremely rare; only one case was previously reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe the case of a patient presenting a clitoral neuroma post-FGM/C in detail and her successful multidisciplinary treatment. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman originating from Somalia presenting a type III a-b FGM/C who attended our outpatient clinic at the Geneva University Hospitals complaining of primary dysmenorrhea and a post-mutilation painful clitoral mass. The mass was clinically diagnosed as a cyst and surgically removed. Histopathological analysis revealed that it was a posttraumatic neuroma and a foreign body granuloma around the ancient surgical thread. Our patient was also offered a multidisciplinary counseling by a specialized gynecologist on FGM/C, a sexologist, and a reproductive and sexual health counselor. One month after surgical treatment, the vulvar pain was over. This is the second case of clitoral neuroma after FGM/C reported and the first with complete clinical, as well as histopathological documentation and multidisciplinary care. Considering the high frequency of clitoral cysts in case of infibulation, clitoral neuroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this case, if symptomatic, the treatment should be surgery, clinical follow-up, and counseling. If necessary, appropriate sexual therapy should be offered too. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Tinnitus following treatment for sporadic Acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdevest, Jonathan B; Pross, Seth E; Cheung, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of treatment modality, tumor size, time from therapy, and demographic features on tinnitus distress, as measured by the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) in patients treated for sporadic acoustic neuroma. Cross-sectional observation study. A Web-based 44-question online survey was made available on the Acoustic Neuroma Association Web site for 3 months. Of 154 unique surveys that were completed in entirety, further screening netted 143 study participants. Questions included the TFI, treatment modality, tumor size, time from therapy, demographic features, and hearing status of both ears. Tinnitus distress following treatment for acoustic neuroma is independent of treatment type, tumor size, tumor laterality, time after treatment, age, and gender. Tinnitus Functional Index scores closely mirror severity profile of the study population as reported in the pivotal TFI instrument validation study by Meikle et al.(17) Tinnitus is "not a problem" in 20% of respondents, a "small problem" in 20%, a "moderate problem" in 11%, a "big problem" in 22%, and a "very big problem" in 27%. Subscale analysis suggests that acoustic tumor patients struggle most with tinnitus intrusiveness and loss of control. Whereas tinnitus is a common symptom in acoustic neuroma patients in both the pre- and posttreatment settings, clinicians can provide counsel that choice of treatment modality, tumor size, age, and gender have little to no bearing on severity of posttreatment tinnitus distress. Tinnitus severity does not differ among the treatment choices of open microsurgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, external beam radiation, and observation. NA Laryngoscope, 126:1639-1643, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Resection planning for robotic acoustic neuroma surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, Kepra L.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Balachandran, Ramya; Labadie, Robert F.; Noble, Jack H.

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic neuroma surgery is a procedure in which a benign mass is removed from the Internal Auditory Canal (IAC). Currently this surgical procedure requires manual drilling of the temporal bone followed by exposure and removal of the acoustic neuroma. This procedure is physically and mentally taxing to the surgeon. Our group is working to develop an Acoustic Neuroma Surgery Robot (ANSR) to perform the initial drilling procedure. Planning the ANSR's drilling region using pre-operative CT requires expertise and around 35 minutes' time. We propose an approach for automatically producing a resection plan for the ANSR that would avoid damage to sensitive ear structures and require minimal editing by the surgeon. We first compute an atlas-based segmentation of the mastoid section of the temporal bone, refine it based on the position of anatomical landmarks, and apply a safety margin to the result to produce the automatic resection plan. In experiments with CTs from 9 subjects, our automated process resulted in a resection plan that was verified to be safe in every case. Approximately 2 minutes were required in each case for the surgeon to verify and edit the plan to permit functional access to the IAC. We measured a mean Dice coefficient of 0.99 and surface error of 0.08 mm between the final and automatically proposed plans. These preliminary results indicate that our approach is a viable method for resection planning for the ANSR and drastically reduces the surgeon's planning effort.

  3. VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMA (ACOUSTIC NEUROMA) MIMICKING TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS: A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Maurício A.; Selaimen, Caio M. P.; Chaves, Karen D.; Bisi, Melissa C.; Grossi, Márcio L.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 6 to 16% of patients with trigeminal neuralgia symptoms present intracranial tumors, the most common being the vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma). Some symptoms reported by patients include hearing loss, tinnitus, headaches, vertigo and trigeminal disturbances. An increased muscle response in the surrounding head and neck musculature may also be observed, which mimics signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. In these cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be a useful tool in tumor diagnosis. The differential diagnosis between myofascial and neuralgic pain is important, as both may present similar characteristics, while being of different origin, and demanding special treatment approaches. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship among trigeminal neuralgia symptoms, intracranial tumors and temporomandibular dysfunction by presenting a clinical case. PMID:19089251

  4. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is present in murine sciatic nerve fibers and is altered in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth-1E neurodegenerative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura I. Lafon Hughes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs as a postranslational protein modification and catabolized mainly by poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG. In spite of the existence of cytoplasmic PARPs and PARG, research has been focused on nuclear PARPs and PAR, demonstrating roles in the maintenance of chromatin architecture and the participation in DNA damage responses and transcriptional regulation. We have recently detected non-nuclear PAR structurally and functionally associated to the E-cadherin rich zonula adherens and the actin cytoskeleton of VERO epithelial cells. Myelinating Schwann cells (SC are stabilized by E-cadherin rich autotypic adherens junctions (AJ. We wondered whether PAR would map to these regions. Besides, we have demonstrated an altered microfilament pattern in peripheral nerves of Trembler-J (Tr-J model of CMT1-E. We hypothesized that cytoplasmic PAR would accompany such modified F-actin pattern. Methods Wild-type (WT and Tr-J mice sciatic nerves cryosections were subjected to immunohistofluorescence with anti-PAR antibodies (including antibody validation, F-actin detection with a phalloidin probe and DAPI/DNA counterstaining. Confocal image stacks were subjected to a colocalization highlighter and to semi-quantitative image analysis. Results We have shown for the first time the presence of PAR in sciatic nerves. Cytoplasmic PAR colocalized with F-actin at non-compact myelin regions in WT nerves. Moreover, in Tr-J, cytoplasmic PAR was augmented in close correlation with actin. In addition, nuclear PAR was detected in WT SC and was moderately increased in Tr-J SC. Discussion The presence of PAR associated to non-compact myelin regions (which constitute E-cadherin rich autotypic AJ/actin anchorage regions and the co-alterations experienced by PAR and the actin cytoskeleton in epithelium and nerves, suggest that PAR may be a constitutive component of AJ/actin anchorage

  5. Traumatic Neuroma in a Breast Cancer Patient After Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Kim, Tae Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ku Sang [Dept. of Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hyunee [Dept. of Pathology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Traumatic neuromas are rare benign lesions that develop from non-neoplastic proliferation of axons, schwann cells, and fibroblasts at the proximal end of transected or injured nerves as a result of trauma or surgery. We present the case of a traumatic neuroma in a 47-year-old female who was treated with a right modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer 14 years ago. Ultrasound examination revealed an oval-shaped hypoechoic nodule at the 9-O'clock position in the right chest wall. Color Doppler imaging showed no increased blood flow and a positron emission tomography-computed tomography examination revealed no fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in this nodule. The typical histologic findings were present.

  6. Late sciatic nerve axonotmesis following acetabular reconstruction plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreta, J; Foruria, X; Labayru, F

    2016-01-01

    Sciatic nerve injuries associated with acetabular fractures can be post-traumatic, perioperative or postoperative. Late postoperative injury is very uncommon and can be due to heterotopic ossifications, muscular scarring, or implant migration. A case is presented of a patient with a previous transverse acetabular fracture treated with a reconstruction plate for the posterior column. After 17 years, she presented with progressive pain and motor deficit in the sciatic territory. Radiological and neurophysiological assessments were performed and the patient underwent surgical decompression of the sciatic nerve. A transection of the nerve was observed that was due to extended compression of one of the screws. At 4 years postoperatively, her pain had substantially diminished and the paresthesias in her leg had resolved. However, her motor symptoms did not improve. This case report could be relevant due to this uncommon delayed sciatic nerve injury due to prolonged hardware impingement. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Remission of severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep after bilateral excision of multiple foot neuromas: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lettau Ludwig A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs in response to uncomfortable leg sensations. While asleep, 70 to 90 percent of patients with restless legs syndrome have periodic limb movements in sleep. Frequent periodic limb movements in sleep and related brain arousals as documented by polysomnography are associated with poorer quality of sleep and daytime fatigue. Restless legs syndrome in middle age is sometimes associated with neuropathic foot dysesthesias. The causes of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep are unknown, but the sensorimotor symptoms are hypothesized to originate in the central nervous system. We have previously determined that bilateral forefoot digital nerve impingement masses (neuromas may be a cause of both neuropathic foot dysesthesias and the leg restlessness of restless legs syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bilateral foot neuromas as a cause of periodic limb movements in sleep. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman with severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep and bilateral neuropathic foot dysesthesias was diagnosed as having neuromas in the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head interspaces of both feet. The third interspace neuromas represented regrowth (or 'stump' neuromas that had developed since bilateral third interspace neuroma excision five years earlier. Because intensive conservative treatments including repeated neuroma injections and various restless legs syndrome medications had failed, radical surgery was recommended. All six neuromas were excised. Leg restlessness, foot dysesthesias and subjective sleep quality improved immediately. Assessment after 18 days showed an 84 to 100 percent reduction of visual analog scale scores for specific dysesthesias and marked reductions of pre-operative scores of the Pittsburgh sleep

  8. Ultrasound Evaluation of Morton Neuroma Before and After Laser Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimber, Lana H; Melville, David M; Bocian, Darin A; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Guidice, Matthew P Del; Taljanovic, Mihra S

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to retrospectively assess for differences in imaging appearances of Morton neuromas before and after laser therapy using diagnostic ultrasound (US). A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent US imaging to evaluate for Morton neuroma during the study period (June 1, 2013-July 1, 2014); of the 42 patients identified, 21 underwent US evaluations before and after laser therapy. US reports and images were reviewed and correlated with clinical history. The final study group consisted of 21 patients who had a total of 31 Morton neuromas evaluated using US after treatment. A retrospective review was then performed to characterize the appearances of these lesions before and after therapy followed by an analysis of variables. Retrospective US review of 31 pretreatment Morton neuromas showed fusiform, heterogeneously hypoechoic masses with well-defined borders in most cases and that pain was reported when transducer pressure was applied in 97% (30/31) of cases. After treatment, lesions showed ill-defined borders (23/31), and pain with application of transducer pressure was either significantly decreased or absent (29/31); these findings were concordant with the clinical findings. Both of these characteristics were statistically significant (p laser therapy of Morton neuromas. Posttreatment changes include ill-defined borders and less pain or the absence of pain with the application of transducer pressure. These criteria may be applied in future clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of laser therapy for Morton neuroma.

  9. A late unusual complication after an open cholecystectomy: Amputation neuroma of the CBD causing obstructive jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef A. Sleiman; Hassoun, Ziad A.; Nasser, Haydar A.; Abs, Leila; Allouch, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights ? Amputation Neuromas are benign lesions of the CBD that occur months to years following surgery. ? Almost all patients with amputation have had a history of open cholecystectomy. ? Surgery is the best treatment option for amputation neuroma of the CBD.

  10. Carcinomatous meningitis appearing as acoustic neuromas. Two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astner, S.T.; Nieder, C.; Grosu, A.L. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Stock, K. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Gaa, J. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-05-15

    Background: For acoustic neuromas, stereotactic radiotherapy (radiosurgery or stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy) has been established as an important alternative to microsurgery. In most cases initial symptoms are slow progression of unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus or vertigo or acute hearing loss with vertigo. MRI scan shows a contrast-enhancing tumor within the inner auditory channel. If the patient undergoes primary radiotherapy, diagnosis is usually not verified histologically. Therefore, careful evaluation of the medical history is mandatory despite a typical appearance on the MRI scan. If medical history does not match with acoustic neuroma, further diagnostics are necessary to rule out infectious disease or carcinomatous meningitis. Case Report: Two patients with hearing loss, vertigo and the diagnosis of acoustic neuromas by MRI scan were referred for radiotherapy. In both cases the symptoms progressed very rapidly, not typical of acoustic neuromas, and in both patients repeated liquor puncture finally revealed carcinomatous meningitis. One patient died during therapy; in the second patient intrathecal chemotherapy and additional radiotherapy of the skull base led to partial remission continuing for several months. Conclusion: Before primary radiotherapy of small intrameatal lesions diagnosis must be reassessed carefully. This is especially true for bilateral lesions suspicious for acoustic neuromas and rapid progression and persistence of clinical symptoms where carcinomatous meningitis has to be taken into account. (orig.)

  11. Early diagnosis of acoustic neuroma by the vestibular test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haid, T.; Rettinger, G.; Berg, M.; Wigand, M.E.

    1981-11-01

    In a series of 390 cases with suspicion of acoustic neurinomas 78 such tumors could be diagnosed, including 12 early stage neurinomas. This relatively high detection quote of small neurinomas is due to a special diagnostical programme: Every patient with unilateral and sensoneural hearingloss, independent of vertigo anamnesis or of the result of X-rays must be further examined by a vestibular test. All 78 patients with acoustic neuroma had pathological vestibular findings. The positional test turned out to be the most sensitive examination in the early diagnosis of acoustic neuromas and yields a still higher incidence than the thermic test: 95% of the patients with a neuroma showed pathological findings in the positional test. Every patient suffering from an unidentified unilateral and sensoneural hearingloss combined with a pathological result in the positional test must be further checked by a cisternomeatography or computerized tomography using airinsufflation. Every fifth of these patients showed typical signs of an acoustic neuroma in the neuroradiological tests. 68 neuromas are operated today and verfied histologically, 10 patients are still waiting for surgical treatment.

  12. The Top 50 Most-Cited Articles on Acoustic Neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaifi, Abrar; AlMutairi, Othman; Allhaidan, Maha; Alsaleh, Saad; Ajlan, Abdulrazag

    2017-12-26

    Acoustic neuroma is the most common extra-axial primary cerebellopontine angle tumor in adults. A plethora of studies have been published on acoustic neuroma, but none of the previous works have highlighted the most influential articles. Our objective was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the 50 most-cited articles on acoustic neuroma. We performed a title-specific search on the Scopus database using the following search terms: "acoustic neuroma," "vestibular schwannoma," and "cerebellopontine angle." We recorded the 50 most-cited articles and reviewed them. The 50 most-cited articles had an average of 175 citations per article. All articles were published between 1980 and 2006, with 1997 the most prolific year, when 7 articles were published. The journals Neurosurgery and Laryngoscope published 10 and 8 of these articles, respectively. The most common study categories were nonsurgical management (17/50) and surgical management (13/50). Studies were predominantly published by otolaryngologists (22/50) and neurosurgeons (14/50). Douglas Kondziolka was the author with the highest number of contributions, with 7 publications. The majority of the articles were produced in the United States (64%). Identifying articles on acoustic neuroma with the most impact provides an important overview of the historical development of treatment methods and publication trends related to this condition. A finalized, comprehensive list of the most important works represents an excellent tool that can serve as a guide for evidence-based clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endobronchial neurogenic tumor: A combination of traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic neuromas are uncommon and benign lesions arising from a peripheral nerve injury during surgery. Here we describe a case with histopathologic features of both a traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma in a patient without integumentary physical exam findings nor prior surgical history. A 54 year old male was admitted for surgical debridement of a foot ulcer. During pre-operative evaluation and review of imaging multiple CT scans revealed a stable, 4 mm endobronchial lesion in the left lower lobe. Given history of nicotine abuse, bronchoscopy was performed. Bronchoscopy showed a pearly, polypoid lesion. Histopathological results showed strong positivity for S-100 protein and spindle cell proliferation. Repeat CT chest showed no new lesions in the bronchial tree. The rarity of this case is noted not only by the limited number of bronchial neurogenic tumors, but the combined features in this case of a traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma which has not been described.

  14. Skin temperature measured by infrared thermography after ultrasound-guided blockade of the sciatic nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Kadic, L.; Driessen, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study, we assessed the relationship between subgluteal sciatic nerve blocking and skin temperature by infrared thermography in the lower extremity. We hypothesized that blocking the sciatic nerve will lead to an increase in temperature, and that this will correlate with

  15. Persistent Sciatic Artery Aneurysm with Lower Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kesri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent sciatic artery is a very rare clinical entity. Those of us who have not seen the lesion regard this as a condition which is described in the literature through less than 200 cases. We report, here, a case of a 60-year-old female who presented to the surgical outdoor with complaints of a pulsatile gluteal swelling associated with ischemic changes in the ipsilateral lower limb. On Doppler and CT angiographic analysis, the patient was determined as having persistent sciatic artery aneurysm which was then managed by a combined surgical and endovascular approach. Ours is probably the first such case to be reported from India. The objective of this case report is to highlight the relevant embryology, the pathognomonic presenting features, the diagnostic dilemma, management, and complications associated with a case of persistent sciatic artery (PSA.

  16. Human Neuroma-in-Continuity Contains Focal Deficits in Myelination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Arie C; Tannemaat, Martijn R; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Verhaagen, J.; Malessy, Martijn J A; De Winter, Fred

    Functional recovery does not occur in 10% of patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. In these patients, resection of a neuroma-in-continuity (NIC) and surgical nerve reconstruction are required. The formation of a NIC seems to prohibit functional recovery, but the underlying biologic

  17. Sciatic nerve injury caused by a stretching exercise in a trained dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ho Yong; Lim, Oh Kyung; Bae, Keun Hwan; Park, Seok Min; Lee, Ju Kang; Park, Ki Deok

    2013-12-01

    Sciatic nerve injury after stretching exercise is uncommon. We report a case of an 18-year-old female trained dancer who developed sciatic neuropathy primarily involving the tibial division after routine stretching exercise. The patient presented with dysesthesia and weakness of the right foot during dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The mechanism of sciatic nerve injury could be thought as hyperstretching alone, not caused by both hyperstretching and compression. Electrodiagnostic tests and magnetic resonance imaging revealed evidence of the right sciatic neuropathy from the gluteal fold to the distal tibial area, and partial tear of the left hamstring origin and fluid collection between the left hamstring and ischium without left sciatic nerve injury. Recovery of motor weakness was obtained by continuous rehabilitation therapy and some evidence of axonal regeneration was obtained by follow-up electrodiagnostic testing performed at 3, 5, and 12 months after injury.

  18. Atypical Presentations of Hearing Loss in Patients with Acoustic Neuroma

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, H; Ferreira, R.; Cardoso, I.; Baptista, S; Ribeiro, C.; Sousa, V. (Vera); Marques, P

    2004-01-01

    A hipoacúsia neurosensorial unilateral e progressiva é uma das principais manisfestações audiológicas dos doentes com diagnóstico de neurinoma do acústico, estando no entanto descritas outras formas de apresentação. Dos 43 doentes com diagnóstico de neurinoma do acústico, tratados pela equipa de otoneurocirurgia entre 1997 e 2003, identificamos 88,5% com hipoacústica neurosensorial unilateral, 4,6% como hipoacústica neurosensorial súbita, 4,6% com audição simétrica e 2,3% com audição "normal...

  19. Early diagnosis of acoustic neuroma by quantitative neurootological and neuroradiological tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haid, C.T.

    1983-02-01

    Every patient with unilateral and sensoneural loss of hearing, independent of vertigo anamnesis or X-rays must be further examined by a vestibular test. Between 1974 and 1980, 80 acoustic neuromas could be diagnosed, including 12 early stage neuromas. This relatively high detection quote of small neuromas is due to a special diagnostical program: All 80 patients with acoustic neuroma had a pathological vestibular result. The positional test turned out to be the most sensitive examination in the early diagnosis of acoustic neuromas and yields a still higher incidence than the caloric test: 95% of the patients with a neurinoma showed a pathological result in the positional test. So every patient suffering from an unidentified unilateral and sensoneural hearing loss combined with a pathological result in the positional test must be further examined by a cisternomeatography or computerized tomography (using air-insufflation). Every fifth of these patients showed unique hints of an acoustic neuroma in the neuroradiological test.

  20. Acetabular paralabral cyst causing compression of the sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh BAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetabular paralabral cysts are common. They vary in their clinical presentation and may be asymptomatic or cause pain and restriction at the hip joint. In rare instances they may cause symptoms by compressing local neurovascular structures. We report a case of symptomatic compression of the sciatic nerve by a posteriorly displaced acetabular paralabral cyst.

  1. Sciatic neuralgia associated with a perineural (Tarlov) cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, Peter C; Taylor, John A

    2016-09-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are rare and are usually asymptomatic and an incidental finding on routine spinal imaging. Presented here is a case of sciatic neuralgia in a 56-year-old patient whose clinical symptoms correlated with a lower lumbar perineural cyst.

  2. Sciatic neuralgia associated with a perineural (Tarlov) cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Emary, Peter C.; Taylor, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are rare and are usually asymptomatic and an incidental finding on routine spinal imaging. Presented here is a case of sciatic neuralgia in a 56-year-old patient whose clinical symptoms correlated with a lower lumbar perineural cyst.

  3. Low dose ionizing radiation induced acoustic neuroma: A putative link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Borkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although exposure to high dose ionizing radiation (following therapeutic radiotherapy has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of many brain tumors, exposure to chronic low dose ionizing radiation has not yet been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis. The authors report a case of a 50-year-old atomic reactor scientist who received a cumulative dose of 78.9 mSv over a 10-year period and was detected to have an acoustic neuroma another 15 years later. Although there is no proof that exposure to ionizing radiation was the cause for the development of the acoustic neuroma, this case highlights the need for extended follow-up periods following exposure to low dose ionizing radiation.

  4. Peripheral Nerve Repair and Prevention of Neuroma Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    in the muscle as expected from previous studies (1) . However, the animals, which had received the 5 mm nerve defect not only did not heal, but the...Gugala’s laboratory. For all torsional biomechanical testing of bone healing, the contralateral femur will serve as the control. The failure torque of...the treated femur will be normalized to the failure torque of the contra-lateral control. Task 2: To suppress neuroma and heterotopic ossification

  5. Radiosurgery as treatment for acoustic neuroma. Ten years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llópez Carratalá, Ignacio; Escorihuela García, Vicente; Orts Alborch, Miguel; de Paula Vernetta, Carlos; Marco Algarra, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic neuroma is a benign tumour that usually affects the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve. It represents 8% of all intracranial tumours and 80% of those arising at the cerebellopontine angle. There are 3 treatment options: microsurgery (the technique of choice), radiosurgery and observation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the results and side effects obtained using radiosurgery as treatment for acoustic neuroma. We performed a review of all patients treated with radiosurgery (Gamma Knife and linear accelerator) at doses of 1200-1300 cGy for unilateral acoustic neuroma in our hospital from January 1999 until January 2010. In all patients we evaluated the overall state, tumour growth control rate (tumour smaller or remaining the same size), the involvement of v and vii cranial nerves and central nervous system disorders. We also assessed follow-up time and changes in hearing thresholds after radiosurgery. From a total of 35 patients studied, with a mean age of 58.29 years and lacking statistically significant differences in gender, the tumour growth control rate was over 90%. The main reason for visit (65.71%) was unilateral and progressive hearing loss. After treatment, 34.28% of patients had hearing loss. The involvement of the cranial nerves (v-vii) was transitory in 100% of cases. Gamma Knife radiosurgery was administered in 82.85% of patients. Although microsurgery is the treatment of choice for acoustic neuroma, we consider radiosurgery as a valid alternative in selected patients (elderly, comorbidity, small tumour size and sensorineural hearing loss, among others). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  6. Intraneural metastasis of gastric carcinoma leads to sciatic nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichikawa Jiro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soft tissue metastases, in particular intraneural metastasis, from any carcinomas seldom occur. To our knowledge, no case of sciatic nerve palsy due to intraneural metastasis of gastric carcinoma is reported in the literature. Case presentation A case is reported of a 82-year old woman with sciatic nerve palsy with intraneural metastasis of gastric carcinoma. Although she had undergone partial gastrectomy with T2b, N0, M0 two years ago and primary site was cured, she developed sciatic nerve palsy from the carcinoma metastasis directly to the nerve. Operative resection and Histological examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, the same as her primary site adenocarcinoma. Conclusions Sciatica is usually caused by a herniated disc or spinal canal stenosis. Sciatic nerve palsy may be caused by nondiscogenic etiologies that may be either intrapelvic or extrapelvic. It is important to image the entire course of the nerve to distinguish these etiologies quickly. The longer the nerve compression the less likely a palsy will recover. Surgery is a good intervention that simultaneously obtains a tissue diagnosis and decompresses the nerve.

  7. Growth-promoting activity of Hominis Placenta extract on regenerating sciatic nerve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tae-beom SEO In-sun HAN Jin-hwan YOON In-chan SEOL Yun-sik KIM Hyun-kyung JO Joung-jo AN Kwon-eui HONG Young-bae SEO Dong-hee KIM Seung-kiel PARK Deok-chun YANG Uk NAMGUNG

    2006-01-01

    .... The present study was conducted to investigate whether HP treatment in an experimental sciatic nerve injury animal model produces growth-promoting effects on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers after injury. Methods...

  8. Penile Traumatic Neuroma: A Late Complication of Penile Dorsal Neurotomy to Treat Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jun Park

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The main complications of SDN are recurrence of premature ejaculation, pain or paresthesia on the glans penis, and erectile dysfunction. However, no traumatic neuroma has been reported as a complication. We report that a traumatic neuroma can occur after SDN.

  9. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat correlates with individual differences in responses to chronic intermittent stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Helders, P.J.M.; Wiegant, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the influence of chronic stress on functional recovery from a sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat. Male Wistar rats underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Subsequently, chronic stress was induced during the recovery phase using a daily 30 min

  10. Case Report: Sciatic nerve schwannoma - a rare cause of sciatica [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Munakomi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report a rare case of a sciatic nerve schwannoma causing sciatica in a 69-year-old female. Sciatic nerve schwannoma is a rare entity. It should always be considered as a possible cause of sciatica in patients that present with symptoms of sciatica with no prolapsed disc in the lumbar spine and a negative crossed straight leg raise test. Timely diagnosis and complete excision of the lesion leads to complete resolution of the symptoms of such patients.

  11. Neuroma sintomático do nervo sural uma complicação rara após a retirada do nervo: relato de caso Symptomatic neuroma of the sural nerve a rare complication of the harvesting of the nerve for grafting: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto S. Martins

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A retirada do nervo sural para utilização como enxerto autólogo em cirurgias de nervos em geral produz sintomas de repercussão clínica pouco intensa e de duração fugaz. Raramente este procedimento leva a formação de neuroma sintomático no coto proximal. Os sintomas deste tipo de complicação frequentemente cessam após o tratamento clínico e o tratamento cirúrgico é reservado para os raros casos nos quais houve falha terapêutica. Neste estudo, apresentamos o caso de um paciente que foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico desta patologia, com a utilização de uma variação da anastomose centro-central, descrita para o tratamento de neuromas de cotos de amputação. A utilização deste tratamento resultou na remissão da sintomatologia dolorosa. São discutidas as diversas opções de tratamento cirúrgico para essa rara entidade.The harvesting of the sural nerve for autologous grafting usually produces symptoms of low intensity and short duration. In rare occasions that procedure may lead to the formation of a symptomatic neuroma in the proximal stump. The symptons of this complication are usually controlled by clinical treatment and the surgical procedure is left for the therapeutic failures. In this paper we present the case of a patient with a sural nerve neuroma submitted to surgical treatment by a variant of the centro-central anastomosis technique, developed for the treatment of amputation neuromas, that resulted in remission of the painful symptomatology. The different options of surgical treatment for this rare entity are discussed.

  12. Characteristic ultrasound feature of traumatic neuromas after neck dissection: direct continuity with the cervical plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun Ju; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Young Joong; Kim, Jae Kyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee

    2012-08-01

    Traumatic neuroma may be easily confused with recurrent lymphadenopathy in the neck, causing patient anxiety, need for fine-needle aspiration (FNA), and even surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US) features that differentiate traumatic neuroma from recurrent lymphadenopathy after lateral neck dissection (LND), focusing on direct continuity with the involved nerve. This study compared US features of 56 traumatic neuromas in 36 consecutive patients, with 56 recurrent lymphadenopathies in 34 consecutive patients who had a previous history of total thyroidectomy and LND for thyroid cancer. Direct continuity of a nerve with a nodule and other US factors of a nodule (the short axis diameter, short-to-long axis ratio, location, shape, margin, echogenicity, vascular flow, hilar line, cystic portion, and echogenic dots) were evaluated in the two groups. Traumatic neuromas after LND had a prevalence of 17.8% (36/202) on US. Direct continuity with the involved nerve was visible in 98.2% (55/56) of the traumatic neuromas. The involved nerves in these traumatic neuromas were either terminal type (4/55, 7.3%) or spindle type (51/55, 92.7%). The short axis diameters, short-to-long axis ratio, location, shape, margin, and echogenicity were significantly different (pcervical plexus may be a characteristic US feature of traumatic neuroma after LND. This feature, along with ancillary findings, may prevent unnecessary surgery as well as painful FNA.

  13. A rare case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocchia, Aron; Reyes, Alma; Wilson, Jon; Les, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis (NF-5) is an extremely rare variant of neurofibromatosis involving a single extremity without pathologic features beyond the midline. A case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the sciatic nerve and its branches is presented with a detailed description of the patient's preoperative findings plus postoperative course through 1-year follow-up. Clinical, histologic, and genetic findings are given along with a brief review of the literature on segmental neurofibromatosis. Last, treatment options and postoperative care recommendations are provided.

  14. Sciatic nerve repair using poly(ε-caprolactone) tubular prosthesis associated with nanoparticles of carbon and graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Kyl; Leal, Claudenete Vieira; Derami, Mariana Silveira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Ceragioli, Helder Jose; de Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves generate disconnection between spinal neurons and the target organ. Due to retraction of the nerve stumps, end-to-end neurorrhaphy is usually unfeasible. In such cases, autologous grafts are widely used, nonetheless with some disadvantages, such as mismatching of donor nerve dimensions and formation of painful neuromas at the donor area. Tubulization, using bioresorbable polymers, can potentially replace nerve grafting, although improvements are still necessary. Among promising bioresorbable synthetic polymers, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are the most studied. Carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets have been proposed, however, as adjuvants to improve mechanical and regenerative properties of tubular prostheses. Thus, the present work evaluated nerve tubulization repair following association of PCL with nanoparticles of carbon (NPC) and graphene (NPG). For that, adult Lewis rats were subjected to unilateral sciatic nerve tubulization and allowed to survive for up to 8 and 12 weeks postsurgery. Nanocomposites mechanical/chemical evaluation showed that nanoparticles do not alter PCL crystallinity, yet providing reinforcement of polymer matrix. Thus, there was a decrease in the enthalpy of melting when the mixture of PCL + NPC + NPG was used. Nanocomposites displayed positive changes in molecular mobility in the amorphous phase of the polymer. Also, the loss modulus (E") and the glass transition exhibited highest values for PCL + NPC + NPG. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that PCL + NPC + NPG prostheses showed improved cell adhesion as compared to PCL alone. Surgical procedures with PCL + NPC + NPG were facilitated due to improved flexibility of the prosthesis, resulting in better stump positioning accuracy. In turn, a twofold increased number of myelinated axons was found in such repaired nerves. Consistent with that, target muscle atrophy protection has been observed. Overall

  15. Risk of a second cancer from scattered radiation in acoustic neuroma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Hyunho; Sung, Jiwon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongoh [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungho [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weonkuu; Jahng, Geonho; Kim, Dongwook [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The present study aimed to compare the risk of a secondary cancer from scattered and leakage doses in patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of a secondary cancer were estimated using the corresponding secondary doses measured at various organs by using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, liver, bowel, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were 14.6, 1.7, 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.6 cGy, respectively, for IMRT whereas they were 19.1, 1.8, 2.0, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4, and 0.4 cGy, respectively, for VMAT, and 22.8, 4.6, 1.4, 0.7, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.5 cGy, respectively, for SRS. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A lifetime attributable risk evaluation estimated that more than 0.03% of acoustic neuroma (AN) patients would get radiation-induced cancer within 20 years of receiving radiation therapy. The organ with the highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN was the thyroid. We found that the LAR could be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  16. Risk of a second cancer from scattered radiation in acoustic neuroma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Hyunho; Sung, Jiwon; Shin, Dongoh; Park, Sungho; Chung, Weon Kuu; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kim, Dong Wook

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare the risk of a secondary cancer from scattered and leakage doses in patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of a secondary cancer were estimated using the corresponding secondary doses measured at various organs by using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, liver, bowel, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were 14.6, 1.7, 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.6 cGy, respectively, for IMRT whereas they were 19.1, 1.8, 2.0, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4, and 0.4 cGy, respectively, for VMAT, and 22.8, 4.6, 1.4, 0.7, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.5 cGy, respectively, for SRS. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A lifetime attributable risk evaluation estimated that more than 0.03% of acoustic neuroma (AN) patients would get radiation-induced cancer within 20 years of receiving radiation therapy. The organ with the highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN was the thyroid. We found that the LAR could be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  17. Ultrasound-guided alcohol neurolysis and radiofrequency ablation of painful stump neuroma: effective treatments for post-amputation pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Xin Zhang, Yongming Xu, Jin Zhou, Shaofeng Pu, Yingying Lv, Yueping Chen, Dongping Du Pain Management Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Post-amputation pain (PAP is highly prevalent after limb amputation, and stump neuromas play a key role in the generation of the pain. Presently, PAP refractory to medical management is frequently treated with minimally invasive procedures guided by ultrasound, such as alcohol neurolysis and radiofrequency ablation (RFA.Objective: To record the immediate and long-term efficacy of alcohol neurolysis and RFA. We first used alcohol neurolysis and then, when necessary, we performed RFA on PAP patients.Study design: Prospective case series.Setting: Pain management center.Methods: Thirteen subjects were treated with ultrasound-guided procedures.Results: All patients were treated with neurolysis using alcohol solutions guided by ultrasound. Seven (54% of 13 subjects achieved pain relief after 1–3 alcohol injection treatments. The remaining 6 subjects obtained pain relief after receiving 2 administrations of ultrasound-guided RFA. After a 6-month follow-up evaluation period, pain quantities were also assessed. Both stump pain (including intermittent sharp pain and continuous burning pain and phantom pain were relieved. The frequency of intermittent sharp pain was decreased, and no complications were noted during the observation.Conclusion: The use of ultrasound guidance for alcohol injection and RFA of painful stump neuromas is a simple, radiation-free, safe, and effective procedure that provides sustained pain relief in PAP patients. In this case series, RFA was found to be an effective alternative to alcohol injection. Keywords: post-amputation pain, neuroma, ultrasound-guided, alcohol neurolysis, radiofrequency ablation

  18. Management of painful clitoral neuroma after female genital mutilation/cutting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jasmine Abdulcadir; Jean-Christophe Tille; Patrick Petignat

    2017-01-01

    .... They can exist in any anatomical site and are responsible for neuropathic pain. Post-traumatic neuromas of the clitoris have been described as an uncommon consequence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C...

  19. The Spatial Relationship and Surface Projection of Canine Sciatic Nerve and Sacrotuberous Ligament: A Perineal Hernia Repair Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin Khatri-Chhetri

    Full Text Available Sciatic nerve entrapment can occur as post-operative complication of perineal hernia repair when sacrotuberous ligament is incorporated during hernia deficit closure. This results in sciatic sensory loss and paralysis of the hind leg. This study investigated the spatial relationship of sciatic nerve and sacrotuberous ligament and their surface topographic projection of 68 cadavers (29 Beagles and 39 Taiwanese mongrels with various heights (25-56 cm. By gross dissection, the sacrotuberous ligament and sciatic nerve were exposed and their distance in between was measured along four parts (A, B, C, D of sacrotuberous ligament. The present study revealed that the C was the section of sacrotuberous ligament where the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament are closest to each other. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between C and height of the dogs. From the present study, we found that the C in smaller dogs has the shortest distance between the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament, and thus the most vulnerable to sciatic nerve entrapment, and needs to be avoided or approached cautiously during perineal hernia repair.

  20. Traumatic neuroma in continuity injury model in rodents: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alant, Jacob; Kemp, Stephen; Webb, Aubrey; Midha, Rajiv

    2010-08-01

    Consistent with EBSJ's commitment to fostering quality research, we are pleased to feature some of the most highly rated abstracts from the 8th Annual AOSpine North America Fellows Forum in Banff Canada. Enhancing the quality of evidence in spine care means acknowledging and supporting the efforts of young researchers within our AOSpine North America network. We look forward to seeing more from these promising researchers in the future.  Basic science research report Introduction:  Spinal nerve-injury management and prevention constitute a substantial proportion of a spinal surgeon's practice. Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injuries is often unsatisfactory and to optimize the outcomes, an intimate understanding of these injuries is required. Sunderland classified peripheral nerve injuries into five grades.1 Grade 1 (neurapraxia) and grade 2 (axonal disruption) injuries usually recover with no or insignificant functional deficits within weeks to a few months, respectively. Injuries that are most difficult to manage clinically are the often mixed grade 3 (endoneurial disruption) and grade 4 (perineurial disruption) lesions where spontaneous functional recovery is limited or absent, resulting in neuroma in continuity (NIC). Traumatic NIC is characterized by aberrant intra- and extra- fascicular axonal regeneration and scar formation within an unsevered injured nerve, resulting in impaired and erroneous end-organ reinnervation.2,3 Animal models reproducing grade 1, 2, 3, and 5 lesions have been developed, but to our knowledge a clinically relevant rodent model of NIC has not been developed.4,5,6,7,8 The effective peripheral nerve regeneration and resilience of rodents make it challenging to recreate the NIC scenario.  Our goal was to develop a practical rodent model for focal traumatic NIC, demonstrating the characteristic histological features, supported by concordant functional deficits. Such a model may help us to identify this injury pattern

  1. MR of acoustic neuromas; Relationship to cranial nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Takahashi, Shiroh; Miyayama, Shiroh; Taira, Sakae; Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Itoh, Haruhide (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-08-01

    In this report, the relationship of acoustic neuromas to the adjacent cranial nerves is discussed. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the trigeminal nerve was detected in all 13 cases. Mild to marked compression of these nerves by the tumors was observed in eight cases. The extent of compression did not always correspond to the clinical symptoms. In four cases with a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm or less, the 7th and 8th cranial nerves were identified. There was no facial palsy in these patients. Two patients with a tumor diameter of more than 2 cm also had no facial palsy. All patients, including those with small tumors, complained of hearing loss and/or tinnitus. While MR imaging has some limitations, it is an effective imaging modality for showing the relationship between tumors and nerves. (author).

  2. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salga, Marjorie [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Jourdan, Claire [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Handi-Resp, (EA4047), Versailles (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Neurophysiology, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Medical Imaging, Garches (France); Denormandie, Philippe [Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Garches (France); Genet, Francois [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Military Medical Service, Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clamart (France)

    2014-09-14

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  3. A RARE BIFURCATION PATTERN OF THE SCIATIC NERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emran

    2017-08-17

    Aug 17, 2017 ... Variations in branching patterns of the sciatic nerve are thought to be clinically significant because of the nerve's extensive distribution area. Here we report a rare and unusual branching pattern of the sciatic nerve which was observed in a male cadaver. Sciatic nerve underwent a high division inside the ...

  4. Localized hypertrophic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in children: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, Adrien; Treguier, Catherine; Bruneau, Bertrand; Marin, Franck; Gandon, Yves; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hopital Sud, 16 Boulevard de Bulgarie, BP 90347, Rennes cedex 2 (France); Riffaud, Laurent [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Violas, Philippe [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Michel, Anne [University Hospital, Department of Neurological Functional Explorations, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France)

    2012-08-15

    Localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN) of the sciatic nerve in children is a rare condition characterized by a painless neurological deficit in the sciatic nerve territory. To demonstrate the role of MRI using a specific protocol and describe the primary findings in LHN. Imaging in four children (age 2 years to 12 years) is presented. All children presented with lower limb asymmetry. Three had a steppage gait. LHN was confirmed by electrophysiological studies and by MRI of the whole sciatic nerve with a dedicated protocol covering the lumbar spine and the lower limb. There were four direct MRI findings: (1) linear and focal hypertrophy with progressive enlargement of a peripheral nerve or plexus diameter, (2) abnormal hyperintensity of the nerve on T2-weighted images, (3) preserved fascicular configuration, and (4) variable enhancement after intravenous gadolinium administration. In addition there were atrophy and fatty infiltration of innervated muscles. MRI was helpful for determining the extent of lesions and in excluding peripheral nerve compression or tumour. MRI of the whole sciatic nerve is the method of choice for diagnosing LHN of the sciatic nerve. (orig.)

  5. Sericin protects against diabetes-induced injuries in sciatic nerve and related nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengjun; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhong, Meirong; Chen, Zhihong

    2013-02-25

    Sericin from discarded silkworm cocoons of silk reeling has been used in different fields, such as cosmetology, skin care, nutrition, and oncology. The present study established a rat model of type 2 diabetes by consecutive intraperitoneal injections of low-dose (25 mg/kg) streptozotocin. After intragastrical perfusion of sericin for 35 days, blood glucose levels significantly declined, and the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in L4-6 spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly increased. However, the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly decreased in model rats. These findings indicate that sericin protected the sciatic nerve and related nerve cells against injury in a rat type 2 diabetic model by upregulating the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells, and downregulating the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells.

  6. Effects of sciatic-conditioned medium on neonatal rat retinal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres P.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells produce and release trophic factors that induce the regeneration and survival of neurons following lesions in the peripheral nerves. In the present study we examined the in vitro ability of developing rat retinal cells to respond to factors released from fragments of sciatic nerve. Treatment of neonatal rat retinal cells with sciatic-conditioned medium (SCM for 48 h induced an increase of 92.5 ± 8.8% (N = 7 for each group in the amount of total protein. SCM increased cell adhesion, neuronal survival and glial cell proliferation as evaluated by morphological criteria. This effect was completely blocked by 2.5 µM chelerythrine chloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC. These data indicate that PKC activation is involved in the effect of SCM on retinal cells and demonstrate that fragments of sciatic nerve release trophic factors having a remarkable effect on neonatal rat retinal cells in culture.

  7. Factors associated with anxiety and depression in the management of acoustic neuroma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J E; Fletcher, J M; Dally, M J; Briggs, R J S; Cousins, V C; Malham, G M; Smee, R I; Kennedy, R J; Burney, S

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe anxiety and depression levels among acoustic neuroma patients; examine differences in anxiety and depression across the acoustic neuroma management options of microsurgery, radiation and observation; and to investigate management, medical and demographic factors that might predict anxiety and depression in this patient group. A cross-sectional questionnaire was completed by 205 adults diagnosed with, or treated for, a unilateral acoustic neuroma within five years of questionnaire distribution. Median age of participants was 57.0 years, and 120 (58.5%) were female. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Clinically significant anxiety was reported by 29.8% of participants and 10.2% were depressed. Mean anxiety and depression scores did not differ from general population norms. No significant differences in anxiety and depression were found across management options. Time since management, number of symptoms and comorbid medical conditions predicted anxiety, while depression was predicted by number of symptoms. This appears to be the first study among acoustic neuroma patients in which anxiety and depression were compared across management options. Treating physicians should be aware that as the number of acoustic neuroma symptoms increases, so may the likelihood of clinically significant anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenxue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p p p Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  9. Traumatic neuroma of extrahepatic bile ducts after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, L; Martino, E; Rodríguez-Sanjuán, J C; Castillo, J; Casafont, F; González, F; Figols, J; Casanueva, J; Cagigas, M; Gómez-Fleitas, M

    2009-04-01

    Traumatic neuromas (TN) of the biliary tree causing strictures have only occasionally been described after liver transplantation. Herein, we have reported 15 cases of TN that were detected between 1 and 17 months after transplantation (median: 4 months) during surgery for obstructive jaundice (12 cases), after alterations of liver function tests (two cases), or incidentally discovered after retransplantation (n = 1) we resected the lesion and the biliary anastomosis. Pathological examination and immunostaining for S-100 protein were performed to study the nerve fascicles. After a median follow-up time of 64 months (range = 0-127), 10 patients are alive without any complication related to the previous biliary TN. We propose the following classification: type I: TN originating from and located in the main biliary tract wall, and type II: TN arising from the surrounding tissues next to the main biliary tract. We conclude that TN are not uncommon after liver transplantation and that they are sometimes symptomatic, causing a biliary stricture that requires surgical treatment. We propose a classification to help patient selection for surgery. In our opinion, resection of the TN is the operation of choice, together with resection of the involved biliary tract in type I TN.

  10. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D [Kyung Hee University International Med. Serv., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  11. injection-induced sciatic nerve injury among children managed in an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    SUMMARY. Injection-induced sciatic nerve injury is a well-known complication of intra-muscular gluteus muscle injections. Affected individuals usually present with foot drop and this results in varying degrees of motor disability depending on the timing, quality and duration of the remedial measures instituted. This study was ...

  12. Sciatic nerve block performed with nerve stimulation technique in an amputee a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiring, C.; Kristensen, Billy

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a sciatic nerve block performed with the nerve stimulation technique. This technique is normally not used in amputees because detection of a motor response to an electrical stimulation is impossible. In our patient the stimulation provoked a phantom sensation of movement...

  13. In vivo Photonic Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve with a 1470 nm Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Dautrebande

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photonic stimulation is a new modality of nerve stimulation, which could overcome some of the electrical stimulation limitations. In this paper, we present the results of photonic stimulation of rodent sciatic nerve with a 1470 nm laser. Muscle activation was observed with radiant exposure of 0.084 J/cm2.

  14. Bilateral sciatic nerve axonotmesis after gluteal lipoaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Mejia, Alexander; Martínez, Jorge Rodríguez; León, David; Taylor, Jesse A; Gutierrez-Gomez, Claudia

    2009-10-01

    The number of lipoaugmentation procedures, and specifically the number of gluteal lipoaugmentations, has risen dramatically over the past decade. Though gluteal lipoaugmentation confers a pleasing hourglass profile with seemingly minimal risk, its risks have not been fully realized. We report the case of a healthy 35-year-old woman who suffered axonotmesis of the sciatic nerve due to direct lipoinjection into and around the nerve sheath. She was treated expectantly in our Peripheral Nerve Clinic for 3 months without evidence of improvement. Subsequently, she underwent internal and external neurolysis. Eighteen weeks after her neurolysis, she continues to demonstrate signs of severe peripheral neuropathy, but has begun to show signs of nerve regeneration. This is the first reported case of sciatic nerve axonotmesis due to gluteal lipoaugmentation. It highlights the importance of a thorough knowledge of gluteal anatomy and a consciousness of the risks involved with lipoaugmentation of deep structures.

  15. [Comparative analysis of neuroendoscope-assisted microsurgery and microscope treatment for small acoustic neuroma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaohui; Ji, Hongming; Zhang, Shiyuan; Ding, Xinmin; Zhang, Gangli; Zhang, Yan

    2014-09-23

    To explore the outcomes of surgery for the treatment of small acoustic neuroma by the neuroendoscope-assisted microsurgery and microscope. From 2008 to 2013, 42 patients with small acoustic neuroma underwent neuroendoscope-assisted microsurgery (n = 20) and microscopic tumoural resection (n = 22). Neurophysiological monitoring, 30-degree rigid neuroendoscope and microscope were employed intra-operatively. For the endoscope group, facial nerve and inner acoustic meatus could be visualized distinctly in each aspect, as for the microscope group, microscopic operation could be accomplished directly. The damage extents of facial nerve and inner acoustic meatus were compared between two groups. Total removal of acoustic neuroma and conservation of facial nerve were achieved in all patients. For the neuroendoscope-assisted group, the postoperative facial functions were Grade I (n = 6), Grade II (n = 10) and Grade III (n = 4). Internal acoustic canal was drilled 2-3 mm in 4 patients and no drilling in others. For the microscope group, Grade I (n = 5), Grade II (n = 6), Grade III (n = 8) and Grade III-IV (n = 3). Internal acoustic canal was drilled at least 3 mm in 12 patients and no drilling in others. No complication such as cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred during the follow-ups. Endosocopic operation of acoustic neuroma surgery is superior to microscopic operation in terms of magnification, illumination, wide-angel and angulation. And the former procedure may yield better outcomes through alleviating the damage of facial nerve and decreasing the drilling degree of inner acoustic meatus.

  16. Profile of hearing in patients with unilateral acoustic neuromas: the importance of the contralateral ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, E M; van Dijk, J E; Graamans, K

    1998-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe hearing in patients with a unilateral acoustic neuroma in relation to the sort and duration of symptoms. The study design was a retrospective clinical study. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. A total of 171 patients with a unilateral acoustic neuroma participated. Diagnostic measures were performed. The subjective experience of symptoms, a number of audiometric parameters of the affected and the contralateral side, tumor size, and their mutual relations were measured. No significant correlation was found between tumor size and audiometric parameters. Significant correlations could be shown between the duration of hearing loss and thresholds in the pure-tone audiogram, the speech reception threshold, and the maximum discrimination in the speech audiogram. Thresholds in the pure-tone audiogram of the contralateral ear were significantly worse than those of the international standard. A significant difference in age between men and women with unilateral acoustic neuromas was found. Hearing is not worse in patients with larger tumors. The longer the duration of subjective hearing loss, the more severe is hearing impairment. The hearing loss of the contralateral ear might be responsible for the composition of the category of patients in whom an acoustic neuroma is diagnosed effectively. Presumably, demographic features result in an age difference between male and female patients.

  17. THE EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS MELATONIN ON THE EXTRAFASCICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN TRANSECTED RAT SCIATIC NERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esad Ćosović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies linking the effect of certain pharmacological agents with the status of connective tissue and nerve fiber regeneration after traumatic transection were focused mainly on the proximal nerve stump. In our study, qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of the proximal and the distal nerve stump were done. Male Wistar rats underwent transection and excision of an 8-mm nerve segment of the left sciatic nerve. The vehiculum group of animals (n=7 was administered with 5% ethanol in Ringer solution (vehiculum, while the melatonin group (n=10 received 30mg/kg of melatonin dissolved in vehiculum, daily, intraperitoneally (i.p. for 14 consecutive days. Then, intravital excision of the marginal zone of the proximal and distal nerve stump was performed and the samples were further processed for qualitative photomicroscopic and stereological analysis. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of both nerve stumps showed absent or slight stump thickening in the melatonin group compared to the vehiculum group of animals, which is the result of reduced connective tissue proliferation. The mean epineurial volume density of the proximal nerve stump was statistically significantly lower (p=0,003 in the melatonin (0,36 than in the vehiculum group of animals (0,51. The difference in mean epineurial volume density of the distal stump was also statistically significant (p=0,039 with 0,33 in melatonin and 0,46 in the vehiculum group. Our study revealed that the administration of exogenous melatonin was effective in suppression of trauma-caused extrafascicular connective tissue proliferation in neuroma of the proximal nerve stump as well as fibroma formation in the distal nerve stump.

  18. A national survey of facial paralysis on the quality of life of patients with acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Samuel C; Lesser, Tristram H

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this survey was to objectively quantify the impact of facial palsy on the quality of life of acoustic neuroma patients. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) Scale was emailed to all members of the British Acoustic Neuroma Association (BANA). Of the 880 BANA members contacted, 398 (45.2%) responded, of which, 178 indicated that they had facial paralysis. Surgery for acoustic neuroma accounted for 80% of facial paralysis. Treatment received for facial palsy varied considerably, although 33% reported not receiving any treatment. The commonest single treatment modality wads facial electrical stimulation (41%), followed by facial physiotherapy (39%). The most common surgical procedures were to the eye lid (50%), followed by nerve graft (12%), forehead lift (10%), muscle sling (9%), and face lift (9%). The overall mean total FaCE Scale score was 54.8 (range, 10-100, standard deviation [SD] 21.2). Both facial movement and eye comfort domains had the lowest mean scores of 41.3 (SD, 29.9) and 41.2 (SD 32.6) respectively. The mean total FaCE Scale score of female respondents was statistically lower (p = 0.03) than males (52.6 (SD 21.2) versus 58.8 (SD 20.7) respectively), as were the difference in mean domain scores for facial comfort, eye comfort and social function. The mean total FaCE Scale scores of respondents aged below 40 years were the lowest. Younger patients had the lowest social function domain scores of all age groups. Facial paralysis is a significant problem in patients with acoustic neuroma. Based on this survey, treatment for facial paralysis is often not offered and even when given, still leaves the patient with a significantly lowered quality of life. However, it should be remembered that this study has surveyed a skewed patient population and that overall, most acoustic neuroma patients do not suffer with facial paralysis.

  19. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Li, Zheng-Wei; Luo, Min; Li, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Ke-Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was

  20. Bilateral high division of the sciatic nerve: incidence and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The sciatic nerve (L4-S3) comprised of the tibial and common fibular (peroneal) components contained in the same epineural sheath usually leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen beneath the piriformis muscle. They usually separate in the lower thigh above the popiteal fossa. Variations in this ...

  1. Levels of Bifurcation of the Sciatic Nerve among Ugandans at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The sciatic nerve is derived from the lumbo-sacral plexus, It is the thickest nerve in the whole body, it exits the gluteal region through the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, it is the main innervator of the posterior thigh, the leg and foot, it usually ends halfway down the back of the thigh by dividing into the ...

  2. Bilateral sciatic nerve injury is a possible iatrogenic complication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injection-induced sciatic nerve palsy is a major iatrogenic problem which results in disability among children under 6-years-old in the developing countries. It manifests as paresis in the muscles supplied by sciatic nerve distribution associated with a burning pain in the affected extremity. Its sequela is a deformity that limits ...

  3. Intraneural perineurioma of the sciatic nerve in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian

    2009-01-01

    , peroneal neuropathy was suspected. The case illustrates that sciatic intraneural perineuriomas do occur in early childhood, and that traction on the sciatic nerve may result in earlier damage to the peroneal nerve than to the tibial nerve, thus mimicking a more peripheral lesion....

  4. Non-formation of the main trunk of the sciatic nerve and unusual relationships to the piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stoyanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sciatic nerve is the largest branch of the sacral plexus. Variations of its origin, exit from the pelvis, emergence and branching in the posterior region of the thigh, especially in regards to the piriformis muscle, are an object of interest due to the possibility to be involved in the pathogenensis of clinically significant non-discogenic sciatica or piriformis syndrome. Case report: We present a case of variant anatomy of the sciatic nerve, discovered during routine dissection of the left gluteal region of an adult female cadaver. We observed a non-formation of the main trunk of the nerve; rather, the tibial nerve passed inferiorly to the piriformis muscle, while the common peroneal nerve went through the body of the bifid piriformis muscle, immediately next to its tendon. The two branches continued their course in the thigh without joining and forming a proper sciatic nerve. The medical records of the body donor did not reveal any neurological impairment which could be linked to this anatomical peculiarity. Conclusion: The anatomy of the sciatic nerve could be considered to be a factor of clinical significance. The high prevalence of similar anatomical variations should be kept in mind during the diagnostic process of clinical entities involving the sciatic nerve.

  5. Sciatic nerve injury: a simple and subtle model for investigating many aspects of nervous system damage and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Luis E; Laurito, Sergio R; Fitt, Marcos R; Rasmussen, Jorge A; Gonzalez Polo, Virginia; Patterson, Sean I

    2014-04-30

    Sciatic nerve injury has been used for over a century to investigate the process of nerve damage, to assess the absolute and relative capacity of the central and peripheral nervous systems to recover after axotomy, and to understand the development of chronic pain in many pathologies. Here we provide a historical review of the contributions of this experimental model to our current understanding of fundamental questions in the neurosciences, and an assessment of its continuing capacity to address these and future problems. We describe the different degrees of nerve injury - neurapraxia, axonotmesis, neurotmesis - together with the consequences of selective damage to the different functional and anatomic components of this nerve. The varied techniques used to model different degrees of nerve injury and their relationship to the development of neuropathic pain states are considered. We also provide a detailed anatomical description of the sciatic nerve from the spinal cord to the peripheral branches in the leg. A standardized protocol for carrying out sciatic nerve axotomy is proposed, with guides to assist in the accurate and reliable dissection of the peripheral and central branches of the nerve. Functional, histological, and biochemical criteria for the validation of the injury are described. Thus, this paper provides a review of the principal features of sciatic nerve injury, presents detailed neuroanatomical descriptions of the rat's inferior limb and spine, compares different modes of injury, offers material for training purposes, and summarizes the immediate and longterm consequences of damage to the sciatic nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ameliorative potential of Vernonia cinerea on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENKATA R.K. THIAGARAJAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the ameliorative potential of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Vernonia cinerea in the chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Behavioral parameters such as a hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal, chemical and mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. Biochemical changes in sciatic nerve tissue were ruled out by estimating thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH and total calcium levels. Ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea and pregabalin were administered for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. CCI of sciatic nerve has been shown to induce significant changes in behavioral, biochemical and histopathological assessments when compared to the sham control group. Vernonia cinerea attenuated in a dose dependent manner the above pathological changes induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve, which is similar to attenuation of the pregabalin pretreated group. The ameliorating effect of ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea against CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain may be due to the presence of flavonoids and this effect is attributed to anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel modulator actions of these compounds.

  7. A prospective, randomized comparison between single- and multiple-injection techniques for ultrasound-guided subgluteal sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroto; Sakura, Shinichi; Wada, Minori; Shido, Akemi

    2014-12-01

    It is believed that local anesthetic injected to obtain circumferential spread around nerves produces a more rapid onset and successful blockade after some ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks. However, evidence demonstrating this point is limited only to the popliteal sciatic nerve block, which is relatively easy to perform by via a high-frequency linear transducer. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that multiple injections of local anesthetic to make circumferential spread would improve the rate of sensory and motor blocks compared with a single-injection technique for ultrasound-guided subgluteal sciatic nerve block, which is considered a relatively difficult block conducted with a low-frequency, curved-array transducer. Ninety patients undergoing knee surgery were divided randomly into 2 groups to receive the ultrasound-guided subgluteal approach to sciatic nerve block with 20 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine with epinephrine. For group M (the multiple-injection technique), the local anesthetic was injected to create circumferential spread around the sciatic nerve without limitation on the number of needle passes. For group S (the single-injection technique), the number of needle passes was limited to 1, and the local anesthetic was injected to create spread along the dorsal surface of the sciatic nerve, during which no adjustment of the needle tip was made. Sensory and motor blockade were assessed in double-blind fashion for 30 minutes after completion of the block. The primary outcome was sensory blockade of all sciatic components tested, including tibial, superficial peroneal, and sural nerves at 30 minutes after injection. Data from 86 patients (43 in each group) were analyzed. Block execution took more time for group M than group S. The proportion of patients with complete sensory blockade of all sciatic components at 30 minutes after injection was significantly larger for group M than group S (41.9% vs 16.3%, P = 0.018). Complete motor blockade of

  8. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pech, P.; Haughton, V.

    1985-05-01

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images.

  9. Ultrasound versus magnetic resonance imaging for Morton neuroma: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignotti, Bianca; Martinoli, Carlo [University of Genoa, Radiology Department, Genoa, Genova (Italy); Signori, Alessio; Sormani, Maria Pia [University of Genoa, Institute of Statistics, Department of Health Sciences, Genoa (Italy); Molfetta, Luigi [University of Genoa, Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Tagliafico, Alberto [University of Genoa, Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, Genoa (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    To compare ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of US and MRI for Morton's neuroma were retrieved from major medical libraries independently by two reviewers up to 1 April 2014. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were adopted. 277 studies were initially found, and the meta-analysis was conducted on 14 studies. US sensitivity was studied in five studies, MRI sensitivity in three studies, and both in six studies. All studies used surgery as the reference standard. A high sensitivity (SE) of diagnostic testing was observed for both US (SE (95 % CI) = 0.91 (0.83-0.96)) and MRI (SE (95 % CI) = 0.90 (0.82-0.96)) with no significant differences between the two modalities in diagnosis (Q test p = 0.88). For MRI, specificity of test was 1.00 with a pooled estimation of 1.00 (0.73-1.00), while the pooled specificity was 0.854 (95 % CI: 0.41-1.00) for US. No differences were observed between US and MRI in study design (p = 0.76). This meta-analysis shows that the SE of US (0.91) is equal to (p = 0.88) that of MRI (0.90) for identification of Morton's neuroma. (orig.)

  10. Occupation and risk of meningioma and acoustic neuroma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Preetha; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Stewart, Patricia A; Linet, Martha S; Fine, Howard A; Shapiro, William R; Selker, Robert G; Black, Peter M; Inskip, Peter D

    2004-05-01

    Workplace exposures may be related to the development of brain tumors. In this case-control study, we examine occupation as a risk factor for meningioma and acoustic neuroma. A lifetime work history was obtained for 197 incident cases of meningioma, 96 cases of acoustic neuroma and 799 controls with non-malignant diseases enrolled from three hospitals in the United States between 1994 and 1998. Jobs considered to have similar tasks and chemical exposures were assigned to an occupational group. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) adjusted for study matching factors (hospital, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and proximity of residence to the hospital) and education. Elevated risk of meningioma was observed for individuals who had ever worked in the following occupational groups: auto body painters, designers and decorators, military occupations, industrial production supervisors, teachers, and managers. For acoustic neuroma, increased risk was noted for having worked as an athlete, gas station attendant, purchasing agent, sales representative, or teacher. Although limited by multiple comparisons and the relatively small number of cases and controls in many occupational groups, these results nevertheless provide clues that deserve additional study in future epidemiologic studies.

  11. Expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 in human schwannomas and traumatic neuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivane, Aditya; Parkinson, David B; Ammoun, Sylwia; Hanemann, Clemens O

    2013-03-01

    Schwann cells myelinate axons of the peripheral nervous system. This process of myelination is regulated by various transcription factors. c-Jun and Sox-2 are negative regulators of myelination and control Schwann cell differentiation and plasticity. Schwannoma cells within tumours no longer express myelin markers, and show increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. We have shown previously that several signalling pathways are activated in schwannoma cells in situ, in particular the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Both in vitro and in vivo we have demonstrated that c-Jun and Sox-2 are co-regulated in Schwann cells and evidence shows that both these proteins regulate myelination negatively. In this study, we aimed to characterize the expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 in schwannoma and traumatic neuroma. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to c-Jun and Sox-2 was applied to six schwannomas, and the results were compared with those seen in traumatic neuroma and normal nerve. Increased expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 was seen in schwannoma. We have demonstrated increased expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 in schwannoma compared to traumatic neuroma. There was no expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 in a histologically normal peripheral nerve. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Novel model for end-neuroma formation in the amputated rabbit forelimb

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    Kuiken Todd A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The forelimb amputee poses many reconstructive challenges in the clinical setting, and there is a paucity of established surgical models for study. To further elucidate the pathogenic process in amputation neuroma formation, we created a reproducible, well-tolerated rabbit forelimb amputation model. Methods Upon approval from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, 5 New Zealand White rabbits underwent left forelimb amputation. During this initial surgery, the median, radial and ulnar nerves were transected 1.6-2.5 (mean 2.0 cm distal to the brachial plexus, transposed onto the anterior chest wall and preserved at length. Six weeks subsequent to the amputation, the distal 5 mm of each neuroma was excised, and the remaining stump underwent histomorphometric analysis. Results The nerve cross sectional areas increased by factors of 1.99, 3.17, and 2.59 in the median (p = 0.077, radial (p Conclusion Given that the surgical model appears well-tolerated by the rabbits and that patterns of morphologic change are consistent and reproducible, we are encouraged to further investigate the utility of this model in the pathogenesis of neuroma formation.

  13. Phase-contrast tomography of sciatic nerves: image quality and experimental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpperwien, M.; Krenkel, M.; Ruhwedel, T.; Möbius, W.; Pacureanu, A.; Cloetens, P.; Salditt, T.

    2017-06-01

    We present propagation-based phase-contrast tomography of mouse sciatic nerves stained with osmium, leading to an enhanced contrast in the myelin sheath around the axons, in order to visualize the threedimensional (3D) structure of the nerve. We compare different experimental parameters and show that contrast and resolution are high enough to identify single axons in the nerve, including characteristic functional structures such as Schmidt-Lanterman incisures.

  14. Presentation

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    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  15. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxue; Tan, Wei; Luo, Danping; Lin, Jianhua; Yu, Yaoqing; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Wangyeng; Wu, Buling; Chen, Jun; He, Jiman

    2012-12-04

    Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats weighing 160-280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  16. Anatomical basis for sciatic nerve block at the knee level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Tatiana Rosa Bezerra Wanderley; da Cunha, Rafael Martins; Rodrigues, Amanda Karine Barros; Ramos, Fernando Wagner da Silva; de Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recently, administration of sciatic nerve block has been revised due to the potential benefit for postoperative analgesia and patient satisfaction after the advent of ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relations of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa to determine the optimal distance the needle must be positioned in order to realize the sciatic nerve block anterior to its bifurcation into the tibial and common fibular nerve. The study was conducted by dissection of human cadavers' popliteal fossa, fixed in 10% formalin, from the Laboratory of Human Anatomy and Morphology Departments of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas and Universidade de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas. Access to the sciatic nerve was obtained. 44 popliteal fossa were analyzed. The bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in relation to the apex of the fossa was observed. There was bifurcation in: 67.96% below the apex, 15.90% above the apex, 11.36% near the apex, and 4.78% in the gluteal region. The sciatic nerve bifurcation to its branches occurs at various levels, and the chance to succeed when the needle is placed between 5 and 7 cm above the popliteal is 95.22%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. [Anatomical basis for sciatic nerve block at the knee level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Tatiana Rosa Bezerra Wanderley; Cunha, Rafael Martins da; Rodrigues, Amanda Karine Barros; Ramos, Fernando Wagner da Silva; Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando de

    2015-01-01

    Recently, administration of sciatic nerve block has been revised due to the potential benefit for postoperative analgesia and patient satisfaction after the advent of ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relations of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa to determine the optimal distance the needle must be positioned in order to realize the sciatic nerve block anterior to its bifurcation into the tibial and common fibular nerve. The study was conducted by dissection of human cadavers' popliteal fossa, fixed in 10% formalin, from the Laboratory of Human Anatomy and Morphology Departments of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas and Universidade de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas. Access to the sciatic nerve was obtained. 44 popliteal fossa were analyzed. The bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in relation to the apex of the fossa was observed. There was bifurcation in: 67.96% below the apex, 15.90% above the apex, 11.36% near the apex, and 4.78% in the gluteal region. The sciatic nerve bifurcation to its branches occurs at various levels, and the chance to succeed when the needle is placed between 5 and 7 cm above the popliteal is 95.22%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental chronic entrapment of the sciatic nerve in adult hamsters: an ultrastructural and morphometric study

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    Prinz R.A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropathy is a group of clinical disorders involving compression of a peripheral nerve and interference with nerve function mostly through traction injury. We have investigated the chronic compression of peripheral nerves as an experimental procedure for detecting changes in ultrastructural nerve morphology. Adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, N = 30 were anesthetized with a 25% pentobarbital solution and received a cuff around the right sciatic nerve. Left sciatic nerves were not operated (control group. Animals survived for varying times (up to 15 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and both sciatic nerves were immediately fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution. Experimental nerves were divided into segments based upon their distance from the site of compression (proximal, entrapment and distal. Semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were qualitatively described and data from semithin sections were morphometrically analyzed both in control and in compressed nerves. We observed endoneurial edema along with both perineurial and endoneurial thickening and also the existence of whorled cell-sparse structures (Renaut bodies in the subperineurial space of compressed sciatic nerves. Morphometric analyses of myelinated axons at the compression sites displayed a remarkable increase in the number of small axons (up to 60% in comparison with the control axonal number. The distal segment of compressed nerves presented a distinct decrease in axon number (up to 40% comparatively to the control group. The present experimental model of nerve entrapment in adult hamsters was shown to promote consistent histopathologic alterations analogous to those found in chronic compressive neuropathies.

  19. Stereological analysis of sciatic nerve in chickens following neonatal pinealectomy: an experimental study

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    Sahin Bünyamin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the injury to the peripheral nervous system is a common clinical problem, understanding of the role of melatonin in nerve degeneration and regeneration is incomplete. Methods The current study investigated the effects of neonatal pinealectomy on the sciatic nerve microarchitecture in the chicken. The chickens were divided into two equal groups: unpinealectomized controls and pinealectomized chickens. At the end of the study, biochemical examination of 10 sciatic nerve samples from both groups was performed and a quantitative stereological evaluation of 10 animals in each group was performed. The results were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Results In this study, the results of axon number and thickness of the myelin sheath of a nerve fiber in newly hatched pinealectomy group were higher than those in control group. Similarly, surgical pinealectomy group had significantly larger axonal cross-sectional area than the control group (p Conclusion In the light of these results from present animal study, changes in sciatic nerve morphometry may be indicative of neuroprotective feature of melatonin, but this suggestion need to be validated in the human setting.

  20. Sciatic neuropathy after body contouring surgery in massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiermeir, David; Banic, Andrej; Rösler, Kai; Erni, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    To date, obesity affects a substantial population in industrialised countries. Due to the increased awareness of obesity-related morbidity, efficient dietary regimens and the recent successes with bariatric surgery, there is now a high demand for body contouring surgery to correct skin abundancies after massive weight loss. The known risks for this type of surgery are mainly wound-healing complications, and, more rarely, thromboembolic or respiratory complications. We present two female patients (23 and 39 years of age) who, in spite of standard positioning and precautions, developed sciatic neuropathy after combined body contouring procedures, including abdominoplasty and inner thigh lift. Complete functional loss of the sciatic nerve was found by clinical and electroneurographic examination on the left side in patient one and bilaterally in patient two. Full nerve conductance recovery was obtained after 6 months in both patients. Although the occurrence of spontaneous neuropathies after heavy weight loss is well documented, this is the first report describing the appearance of such a phenomenon following body contouring surgery. One theoretical explanation may be the compression of the nerve during the semirecumbent positioning combined with hip flexion and abduction, which was required for abdominal closure and simultaneous access to the inner thighs. We advise to avoid this positioning and to include the risk of sciatic neuropathy in the routine preoperative information of patients scheduled for body contouring surgery after heavy weight loss. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Brainstem auditory evoked response in adolescents with acoustic mycotic neuroma due to environmental exposure to toxic molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Ebere; Campbell, Andrew W; High, William

    2002-01-01

    Indoor air contamination with toxic opportunistic molds is an emerging health risk worldwide. Some of the opportunistic molds include: Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. versicolor etc.), Cadosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Fusarium graminearum etc. These molds flourish in homes that are moist and damp. Reports of floods are now evident in many parts of the world. With these global changes in climatic conditions that favor the opportunistic mode of living among these molds, some health authorities are beginning to feel concerned about the diversity and the extent to which opportunistic molds can cause adverse health effects in humans. Mycotoxicosis is the collective name for all the diseases caused by toxic molds. Frequently, we have cases of acoustic neuroma due to mycotoxicity in our Center. Mycotic neuroma probably has not been reported before and the application of brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) techniques in acoustic mycotic neuroma have not been reported either. The aim of this study, therefore, was to report cases and measurements of acoustic mycotic neuroma in adolescents using the brainstem auditory evoked response. The patients' case history, clinical neurological and neurobehavioral questionnaires were assessed. Then, the BAERs were recorded between Cz and Ai, with a second channel, Cz-Ac. The case histories and the questionnaires were analyzed in conjunction with the outcome of the objective brainstem auditory evoked response measurements. The prevalent subjective findings in the patients were headaches, memory loss, hearing loss, lack of concentration, fatigue, sleep disturbance, facial swelling, rashes, nosebleeds, diarrhea, abdominal pains and respiratory difficulties. Objective BAER showed overall abnormalities in all the patients. Although the waveform abnormalities varied, 1-3 interpeak latencies were abnormal in all the patients. Overall results showed the presence of

  2. Long-term results of LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery for acoustic neuroma: The Greek experience

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    Kalogeridi Maria-Aggeliki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To estimate the value of LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS for the long-term local control of unilateral acoustic neuromas. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (median age 66; range 57-80 years with unilateral acoustic neuroma underwent LINAC-based SRS from May 2000 through June 2004 with a dose of 11-12 Gy. The follow-up period ranged from 36 to 84 months (median follow-up period: 55 months. Before SRS none of the patients had useful hearing. The follow-up consisted of repeat imaging studies and clinical examination for assessment of facial and trigeminal nerve function at 6-month intervals for the first year and yearly thereafter. Results: Eleven tumors (58% decreased in size and eight (42% remained stable. One tumor showed a minor increase in size on the MRI done 6 months after SRS in comparison with the pretreatment MRI; however, a subsequent decrease was noticed on the next radiographic assessment and the tumor remained stable from then on. None of the tumors increased in size in the long-term follow-up, thus giving an overall growth control of 100% for the patients in this study. None of the patients had useful hearing before SRS, so hearing level was not assessed during follow-up. No patient developed new, permanent facial or trigeminal neuropathy. Conclusion: LINAC-based SRS with 11-12 Gy provides excellent tumor control in acoustic neuroma and has low toxicity even after long-term follow-up.

  3. Effects of Adrenal Medulla and Sciatic Nerve Co-Grafts in Rats with Unilateral Substantia Nigra Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, William J.; Willingham, George; Heim, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Major limitations of adrenal medulla transplantation in animal models of Parkinson's disease have been the relatively small behavioral effects and the poor or inconsistent graft survival. Transplantation of fragments of sural nerve in combination with adrenal medulla has been reported to increase the survival of chromaffin cells in adrenal medulla grafts in primates. In the present study, the possibility was tested that peripheral nerve co-grafts would increase the functional effects of adrenal medulla grafts in a 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model. Animals received unilateral substantia nigra lesions, and subsequently received intraventricular grafts of adrenal medulla, sciatic nerve, adrenal medulla plus sciatic nerve, or sham grafts consisting of medium only. Functional effects of the grafts were tested using apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The sciatic nerve co-grafts did not increase the survival of TH-immunoreactive chromaffin cells. The co-grafting treatment also did not augment the overall effect of adrenal medulla grafts on rotational behavior. In the animals with substantial numbers of surviving chromaffin cells, however, the animals with sciatic nerve co-grafts showed greater decreases in rotational behavior as compared to the animals with adrenal medulla grafts alone, even though the number of surviving cells was not increased. PMID:1355367

  4. Histopathological effects of intramuscular metamizole sodium on rat sciatic nerve

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    Abdurrahman Emir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: We investigated the histopathological effects of metamizole sodium (MS on the sciatic nerve.  Materials and Methods: This study was performed using 48 adult male Wistar albino rats. Ten groups were constituted with 6 rats in each group. MS injection into the sciatic nerve (group 1, MS injection into the muscle [group 3 (50 mg/kg, 0.4 ml and group 5 (50 mg/kg, 0.8 ml], MS injection into the muscle cavity in the vicinity of the sciatic nerve [group 2 (50 mg/kg, 0.4 ml and group 4 (50 mg/kg, 0.8 ml], normal saline injection into the muscle in the vicinity of the sciatic nerve [group 6A (0.4 ml and 6B (0.8 ml], subjected to injury by drilling the entire layer of nerve without injecting any drug, normal saline injection in the sciatic nerve, and control group. Nerve and muscle samples were taken 7 days after administrations. Tissue sections were stained using a hematoxylin and eosin-Luxol® fast blue stain, assessed by a histologist. Results: The levels of axonal degeneration of the rats in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6A, and  8 were found to be significantly higher compared to the levels of the rats in the control group (P

  5. A new analgesic method, two-minute sciatic nerve press, for immediate pain relief: a randomized trial

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    Zhang Fenglin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current analgesics have drawbacks such as delays in acquisition, lag-times for effect, and side effects. We recently presented a preliminary report of a new analgesic method involving a two-minute sciatic nerve press, which resulted in immediate short-term relief of pain associated with dental and renal diseases. The present study investigated whether this technique was effective for pain associated with other disease types, and whether the relief was effective for up to one hour. Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted in four hospitals in Anhui Province, China. Patients with pain were sequentially recruited by participating physicians during clinic visits, and 135 patients aged 15 – 80 years were enrolled. Dental disease patients included those with acute pulpitis and periapical abscesses. Renal disease patients included those with kidney infections and/or stones. Tumor patients included those with nose, breast, stomach and liver cancers, while Emergency Room patients had various pathologies. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a "sciatic nerve press" in which pressure was applied simultaneously to the sciatic nerves at the back of both thighs, or a "placebo press" in which pressure was applied to a parallel region on the front of the thighs. Each fist applied a pressure of 11 – 20 kg for 2 minutes. Patients rated their level of pain before and after the procedure. Results The "sciatic nerve press" produced immediate relief of pain in all patient groups. Emergency patients reported a 43.5% reduction in pain (p th minutes, and the relief decreased 47% by the 60th minutes. Conclusion Two minutes of pressure on both sciatic nerves produced immediate significant short-term conduction analgesia. This technique is a convenient, safe and powerful method for the short-term treatment of clinical pain associated with a diverse range of pathologies. Trial registration Current

  6. A rare bifurcation pattern of the sciatic nerve | Huq | Anatomy Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in branching patterns of the sciatic nerve are thought to be clinically significant because of the nerve's extensive distribution area. Here we report a rare and unusual branching pattern of the sciatic nerve which was observed in a male cadaver. Sciatic nerve underwent a high division inside the pelvic cavity, and ...

  7. The Histological Effects of Ozone Therapy on Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somay, Hakan; Emon, Selin Tural; Uslu, Serap; Orakdogen, Metin; Meric, Zeynep Cingu; Ince, Umit; Hakan, Tayfun

    2017-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common, important problem that lacks a definitive, effective treatment. It can cause neurologic deficits ranging from paresthesia to paralysis. This study evaluated the effect of ozone therapy on sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into control sham surgery, sciatic nerve injury, and sciatic nerve injury with ozone groups (each n = 8). The sciatic nerve injury was inflicted via De Koning's crush-force method. The sciatic nerve injury group received medical air and the sciatic nerve injury ozone group received 0.7 mg/kg ozone. Sciatic nerve samples were obtained 4 weeks after injury. Vascular congestion, vacuolization, edema formation, S100 expression, and the thicknesses of the perineurium and endoneurium and diameter of the injured sciatic nerves were evaluated. The diameter of the sciatic nerve and thicknesses of the perineurium and epineurium were significantly greater in the sciatic nerve injury group (P ozone group (P ozone group (P Ozone therapy improved sciatic nerve injury recovery without causing an increase in fibrotic tissue. Ozone reduced fibrosis, vascular congestion, vacuolization, and edema in rodents. Ozone treatment might be used to assist in sciatic nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  12. Autotaxin and lysophosphatidic acid1 receptor-mediated demyelination of dorsal root fibers by sciatic nerve injury and intrathecal lysophosphatidylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Junken

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although neuropathic pain is frequently observed in demyelinating diseases such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis, the molecular basis for the relationship between demyelination and neuropathic pain behaviors is poorly understood. Previously, we found that lysophosphatidic acid receptor (LPA1 signaling initiates sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and demyelination. Results In the present study, we have demonstrated that sciatic nerve injury induces marked demyelination accompanied by myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG down-regulation and damage of Schwann cell partitioning of C-fiber-containing Remak bundles in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root, but not in the spinal nerve. Demyelination, MAG down-regulation and Remak bundle damage in the dorsal root were abolished in LPA1 receptor-deficient (Lpar1-/- mice, but these alterations were not observed in sciatic nerve. However, LPA-induced demyelination in ex vivo experiments was observed in the sciatic nerve, spinal nerve and dorsal root, all which express LPA1 transcript and protein. Nerve injury-induced dorsal root demyelination was markedly attenuated in mice heterozygous for autotaxin (atx+/-, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC to LPA. Although the addition of LPC to ex vivo cultures of dorsal root fibers in the presence of recombinant ATX caused potent demyelination, it had no significant effect in the absence of ATX. On the other hand, intrathecal injection of LPC caused potent dorsal root demyelination, which was markedly attenuated or abolished in atx+/- or Lpar1-/- mice. Conclusions These results suggest that LPA, which is converted from LPC by ATX, activates LPA1 receptors and induces dorsal root demyelination following nerve injury, which causes neuropathic pain.

  13. Persistência da veia ciática Persistent sciatic vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Borges Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    and expansion. Consequently, anomalies may occur during this process. When there is persistence of the sciatic vein, it may communicate with the small saphenous vein or with the popliteal vein during its route, being anastomosed to the superior perforating vein and to the medial circumflex femoral vein. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of bilateral persistent sciatic vein on the lower limbs in comparison to the literature. METHODS: Thirty-two lower limbs from 16 corpses preserved in formaldehyde were dissected at the Laboratory of Anatomy of the discipline of Topographic Anatomy of the Medical School of Universidade Santo Amaro (Unisa, during 2006 and 2007, and the sciatic vein was observed in 2 lower limbs of one single corpse. RESULTS: On the left lower limb of a corpse that presented bilateral anomaly, the vein had 37 cm, emerging on the popliteal vein, accompanying the sciatic nerve, perforating the long adductor muscle and leading into the deep femoral vein. On the right lower limb, it measured 36 cm, emerged receiving the veins of the anterior tibial compartment, accompanied the sciatic nerve, perforated the long adductor muscle and led into the internal iliac vein. CONCLUSION: The anatomical variations of the lower limb venous system are the most common ones. The persistent sciatic vein may cause chronic venous failure in the lower limbs and, in this manner, must be investigated aiming at a better clinical or surgical management.

  14. Correlation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 sodium channel expression with neuropathic pain in human subjects with lingual nerve neuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Emma V; Christmas, Claire R; Loescher, Alison R; Smith, Keith G; Robinson, Peter P; Black, Joel A; Waxman, Stephen G; Boissonade, Fiona M

    2013-10-21

    Voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are expressed preferentially in small diameter sensory neurons, and are thought to play a role in the generation of ectopic activity in neuronal cell bodies and/or their axons following peripheral nerve injury. The expression of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 has been quantified in human lingual nerves that have been previously injured inadvertently during lower third molar removal, and any correlation between the expression of these ion channels and the presence or absence of dysaesthesia investigated. Immunohistochemical processing and quantitative image analysis revealed that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were expressed in human lingual nerve neuromas from patients with or without symptoms of dysaesthesia. The level of Nav1.8 expression was significantly higher in patients reporting pain compared with no pain, and a significant positive correlation was observed between levels of Nav1.8 expression and VAS scores for the symptom of tingling. No significant differences were recorded in the level of expression of Nav1.9 between patients with or without pain. These results demonstrate that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are present in human lingual nerve neuromas, with significant correlations between the level of expression of Nav1.8 and symptoms of pain. These data provide further evidence that changes in expression of Nav1.8 are important in the development and/or maintenance of nerve injury-induced pain, and suggest that Nav1.8 may be a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Unilateral deafness after acoustic neuroma surgery: subjective hearing handicap and the effect of the bone-anchored hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Henrik Terkel; Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Bonding, Per

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate the subjective hearing handicap in patients with unilateral deafness after acoustic neuroma surgery and the effect of the Bone-anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) on test band. Fifty-nine consecutive patients with unilateral deafness after translabyrintine removal of an acoustic neuroma, treated in Denmark in 2001 and 2002, were included. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire, which addressed the subjective handicap of unilateral deafness; 90% responded. These patients were invited to test the BAHA on test band, and the subjective and objective effects were recorded. Eighty percent of the patients thought that they had a subjective hearing handicap of some significance. However, only 50% accepted the invitation to test the BAHA. The overall subjective effect was positive, and a significant improvement in speech discrimination in noise with the BAHA was demonstrated. After the test, however, only about 50%, that is, 25% of all patients wished implantation for BAHA treatment. This study shows that unilateral deafness after acoustic neuroma surgery is thought as a handicap in most of the patients and confirms that treatment with the BAHA has positive subjective effects and improves speech discrimination in noise. However, only 25% of the patients wished implantation for BAHA treatment. The implications of these findings are discussed. Data from centers that perform simultaneous acoustic neuroma surgery and implantation for BAHA are necessary for firm conclusions.

  16. Intraoperative monitoring during surgery for acoustic neuroma: benefits of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullatti, N; Coakham, H; Maw, A; Butler, S; Morgan, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the utility of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode for intraoperative monitoring during acoustic neuroma and other cerebellopontine angle tumour surgery and to define the neurophysiological and surgical factors which influence hearing preservation.
METHODS—Twenty two patients, 18 with acoustic neuromas and four with other cerebellopontine angle tumours, underwent intraoperative monitoring during tumour excision. The extratympanic intrameatal electrode (IME) was used to record the electrocochleogram (ECoG) and surface electrodes to record the brainstem auditory evoked response (ABR).
RESULTS—The compound action potential (CAP) of the ECoG was two and a half times greater in amplitude than wave I of the ABR and was easily monitored. Virtually instant information was available as minimal averaging was required. Continuous monitoring was possible from the commencement of anaesthesia to skin closure. The IME was easy to place, non-invasive, and did not interfere with the operative field. Operative procedures which affected CAP or wave V latency or amplitude were drilling around the internal auditory meatus, tumour dissection, nerve section, and brainstem and cerebellar retraction. Hearing was achieved in 59% of patients.
CONCLUSIONS—The IME had significant benefits in comparison with other methods of monitoring. The technique provided information beneficial to preservation of hearing.

 PMID:10209169

  17. Evolution of Patients With Immediate Complete Facial Paralysis Secondary to Acoustic Neuroma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Maza, Adriana; Lassaletta, Luis; González-Otero, Teresa; Roda, José María; Moraleda, Susana; Arbizu, Álvaro; Gavilán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    To study the evolution of patients with immediate complete facial paralysis after acoustic neuroma surgery in different scenarios and assess different facial reanimations techniques. This study included 50 patients with complete facial paralysis immediately after acoustic neuroma surgery. Data were analyzed into 4 groups according to the need and type of reconstruction of the facial nerve, either none, immediate, or on a deferred basis. All patients had intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, and facial nerve function was evaluated according the House-Brackmann (HB) scale. Of all patients with immediate total paralysis, no patients achieved totally normal facial function (grade I), and only 5 (10%) recovered to a grade II. For all groups included, the majority of patients (82%) achieved an acceptable final facial function (grade III HB). In this series, only 2 patients remained with a grade VI facial function. The possibility of recovering near normal facial function after a grade VI facial paralysis is very low. Procedures like the immediate repair of the facial nerve with an interposed donor graft may provide better facial function in patients with partially injured facial nerve. Even in cases of total section, there are other procedures that can improve the results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Maragakis, Nicholas; Hoeke, Ahmet; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. (orig.)

  19. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); University College London, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Dyck, P. James B. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurology, Rochester, MN (United States); Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  20. Reasonable classical concepts in human lower limb anatomy from the viewpoint of the primitive persistent sciatic artery and twisting human lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of this review is (1) to introduce the two previous studies we published human lower limb anatomy based on the conventional macroscopic anatomical [corrected] criteria with hazardous recognition of this description, (2) to activate the discussion whether the limb homology exists, and (3) to contribute to future study filling the gap between the gross anatomy and embryology. One of the topics we discussed was the human persistent sciatic artery. To date, numerous human cases of persistent sciatic artery have been reported in which the anomalous artery was present in the posterior compartment of the thigh alongside the sciatic nerve. As one of the important criteria for assessing the human primitive sciatic artery, its ventral arterial position with respect to the sciatic nerve is reasonable based on the initial positional relationship between ventral arterial and dorsal nervous systems and comparative anatomical findings. We also discuss ways of considering the topography of muscles of the lower limb and their innervations compared to those of the upper limb. We propose a schema of the complex anatomical characteristics of the lower limb based on the vertebrate body plan. According to this reasonable schema, the twisted anatomy of the lower limb can be understood more easily. These two main ideas discussed in this paper will be useful for further understanding of the anatomy of the lower limb and as a first step for future. We hope that the future study in lower limb will be further developed by both viewpoints of the classical gross anatomy and recent embryology.

  1. Prevention of Painful Neuroma and Phantom Limb Pain After Transfemoral Amputations Through Concomitant Nerve Coaptation and Collagen Nerve Wrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economides, James M; DeFazio, Michael V; Attinger, Christopher E; Barbour, John R

    2016-09-01

    Postamputation pain is a debilitating condition that affects almost 60% of transfemoral amputees. Recent appreciation for the contribution of peripheral nerve derangement to the development of postamputation pain has resulted in focus on the role of nerve reconstruction in preventing pain after amputation. To propose a method involving tibial and common peroneal nerve coaptation at the time of amputation, as a means to prevent residual limb pain and phantom sequelae resulting from neuroma formation. Between May 2014 and May 2015, 17 patients underwent transfemoral amputation and nerve management through either (1) common peroneal nerve-to- tibial nerve coaptation and collagen nerve wrapping or (2) traction neurectomy alone. Visual analog scores (VAS) for pain, analgesic requirements, neuroma formation, phantom pain/sensations, and ambulatory status were compared between cohorts. Six patients underwent nerve coaptation/collagen nerve wrapping, whereas 11 underwent traction neurectomy. At 2 months, VAS scores were similar between cohorts (3 vs 3.82; P = .88); however, neuroma (0% vs 36.3%; P = .24) and phantom pain (0% and 54.5%; P = .03) were significantly lower after coaptation. After 6 months, VAS scores (0.75 vs 5.6; P = .02) as well as neuroma (0% vs 54.5%; P = .03) and phantom pain (0% vs 63.6%; P = .01) remained lower among patients who underwent coaptation. At follow-up, 67% of coaptation patients were ambulating with a prosthesis vs 9% of neurectomy patients (P = .01). Preemptive coaptation and collagen nerve wrapping is associated with lower VAS pain scores, phantom symptoms, and neuroma formation, with higher ambulation rates after 6 months when compared with traction neurectomy alone. CPN, common peroneal nervePAP, Postamputation painPLP, phantom limb painPS, phantom sensationsRLP, residual limb painTN, tibial nerve.

  2. Evaluation of Variation in the Course of the Facial Nerve, Nerve Adhesion to Tumors, and Postoperative Facial Palsy in Acoustic Neuroma

    OpenAIRE

    Sameshima, Tetsuro; Morita, Akio; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Fukushima, Takanori; Friedman, Allan H.; Zenga, Francesco; Ducati, Alessandro; Mastronardi, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variation in the course of the facial nerve (FN) in patients undergoing acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery, its adhesion to tumors, and the relationship between such adhesions and postoperative facial palsy.

  3. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with intramuscular quinine injections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, in children, gluteal injection of quinine dihydrochloride (QDH) may result in damage to the sciatic nerve. Forty-six children were seen with foot drop following intramuscular injections in the same limb. They were analyzed for the type of injection, injection site, route of injection, the ...

  4. POST-INJECTION SCIATIC NEUROPATHY: A FIVE-YEAR REVIEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alonge Ibidunni

    SUMMARY. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the administration of injections is one of the most common healthcare procedures, and unsafe injections are associated with morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. Post-injection sciatic neuropathy (PISN) has been identified as a serious ...

  5. Injection inside the paraneural sheath of the sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Lykke; Andersen, Sofie L; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    There exists little anatomic knowledge regarding the structure and sonographic features of the sheath enveloping the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa. We investigated the spread of an injection inside the sheath to (1) determine whether the sheath is a structure distinct from the nerve or par...

  6. Bilateral sciatic nerve block after orthopedic surgery in a pediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Şahin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Early postoperative pain is one of the most important problems in pediatric orthopedic surgery. Introduction of the use of ultrasound (US has led to very important developments in pediatric regional anesthesia. We aimed to present with the literature data about that we applied the bilateral US-guided sciatic nerve block to the patient who was operated under bilateral knee disarticulation because of congenital tibia agenesis and talipes equinovarus. In conclusion we entertain that US-guided peripheral nerve blocks are effective and safety for postoperative pain in pediatric orthopedic surgery.

  7. Sonographic evaluation of sciatic nerves in patients with unilateral sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Murat; Özçakar, Levent; Tiftik, Tülay; Kaymak, Bayram; Özel, Sumru; Akkuş, Selami; Akinci, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the sciatic nerves of patients with unilateral sciatica by using an ultrasound, and to determine whether ultrasonographic findings were related to clinical and electrophysiologic parameters. Cross-sectional study. Physical medicine and rehabilitation departments of a university hospital and a rehabilitation hospital. Consecutive patients (N=30; 10 men, 20 women) with complaints of low back pain and unilateral sciatica of more than 1 month of duration were enrolled. Not applicable. All patients underwent a substantial clinical assessment, and they were also evaluated by electromyogram and magnetic resonance imaging. Pain was evaluated by a visual analog scale and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) Scale. A linear array probe (7.5-12MHz) was used to scan sciatic nerves bilaterally in the prone position. Sciatic nerve diameters-thickness (short axis) and width (long axis)-and cross-sectional areas were measured bilaterally at the same levels, proximal to the bifurcation and midthigh. The values pertaining to the unaffected limbs were taken as controls. When compared with the unaffected sides, mean values for sciatic nerve measurements-long axis at bifurcation level (P=.017) and cross-sectional area at midthigh level (P=.005)-were significantly larger on the affected sides. Swelling ratios negatively correlated with symptom duration (r=-.394, P=.038) and LANSS scores (r=-.451, P=.016) at only midthigh level. Sciatic nerves seem to be enlarged on the side of sciatica in patients with low back pain. Our preliminary results may provide insight into better understanding the lower limb radiating pain in this group of patients. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of acoustic neuroma. Volume changes and hearing results after 89-month median follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranzinger, Manfred; Fastner, Gerd [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics (PMU), University Clinic of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg County Hospital, Salzburg (Austria); Zehentmayr, Franz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics (PMU), University Clinic of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg County Hospital, Salzburg (Austria); Salzburg County Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, radART - Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies, Salzburg (Austria); Oberascher, Gerhard [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics (PMU), University Clinic of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Salzburg County Hospital, Salzburg (Austria); Merz, Florian; Rahim, Hassan [Salzburg County Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Medical Radiation Protection Unit, Salzburg (Austria); Nairz, Olaf [Clinic Bad Trissl, Oberaudorf (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The goal of this work was to evaluate toxicity and local control following hypofractionated stereotactic radiation treatment with special focus on changes in tumor volume and hearing capacity. In all, 29 patients with unilateral acoustic neuroma were treated between 2001 and 2007 within a prospective radiation protocol (7 x 4 Gy ICRU dose). Median tumor volume was 0.9 ml. Follow-up started at 6 months and was repeated annually with MRI volumetry and audiometry. Hearing preservation was defined as preservation of Class A/B hearing according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology (1995). No patient had any intervention after a median imaging follow-up of 89.5 months, one patient showed radiological progression. Transient increase of tumor volume developed in 17/29 patients, whereas 22/29 patients (75.9 %) presented with a volume reduction at last follow-up. A total of 21 patients were eligible for hearing evaluation. Mean pure tone average (PTA) deteriorated from 39.3 to 65.9 dB and mean speech discrimination score (SDS) dropped from 74.3 to 38.1 %. The 5-year actuarial Class A/B hearing preservation rate was 50.0 ± 14.4 %. Radiation increases only minimally, if at all, the hearing deterioration which emerges by observation alone. Presbyacusis is not responsible for this deterioration. Transient tumor enlargement is common. Today radiation of small- and medium-sized acoustic neuroma can be performed with different highly conformal techniques as fractionated treatment or single low-dose radiosurgery with equal results regarding tumor control, hearing preservation, and side effects. Hypofractionation is more comfortable for the patient than conventional regimens and represents a serious alternative to frameless radiosurgery. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war die Evaluierung der Toxizitaet und der lokalen Tumorkontrolle einer hypofraktionierten stereotaktischen Bestrahlung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf Veraenderungen von Tumorvolumen und

  9. NEUROLOGIC OUTCOME AFTER INTRANEURAL AND PERINEURAL SCIATIC NERVE BLOCK IN PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldan Kapur

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies in animals have suggested that intraneural application of local anesthetics may cause mechanical injury and pressure ischemia of nerve fascicles. Previous studies, however, have used small animal models and clinically irrelevant injection speed or equipment. Our hypothesis is that an intraneural injection is heralded by higher injection pressure and leads to neurologic impairment in pigs. Ten pigs of mixed breed were studied. After general anesthesia, the sciatic nerves (n = 20 were exposed bilaterally. Under direct vision, a 25-gauge insulated nerve block needle was placed either extraperineurally (n = 10 or subperineurially (n = 10, and 4 ml of preservative-free lidocaine 2% was injected using an automated infusion pump (15 ml / min. Injection pressure data were acquired using an in-line manometer coupled to a computer via an analog-to-digital conversion board. After injection, the animals were awakened and subjected to serial neurologic examinations during the 24 post-intervention hours. All but two perineural injections resulted in injection pressures below 20 psi. In contrast, intraneural injections resulted in significantly higher peak pressures. In 7 (70% intraneural injections, the injections pressures were over 20 psi (20-50 psi. Neurologic function returned to baseline within 24 hours in all sciatic nerve receiving perineural injections. In contrast, residual neurologic impairment was present in 7 sciatic nerves after intraneural injection; residual neurologic impairment was associated with injection pressures > 20 psi. The results indicate that high injection pressure during intraneural injection may be indicative of intrafascicular injection and may predict the development of neurologic injury.Key words: nerve block, injection pressure, neurologic injury, pigs

  10. Facial reanimation after acoustic neuroma resection: options and timing of intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boahene, Kofi

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis following acoustic neuroma (AN) resection can be devastating, but timely and strategic intervention can minimize the resulting facial morbidity. A central strategy in reanimating the paralyzed face after AN resection is to restore function of the native facial muscles using available facial nerves or repurposed cranial nerves, mainly the hypoglossal or masseter nerves. The timing of reinnervation is the single most influential factor that determines outcomes in facial reanimation surgery. The rate of recovery of facial function in the first 6 months following AN resection may be used to predict ultimate facial function. Patients who show no signs of recovery in the first 6 months, even when their facial nerves are intact, recover poorly and are candidates for early facial reinnervation. With delay, facial muscles become irreversibly paralyzed. Reanimation in irreversible paralysis requires the transfer of functional muscle units such as the gracilis or the temporalis muscle tendon unit. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Treatment of Morton's neuroma as a nerve compression. The role for neurolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellon, A L

    1992-08-01

    The almost universal surgical approach for the treatment of Morton's metatarsalgia is to resect the neuroma through a dorsal incision. Considering that the mechanism for the metatarsalgia is chronic repetitive compression of the common plantar digital nerve between the metatarsal heads, this report explores the use of neurolysis in five patients with 11 involved nerves. In surgery, the intermetatarsal ligament is divided, intrinsic fibrosis is released, and the epineurium is opened. The mean follow-up period is 33 months. Complete pain relief was achieved in four of the five patients, with the fifth patient, 13 years after a crush injury to the foot, achieving good pain relief. All five patients resumed their usual jobs and athletic activities. One patient wears sneakers instead of regular shoes. The patient with the crush injury wears custom-made shoes.

  12. Recording nerve signals in canine sciatic nerves with a flexible penetrating microelectrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Donghak; Cho, Sung-Joon; Lee, Byeong Han; Min, Joongkee; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Previously, we presented the fabrication and characterization of a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (FPMA) as a neural interface device. In the present study, we aim to prove the feasibility of the developed FPMA as a chronic intrafascicular recording tool for peripheral applications. Approach. For recording from the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, the FPMA was integrated with an interconnection cable and other parts that were designed to fit canine sciatic nerves. The uniformity of tip exposure and in vitro electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterized. The capability of the device to acquire in vivo electrophysiological signals was evaluated by implanting the FPMA assembly in canine sciatic nerves acutely as well as chronically for 4 weeks. We also examined the histology of implanted tissues to evaluate the damage caused by the device. Main results. Throughout recording sessions, we observed successful multi-channel recordings (up to 73% of viable electrode channels) of evoked afferent and spontaneous nerve unit spikes with high signal quality (SNR  >  4.9). Also, minor influences of the device implantation on the morphology of nerve tissues were found. Significance. The presented results demonstrate the viability of the developed FPMA device in the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, thereby bringing us a step closer to human applications. Furthermore, the obtained data provide a driving force toward a further study for device improvements to be used as a bidirectional neural interface in humans.

  13. Palisaded Encapsulated Neuroma of the Tongue Clinically Mimicking a Pyogenic Granuloma: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated (solitary circumscribed neuromas (PENs are relatively common intraoral neurogenic tumors, which occur most frequently on the hard palate. Herein, we describe the clinicopathological characteristics of a palisaded encapsulated neuroma of the tongue. This tumor was an exophytic sessile mass measuring 0.3× 0.4 cm with rubbery consistency on the anterior one-third of the dorsum of the tongue. The tumor was excised under the impression of a pyogenic granuloma (PG. No recurrence was reported at 12 months postoperatively. Histopathological examination showed a well-circumscribed mass that composed of interlacing fascicles of spindle cells. The cells were S-100 positive. The nuclei, showing parallel orientation within the fascicles, were wavy and pointed and showed no sign of mitotic activity. Giemsa staining revealed no mast cells within the stroma.

  14. Morton's Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... narrow-toed shoes or shoes with high heels. Medications. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, may be recommended to reduce pain and inflammation. Injection therapy. Treatment may include injections ...

  15. The use of multimedia as an adjunct to the informed consent process for Morton's neuroma resection surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Calvin; Ammon, Peter; Beischer, Andrew D

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if a computer-based multimedia education module (MEM) improved patients' comprehension when used as an adjunct to the standard verbal consent process for Morton's neuroma resection surgery. Nineteen patients (15 females and 4 males) considered candidates for Morton's neuroma resection surgery were prospectively recruited. A standardized verbal discussion was had with each patient regarding risks and benefits of surgery, alternative treatments, and the usual postoperative course. Patient understanding was then assessed with a questionnaire. Each patient subsequently viewed the MEM and the questionnaire was repeated. Patients also rated ease of understanding and satisfaction with both methods of patient education. Patients answered a significantly greater proportion of correct answers after viewing the MEM module (85%), compared to verbal discussion alone (61%) (P = .002). Patients rated both the ease of understanding of the module and amount of information provided by the module as a mean of 9.3 cm on a 10 cm Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The majority of patients (76%) rated the multimedia tool as having answered their questions about surgery as well or better than the treating surgeon. An interactive multimedia educational tool was a useful adjunct to the informed consent process for patients considering Morton's neuroma resection surgery. Level II, prospective cohort study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Interaural Difference of Wave V Predicting Postoperative Hearing in Gardner-Robertson Class II Acoustic Neuroma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Noritaka; Murakami, Shingo; Takemura, Keiji; Yamada, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Patients with acoustic neuroma classified in Gardner and Robertson (GR) Class II should be considered to have useful hearing, and patients classified in Class III should be considered to have not-useful hearing. Therefore, it is important for acoustic neuroma surgery to distinguish between postoperative GR Class II and Class III patients by brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). We evaluate which BAEP parameter is the best for predicting postoperative GR Class II or III in 36 preoperative GR Class II patients with unilateral acoustic neuroma. Delay in wave V latency, reduction ratio in wave V amplitude, and interaural difference of wave V (IT5) are evaluated by a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve in this study. IT5 is the best distinguishing parameter between postoperative Class II and Class III. IT5 below 1.12 millisecond (msec) should be a good marker to preserve postoperative useful hearing. Thus, comparing the latency of wave V on both sides is important, and surgeons would be able to make more informed decisions during surgery by checking IT5 on BAEPs.

  17. Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Songtao Gao; Yan Zheng; Qiqing Cai; Zhansheng Deng; Weitao Yao; Jiaqiang Wang; Xin Wang; Peng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), neural electrophysiology (NEP), histological and tra...

  18. Effects of ozone on sciatic nerve in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Chen, H; Lu, C; Wang, B; Zhang, Y; He, X; Yu, B

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ozone on rat sciatic nerve structure and function. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). In groups I to IV, 1ml of ozone (O(3)) 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 8 0 μg/ml was injected at the junction of gluteus maximus margin and lateral edge of the long head of biceps femoris respectively, in group V, 1 ml of pure O(2) was injected at the same point, and group V had puncture without any injection. Ozone was manufactured by an ozone generator (Ozone Line Co, Italy). The rats were investigated by both gross measurement and behavioral changes. One day, one week and three weeks after injection, rat hindlimb footprints were measured and the sciatic nerve function index (SFI) was calculated, and after three weeks, all right sciatic nerves were exposed under anesthesia. Near neural stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve was calculated and nerve conduction velocity, latency and maximum amplitude recorded. Animals were sacrificed for pathology, and ipsilateral triceps surae were taken for wet weight. No serious behavioral abnormalities were observed in any animal. SFI comparison in the various times and various groups showed no significant differences (pozone concentrations from 10 μg/ml to 80 μg/ml injected around rat's peripheral nerve will not cause serious sequelae or serious damage to the structure and function of peripheral nerve. This finding provides evidence of the safety of ozone injected around the peripheral nerve.

  19. VARIATIONS IN DIVISION OF SCIATIC NERVE: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vino Victor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sciatic nerve is the largest and thickest nerve in the body. It arises from the lumbar plexus within the pelvis. The nerve emerges from the pelvis to enter into its component nerves –tibial and common peroneal nerve. The division normally occurs at the lower apex of the superior angle of popliteal fossa of the thigh. However the division shows variations which may be inside the pelvis or outside the pelvis When outside, the division may occur anywhere from exit to apex of the popliteal fossa where nerve normally divides. These abnormal divisions of the may be aetiological factors for the pathologies related to the nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was done on twenty cadavers used in routine dissection for the under graduate students from Kanyakumari Government Medical College, Asaripalam, Nagarcoil, Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu. The cadavers were fixed in 10% in formalin, glycerine, isopropylol, and sodium chloride solution. Of these, two cadavers showed higher division of sciatic nerve. The division has occurred at the lower border of piriform is and divided nerve has emerged from the lower border of the pyriformis. Variations were seen on both the sides in these two bodies. CONCLUSION A thorough knowledge of division sciatic nerve helps in differential diagnosis of sciatica of various origins & its management by the different treatment methods.

  20. Chitosan conduit combined with hyaluronic acid prevent sciatic nerve scar in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runxin; Liu, Huawei; Huang, Haitao; Bi, Wenting; Yan, Rongzeng; Tan, Xinying; Wen, Weisheng; Wang, Chao; Song, Wenling; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Min

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) combined with chitosan conduit on peripheral nerve scarring and regeneration were investigated in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups (15 rats in each group), in which the nerve was either not treated (control group) or treated with chitosan conduit, hyaluronic acid, or chitosan conduit coupled with hyaluronic acid following clamp injury to the sciatic nerve. The surgical sites were evaluated by assessing the sciatic functional index, the degree of scar adhesions, the numbers of myelinated nerve fibers, the average diameter of myelinated nerve fibers and the myelin sheath thickness. Larger epineurial scar thickness was observed in the control groups compared with the treatment groups at 4, 8 and 12 weeks following surgery. There was no significant difference in scar adhesion among the four groups at 4 weeks following surgery. However, animals receiving chitosan coupled with HA demonstrated better neural recovery, as measured by reduced nerve adherence to surrounding tissues, less scar adhesion, increased number of axons, nerve fiber diameter and myelin thickness. In conclusion, the application of chitosan conduit combined with HA, to a certain extent, inhibited sciatic nerve extraneural scaring and adhesion, and promoted neural regeneration and recovery.

  1. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-07-25

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  2. Duration of preoperative traction associated with sciatic neuropathy after hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Marius A; de Vries, Mattijs; van der Tol, Anno

    2006-04-01

    An unknown percentage of patients who have internal fixation for hip fractures have sciatic neuropathy develop. In most cases, the cause for this complication is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed 2202 consecutive patients treated in our hospital for hip fractures to ascertain whether there was any relationship between duration of preoperative traction and postoperative sciatic neuropathy, and to determine the incidence of sciatic neuropathy after surgery for hip fractures. All patients had preoperative skin traction. Patients with and without sciatic neuropathy were compared using nonparametric tests. The median duration of traction was 2.6 days in the group that had sciatic neuropathy develop and 0.9 days in the group that did not. Also, patients in the group that had sciatic palsy develop were older. There seemed to be no other difference between the groups for any of the studied variables. Sixteen patients (0.7 %) had postoperative sciatic neuropathy. Our data suggest sciatic neuropathy after surgery for hip fractures may be related to the duration of preoperative traction. Some investigators have reported that there seems to be no evidence of benefit from skeletal or skin traction. A potential for damage to the sciatic nerve may be an argument to stop routine use of preoperative traction. Diagnostic study, Level III (study of nonconsecutive patients; without consistently applied reference "gold" standard).

  3. Detection and prevalence of variant sciatic nerve anatomy in relation to the piriformis muscle on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varenika, Vanja; Bucknor, Matthew D. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lutz, Amelie M.; Beaulieu, Christopher F. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether known variant anatomical relationships between the sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle can be identified on routine MRI studies of the hip and to establish their imaging prevalence. Hip MRI studies acquired over a period of 4 years at two medical centers underwent retrospective interpretation. Anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle was categorized according to the Beaton and Anson classification system. The presence of a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity was also recorded. A total of 755 consecutive scans were reviewed. Conventional anatomy (type I), in which an undivided sciatic nerve passes below the piriformis muscle, was identified in 87% of cases. The remaining 13% of cases demonstrated a type II pattern in which one division of the sciatic nerve passes through the piriformis whereas the second passes below. Only two other instances of variant anatomy were identified (both type III). Most variant cases were associated with a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity (73 out of 111, 65.8%). By contrast, only 6% of cases demonstrated a split sciatic nerve at this level in the context of otherwise conventional anatomy. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course in relation to the piriformis muscle are frequently identified on routine MRI of the hips, occurring in 12-20% of scans reviewed. Almost all variants identified were type II. The ability to recognize variant sciatic nerve courses on MRI may prove useful in optimal treatment planning. (orig.)

  4. An unusual cause of sciatic pain as a result of the dynamic motion of the obturator internus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuaki; Ogata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yoshikazu; Yamagata, Masatsune

    2009-06-01

    It has been reported that compression of the sciatic nerve because of any cause, including endometriosis, piriformis syndrome, abscess, tumor, adjoining uterus provoke sciatic pain. Some of these pathophysiologies have been diagnosed clinically and sometimes by exclusion. To discuss the clinical features of sciatic neuropathy under the belief that dynamic motion of the obturator internus muscle and tendon should be included in the differential diagnosis of sciatic neuropathy. Sciatic neuropathy, which was because of compression of the sciatic nerve caused by dynamic motion of the tendon and muscle of the obturator internus, was reported. We performed surgery to confirm the outlet of the pelvis. Although no compression was provoked by the piriformis muscle, obvious compression was observed on the sciatic nerve by the stretched obturator internus muscle. Although it may not be common, compression of the sacral plexus caused by dynamic motion of the obturator internus muscle should be included as a possible diagnosis for sciatic pain.

  5. The application of graphene oxidized combining with decellularized scaffold to repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper combined the decellularized scaffold of sciatic nerve of rats with graphene oxidized (GO, studied and facilitated the regeneration of sciatic nerve of rats, and provided the basis for the clinical application of nanomaterials. GO was prepared through improving Hammer’s Method. Fourier Infrared Spectrum was used to scan and detect the functional groups in GO of sample by using the pellet method, the microcosmic morphological appearance of GO was observed by using the scanning electron microscope. The GO/decellularized scaffold were prepared and operation bridging of injured sciatic nerve was conducted by using the oscillation mixing method. BL-420F Biofunctional Experiment System was used to detect nerve action potential and the maximum tension value of muscles, and the fiber structure of nerve was observed under H-7650 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM. Scanning electron microscope observed that GO presented a folded and curly single-layer sheet structure. It was soluble in water through ultrasound, brownish, the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer detected the absorption peaks of carbonyl, hydroxy and carboxy, proving that the surface of GO material had many functional groups containing oxygen. Decellularized scaffold combining with GO was applied to repair injury of sciatic nerve, the nerve action potential, maximum tension value of muscle, wet weight value of gastrocnemius, thickness of gastrocnemius, thickness of myelin sheath and diameter of axon of the decellularized scaffold combining with GO group were obviously higher than the decellularized scaffold group and the self-rotating group, approaching to the normal value. All the data were represented by means ± standard deviation (x¯±s and processed by adopting SPSS 11.0 software. Comparisons among groups were analyzed by variance, and the comparison of two means was detected by student t. The detection level adopted α = 0.05, when P < 0.05, it could be

  6. Anti-nociceptive effects of taurine and caffeine in sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administration of taurine and caffeine on thermally induced pain in sciatic nerve ligated rats as well as the roles of autonomic receptors. Rats were rendered neuropathic by unilateral sciatic nerve ligation. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of combined systemic (i.p.) ...

  7. Anti-nociceptive effects of taurine and caffeine in sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administration of taurine and caffeine on thermally induced pain in sciatic nerve ligated rats as well as the roles of autonomic receptors. Rats were rendered neuropathic by unilateral sciatic nerve ligation. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of combined systemic (i.p.) administration of ...

  8. Concentration-dependent neurotoxicity of articaine: an electrophysiological and stereological study of the rat sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Bakke, Merete; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2011-01-01

    We performed this study to quantify the detrimental effect of intraneural injection of 50 μL of saline, articaine 2%, or articaine 4% in the rat sciatic nerve.......We performed this study to quantify the detrimental effect of intraneural injection of 50 μL of saline, articaine 2%, or articaine 4% in the rat sciatic nerve....

  9. Acoustic neuroma: predominance of Antoni type B cells in tumors of patients with vestibular paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, E M; Graamans, K; Jansen, G H; Velthof, M A

    2001-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether in patients with acoustic neuroma (AN), the presence or absence of vestibular symptoms is related to the histologic characteristics of the tumor. The study design was a retrospective clinical study. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. A group of eight patients with unilateral AN and normal vestibular function was compared with a group of AN patients, matched for tumor size, with vestibular paresis. The methods were vestibular examination of the patients and morphometric analysis of the histologic specimens of their tumors. The outcomes were measured by vestibular function and by the relative quantity of Antoni type A or type B cell tissue. The tumors of patients with vestibular paresis appeared to contain significantly more Antoni B cells and fewer Antoni A cells than did the tumors of patients with normal vestibular function. Besides morphologic differences, type B cells may display a distinct behavior compared with type A cells. Presumably, in AN patients the development of a vestibular paresis appears to be related to the biologic activity of type B cells in the tumor.

  10. Transplantation of dental pulp stem cells suppressed inflammation in sciatic nerves by promoting macrophage polarization towards anti-inflammation phenotypes and ameliorated diabetic polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Maiko; Hata, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Miyabe, Megumi; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Kamiya, Hideki; Nakamura, Jiro; Ozawa, Shogo; Tanaka, Yoshinobu; Takebe, Jun; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Naruse, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are thought to be an attractive candidate for cell therapy. We recently reported that the transplantation of DPSCs increased nerve conduction velocity and nerve blood flow in diabetic rats. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSC transplantation on diabetic peripheral nerves. DPSCs were isolated from the dental pulp of Sprague-Dawley rats and expanded in culture. Eight weeks after the streptozotocin injection, DPSCs were transplanted into the unilateral hindlimb skeletal muscles. Four weeks after DPSC transplantation, neurophysiological measurements, inflammatory gene expressions and the number of CD68-positive cells in sciatic nerves were assessed. To confirm the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs, the effects of DPSC-conditioned media on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were investigated. Diabetic rats showed significant delays in sciatic nerve conduction velocities and decreased sciatic nerve blood flow, all of which were ameliorated by DPSC transplantation. The number of CD68-positive monocytes/macrophages and the gene expressions of M1 macrophage-expressed cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, were increased in the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats. DPSC transplantation significantly decreased monocytes/macrophages and tumor necrosis factor-α messenger ribonucleic acid expression, and increased the gene expression of the M2 macrophage marker, CD206, in the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats. The in vitro study showed that DPSC-conditioned media significantly increased the gene expressions of interleukin-10 and CD206 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that DPSC transplantation promoted macrophages polarization towards anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes, which might be one of the therapeutic mechanisms for diabetic polyneuropathy. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian

  11. Effects of Ozone on Sciatic Nerve in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Q.; Chen, H.; Lu, C.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; He, X.; Yu, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ozone on rat sciatic nerve structure and function. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). In groups I to IV, 1ml of ozone (O3) 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 8 0μg/ml was injected at the junction of gluteus maximus margin and lateral edge of the long head of biceps femoris respectively, in group V, 1 ml of pure O2 was injected at the same point, and group V had puncture without any injection. Ozone was manufactured by an ozone ge...

  12. An unusual case of sciatic neuropraxia due to melorheostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raj; Singh, Zile; Bala, Renu; Rana, Parveen; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh

    2010-12-01

    Melorrheostosis is a rare osteosclerotic bone dysplasia of obscure etiology. The typical radiographic features are flowing candle wax, sub-periosteal bone and streaky endosteal bone formation in diaphyseal and epiphyseal area with sclerotomal pattern mainly involving appendicular skeleton. It is rarely associated with nerve palsies. The authors report a case of melorrheostotic mass causing sciatic neuropraxia and to the best of their knowledge it is the first case reported in the English language literature. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. MRI neurography and diffusion tensor imaging of a sciatic perineuroma in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); De Coulon, Geraldo [Geneva University Hospital, Unit of Pediatric Orthopedics, Geneva (Switzerland); Lobrinus, Johannes A. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Geneva (Switzerland); Vargas, Maria I. [Geneva University Hospital, Unit of Neuroradiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-09-15

    Perineuroma, rare in children, presents as a painless mononeuropathy of a major nerve trunk. Resection of the lesion with end-to-end sural nerve grafting appears to be the treatment of choice. This technique is not recommended if the unhealthy segment of nerve is too long or if spinal roots are involved. However, in children, reports of direct MR evaluation of nerve trunks and of the exiting nerve roots are limited. We report a 7-year-old girl with an intramural sciatic nerve perineuroma in whom the diagnosis was made by MRI and confirmed by biopsy. The MR protocol combining 3-D T2-W STIR SPACE, fat-saturated gadolinium-enhanced T1-W images, and diffusion tensor imaging with tractography was a valuable tool for depicting peripheral nerve and roots in order to plan surgical treatment. (orig.)

  14. Extraskeletal Ewing’s Sarcoma Arising from the Sciatic Nerve: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadhar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing’s sarcoma is a common bone tumour of childhood but is a rare occurrence in individuals over 20 years of age. Few cases are reported as originating from peripheral nerves. We present an unusual case of extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma originating from the sciatic nerve in a 66-year-old patient which had the clinical hallmarks of a benign nerve sheath tumour. Following discussion at a multidisciplinary meeting, excision biopsy of the suspected benign nerve sheath tumour was planned. At operation, the mass had malignant features. Histology confirmed the presence of Ewing’s sarcoma. Due to the morbidity of nerve resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were commenced. Ewing’s sarcoma is known to mimic benign pathologies. In this case there were subtle signs of a malignant process in the form of unremitting pain. It is vital to keep in mind the less common tumours that can affect the peripheral nervous system in such cases.

  15. Participation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in experimental neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chacur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT. Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test and allodynia (von Frey hair test. Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals. The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 µg in 50 µL, blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48% by day 30 in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed’s lamina X and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469%. Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20%, reaching the greatest increase (60% 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.

  16. Electrospun silk-polyaniline conduits for functional nerve regeneration in rat sciatic nerve injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Sharma, Manav; Saharia, Dhiren; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Muir, Elizabeth M; Bora, Utpal

    2017-08-17

    The present study describes the fabrication of polyaniline-silk fibroin (PASF) nanocomposite-based nerve conduits and their subsequent implantation in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for peripheral nerve regeneration. This is the first in vivo study of polyaniline-based nerve conduits describing the safety and efficacy of the conduits in treating peripheral nerve injuries. The nanocomposite was synthesized by electrospinning a mixture of silk fibroin protein and polyaniline wherein the silk nanofibers were observed to be uniformly coated with polyaniline nanoparticles. Tubular shaped nerve conduits were subsequently formed by multiple rolling of the electrospun sheet over a stainless steel mandrel. The conduits were characterized in vitro for their physico-chemical properties as well as their compatibility with rat Schwann cells. Upon implantation in a 10 mm sciatic nerve injury model, the conduits were evaluated for their neuro-regenerative potential through extensive electrophysiological studies and monitoring of gait pattern over a course of 12 months. Gross examination, histological and ultra-structure analyses of the conduits and the regenerated nerve were also performed to evaluate morphological regeneration of transected nerve. PASF nanocomposite conduits seeded with Schwann cell (cell seeded PASF) exhibited excellent nerve conduction velocity (NCV) (50 m s(-1)), compound muscle action potential (CMAP) (12.8 mV), motor unit potential (MUP) (124 μV), growth of healthy tissue along the nerve gap and thick myelination of axons 12 months after implantation indicating enhanced neuro-regeneration. The excellent functional recovery achieved by animals implanted with cell seeded PASF conduits (86.2% NCV; 80.00% CMAP; 76.07% MUP) are superior to outcomes achieved previously with similar electrically conductive conduits. We believe that the present study would encourage further research in developing electrically active neural implants using synthetic conducting

  17. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Właszczuk, Adam; Gendosz, Daria; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Kapustka, Bartosz; Łączyński, Mariusz; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat-content diet with insufficiency of carbohydrates that induces ketogenesis. Besides its anticonvulsant properties, many studies have shown its neuroprotective effect in central nervous system, but its influence on peripheral nervous system has not been studied yet. We examined the influence of KD on regeneration of peripheral nerves in adult rats. Fifty one rats were divided into three experimental (n = 15) and one control (n = 6) groups. Right sciatic nerve was crushed and animals were kept on standard (ST group) or ketogenic diet, the latter was introduced 3 weeks before (KDB group) or on the day of surgery (KDA group). Functional (CatWalk) tests were performed once a week, and morphometric (fiber density, axon diameter, and myelin thickness) analysis of the nerves was made after 6 weeks. Body weight and blood ketone bodies level were estimated at the beginning and the end of experiment. Functional analysis showed no differences between groups. Morphometric evaluation showed most similarities to the healthy (uncrushed) nerves in KDB group. Nerves in ST group differed mostly from all other groups. Ketone bodies were elevated in both KD groups, while post-surgery animals' body weight was lower as compared to ST group. Regeneration of sciatic nerves was improved in KD - preconditioned rats. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of KD on peripheral nerves.

  18. Intrinsic microvasculature of the sciatic nerve in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Mair; Twynstra, Jasna; Vercnocke, Andrew J; Welch, Ian; Jorgensen, Steve M; Ritman, Erik L; Holdsworth, David W; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Microvasculature associated with the sciatic nerve was examined using high-resolution micro-CT scanning in one group of rats and surgical exploration in another. The results indicate that blood supply to the sciatic nerve is an "open-ended" system in which the vessels run longitudinally within the epineurium and connect with external vasculature primarily at junction points. Although the range of vasculature found extended down to 4-5 μ, only a few isolated vessels of this size were found, with no capillary "mesh" as such, possibly because of the close proximity of the intrinsic vessel to nerve fibers within the epineurium. While the study did not include direct measurements of flow or nerve function, the "open-ended" pattern of vasculature found has important implications regarding the relationship between the two. Specifically, the nerve is less vulnerable to a severe or complete disruption in blood supply than it would be under a close-ended system such as that of the heart or brain, where a severe disruption can occur with the obstruction of only a single vessel. Indeed, the pattern of vasculature found, subject to further study of vasculature at the capillary level, suggests that flow within the intrinsic vessels may be in either direction, depending on circumstances, somewhat like flow within the circle of Willis in the cerebral circulation. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  19. Changes in contralateral protein metabolism following unilateral sciatic nerve section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, J.A.; Cubas, S.C.

    1990-03-01

    Changes in nerve biochemistry, anatomy, and function following injuries to the contralateral nerve have been repeatedly reported, though their significance is unknown. The most likely mechanisms for their development are either substances carried by axoplasmic flow or electrically transmitted signals. This study analyzes which mechanism underlies the development of a contralateral change in protein metabolism. The incorporation of labelled amino acids (AA) into proteins of both sciatic nerves was assessed by liquid scintillation after an unilateral section. AA were offered locally for 30 min to the distal stump of the sectioned nerves and at homologous levels of the intact contralateral nerves. At various times, from 1 to 24 h, both sciatic nerves were removed and the proteins extracted with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). An increase in incorporation was found in both nerves 14-24 h after section. No difference existed between sectioned and intact nerves, which is consistent with the contralateral effect. Lidocaine, but not colchicine, when applied previously to the nerves midway between the sectioning site and the spinal cord, inhibited the contralateral increase in AA incorporation. It is concluded that electrical signals, crossing through the spinal cord, are responsible for the development of the contralateral effect. Both the nature of the proteins and the significance of the contralateral effect are matters for speculation.

  20. Exenatide promotes regeneration of injured rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Kuyucu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to peripheral nerves results in partial or complete dysfunction. After peripheral nerve injuries, a full functional recovery usually cannot be achieved despite the standard surgical repairs. Neurotrophic factors and growth factors stimulate axonal growth and support the viability of nerve cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the neurotrophic effect of exenatide (glucagon like peptide-1 analog in a rat sciatic nerve neurotmesis model. We injected 10 μg/d exenatide for 12 weeks in the experimental group (n = 12 and 0.1 mL/d saline for 12 weeks in the control group (n = 12. We evaluated nerve regeneration by conducting electrophysiological and motor functional tests. Histological changes were evaluated at weeks 1, 3, 6, and 9. Nerve regeneration was monitored using stereomicroscopy. The electrophysiological and motor functions in rats treated with exenatide were improved at 12 weeks after surgery. Histological examination revealed a significant increase in the number of axons in injured sciatic nerve following exenatide treatment confirmed by stereomicroscopy. In an experimentally induced neurotmesis model in rats, exenatide had a positive effect on nerve regeneration evidenced by electromyography, functional motor tests, histological and stereomicroscopic findings.

  1. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  2. The effect of aloe vera on ischemia--Reperfusion injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Mustafa; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Aslan, Esra; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Cosar, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Aloe vera is compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of aloe vera treatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury. Twenty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups. Groups; Control group (no surgical procedure or medication), sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group, sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+aloe vera group and sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+methylprednisolone group. Ischemia was performed by clamping the infrarenal abdominal aorta. 24 hours after ischemia, all animals were sacrificed. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically and biochemically. Ischemic fiber degeneration significantly decreased in the pre-treated with aloe vera and treated with methylprednisolone groups, especially in the pre-treated with aloe vera group, compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group (paloe vera group was not statistically different compared to the MP group (p>0.05). Aloe vera is effective neuroprotective against sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Also aloe vera was found to be as effective as MP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Operative Mortality Rates of Acoustic Neuroma Surgery: A National Cancer Database Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Kim, Ellen; Murphy, James D; Jaboin, Jerry J

    2017-06-01

    Optimal acoustic neuroma (AN) management involves choosing between three treatment modalities: microsurgical excision, radiation, or observation with serial imaging. The reported in-hospital mortality rate of surgery for AN in the United States is 0.5%. However, there has yet to be a nationwide examination of the AN surgery mortality rate encompassing the period beyond initial hospital discharge. The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) from 2004 to 2013 identified AN patients receiving surgery. Multivariate logistic regression assessed 30-day operative mortality, adjusting for several variables including patient age, race, sex, income, geographic region, primary payer for care, tumor size, and medical comorbidities. Ten thousand one hundred thirty six patients received surgery as solitary treatment for AN. Mortality at 30 days postoperatively occurred in 49 patients (0.5%); only a Charlson/Deyo score of 2 (odds ratio [OR] = 6.6;95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-16.6; p = 0.002) was predictive of increased mortality. No other patient demographic including African-American race, minimum age of 65 or government insurance was predictive of 30-day operative mortality. The 30-day mortality rate following surgery for AN is 1 of 200 (0.5%), equivalent to the established in-hospital operative mortality rate, and 2.5 times higher than the cumulative assessment from single-center studies. No patient demographic other than increasing medical comorbidities reached significance in predicting 30-day operative mortality. The nearly identical rates of 30-day and in-hospital mortality from separate nationwide analyses indicate that nearly all of the operative mortality occurs before initial postoperative discharge from the hospital. This mortality rate provides a framework for comparing the true risks and benefits of surgery versus radiation or observation for AN.

  4. Dosimetric comparison of different treatment modalities for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations and acoustic neuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Thierry; Levivier, Marc; Lacornerie, Thomas; Verellen, Dirk; Engels, Benedikt; Reynaert, Nick; Tournel, Koen; Duchateau, Michael; Reynders, Truus; Depuydt, Tom; Collen, Christine; Lartigau, Eric; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the influence of beam modulation on treatment planning by comparing four available stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) modalities: Gamma-Knife-Perfexion, Novalis-Tx Dynamic-Conformal-Arc (DCA) and Dynamic-Multileaf-Collimation-Intensity-Modulated-radiotherapy (DMLC-IMRT), and Cyberknife. Patients with arteriovenous malformation (n = 10) or acoustic neuromas (n = 5) were planned with different treatment modalities. Paddick conformity index (CI), dose heterogeneity (DH), gradient index (GI) and beam-on time were used as dosimetric indices. Gamma-Knife-Perfexion can achieve high degree of conformity (CI = 0.77 ± 0.04) with limited low-doses (GI = 2.59 ± 0.10) surrounding the inhomogeneous dose distribution (D(H) = 0.84 ± 0.05) at the cost of treatment time (68.1 min ± 27.5). Novalis-Tx-DCA improved this inhomogeneity (D(H) = 0.30 ± 0.03) and treatment time (16.8 min ± 2.2) at the cost of conformity (CI = 0.66 ± 0.04) and Novalis-TX-DMLC-IMRT improved the DCA CI (CI = 0.68 ± 0.04) and inhomogeneity (D(H) = 0.18 ± 0.05) at the cost of low-doses (GI = 3.94 ± 0.92) and treatment time (21.7 min ± 3.4) (pNovalis-Tx at the cost of treatment time. Non-isocentric beams (Cyberknife) or IMRT-beams (Novalis-Tx-DMLC-IMRT) will spread more low-dose than multiple isocenters (Gamma-Knife-Perfexion) or dynamic arcs (Novalis-Tx-DCA). Inverse planning and modulated fluences (Novalis-Tx-DMLC-IMRT and CyberKnife) will deliver the most homogeneous treatment. Furthermore, Linac-based systems (Novalis and Cyberknife) can perform image verification at the time of treatment delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

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    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi, E-mail: kumamote@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  6. Trigger point-related sympathetic nerve activity in chronic sciatic leg pain: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-10-01

    Sciatica has classically been associated with irritation of the sciatic nerve by the vertebral disc and consequent inflammation. Some authors suggest that active trigger points in the gluteus minimus muscle can refer pain in similar way to sciatica. Trigger point diagnosis is based on Travel and Simons criteria, but referred pain and twitch response are significant confirmatory signs of the diagnostic criteria. Although vasoconstriction in the area of a latent trigger point has been demonstrated, the vasomotor reaction of active trigger points has not been examined. We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian European man who presented with a 3-year history of chronic sciatic-type leg pain. In the third year of symptoms, coexistent myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed. Acupuncture needle stimulation of active trigger points under infrared thermovisual camera showed a sudden short-term vasodilatation (an autonomic phenomenon) in the area of referred pain. The vasodilatation spread from 0.2 to 171.9 cm(2) and then gradually decreased. After needling, increases in average and maximum skin temperature were seen as follows: for the thigh, changes were +2.6°C (average) and +3.6°C (maximum); for the calf, changes were +0.9°C (average) and +1.4°C (maximum). It is not yet known whether the vasodilatation observed was evoked exclusively by dry needling of active trigger points. The complex condition of the patient suggests that other variables might have influenced the infrared thermovision camera results. We suggest that it is important to check if vasodilatation in the area of referred pain occurs in all patients with active trigger points. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  8. The Effects of Epidermal Neural Crest Stem Cells on Local Inflammation Microenvironment in the Defected Sciatic Nerve of Rats

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    Yue Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy is a promising strategy for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs. epidermal neural crest stems cells (EPI-NCSCs are thought to be important donor cells for repairing PNI in different animal models. Following PNI, inflammatory response is important to regulate the repair process. However, the effects of EPI-NCSCs on regulation of local inflammation microenviroment have not been investigated extensively. In the present study, these effects were studied by using 10 mm defected sciatic nerve, which was bridged with 15 mm artificial nerve composed of EPI-NCSCs, extracellular matrix (ECM and poly (lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA. Then the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, polarization of macrophages, regulation of fibroblasts and shwann cells (SCs were assessed by western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining at 1, 3, 7 and 21 days after bridging. The structure and the function of the bridged nerve were determined by observation under light microscope and by examination of right lateral foot retraction time (LFRT, sciatic function index (SFI, gastrocnemius wet weight and electrophysiology at 9 weeks. After bridging with EPI-NCSCs, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13 was increased, but decreased for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α compared to the control bridging, which was consistent with increase of M2 macrophages and decrease of M1 macrophages at 7 days after transplantation. Likewise, myelin-formed SCs were significantly increased, but decreased for the activated fibroblasts in their number at 21 days. The recovery of structure and function of nerve bridged with EPI-NCSCs was significantly superior to that of DMEM. These results indicated that EPI-NCSCs could be able to regulate and provide more suitable inflammation microenvironment for the repair of defected sciatic nerve.

  9. Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma mimicking temporomandibular disorders: a case report Schwannoma vestibular (neurinoma do acústico imitando desordens temporomandibulares: um relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício A. Bisi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 6 to 16% of patients with trigeminal neuralgia symptoms present intracranial tumors, the most common being the vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma. Some symptoms reported by patients include hearing loss, tinnitus, headaches, vertigo and trigeminal disturbances. An increased muscle response in the surrounding head and neck musculature may also be observed, which mimics signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. In these cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has proved to be a useful tool in tumor diagnosis. The differential diagnosis between myofascial and neuralgic pain is important, as both may present similar characteristics, while being of different origin, and demanding special treatment approaches. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship among trigeminal neuralgia symptoms, intracranial tumors and temporomandibular dysfunction by presenting a clinical case.Aproximadamente 6 a 16% dos pacientes com sintomas de neuralgia trigeminal apresentam tumores intracranianos, sendo mais comum o schwannoma vestibular (neurinoma do acústico. Alguns sintomas relatados pelos pacientes são perda da audição, zumbido, dores de cabeça, vertigens e distúrbios trigeminais. Uma resposta muscular aumentada na musculatura associada da cabeça e do pescoço também pode ser observada, o que pode mimetizar sinais e sintomas de desordens temporomandibulares. Nestes casos é de grande valia o uso de imagem de ressonância magnética (IRM para detecção de tumores. É importante, também, a diferenciação de dores miofasciais e neurálgicas, pois ambas podem apresentar características semelhantes, mas com origens e tratamentos diferentes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi demonstrar através de relato de caso clínico a associação entre sintomas de neuralgia trigeminal, tumores intracranianos e disfunção temporomandibular.

  10. Lateral Supratrochanteric Approach to Sciatic and Femoral Nerve Blocks in Children: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Albokrinov, Andrew A.; Fesenko, Ulbolhan A.; Huz, Taras B.; Perova-Sharonova, Valentyna M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sciatic and femoral nerve blocks (SNB and FNB) result in effective lower limb analgesia. Classical SNB and FNB require patient repositioning which can cause pain and discomfort. Alternative approaches to sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in supine patients can be useful. Materials and Methods. Neurostimulator-guided SNB and FNB from the lateral supratrochanteric approach were performed. Local anesthetic spread in SNB and FNB after radiographic opacification was analyzed. Time and n...

  11. Topographic anatomical study of the sciatic nerve relationship to the posterior portal in hip arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berliet Assad Gomes

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anatomic topographic relation between the sciatic nerve in relation to the piriform muscle and the posterior portal for the establishment of hip arthroscopy.Methods: We dissected 40 hips of 20 corpses of adult Brazilians, 17 male and three female, six black, six brown and eight white. We studied the anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle with their variations and the distance between the lateral edge of the sciatic nerve and the posterior portal used in hip arthroscopy. We then classified the anatomical alterations found in the path of the sciatic nerve on the piriform muscle.Results: Seventeen corpses had bilateral relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle, i.e., type A. We found the following anatomical variations: 12.5% of variant type B; and an average distance between the sciatic nerve and the portal for arthroscopy of 2.98cm. One body had type B anatomical variation on the left hip and type A on the right.Conclusion: the making of the posterior arthroscopic portal to the hip joint must be done with careful marking of the trochanter massive; should there be difficult to find it, a small surgical access is recommended. The access point to the portal should not exceed two centimeters towards the posterior superior aspect of the greater trochanter, and must be made with the limb in internal rotation of 15 degrees.

  12. Neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve and F.D.G. PET: case report and review; Neurolymphomatose du nerf sciatique en TEP au FDG: a propos d'un cas et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna-Muraille, C.; Papathanassiou, D.; Cuif-Job, A.; Liehn, J.C. [Institut Jean-Godinot, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 51 - Reims (France); Job, L. [CHU Robert-Debre, Service de Radiologie, 51 - Reims (France); Kolb, B.; Himberlin, C.; Delmer, A. [CHU Robert-Debre, Service d' Hematologie Clinique, 51 - Reims (France)

    2009-12-15

    We are reporting the case of a woman who has been suffering from sciatica for several months. A neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve was found. In this report, we present the characteristics of this lesion in conventional imaging and in F.D.G. PET. (authors)

  13. Effects of collagen membranes enriched with in vitro-differentiated N1E-115 cells on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after end-to-end repair

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    Fornaro Michele

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves possess the capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of regeneration is often poor and may benefit from exogenous factors that enhance growth. The use of cellular systems is a rational approach for delivering neurotrophic factors at the nerve lesion site, and in the present study we investigated the effects of enwrapping the site of end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair with an equine type III collagen membrane enriched or not with N1E-115 pre-differentiated neural cells. After neurotmesis, the sciatic nerve was repaired by end-to-end suture (End-to-End group, end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane (End-to-EndMemb group; and end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane previously covered with neural cells pre-differentiated in vitro from N1E-115 cells (End-to-EndMembCell group. Along the postoperative, motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL and ankle kinematics. After 20 weeks animals were sacrificed and the repaired sciatic nerves were processed for histological and stereological analysis. Results showed that enwrapment of the rapair site with a collagen membrane, with or without neural cell enrichment, did not lead to any significant improvement in most of functional and stereological predictors of nerve regeneration that we have assessed, with the exception of EPT which recovered significantly better after neural cell enriched membrane employment. It can thus be concluded that this particular type of nerve tissue engineering approach has very limited effects on nerve regeneration after sciatic end-to-end nerve reconstruction in the rat.

  14. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

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    Juliana Sobral Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury, exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise, lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise, and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise. LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p=0.012 and larger than LG and LEG (p<0.001. Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons.

  15. Hesperidin protects brain and sciatic nerve tissues against cisplatin-induced oxidative, histological and electromyographical side effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisli, Suat; Ciftci, Osman; Kaya, Kursat; Cetin, Asli; Kamisli, Ozden; Ozcan, Cemal

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the beneficial effect of hesperidin (HP), a citrus flavonoid, on cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity was investigated. A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups; the first group was kept as control. In the second and third groups, CP and HP were given at the doses of 7 and 50 mg/kg/day, respectively. In the fourth group, CP and HP were given together at the same doses. The results indicated that although CP caused significant induction of lipid peroxidations and reduction in the antioxidant defense system potency in the brain and sciatic nerve, HP prevented these effects of CP. Besides, CP led to histopathological damage, mainly apoptosis, as well as electromyographical (EMG) changes in sciatic nerve. On the other hand, HP treatment reversed histopathological and EMG effects of CP. In conclusion, CP had severe dose-limiting neurotoxic effects and these effects of CP can be prevented by HP treatment. Thus, it appears that coadministration of HP with CP may be a useful approach to attenuate the negative effects of CP on the nervous system. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Reduced inflammatory factor expression facilitates recovery after sciatic nerve injury in TLR4 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoqing; Yao, Jia; Shen, Ruowu; Ji, Aiyu; Ma, Kai; Cong, Beibei; Wang, Fang; Zhu, Lingyu; Wang, Xuan; Ding, Yingqiao; Zhang, Bei

    2018-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are extremely significant pattern recognition receptors. When nerve injury occurs, a variety of inflammatory factors are generated, leading to an exceedingly complex micro-environment. TLRs recognize damage-associated molecular patterns. To investigate the correlation between TLR4 and recovery after sciatic nerve injury, the model of sciatic nerve injury was conducted using TLR4-mutated mice (C3H/HeJ) and wild mice (C3H/HeN). Our goal was to identify short-stage and long-stage changes after sciatic nerve injury, mainly by checking the expression changes of inflammation factors in the short-stage and the differences in the recovery of the injured sciatic nerve in the long-stage. The results show that the increase of changes in the HeN group of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 are more obvious than in the HeJ group, with caspase1 expression higher and Nlrp3 expression lower in the former group. Further results reveal intense inflammation occurred in the HeN group showing more neutrophils and macrophages. Nlrp3 and caspase1 showed little difference by Immunohistochemistry, with Nlrp6 expression differing between the HeJ group and the HeN group. The results led us to conclude that better recovery of the injured sciatic nerve occurred in the HeJ group because the expression of GAP-43 and p75NTR was higher and had a better SFI figure. TLR4 mutation can decrease the expression of inflammatory factors and enhance the speed of recovery after sciatic nerve injury. The changes in the expression of Nlrp6, which are related to the TLR4 mutation, may influence recovery of the injured sciatic nerve. Further studies will be conducted to confirm these results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Different dose-dependent effects of ebselen in sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

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    Filiz Ozyigit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebselen is an organoselenium compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of ebselen pretreatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (N = 7 in each group. Before sciatic nerve I/R was induced, ebselen was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. After a 2 h ischemia and a 3 h reperfusion period, sciatic nerve tissues were excised. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were measured. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically. The 15 mg/kg dose of ebselen reduced sciatic nerve damage and apoptosis (P < 0.01, levels of MDA, NO, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively, and increased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively compared with the I/R group that did not receive ebselen. Conversely, the 30 mg/kg dose of ebselen increased sciatic nerve damage, apoptosis, iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and MDA and NO levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and decreased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.05 compared with the sham group. The results of this study suggest that ebselen may cause different effects depending on the dose employed. Ebselen may be protective against sciatic nerve I/R injury via antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities at a 15 mg/kg dose, conversely higher doses may cause detrimental effects.

  18. Immediate and short-term pain relief by acute sciatic nerve press: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenlong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite much research, an immediately available, instantly effective and harmless pain relief technique has not been discovered. This study describes a new manipulation: a "2-minute sciatic nerve press", for rapid short-term relief of pain brought on by various dental and renal diseases. Methods This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial ran in three hospitals in Anhui Province, China, with an enrollment of 66 out of 111 solicited patients aged 16 to 74 years. Patients were recruited sequentially, by specific participating physicians at their clinic visits to three independent hospitals. The diseases in enrolled dental patients included dental caries, periodontal diseases and dental trauma. Renal diseases in recruits included kidney infections, stones and some other conditions. Patients were randomly assigned to receive the "2-minute sciatic nerve press" or the "placebo press". For the "2-minute sciatic nerve press", pressure was applied simultaneously to the sciatic nerves at the back of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay prone. For the "placebo press", pressure was applied simultaneously to a parallel spot on the front of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay supine. Each fist applied a pressure of 11 to 20 kg for 2 minutes, after which, patients arose to rate pain. Results The "2-minute sciatic nerve press" produced greater pain relief than the "placebo press". Within the first 10 minutes after sciatic pressure, immediate pain relief ratings averaged 66.4% (p Conclusion Two minutes of pressure on both sciatic nerves can produce immediate significant conduction analgesia, providing a convenient, safe and powerful way to overcome clinical pain brought on by dental diseases and renal diseases for short term purposes. Trial registration ACTR 12606000439549

  19. Sensory sciatic nerve afferent inputs to the dorsal lateral medulla in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioto, Olavo Egídio; Lindsey, Charles Julian; Koepp, Janice; Caous, Cristofer André

    2008-06-01

    Investigations show the paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) as an input site for sensory information from the sciatic nerve field. Functional or physical disruption of the Pa5 alters behavioral and somatosensory responses to nociceptive hindpaw stimulation or sciatic nerve electrostimulation (SNS), both contralateral to the affected structure. The nucleus, an input site for cranial and spinal nerves, known for orofacial nociceptive sensory processing, has efferent connections to structures associated with nociception and cardiorespiratory functions. This study aimed at determining the afferent sciatic pathway to dorsal lateral medulla by means of a neuronal tract-tracer (biocytin) injected in the iliac segment of the sciatic nerve. Spinal cord samples revealed bilateral labeling in the gracile and pyramidal or cuneate tracts from survival day 2 (lumbar L1/L2) to day 8 (cervical C2/C3 segments) following biocytin application. From day 10 to day 20 medulla samples showed labeling of the contralateral Pa5 to the injection site. The ipsilateral paratrigeminal nucleus showed labeling on day 10 only. The lateral reticular nucleus (LRt) showed fluorescent labeled terminal fibers on day 12 and 14, after tracer injection to contralateral sciatic nerve. Neurotracer injection into the LRt of sciatic nerve-biocytin-treated rats produced retrograde labeled neurons soma in the Pa5 in the vicinity of biocytin labeled nerve terminals. Therefore, Pa5 may be considered one of the first sites in the brain for sensory/nociceptive inputs from the sciatic nerve. Also, the findings include Pa5 and LRt in the neural pathway of the somatosympathetic pressor response to SNS and nocifensive responses to hindpaw stimulation.

  20. Boric acid reduces axonal and myelin damage in experimental sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızılay, Zahir; Erken, Haydar Ali; Çetin, Nesibe Kahraman; Aktaş, Serdar; Abas, Burçin İrem; Yılmaz, Ali

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of boric acid in experimental acute sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7): control (C), boric acid (BA), sciatic nerve injury (I), and sciatic nerve injury + boric acid treatment (BAI). Sciatic nerve injury was generated using a Yasargil aneurysm clip in the groups I and BAI. Boric acid was given four times at 100 mg/kg to rats in the groups BA and BAI after injury (by gavage at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) but no injury was made in the group BA. In vivo electrophysiological tests were performed at the end of the day 4 and sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. The amplitude of compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly lower and the myelin structure was found to be broken in group I compared with those in groups C and BA. However, the amplitude of the compound action potential, the nerve conduction velocity and the number of axons were significantly greater in group BAI than in group I. Moreover, myelin injury was significantly milder and the intensity of nuclear factor kappa B immunostaining was significantly weaker in group BAI than in group I. The results of this study show that administration of boric acid at 100 mg/kg after sciatic nerve injury in rats markedly reduces myelin and axonal injury and improves the electrophysiological function of injured sciatic nerve possibly through alleviating oxidative stress reactions.

  1. SU-E-T-14: A Comparative Study Between Forward and Inverse Planning in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuroma Tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopishankar, N; Agarwal, Priyanka; Bisht, Raj Kishor; Kale, S S; Rath, G K; Chander, S; Sharma, B S [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate forward and inverse planning methods for acoustic neuroma cases treated in Gamma Knife Perfexion. Methods: Five patients with acoustic neuroma tumour abutting brainstem were planned twice in LGP TPS (Version 10.1) using TMR10 algorithm. First plan was entirely based on forward planning (FP) in which each shot was chosen manually. Second plan was generated using inverse planning (IP) for which planning parameters like coverage, selectivity, gradient index (GI) and beam-on time threshold were set. Number of shots in IP was automatically selected by objective function using iterative process. In both planning methods MRI MPRAGE sequence images were used for tumour localization and planning. A planning dose of 12Gy at 50% isodose level was chosen. Results and Discussion: Number of shots used in FP was greater than IP and beam-on time in FP was in average 1.4 times more than IP. One advantage of FP was that the brainstem volume subjected to 6Gy dose (25% isodose) was less in FP than IP. Our results showed use of more number of shots as in FP results in GI less than or equal to 2.55 which is close to its lower limit. Dose homogeneity index (DHI) analysis of FP and IP showed average values of 0.59 and 0.67 respectively. General trend in GK for planning in acoustic neuroma cases is to use small collimator shots to avoid dose to adjacent critical structures. More number of shots and prolonged treatment time causes inconvenience to the patients. Similarly overuse of automatic shot shaping as in IP results in increased scatter dose. A compromise is required in shot selection for these cases. Conclusion: IP method could be used in acoustic neuroma cases to decrease treatment time provided the source sector openings near brainstem are shielded or adjusted appropriately to reduce brainstem dose.

  2. A cohort study of sciatic pain and measures of internal spinal load in professional drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenzi, Massimo; Schust, Marianne; Menzel, Gerhard; Hofmann, Jörg; Hinz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study of 537 male professional drivers, the occurrence of sciatic pain showed stronger associations with measures of internal lumbar load expressed in terms of daily compressive dose, S(ed) (MPa), and risk factor, R (non-dimensional), according to ISO/WD 2631-5 (2013), than with measures of daily vibration exposure calculated as either 8-h energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration (ms(-2) r.m.s.) or vibration dose value (ms(-1.75)) according to the EU Directive on mechanical vibration (2002). Herniated lumbar disc, previous lumbar trauma and physical work load were also powerful predictors of the occurrence of sciatic pain over time. Psychosocial work environment was poorly associated with sciatic pain. The boundary values of risk factor (R) for low and high probabilities of adverse health effects on the lumbar spine, as proposed by international standard ISO/WD 2631-5 (2013), tend to underestimate the health risk in professional drivers. In a prospective cohort study of professional drivers, measures of internal spinal load were better predictors of the occurrence of sciatic pain than the measures of daily vibration exposure established by the EU Directive (2002). Herniated lumbar disc, lumbar trauma and physical work load were also associated with sciatic pain.

  3. The role of psychological distress and personality in the incidence of sciatic pain among working men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri-Taleb, F; Riihimäki, H; Viikari-Juntura, E; Lindström, K; Moneta, G B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The role of personality characteristics and psychological distress in the incidence of sciatic pain was investigated in a 3-year prospective study. METHODS. The study population consisted of 1149 Finnish men aged 25 through 49 years (387 machine operators, 336 carpenters, and 426 office workers) with no history of sciatic pain at the beginning of follow-up. The psychological distress and personality characteristics were assessed by the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. RESULTS. The 3-year cumulative incidence rate for sciatic pain was 22% among the machine operators, 24% among the carpenters, and 14% among the office workers. The multivariate analysis of psychological factors, taking into account individual and occupational factors, showed that only hysteria was significantly associated with the incidence of sciatic pain among the blue-collar workers. Among the white-collar workers, none of the psychological dimensions were associated with sciatic pain. CONCLUSIONS. These results are in accordance with previous relationships found between hysteria and low-back disorders. Further follow-up investigations are needed to elucidate the role of psychological factors in the occurrence of back problems. PMID:7702119

  4. Deep gluteal space problems: piriformis syndrome, ischiofemoral impingement and sciatic nerve release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Luis Perez; Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Navarro, Ivan Saenz; Fernandez, Ana Alfonso; Castillo, Alexander Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included “piriformis syndrome”, a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. Methods This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist and orthopaedic surgeons in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments. Conclusion DGS is an under-recognized and multifactorial pathology. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. The whole sciatic nerve trajectory in the deep gluteal space can be addressed by an endoscopic surgical technique. Endoscopic decompression of the sciatic nerve appears useful in improving function and diminishing hip pain in sciatic nerve entrapments, but requires significant experience and familiarity with the gross and endoscopic anatomy. Level of evidence IV. PMID:28066745

  5. A disturbed macrocirculatory supply as a determinant for a reduced sciatic nerve blood flow in diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Buren, Th. van; Kappelle, A.C.; Kasbergen, C.M.; Wildt, D.J. de

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate macrocirculatory disturbances in relation to the reduced sciatic nerve blood flow seen in diabetic rats. Therefore, both femoral blood flow, the macrocirculatory arterial blood supply to the sciatic nerve, and the microcirculatory neuronal blood flow were

  6. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of purified transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microencapsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencapsulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results confirm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  7. Localization and irregular distribution of Na,K-ATPase in myelin sheath from rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Sandra; Gregório, Elisa Aparecida; Spadella, César Tadeu; Cojocel, Constantin

    2007-06-01

    Sodium, potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) is a membrane-bound enzyme that maintains the Na(+) and K(+) gradients used in the nervous system for generation and transmission of bioelectricity. Recently, its activity has also been demonstrated during nerve regeneration. The present study was undertaken to investigate the ultrastructural localization and distribution of Na,K-ATPase in peripheral nerve fibers. Small blocks of the sciatic nerves of male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were excised, divided into two groups, and incubated with and without substrate, the para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). The material was processed for transmission electron microscopy, and the ultra-thin sections were examined in a Philips CM 100 electron microscope. The deposits of reaction product were localized mainly on the axolemma, on axoplasmic profiles, and irregularly dispersed on the myelin sheath, but not in the unmyelinated axons. In the axonal membrane, the precipitates were regularly distributed on the cytoplasmic side. These results together with published data warrant further studies for the diagnosis and treatment of neuropathies with compromised Na,K-ATPase activity.

  8. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Perussi Biscola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons.

  9. Persistent sciatic artery found incidentally on hip MRI: report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Massignan, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The persistent sciatic artery is a rare anatomical variant, representing the persistence of the sciatic artery in adult life that is responsible for the major blood supply to the lower limb in early embryologic development. Such persistence may be bilateral and can remain asymptomatic for many years. However, aneurysmal degeneration has been described as a complication of the persistent sciatic artery, which may cause critical limb ischemia resulting from thrombosis or embolization of aneurysm thrombus. Digital subtraction angiography, Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are the most frequently used diagnostic tools to detect, classify and determine the presence of complications of a PSA. Early detection of this vascular abnormality on imaging studies can avoid life-threatening complications. We describe 4 patients with PSA that were diagnosed as an incidental finding in magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and demonstrate its characteristic imaging appearance.

  10. External iliac artery thrombus masquerading as sciatic nerve palsy in anterior column fracture of the acetabulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar Magu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of ischemic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in a patient with an anterior column fracture of the acetabulum operated by ilioinguinal approach. It resulted from occlusion of the blood supply to the sciatic nerve. There were no signs of a vascular insult until ischemic changes ensued on the 6 th postoperative day on the lateral part of great toe. The patient underwent crossover femoro-femoral bypass grafting and there was a complete reversal of the ischemic changes at 6 months. The sciatic nerve palsy continued to recover until the end of 1 year; by which time the only deficit was a Grade 4 power in the extensor hallucis longus (EHL and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL. There was no further recovery at 2 years followup.

  11. Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2013-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO evaluation of the carcinogenic effect of RF-EMF on humans took place during a 24-31 May 2011 meeting at Lyon in France. The Working Group consisted of 30 scientists and categorised the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), as Group 2B, i.e., a 'possible', human carcinogen. The decision on mobile phones was based mainly on the Hardell group of studies from Sweden and the IARC Interphone study. We give an overview of current epidemiological evidence for an increased risk for brain tumours including a meta-analysis of the Hardell group and Interphone results for mobile phone use. Results for cordless phones are lacking in Interphone. The meta-analysis gave for glioma in the most exposed part of the brain, the temporal lobe, odds ratio (OR)=1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-2.81 in the ≥10 years (>10 years in the Hardell group) latency group. Ipsilateral mobile phone use ≥1640h in total gave OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.56-3.37. The results for meningioma were OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.31-4.98 and OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.81-2.23, respectively. Regarding acoustic neuroma ipsilateral mobile phone use in the latency group ≥10 years gave OR=1.81, 95% CI=0.73-4.45. For ipsilateral cumulative use ≥1640h OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.50-4.40 was obtained. Also use of cordless phones increased the risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma in the Hardell group studies. Survival of patients with glioma was analysed in the Hardell group studies yielding in the >10 years latency period hazard ratio (HR)=1.2, 95% CI=1.002-1.5 for use of wireless phones. This increased HR was based on results for astrocytoma WHO grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme). Decreased HR was found for low-grade astrocytoma, WHO grades I-II, which might be caused by RF-EMF exposure leading to tumour-associated symptoms and earlier detection and surgery with better

  12. Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: Results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi

    2011-01-01

    was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol. Past mobile phone use was assessed by personal interview. In the primary analysis, exposure time was censored at one year before the reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and date of diagnosis of the matched case for controls); analyses censoring...... exposure at five years before the reference date were also done to allow for a possible longer latent period. Results: The odds ratio (OR) of acoustic neuroma with ever having been a regular mobile phone user was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.04). The OR for ≥10 years after first regular mobile...... phone use was 0.76 (0.52-1.11). There was no trend of increasing ORs with increasing cumulative call time or cumulative number of calls, with the lowest OR (0.48 (0.30-0.78)) observed in the 9th decile of cumulative call time. In the 10th decile (≥1640h) of cumulative call time, the OR was 1.32 (0...

  13. A unique quadrifurcation of the sciatic nerve in the lower leg | Russa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciatic nerve is the largest nerve of the body supplying the entire posterior aspect of the lower limb. Taking its origin from the lumbosacral plexus, the nerve divides into its terminal branches at the superior angle of the popliteal fossa. Variant division patterns of the nerve especially those occurring in the thigh and the ...

  14. Post-injection Sciatic Neuropathy: A five-year review of cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the administration of injections is one of the most common healthcare procedures, and unsafe injections are associated with morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. Post-injection sciatic neuropathy (PISN) has been identified as a serious complication ...

  15. A case of bileteral persistent sciatic arteries | Boroto | SA Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of bileteral persistent sciatic arteries. K Boroto, PA Scheepers, N Khan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  16. Up-regulation of Robo1 in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... peripheral nervous system, this study investigated the expression profile of Robo1 in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats that were untreated (n = 8), or received SNT (n = 40), were analyzed. DRG from each treatment group at days.

  17. Up-regulation of Robo1 in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To better understand the role of Robo in peripheral nervous system, this study investigated the expression profile of Robo1 in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats that were untreated (n = 8), or received SNT (n = 40), were analyzed. DRG from each ...

  18. Anatomical variations in the level of bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The sciatic nerve, the largest nerve in the body is derived from the sacral plexus. It is composed of tibial and common fibular nerves; the division of this nerve varies; it may occur within the pelvis, gluteal region, upper, mid and lower part of thigh. Injury of the nerve may lead to loss of sensation in posterior thigh, ...

  19. Size of lumbar disc hernias measured using computed tomography and related to sciatic symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerlund, M.K.J.; Thelander, U.; Friberg, S. (Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics)

    1990-11-01

    The change in the relative size of lumbar disc hernias and its relation to sciatic symptoms was investigated in 30 consecutive patients after conservative treatment of CT verified lumbar disc herniations. CT and clinical examination were performed before the start of therapy (CT1), as well as 3 months (CT2) and 24 months (CT3) after institution of treatment. In each patient the size of the lumbar disc herniation in relation to the size of the spinal canal was measured on identical CT slices and expressed as an index. The disc herniation index decreased markedly from CT1 to CT2 (p<0.001). Between CT2 and CT3 the reduction of the hernias was less pronounced and not significant for hernias located centrally but still significant for intermediate (p=0.03) and lateral (p=0.04) hernias. The degree of sciatic symptoms also decreased markedly between CT1 and CT2 (p=0.001) while no further improvement occurred from CT2 to CT3. There was a significant positive correlation between the improvement from sciatic pain and the reduction in the size of the individual hernia (CT1-CT2 p=0.02, CT2-CT3 p<0.001). Thus, the disc herniation index provided a method to study the anatomic effect of conservative treatment as well as a method to evaluate sciatic symptoms in relation to anatomic changes. (orig.).

  20. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chengdong; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Yang, Kun

    2013-11-25

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  1. Hemodynamic changes during a combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block for elective orthopedic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.A.; Slagt, C.; Hoeksema, M.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hemodynamic variables can theoretically be influenced by a combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block (CPCSNB) owing to a relatively high systemic absorption of local anesthetics and extended vasodilatation in the anesthetized limb (hemisympatectomy). In this study we assessed and

  2. Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for a patient with chronic sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang F

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feng Zhang,1,2 Xiangzhi Meng,2 Fang Lu,2 Aixian Liu,2 Hongyun Huang1,2 1Cell Therapy Center, Beijing Hongtianji Neuroscience Academy, 2Neurorehabilitation Center, Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To observe the result of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC transplantation in a patient with chronic sciatic nerve injury. Case report: A 53-year-old male patient with chronic (1 year sciatic nerve injury on left side received OEC transplantation at the lesion site. He received follow-up assessment according to the American Spinal Injury Association standard at 10 days, 6 months, and 1 year after OEC therapy. The muscle strength of his left lower limb increased and numbness decreased during the early stage of cell therapy. His motor function improved with each evaluation. His limp walking gait recovered, and numbness sensation got nearly normal after 1 year of follow-up. There were no side effects. Conclusion: OEC transplantation may be an option for chronic peripheral (sciatic nerve injury. Keywords: olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation, sciatic nerve injury, peripheral nerve injury, function improvement, neurorestoration

  3. Influence of cisplatin on the sensitivity of the rat sciatic nerve to local hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J. F.; van der Kracht, A. H.; Wondergem, J.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.; Haveman, J.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of cisplatin on the sensitivity of the rat sciatic nerve to local hyperthermia was investigated. Rats received 1.7 mg/kg cisplatin i.p., twice a week for 6 weeks, up to a cumulative dose of 20.4 mg/kg. After termination of cisplatin treatment, a 5 mm segment of the nerve was locally

  4. Heat shock proteins (HSP-72 kd) in thermotolerant rat sciatic nerves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J. F.; van der Kracht, A. H.; Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Localized heating of the rat sciatic nerve over a length of 5 mm for 30 min at 43 degrees C resulted in the production of heat shock protein 72 kd in every nucleated cell and in the induction of thermotolerance in the heated area. HSP-72 kd was never detected in axons. Heat treatment (30 min, 45

  5. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Zhi-Yue; Zhang, Ze-Peng; Mo, Zhou-Yun; Chen, Shi-Jie; Xiang, Si-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Xue, Min

    2015-09-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury.

  6. Correlation among ultrasound, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the sciatic nerve: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayeri, N.; Geffen, G.J. van; Bruhn, J.; Chan, V.W.; Groen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy

  7. Correlation Among Ultrasound, Cross-Sectional Anatomy, and Histology of the Sciatic Nerve A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayeri, Nizar; van Geffen, Geert J.; Bruhn, Jorgen; Chan, Vincent W.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy

  8. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  9. Muscle differentiation after sciatic nerve transection and reinnervation in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijkema-Paassen, J; Meek, MF; Gramsbergen, A

    Reinnervation after peripheral nerve transections generally leads to poor functional recovery. In order to study whether changes in muscles might be a contributing factor in this phenomenon we studied muscle morphology and fibre type distributions after sciatic nerve transection in the rat hind

  10. Dexmedetomidine to Help Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that dexmedetomidine (DXM, a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, also has neuroprotective effects. However, its effect on impaired peripheral nerve regeneration has not been studied. Materials and Methods. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 (control SHAM, group 2 (sciatic nerve injury + normal saline, and group 3 (sciatic nerve injury + DXM. The rats of group 3 were subdivided into the following three groups: DXM 0.5, 6, and 20 μg·kg−1 (groups 3A, 3B, and 3C, resp.. The sciatic nerve injury was assessed for nerve regeneration at 2 and 6 weeks. Results. There were no differences between groups 2 and 3 in their sciatic functional index (SFI values or histological findings at 2 weeks postinjury. However, SFI differences were statistically significant at 6 weeks postinjury in group 3. The gross findings with H&E staining showed that the number of axons was higher in group 3 than in group 2. There was no histological difference according to the DXM concentration. Conclusion. The coincidental functional and histological assessment results of this study suggest that DXM for 6 weeks positively affects damaged peripheral nerves.

  11. Magnesium supplement promotes sciatic nerve regeneration and down-regulates inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ju; Chen, Chun-Jung; Yang, Dar-Yu; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2011-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) supplements have been shown to significantly improve functional recovery in various neurological disorders. The essential benefits of Mg supplementation in peripheral nerve disorders have not been elucidated yet. The effect and mechanism of Mg supplementation on a sciatic nerve crush injury model was investigated. Sciatic nerve injury was induced in mice by crushing the left sciatic nerve. Mice were randomly divided into three groups with low-, basal- or high-Mg diets (corresponding to 10, 100 or 200% Mg of the basal diet). Neurobehavioral, electrophysiological and regeneration marker studies were conducted to explore nerve regeneration. First, a high Mg diet significantly increased plasma and nerve tissue Mg concentrations. In addition, Mg supplementation improved neurobehavioral, electrophysiological functions, enhanced regeneration marker, and reduced deposits of inflammatory cells as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, reduced Schwann cell apoptosis was in line with the significant expression of bcl-2, bcl-X(L) and down-regulated expression of active caspase-3 and cytochrome C. In summary, improved neurological function recovery and enhanced nerve regeneration were found in mice with a sciatic nerve injury that were fed a high- Mg diet, and Schwann cells may have been rescued from apoptosis by the suppression of inflammatory responses.

  12. Bioabsorbable nerve conduits coated with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurospheres enhance axonal regeneration in sciatic nerve defects in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Takuya; Uemura, Takuya; Takamatsu, Kiyohito; Shintani, Kosuke; Onode, Ema; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Hidaka, Noriaki; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-09-09

    Aging influences peripheral nerve regeneration. Nevertheless, most basic research of bioabsorbable nerve conduits including commercial products have been performed in very young animals. Results from these studies may not provide information about axonal regeneration in aged tissue, because young nerve tissue holds sufficient endogenous potential for axonal regeneration. The clinical target age for nerve conduit application is most likely going to increase with a rapidly growing elderly population. In the present study, we examined axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve defects in aged and young mice. 5-mm sciatic nerve defects in young (6 weeks old) and aged (92 weeks old) mice were reconstructed using nerve conduits (composed of a poly lactide and caprolactone) or autografts. In addition, in aged mice, sciatic nerve defects were reconstructed using nerve conduits coated with mouse induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSc)-derived neurospheres. Using electrophysiological and histological techniques, we demonstrated axonal regeneration was significantly less effective in aged than in young mice both for nerve conduits and for nerve autografts. However, despite the low regenerative capacity of the peripheral nerve in aged mice, axonal regeneration significantly increased when nerve conduits coated with iPSc-derived neurospheres, rather than nerve conduits alone, were used. The present study shows that aging negatively affects peripheral nerve regeneration based on nerve conduits in mice. However, axonal regeneration using nerve conduits was improved when supportive iPSc-derived neurospheres were added in the aged mice. We propose that tissue-engineered bioabsorbable nerve conduits in combination with iPSc-derived neurospheres hold therapeutic potential both in young and elderly patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Commiphora mukul attenuates peripheral neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ashish K; Tripathi, Chakra D

    2015-04-01

    The management of neuropathic pain remains unsatisfactory till date, despite immense advances in the therapeutic strategies. Commiphora mukul (CM), also known as Commiphora wightii, is well known in the traditional Indian system of medicine, and has been used to treat ailments such as obesity, bone fractures, arthritis, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and lipid disorders. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of CM on peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced by the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Following this, CM was orally administered for 2 weeks in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, and pain assessment was performed by employing the behavioral tests for thermal hyperalgesia (hot-plate and tail-flick tests) and cold allodynia (acetone test). Following the induction of neuropathic pain, significant development of thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia was observed. The administration of CM (50 mg/kg) did not have any effect on the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, but significant anti-allodynic effect was observed in the acetone test. Furthermore, administration of CM (100 mg/kg) caused significant decrease in pain as observed on the tail-flick and acetone tests, but not in the hot-plate test. CM in a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly modulated neuropathic pain as observed from the increased hot-plate and tail-flick latencies, and decreased paw withdrawal duration (in acetone test). Therefore, the present study suggests that CM may be used in future as a treatment option for neuropathic pain.

  14. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Saim, E-mail: ysaim@akdeniz.edu.tr; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur [Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1-10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  15. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3, also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  16. Retrograde tracing and toe spreading after experimental autologous nerve transplantation and crush injury of the sciatic nerve: a descriptive methodological study

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    van Neerven Sabien GA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of functional and structural recovery after peripheral nerve injury is crucial to determine the therapeutic effect of a nerve repair strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the structural evaluation of regeneration by means of retrograde tracing and the functional analysis of toe spreading. Two standardized rat sciatic nerve injury models were used to address this relationship. As such, animals received either a 2 cm sciatic nerve defect (neurotmesis followed by autologous nerve transplantation (ANT animals or a crush injury with spontaneous recovery (axonotmesis; CI animals. Functional recovery of toe spreading was observed over an observation period of 84 days. In contrast to CI animals, ANT animals did not reach pre-surgical levels of toe spreading. After the observation period, the lipophilic dye DiI was applied to label sensory and motor neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG; sensory neurons and spinal cord (motor neurons, respectively. No statistical difference in motor or sensory neuron counts could be detected between ANT and CI animals. In the present study we could indicate that there was no direct relationship between functional recovery (toe spreading measured by SSI and the number of labelled (motor and sensory neurons evaluated by retrograde tracing. The present findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach with a variety of independent evaluation tools is essential to understand and estimate the therapeutic benefit of a nerve repair strategy.

  17. Excursion of the Sciatic Nerve During Nerve Mobilization Exercises: An In Vivo Cross-sectional Study Using Dynamic Ultrasound Imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppieters, M.W.J.; Andersen, L.S.; Johansen, R.; Giskegjerde, P.K.; Høivik, M.; Vestre, S.; Nee, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory crosssectional study using single-group, within-subject comparisons. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether different types of neurodynamic techniques result in differences in longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. BACKGROUND: Large differences in nerve biomechanics have

  18. A prospective randomised controlled trial of ultrasound guided versus nerve stimulation guided distal sciatic nerve block at the popliteal fossa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, G.J. van; Broek, E. van den; Braak, G.J.J.; Giele, J.L.P.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The direct visualisation of nerves and adjacent anatomical structures may make ultrasonography the preferred method for nerve localisation. In this prospective randomised study, we investigated whether, for distal sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa, an ultrasound guided technique would

  19. Transport of myo-inositol into endoneurial preparations of sciatic nerve from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillon, K R; Hawthorne, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    myo-Inositol transport by a viable rat sciatic-nerve preparation is described. Such 'endoneurial' nerve preparations accumulated myo-inositol by an energy-dependent saturable system. Streptozotocin-diabetes reduced myo-inositol transport into sciatic nerve by approx. 40%. Elevated medium glucose concentration reduced myo-inositol transport into control nerves to a similar extent. Fructose and sorbitol did not inhibit myo-inositol transport. Inclusion of an aldose reductase inhibitor in the me...

  20. Percutaneous MR-Guided Cryoablation of Morton’s Neuroma: Rationale and Technical Details After the First 20 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS (France); Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Caudrelier, Jean; Thenint, Marie-Aude; Rao, Pramod; Koch, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS (France); Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2016-10-15

    ObjectivesThe purpose of this study is to discuss technical aspects and rationales of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided cryoablation (CA) of Morton’s neuroma (MN); preliminary clinical experience is also retrospectively reviewed.MethodsProcedures were performed under local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis. Lesion size and location, procedural (technical success, procedural time, complications) and clinical outcomes (patient satisfaction according to a four-point scale, residual pain according to a 0–10 visual analogue scale and instances of “stump neuroma”) were assessed via chart review and cross-sectional telephone survey after the 20th case.ResultsTwenty patients (15 female, 5 male; mean age 50.3 years) were included; 24 MN (mean size 12.7 mm) were treated. Technical success was 100 %. Mean procedural time was 40.9 ± 10.4 min (range 35–60). One minor complication (superficial cellulitis) was reported (4.2 %). Follow-up (mean 19.7 months) was available for 18/24 MN. Patient satisfaction on a per-lesion basis was as follows: “completely satisfied” in 77.7 %, “satisfied with minor reservations” in 16.6 % and “satisfied with major reservations” in 5.7 % of cases. Mean pain score at last follow-up post-CA was 3.0. No instances of “stump neuroma” were reported.ConclusionsMR-guided CA of MN is a novel therapy which appears technically feasible. Clinical advantages of the procedure are high patient satisfaction, reduced risk of “stump neuroma” syndrome and good patient tolerance on an outpatient basis. Further, prospective studies are needed to confirm these encouraging results.

  1. Protective Effects of Beta Glucan and Gliclazide on Brain Tissue and Sciatic Nerve of Diabetic Rats Induced by Streptozosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Alp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have not been yet enough studies about effects of beta glucan and gliclazide on oxidative stress created by streptozotocin in the brain and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. The aim of this paper was to investigate the antioxidant effects of gliclazide and beta glucan on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation created by streptozotosin in brain and sciatic nerve. Total of 42 rats were divided into 6 groups including control, diabetic untreated (DM (only STZ, diabetic, STZ (DM + beta glucan, STZ (DM + gliclazide, only beta glucan treated (no diabetic, and only gliclazide treated (no diabetic. The brain and sciatic nerve tissue samples were analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA, total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS, oxidative stress index (OSI, and paraoxonase (PON-1 levels. We found a significant increase in MDA, TOS, and OSI along with a reduction in TAS level, catalase, and PON-1 activities in brain and sciatic nerve of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Also, this study shows that in terms of these parameters both gliclazide and beta glucan have a neuroprotective effect on the brain and sciatic nerve of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Our conclusion was that gliclazide and beta glucan have antioxidant effects on the brain and sciatic nerve of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

  2. Partial epineural burying of nerve grafts with different sizes next to or distant from neurorrhaphy?s site: histological and electrophysiological studies in rat sciatic nerves

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    Cunha Marco Túlio Rodrigues da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare and correlate histologically and electromyographically the effects of partial epineural burying of sural nerve segments in sectioned and sutured rat sciatic nerves. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were operated on 3 groups: Group 1, sural nerve graft, 9mm long, placed next to neurorrhaphy; Group 2, sural nerve graft, 9mm long, buryied 10mm distant from neurorrhaphy; Group 3, sural nerve graft, 18mm long, set next to neurorrhaphy. The morphological features were examined at light microscope after 3 months in 45 rats. The elements observed were: vascularization, vacuoles in nerve fibers, mastocytes and inflammatory infiltrate. The morphometry was made after 6 months in 15 rats from Group 1, 2 and 3, measuring external nerve fiber diameters and counting myelinated nerve fibers/mm². The electrophysiological study was perfomed after 6 months, registering maximum amplitude and frequency of EMG pontentials, at rest, in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Group 3 rats presented sciatic nerves better conserved morphologically and mean external nerve fiber diameters greater than those from Groups 1 and 2. There were no significant differences in density of nerve fibers/mm², and in the electrophysiological study in rats from Group 1, 2 and 3. The epineural burying of sural nerve grafts with greater length and placed next to the neurorrhaphy?s site had a significantly better regeneration of the histological features than the smaller ones distant from neurorrhaphy.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: xinchunli@163.com; Shen, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liu, Q.; Liang, B. [Dept. of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China)

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The SIR of the distal portion of crushed nerves was higher than that of the proximal nerve portion; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Whereas, the SIR at proximal nerve portions of crushed nerve was similar to control nerves (P > 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B

  4. CT in low back and sciatic pain due to lumbar canal osseous changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.; Capellini, C.; Canevari, M.A.; Prosetti, D.; Schiavoni, S.

    1986-05-01

    In a consecutive series of 600 patients scanned by CT for various spinal diseases, those with low back and sciatic pain without disc herniation were selected for study. The causes proved to be joint facet degeneration (32 cases), stenosis of the neural foramina (13 cases), stenosis of the spinal canal (13 cases), lateral recess stenosis (6 cases) and spondylolisthesis (6 cases). The predominance of joint fact pathology as the underlying cause of low back and sciatic pain in the absence of disc herniation is confirmed. CT scanning of the soft tissues as well as of the skeletal structures is crucial to the aetiological diagnosis of the condition under study and hence to the proper planning of treatment.

  5. Our experience of combined femoral sciatic nerve block in the lower extremity surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Çiftçi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, the effectiveness of the combine femoral and sciatic nerve block in lower-extremity surgery was aimed to be investigated.Materals and methods: The patients with ASA I-III group, aged between 18-70 years, who underwent combinede sciatic femoral nerve block in lower-extremity surgery, were retrospectively evaluated.The study included 110 patients. The patients were divided into four groups according to the local anesthetic drugs used; Group I: 30 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine + 10 ml 0.9% NaCl, Group II: 30 ml 0.5% Levobupivacaine + 10 ml 0.9% NaCl, Group III: 30 ml 0.5% Levobupivacaine +10 ml 2% prilocaine HCl, GrupIV: 20 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine + 2 ml 2% Lidocaine HCl. The demographic data, clinical diagnosis, dose and volume of used local anesthetics, application time of the technique, duration of surgery, rates of block success, hemodynamic parameters before and after intervention, the first postoperative analgesic requirements (the first postoperative analgesic need, the amount of analgesic consumption of postoperative first 24 hours, developing complications during and after the process, patient’s and surgical satisfaction data of were recorded.Results: The demographic data of patient group were similar. No significant differences were found in terms of quality of surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia between different groups. The combined sciatic femoral nerve block was most frequently performed for ankle surgery. Different local anesthetics doses administered to patients were provided adequate anesthesia. Success of process was found to be 96%.Conclusion: The combined femoral sciatic nerve block applied with the success rate of 96%. The mean duration of adequate anesthesia and postoperative analgesia was 426 minutes. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 375-379

  6. Nerve stimulator-guided sciatic-femoral nerve block in raptors undergoing surgical treatment of pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Adami, Chiara

    2015-07-01

    To describe the nerve stimulator-guided sciatic-femoral nerve block in raptors undergoing surgical treatment of pododermatitis. Prospective clinical trial. Five captive raptors (Falco peregrinus) aged 6.7 ± 1.3 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The sciatic-femoral nerve block was performed with 2% lidocaine (0.05 mL kg(-1) per nerve) as the sole intra-operative analgesic treatment. Intraoperative physiological variables were recorded every 10 minutes from endotracheal intubation until the end of anaesthesia. Assessment of intraoperative nociception was based on changes in physiological variables above baseline values, while evaluation of postoperative pain relied on species-specific behavioural indicators. The sciatic-femoral nerve block was feasible in raptors and the motor responses following electrical stimulation of both nerves were consistent with those reported in mammalian species. During surgery no rescue analgesia was required. The anaesthesia plane was stable and cardiorespiratory variables did not increase significantly in response to surgical stimulation. Iatrogenic complications, namely nerve damage and local anaesthetic toxicity, did not occur. Recovery was smooth and uneventful. The duration (mean ± SD) of the analgesic effect provided by the nerve block was 130 ± 20 minutes. The sciatic-femoral nerve block as described in dogs and rabbits can be performed in raptors as well. Further clinical trials with a control groups are required to better investigate the analgesic efficacy and the safety of this technique in raptors. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  7. THE EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS MELATONIN ON THE EXTRAFASCICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN TRANSECTED RAT SCIATIC NERVE

    OpenAIRE

    Esad Ćosović; Zakira Mornjaković; Selma Aličelebić; Dina Kapić; Maida Šahinović; Almira Lujinović; Višnja Muzika; Samra Čustović

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies linking the effect of certain pharmacological agents with the status of connective tissue and nerve fiber regeneration after traumatic transection were focused mainly on the proximal nerve stump. In our study, qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of the proximal and the distal nerve stump were done. Male Wistar rats underwent transection and excision of an 8-mm nerve segment of the left sciatic nerve. The vehiculum group of animals (n=7) was administered with 5%...

  8. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

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    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  9. Vascular Impairment of Epineurial Arterioles of the Sciatic Nerve: Implications for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorek, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of diabetes and its treatment on vascular function with a focus on the reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve. Another focus is the relationship between the dysregulation of neurovascular function and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating disorder that occurs in more than 50 percent of patients with diabetes. The etiology involves metabolic, vascular, and immunologic pathways besides neurohormonal growth factor deficiency and extracellular matrix remodeling. In the light of this complex etiology, an effective treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy has not yet been identified. Current opinion postulates that any effective treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy will require a combination of life style and therapeutic interventions. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the factors contributing to neurovascular and neural dysfunction in diabetes is needed before such a treatment strategy can be developed. After reading this review, the reader should have gained insight into the complex regulation of vascular function and blood flow to the sciatic nerve, and the impact of diabetes on numerous elements of vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. PMID:26676659

  10. Monopolar radiofrequency use in deep gluteal space endoscopy: sciatic nerve safety and fluid temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hal David; Palmer, Ian James; Hatem, Munif

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature at the sciatic nerve when using a monopolar radiofrequency (RF) probe to control bleeding in deep gluteal space endoscopy, as well as assess the fluid temperature profile. Ten hips in 5 fresh-frozen human cadaveric specimens from the abdomen to the toes were used for this experiment. Temperatures were measured at the sciatic nerve after 2, 5, and 10 seconds of continuous RF probe activation over an adjacent vessel, a branch of the inferior gluteal artery. Fluid temperatures were then measured at different distances from the probe (3, 5, and 10 mm) after 2, 5, and 10 seconds of continuous probe activation. All tests were performed with irrigation fluid flow at 60 mm Hg allowing outflow. After 2, 5, or 10 seconds of activation over the crossing branch of the inferior gluteal artery, the mean temperature increased by less than 1°C on the surface and in the perineurium of the sciatic nerve. Considering the fluid temperature profile in the deep gluteal space, the distance and duration of activation influenced temperature (P deep gluteal space endoscopy with fluid inflow and outflow. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of Axonal Degeneration by Perineurium Injection of Mitochondria in a Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chung; Su, Hong-Lin; Chang, Tzu-Lin; Chiang, Chien-Yi; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Sheehan, Jason; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Axon degeneration leads to cytoskeletal disassembly, metabolism imbalance, and mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration or nerve injury. In this study, we assess the possibility of mitigating axon degeneration by local injection of mitochondria in a crushed sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve explants cocultured with mitochondria were assessed for the optimal dosage in local injection and nerve regeneration potential. The left sciatic nerve was crushed in Sprague-Dawley rats and then local injection of mitochondria into the distal end of the injured nerve was conducted for further assessment. Mitochondrial coculture attenuated cytoskeletal loss and oxidative stress in isolated nerve explants. In Vivo analyses also showed that mitochondrial transplantation improved animal neurobehaviors, electrophysiology of nerve conduction, and muscle activities. Mitochondria injection significantly attenuated the oxidative stress and increased the expression of neurotrophic factors both in injured nerves and denervated muscles, as well as restored muscular integrity, and increased the pool of muscular progenitor cells and total muscle weight. Mitochondria injection can protect injured nerves from axonal degeneration both in Vitro and in Vivo. This improvement was accompanied with the expression of neurotrophic factors as well as the reduction of oxidative stress, which may account for the functional recovery of both injured nerves and denervated muscles.

  12. Dynamic observation of biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baoguo; Zhang, Peixun; Yan, Jiazhi; Zhang, Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    To observe the biomechanic properties of the sciatic nerve at the suture site following repairing in rats. The right sciatic nerves of 40 white Sprague-Dawley 300~350 gm rats were exposed, cut and then repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures with four stitches, laced in the epineurium 0, 1, 3, and 6 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of the sciatic nerves were measured, and the data analyzed statistically. The load elongation curves for both the normal unoperated and operated nerves had similar shape. There were significant differences between the tensile strength of the 0th and the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found among the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks. The tensile strength of the injured nerves recovered 48% of the normal nerve in the 1st week and 54% in 6 weeks after repairing. It may be concluded that the injured nerves can acquire mostly tensile strength stability in 1 week quickly and can maintain this relative tensile strength stability in 6 weeks.

  13. Model study of combined electrical and near-infrared neural stimulation on the bullfrog sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mengxian; Mou, Zongxia

    2017-07-01

    This paper implemented a model study of combined electrical and near-infrared (808 nm) neural stimulation (NINS) on the bullfrog sciatic nerve. The model includes a COMSOL model to calculate the electric-field distribution of the surrounding area of the nerve, a Monte Carlo model to simulate light transport and absorption in the bullfrog sciatic nerve during NINS, and a NEURON model to simulate the neural electrophysiology changes under electrical stimulus and laser irradiation. The optical thermal effect is considered the main mechanism during NINS. Therefore, thermal change during laser irradiation was calculated by the Monte Carlo method, and the temperature distribution was then transferred to the NEURON model to stimulate the sciatic nerve. The effects on thermal response by adjusting the laser spot size, energy of the beam, and the absorption coefficient of the nerve are analyzed. The effect of the ambient temperature on the electrical stimulation or laser stimulation and the interaction between laser irradiation and electrical stimulation are also studied. The results indicate that the needed stimulus threshold for neural activation or inhibition is reduced by laser irradiation. Additionally, the needed laser energy for blocking the action potential is reduced by electrical stimulus. Both electrical and laser stimulation are affected by the ambient temperature. These results provide references for subsequent animal experiments and could be of great help to future basic and applied studies of infrared neural stimulation (INS).

  14. Assessing Autophagy in Sciatic Nerves of a Rat Model that Develops Inflammatory Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Brun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rat sciatic nerve has attracted widespread attention as an excellent model system for studying autophagy alterations in peripheral neuropathies. In our laboratory, we have developed an original rat model, which we used currently in routine novel drug screening and to evaluate treatment strategies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP and other closely related diseases. Lewis rats injected with the S-palmitoylated P0(180-199 peptide develop a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease. Our model fulfills electrophysiological criteria of demyelination with axonal degeneration, confirmed by immunohistopathology and several typical features of CIDP. We have set up a series of techniques that led us to examine the failures of autophagy pathways in the sciatic nerve of these model rats and to follow the possible improvement of these defects after treatment. Based on these newly introduced methods, a novel area of investigation is now open and will allow us to more thoroughly examine important features of certain autophagy pathways occurring in sciatic nerves.

  15. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

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    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  16. Therapeutic results of sciatic nerve repair in Iran-Iraq war casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousheh, Jamal; Arasteh, Ehsan; Beikpour, Hadi

    2008-03-01

    The sciatic nerve is composed of two independent divisions: tibial and peroneal. The results of the repair of these two nerves are not identical. This retrospective study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the results of different therapeutic procedures for sciatic nerve injuries and conducting a comparative evaluation of peroneal and tibial nerve recovery. A total of 648 Iranian casualties of the 1980 to 1988 Iran-Iraq war with sciatic nerve injury were treated with nerve grafting, direct end-to-end coaptation, and neurolysis. Patients were subdivided according to nerve injury site into three groups of upper, middle, and lower thirds of the thigh, and followed from 5 to 12 years. In 77.8 percent of patients, the tibial nerve was injured, and in 88.9 percent, the common peroneal nerve was injured. Protective sensation recovery of the sole was evaluated as good in 69.1 percent of those with upper third injuries, 74.4 percent of those with middle third injuries, and 89.3 percent of those with lower third repairs (p war casualties were generally satisfactory. Tibial nerve injury repair in the upper thigh has a higher priority than the peroneal nerve. Motor deficits of the common peroneal nerve can be overcome by tendon transfer or orthopedic devices.

  17. Improvement of sciatic nerve regeneration using laminin-binding human NGF-beta.

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    Wenjie Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatic nerve injuries often cause partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions due to the axon discontinuity, degeneration, and eventual death which finally result in substantial functional loss and decreased quality of life. Nerve growth factor (NGF plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the lack of efficient NGF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. We reported here by fusing with the N-terminal domain of agrin (NtA, NGF-beta could target to nerve cells and improve nerve regeneration. METHODS: Laminin-binding assay and sustained release assay of NGF-beta fused with NtA (LBD-NGF from laminin in vitro were carried out. The bioactivity of LBD-NGF on laminin in vitro was also measured. Using the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, the nerve repair and functional restoration by utilizing LBD-NGF were tested. FINDINGS: LBD-NGF could specifically bind to laminin and maintain NGF activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, we found that LBD-NGF could be retained and concentrated at the nerve injury sites to promote nerve repair and enhance functional restoration following nerve damages. CONCLUSION: Fused with NtA, NGF-beta could bind to laminin specifically. Since laminin is the major component of nerve extracellular matrix, laminin binding NGF could target to nerve cells and improve the repair of peripheral nerve injuries.

  18. Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

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    Jiang, Xiaowen; Ma, Jun; Wei, Qingwei; Feng, Xinxin; Qiao, Lu; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Binqing; Yu, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of frankincense extract on peripheral nerve regeneration in a crush injury rat model. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and frankincense extract low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. At days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the surgery, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI), expression of GAP-43, and the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) in vivo and in vitro. At day 7, the SFI in the frankincense extract high-dose group was significantly improved compared with the control group. After day 14, SFI was significantly improved in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in GAP-43 expression among the groups at day 7. However, after day 14, expression of GAP-43 in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group. Histological evaluation showed that the injured nerve of frankincense extract high-dose group recovered better than the other groups 28 days after surgery. Further, S100 immunohistochemical staining, MTT colorimetry, and flow cytometry assays all showed that frankincense extract could promote the proliferation of SCs. In conclusion, frankincense extract is able to promote sciatic nerve regeneration and improve the function of a crushed sciatic nerve. This study provides a new direction for the repair of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:27143985

  19. Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

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    Xiaowen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of frankincense extract on peripheral nerve regeneration in a crush injury rat model. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and frankincense extract low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. At days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the surgery, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI, expression of GAP-43, and the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs in vivo and in vitro. At day 7, the SFI in the frankincense extract high-dose group was significantly improved compared with the control group. After day 14, SFI was significantly improved in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in GAP-43 expression among the groups at day 7. However, after day 14, expression of GAP-43 in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group. Histological evaluation showed that the injured nerve of frankincense extract high-dose group recovered better than the other groups 28 days after surgery. Further, S100 immunohistochemical staining, MTT colorimetry, and flow cytometry assays all showed that frankincense extract could promote the proliferation of SCs. In conclusion, frankincense extract is able to promote sciatic nerve regeneration and improve the function of a crushed sciatic nerve. This study provides a new direction for the repair of peripheral nerve injury.

  20. [A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation-induced Sciatica by Acupuncture Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve Trunk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ling; Hu, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Xue-Yu; Zheng, Xu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Min; He, Liu

    2016-10-25

    To observe the efficacy of acupuncture stimulation of the sciatic nerve trunk in the treatment of patients suffering from sciatica induced by lumbar disc herniation (LDH). A total of 60 LDH sciatica patients met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 cases in each. Patients of the treatment group were treated by directly needling the sciatic nerve and routine acupuncture of Ashi -points, Lumbar Jiaji (EX-B 2), Dachangshu (BL 28), etc., and those of the control group treated by simple routine acupuncture. The treatment was conducted once a day, 5 times a week, 4 weeks altogether. The clinical effect was evaluated according to the "Standards for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Effect Evaluation of Syndromes of Chinese Medicine" and the pain intensity was assessed by using simplified Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) containing pain rating index (PRI), visual analogue scale (VAS) and present pain intensity (PPI). After the treatment, of the two 30 cases of LDH sciatica patients in the control and treatment groups, 11 and 18 were cured, 7 and 7 experienced marked improvement, 10 and 4 were effective, 2 and 1 was invalid, with the effective rate being 93.3% and 96.7%, respectively. The cured+markedly effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group ( P sciatica in LDH patients, and is superior to simple routine acupuncture in the clinical efficacy.

  1. Effects of exogenous galanin on neuropathic pain state and change of galanin and its receptors in DRG and SDH after sciatic nerve-pinch injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xiuying; Liu, Huaxiang; Li, Zhenzhong

    2012-01-01

    A large number of neuroanatomical, neurophysiologic, and neurochemical mechanisms are thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, mechanisms responsible for neuropathic pain have not been completely delineated. It has been demonstrated that neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is upregulated after injury in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn (SDH) where it plays a predominantly antinociceptive role. In the present study, sciatic nerve-pinch injury rat model was used to determine the effects of exogenous Gal on the expression of the Gal and its receptors (GalR1, GalR2) in DRG and SDH, the alterations of pain behavior, nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and morphology of sciatic nerve. The results showed that exogenous Gal had antinociceptive effects in this nerve-pinch injury induced neuropathic pain animal model. It is very interesting that Gal, GalR1 and GalR2 change their expression greatly in DRG and SDH after nerve injury and intrathecal injection of exougenous Gal. Morphological investigation displays a serious damage after nerve-pinch injury and an amendatory regeneration after exogenous Gal treatment. These findings imply that Gal, via activation of GalR1 and/or GalR2, may have neuroprotective effects in reducing neuropathic pain behaviors and improving nerve regeneration after nerve injury.

  2. Cerebral infarction presenting with unilateral isolated foot drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Wan; Park, Jung-Soo; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Jong-Myong

    2014-09-01

    Weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the ankle or toe, referred to as foot drop, is a relatively common presentation. In most cases, foot drop is caused by a lower motor neuron disease such as peroneal peripheral neuropathy, L4-5 radiculopathic sciatic neuropathy, or polyneuropathy. Although upper motor neuron lesions can present as foot drop, the incidence is very rare. Here, we report an extremely rare case in which foot drop was the only presenting symptom of cerebral infarction.

  3. Cerebral Infarction Presenting with Unilateral Isolated Foot Drop

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    Kim, Ki-Wan; Park, Jung-Soo; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Jong-Myong

    2014-01-01

    Weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the ankle or toe, referred to as foot drop, is a relatively common presentation. In most cases, foot drop is caused by a lower motor neuron disease such as peroneal peripheral neuropathy, L4-5 radiculopathic sciatic neuropathy, or polyneuropathy. Although upper motor neuron lesions can present as foot drop, the incidence is very rare. Here, we report an extremely rare case in which foot drop was the only presenting symptom of cerebral infarction.

  4. Ameliorative potential of Butea monosperma on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    Venkata R.K. Thiagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative role of ethanolic extract from leaves of Butea monosperma in chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal hyperalgesia, cold chemical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia & allodynia in the left hind paw and tail thermal hyperalgesia. Further on, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the biochemical changes in the sciatic nerve tissue. Histopathological changes were also observed in the sciatic nerve tissue. Ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma leaves and pregabalin (serving as positive control were administered for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. CCI resulted in significant changes in behavioural and biochemical parameters. Pretreatment of Butea monosperma attenuated CCI induced development of behavioural, biochemical and histopathological alterations in a dose dependent manner, which is comparable to that of pregabalin pretreated group. These findings may be attributed to its potential anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel modulatory actions of Butea monosperma.O presente trabalho visou investigar o papel do extrato etanólico de folhas de Butea monosperma no alívio da dor neuropática pela injúria de constrição crônica (CCI do nervo ciático induzida em ratos. Placa quente, gota de acetona, pressão na pata, testes de imersão de pelo e cauda de Von Frey foram utilizados para acessar o grau de hiperalgesia térmica, alodinia química fria, hiperalgesia mecânica e alodinia na pata trazeira esquerda e hiperalgesia térmica da cauda. Além disso, substâncias reativas com ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, glutatião reduzido (GSH e níveis de cálcio total foram estimados para acessar as altera

  5. The Effect of Sildenafil on Recuperation from Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Parlakpınar, Hakan; Ceylan, Mehmet Fethi; Ediz, Levent; Şamdancı, Emine; Kekilli, Ersoy; Sağır, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Severe functional and anatomical defects can be detected after the peripheral nerve injury. Pharmacological approaches are preferred rather than surgical treatment in the treatment of nerve injuries. Aims: The aim of this study is to perform histopathological, functional and bone densitometry examinations of the effects of sildenafil on nerve regeneration in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: The study included a total of thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats that were divided into three groups of ten rats each. In all rats, a crush injury was created by clamping the right sciatic nerve for one minute. One day before the procedure, rats in group 1 were started on a 28-day treatment consisting of a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate given orally via a nasogastric tube, while the rats in group 2 were started on an every-other-day dose of 10 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate. Rats from group 3 were not administered any drugs. Forty-two days after the nerve damage was created, functional and histopathological examination of both sciatic nerves and bone densitometric evaluation of the extremities were conducted. Results: During the rotarod test, rats from group 3 spent the least amount of time on the rod compared to the drug treatment groups at speeds of 20 rpm, 30 rpm and 40 rpm. In addition, the duration for which each animal could stay on the rod throughout the accelerod test significantly reduced in rats from group 3 compared to rats from groups 1 and 2 in the 4-min test. For the hot-plate latency time, there were no differences among the groups in either the basal level or after sciatic nerve injury. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the static sciatic index (SSI) on the 42nd day (p=0.147). The amplitude was better evaluated in group 1 compared to the other two groups (p<0.05). Under microscopic evaluation, we observed the greatest amount of

  6. Treatment of postoperative sciatic nerve palsy after total hip arthroplasty for postoperative acetabular fracture: A case report

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    Akio Kanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetabular fracture is usually treated with osteosynthesis. However, in the case of an intra-articular fracture, osteosynthesis can result in arthropathy of the hip joint and poor long-term results, hence, total hip arthroplasty is required. However, in total hip arthroplasty for postoperative acetabular fracture, sciatic nerve palsy tends to develop more commonly than after primary total hip arthroplasty. This is a case report of a 57-year-old Japanese male who had internal skeletal fixation for a left acetabular fracture that had occurred 2 years earlier. One year later, he developed coxarthrosis and severe pain of the hip joint and total hip arthroplasty was performed. After the second surgery, he experienced pain along the distribution of the sciatic nerve and weakness of the muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve, indicating sciatic nerve palsy. We performed a third operation, and divided adhesions around the sciatic nerve. Postoperatively, the anterior hip joint pain and the buttocks pain when the hip was flexed were improved. Abduction of the fifth toe was also improved. However, the footdrop and sensory disturbance were not improved. A year after the third operation, sensory disturbance was slightly improved but the footdrop was not improved. We believe the sciatic nerve palsy developed when we dislocated the hip joint as the sciatic nerve was excessively extended as the hip joint flexed and internally rotated. Sciatic nerve adhesion can occur easily in total hip replacement for postoperative acetabular fracture; hence, adhesiotomy should be conducted before performing hip dislocation to prevent injury caused by nerve tension. The patient agreed that the details of this case could be submitted for publication. The work has been reported in line with the CARE criteria and cite.

  7. [Distal sciatic nerve blocks: randomized comparison of nerve stimulation and ultrasound guided intraepineural block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, R; Natge, U; Schulz, J

    2013-03-01

    The design of this study is related to an important current issue: should local anesthetics be intentionally injected into peripheral nerves? Answering this question is not possible without better knowledge regarding classical methods of nerve localization (e.g. cause of paresthesias and nerve stimulation technique). Have intraneural injections ever been avoided? This prospective, randomized comparison of distal sciatic nerve block with ultrasound guidance tested the hypothesis that intraneural injection of local anesthetics using the nerve stimulation technique is common and associated with a higher success rate. In this study 250 adult patients were randomly allocated either to the nerve stimulation group (group NS, n = 125) or to the ultrasound guidance group (group US, n = 125). The sciatic nerve was anesthetized with 20 ml prilocaine 1% and 10 ml ropivacaine 0.75%. In the US group the goal was an intraepineural needle position. In the NS group progress of the block was observed by a second physician using ultrasound imaging but blinded for the investigator performing the nerve stimulation. The main outcome variables were time until readiness for surgery (performance time and onset time), success rate and frequency of paresthesias. In the NS group needle positions and corresponding stimulation thresholds were recorded. In both groups seven patients were excluded from further analysis because of protocol violation. In the NS group (n = 118) the following needle positions were estimated: intraepineural (NS 1, n = 51), extraparaneural (NS 2, n = 33), needle tip dislocation from intraepineural to extraparaneural while injecting local anesthetic (NS 3, n = 19) and other or not determined needle positions (n = 15). Paresthesias indicated an intraneural needle position with an odds ratio of 27.4 (specificity 98.8%, sensitivity 45.9%). The success rate without supplementation was significantly higher in the US group (94.9% vs. 61.9%, p

  8. Critical role of p38 MAPK for regeneration of the sciatic nerve following crush injury in vivo

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    Kato Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological function of p38α, which is an isoform of p38 MAPK, has been investigated previously in several studies using pharmacological inhibitors. However, the results regarding whether p38α promotes or inhibits nerve regeneration in vivo have been controversial. Methods We generated novel p38α mutant mice (sem mice with a point mutation in the region encoding the p38α substrate-docking-site, which serves as a limited loss-of-function model of p38α. In the present study, we utilized sem mice and wild-type littermates (wt mice to investigate the physiological role of p38α in nerve regeneration following crush injuries. Results At four weeks after crush injury, the average axon diameter and the average axon area in sem mice were significantly smaller than those in wt mice. The average myelin sheath thickness in sem mice was reduced compared to wt mice, but no significant difference was observed in the G-ratio between the two groups. The sciatic functional index value demonstrated that functional nerve recovery in sem mice following crush injury was delayed, which is consistent with the histological findings. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these findings, we examined inflammatory responses of the sciatic nerve by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. At an early phase following crush injury, sem mice showed remarkably lower expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, than wt mice. The expression of Caspase-3 and Tenascin-C were also lower in sem mice. Conversely, at a late phase of the response, sem mice showed considerably higher expression of TNF-α and of IL-1β with lower expression of S-100 than wt mice. Conclusions This is the first study of the physiological role of p38 MAPK in nerve regeneration that does not rely on the use of pharmacological inhibitors. Our results indicate that p38α insufficiency may cause an inflammatory disorder, resulting in a delay of

  9. SU-E-T-318: The Effect of Patient Positioning Errors On Target Coverage and Cochlear Dose in Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment of Acoustic Neuromas

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    Dellamonica, D.; Luo, G.; Ding, G. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Setup errors on the order of millimeters may cause under-dosing of targets and significant changes in dose to critical structures especially when planning with tight margins in stereotactic radiosurgery. This study evaluates the effects of these types of patient positioning uncertainties on planning target volume (PTV) coverage and cochlear dose for stereotactic treatments of acoustic neuromas. Methods: Twelve acoustic neuroma patient treatment plans were retrospectively evaluated in Brainlab iPlan RT Dose 4.1.3. All treatment beams were shaped by HDMLC from a Varian TX machine. Seven patients had planning margins of 2mm, five had 1–1.5mm. Six treatment plans were created for each patient simulating a 1mm setup error in six possible directions: anterior-posterior, lateral, and superiorinferior. The arcs and HDMLC shapes were kept the same for each plan. Change in PTV coverage and mean dose to the cochlea was evaluated for each plan. Results: The average change in PTV coverage for the 72 simulated plans was −1.7% (range: −5 to +1.1%). The largest average change in coverage was observed for shifts in the patient's superior direction (−2.9%). The change in mean cochlear dose was highly dependent upon the direction of the shift. Shifts in the anterior and superior direction resulted in an average increase in dose of 13.5 and 3.8%, respectively, while shifts in the posterior and inferior direction resulted in an average decrease in dose of 17.9 and 10.2%. The average change in dose to the cochlea was 13.9% (range: 1.4 to 48.6%). No difference was observed based on the size of the planning margin. Conclusion: This study indicates that if the positioning uncertainty is kept within 1mm the setup errors may not result in significant under-dosing of the acoustic neuroma target volumes. However, the change in mean cochlear dose is highly dependent upon the direction of the shift.

  10. A Rare Primary Pelvic Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Sciatica

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    Praveen S Rathod

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid cyst in the pelvis is rare, and usually presents with pressure symptoms affecting the adjacent abdominal organs. We describe a rare hydatid cyst which was eroding the sacral hallow, protruding into the right sciatic foramen and presenting as a radiating pain and weakness of right lower limb due to compression of the lumbosacral nerve roots. Laparotomy with removal of cyst and postoperative treatment with albendazole is effective in controlling the disease and preventing recurrence.

  11. Excursion of the Sciatic Nerve During Nerve Mobilization Exercises: An In Vivo Cross-sectional Study Using Dynamic Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Michel W; Andersen, Line S; Johansen, Runar; Giskegjerde, Per K; Høivik, Mona; Vestre, Siv; Nee, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Controlled laboratory cross-sectional study using single-group, within-subject comparisons. To determine whether different types of neurodynamic techniques result in differences in longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. Large differences in nerve biomechanics have been demonstrated for different neurodynamic techniques for the upper limb (median nerve), but recent findings for the sciatic nerve have only revealed small differences in nerve excursion that may not be clinically meaningful. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was used to quantify longitudinal sciatic nerve movement in the thigh of 15 asymptomatic participants during 6 different mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerve involving the hip and knee. Healthy volunteers were selected to demonstrate normal nerve biomechanics and to eliminate potentially confounding variables associated with dysfunction. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to analyze the data. The techniques resulted in markedly different amounts of nerve movement (Pneurodynamic exercises for the lower limb resulted in markedly different sciatic nerve excursions. Considering the continuity of the nervous system, the movement and position of adjacent joints have a large impact on nerve biomechanics.

  12. An inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma for repair of a short sciatic nerve defect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeong; Jeon, Woo Joo; Kim, Dong Hwee; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Young Hwan; Youn, Inchan; Park, Jong Woong

    2014-07-15

    Platelet-rich plasma containing various growth factors can promote nerve regeneration. An inside-out vein graft can substitute nerve autograft to repair short nerve defects. It is hypothesized that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma shows better effects in the repair of short sciatic nerve defects. In this study, an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was used to bridge a 10 mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. The sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better improved than that of rats with a simple inside-out vein autograft. At 6 and 8 weeks, the sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better than that of rats undergoing nerve autografting. Compared with the sciatic nerve repaired with a simple inside-out vein autograft, the number of myelinated axons was higher, axon diameter and myelin sheath were greater in the sciatic nerve repaired with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma and they were similar to those in the sciatic nerve repaired with nerve autograft. These findings suggest that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma can substitute nerve autograft to repair short sciatic nerve defects.

  13. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

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    Antonio Medeiros Venancio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP. EOOb and (−-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38±0.2 and 0.17±0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−-LIN, these values were 0.23±0.0 and 0.13±0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−-LIN in the essential oil.

  14. Recurrent rectal cancer causing lumbosacral plexopathy with perineural spread to the spinal nerves and the sciatic nerve: an anatomic explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Stepan; Sullivan, Patrick S; Howe, Benjamin M; Smyrk, Thomas C; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J; Dozois, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Several groups have reported cases of rectal cancer with carcinomatous involvement of the lumbosacral plexus and sciatic, obturator, pudendal, or spinal nerves. To our best knowledge, clear examples of perineural tumor spread in rectal carcinoma have not yet been described. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data and imaging studies of three patients with primary or recurrent rectal cancer involving the lumbosacral plexus. Imaging studies included MRI and (18)FDG PET/CT scans in all (n = 3) patients, histological samples were available in two (n = 2). Imaging studies demonstrated distinct features of tumor spread from the organ to the plexus and beyond in all cases (n = 3), histological specimens demonstrated perineural involvement thus supporting our theory (n = 2). We present these three cases of perineural tumor spread in rectal cancer as a proof of concept. We hypothesize that not only our cases, but other similar reported cases can be explained anatomically by extension of the rectal cancer to the inferior hypogastric plexus with perineural tumor spread to the lumbosacral plexus using the pelvic and sacral splanchnic nerves as conduits. Once the tumor reaches the lumbosacral plexus, it can continue to spread proximally or distally. We believe that perineural spread of colon cancer represents an important, under-recognized mechanism of recurrence to neighboring major nerves in the pelvis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Rhabdomyolysis and truncular sciatic pain. MRI study of 2 cases; Rhabdomyolyse et sciatique tronculaire. Deux cas etudies en IRM

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    Le Friant, G.; Brinquin, L.; Soulie, D.; Sarrazin, J.L.; Cosnard, G.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-02-01

    We report two cases of acute rhabdomyolysis in pelvic girdle muscles with sciatic palsy secondary to compression of the sciatic nerve trunk, with clinical and MRI correlation. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis is based on clinical and biological data, but diagnosis of compression complications secondary to swelling of the muscles, especially the compression of nerve trunk, is done by imaging. T2 weighted images give a definite anatomical evaluation. They show enlarged high signal intensity muscles and anatomic relationship with the sciatic nerve from its emergence out of pelvis, giving a good correlation between rhabdomyolysis and the compressed nervous trunk. It helps for planning a possible surgical fasciotomy. However, MRI provides only morphological informations, but not differentiates edema from necrosis in involved muscles. (authors). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  16. [Dynamic observation of the biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jia-zhi; Jiang, Bao-guo; Zhao, Fu-qiang; Wei, Guang-ru; Shang, Yong-gang; Zhang, Pei-xun; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hong-bo

    2005-06-15

    To observe the biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing. The right sciatic nerves of 40 white Sprague-Dawley 300-350 gm rats were exposed, cut and then repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures, laced in the epineurium. 0, 1, 3, 6 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of the sciatic nerves were measured, the data analyzed statistically. The load-elongation curves for both the normal unoperated and operated nerves had the similar shape. The tensile strength of the 0 week was significant difference to 1, 3 and 6 weeks (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found among 1, 3 and 6 weeks. The tensile strength of the injured nerves are recovered in the first week and resistant in 6 weeks after repairing.

  17. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

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    Matt C Danzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  18. Influence of laser (660 nm) on functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats following crushing lesion.

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    Belchior, Ana Carulina Guimarães; dos Reis, Filipe Abdalla; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Perreira, Daniel M; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2009-11-01

    With the aim of accelerating the regenerative processes, the objective was to study the influence of gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser (660 nm) on functional and histomorphological recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. The sciatic nerves of 12 Wistar rats were crushed divided into two groups: control and laser therapy. For the latter, GaAlAs laser was utilized (660 nm, 4 J/cm(2), 26.3 mW and 0.63 cm(2) beam), at three equidistant points on the lesion, for 20 days. Comparison of the sciatic functional index (SFI) showed that there was a significant difference only between the pre-lesion value of the laser therapy group and that after the 21st day in the control group. It was concluded that the parameters and methods utilized demonstrated positive results regarding the SFI over the time period evaluated.

  19. Inhibition of KLF7-Targeting MicroRNA 146b Promotes Sciatic Nerve Regeneration.

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    Li, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Yong-Xia; Liu, Yan-Cui; Zhai, Feng-Guo; Sun, Ping; Li, Hui-Ting; Deng, Ling-Xiao; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Ying

    2018-01-22

    A previous study has indicated that Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7), a transcription factor that stimulates Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, is a promising therapeutic transcription factor in nerve injury. We aimed to identify whether inhibition of microRNA-146b (miR-146b) affected SC proliferation, migration, and myelinated axon regeneration following sciatic nerve injury by regulating its direct target KLF7. SCs were transfected with miRNA lentivirus, miRNA inhibitor lentivirus, or KLF7 siRNA lentivirus in vitro. The expression of miR146b and KLF7, as well as SC proliferation and migration, were subsequently evaluated. In vivo, an acellular nerve allograft (ANA) followed by injection of GFP control vector or a lentiviral vector encoding an miR-146b inhibitor was used to assess the repair potential in a model of sciatic nerve gap. miR-146b directly targeted KLF7 by binding to the 3'-UTR, suppressing KLF7. Up-regulation of miR-146b and KLF7 knockdown significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of SCs, whereas silencing miR-146b resulted in increased proliferation and migration. KLF7 protein was localized in SCs in which miR-146b was expressed in vivo. Similarly, 4 weeks after the ANA, anti-miR-146b increased KLF7 and its target gene nerve growth factor cascade, promoting axonal outgrowth. Closer analysis revealed improved nerve conduction and sciatic function index score, and enhanced expression of neurofilaments, P0 (anti-peripheral myelin), and myelinated axon regeneration. Our findings provide new insight into the regulation of KLF7 by miR-146b during peripheral nerve regeneration and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space.

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    Hernando, Moisés Fernández; Cerezal, Luis; Pérez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana

    2015-07-01

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included "piriformis syndrome," a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation.

  1. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

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    Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Perez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana [Diagnostico Medico Cantabria (DMC), Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Orthopedic Surgery Department Clinica Mompia (L.P.C.), Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2015-03-05

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  2. An Investigation of Correlation between Electrophysiological and Functional Recovery after the Sciatic Nerve Injury

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    Mustafa Guven

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Video or photo assisted footprint analysis method is used to determine the motor and sensorial development instead of classic walking track footprint analysis in experimental peripheral nerve injury. Besides, the sucrose-gap method is used for measuring the electrophysiological activity in the sciatic nerves in-vitro. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between functional and electrophysiological recovery during the nerve regeneration in Wistar rats. Methods: In the experiments, after the unilateral sciatic nerve crushing, the rats were evaluated at the preoperative and 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks postoperative using the sucrose gap method, and photo assisted footprint method. The compound action potentials (CAP, the Peak- time (PT and the ½ Falling- time (1/2FT were measured, and compared to functional results. Results: Two weeks after being crushed sciatic nerves, complete function loss was seen operated legs in all rats. The amplitude of CAP was determined too small. The PT and the 1/2FT values were three fold longer than intact. However, following 4th – 8th weeks, the amplitude of CAP and other parameters of CAP were closed to intact values. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the results of the functional recovery were correlated to electrophysiological results. However, functional results showed almost full functional recovery in the 4th week, the electrophysiological results did not reach to intact values in the 8th week. We conclude that photo assisted footprint analysis method and sucrose-gap technique, which are useful functional and electrophysiological methods to produce complementary knowledge with each other in the investigation of experimental peripheral nerve regeneration. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000: 177-185

  3. Slow-releasing rapamycin-coated bionic peripheral nerve scaffold promotes the regeneration of rat sciatic nerve after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tan; Zhu, Chao; Yin, Jun-Bin; Zhang, Ting; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Ren, Jun; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of locally slow-released rapamycin (RAPA) from the bionic peripheral nerve scaffold on rat sciatic nerve regeneration in the early phase of nerve injury. Slow-releasing RAPA-polyhydroxy alcohol (PLGA) microspheres were prepared and tested for microsphere diameter and slow-release effect in vitro after loading onto nerve scaffold. A total of 48 male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and 3 experimental groups as follows: group 1: RAPA-PLGA scaffold; group 2: RAPA scaffold; and group 3: scaffold alone. In the control group, a 15mm sciatic nerve was excised and religated reversely. In the experimental groups, the scaffolds were used to bridge a defect of 15mm sciatic nerve. The outcome of nerve regeneration was evaluated using neurophysiological and neuromuscular morphological techniques. The RAPA-PLGA microspheres displayed a smooth exterior. The slow-release of RAPA in group 1 lasted for 14days. The sciatic nerve function index (SFI) and electrophysiological and morphological features were examined 12weeks after the surgery in all groups to reveal various degrees of ipsilateral sciatic nerve regeneration. The SFI values at 12weeks showed no significant difference between the RAPA-PLGA scaffold and control groups; morphological observations revealed that the outcomes of nerve regeneration in the above 2 groups were similar and significantly better than those in the RAPA scaffold and scaffold alone groups. RAPA-PLGA microsphere-loaded bionic peripheral nerve scaffold gradually released RAPA locally in the early phase of sciatic nerve regeneration, reduced the secondary nerve injury, and evidently promoted the regeneration of peripheral nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraperitoneal Alpha-Lipoic Acid to prevent neural damage after crush injury to the rat sciatic nerve

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    Ozbag Davut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Crush injury to the sciatic nerve causes oxidative stress. Alfa Lipoic acid (a-LA is a neuroprotective metabolic antioxidant. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with a-LA on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve. Methods Forty rats were randomized into four groups. Group I and Group II received saline (2 ml, intraperitoneally and a-LA (100 mg/kg, 2 ml, intraperitoneally in the groups III and IV at the 24 and 1 hour prior to the crush injury. In groups II, III and IV, the left sciatic nerve was exposed and compressed for 60 seconds with a jeweler's forceps. In Group I (n = 10, the sciatic nerve was explored but not crushed. In all groups of rats, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in samples of sciatic nerve tissue. Results Compared to Group I, Group II had significantly decreased tissue SOD and CAT activities and elevated MDA levels indicating crush injury (p < 0.05. In the a-LA treatment groups (groups III and IV, tissue CAT and SOD activities were significantly increased and MDA levels significantly decreased at the first hour (p < 0.05 and on the 3rd day (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between a-LA treatment groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion A-LA administered before crush injury of the sciatic nerve showed significant protective effects against crush injury by decreasing the oxidative stress. A-LA should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  5. Tratamento cirúrgico de pseudoaneurisma de artéria isquiática: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Surgical treatment of false aneurysm of the sciatic artery: case report and literature review

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    Gustavo Ioshio Handa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A persistência da artéria isquiática é uma rara variação anatômica, com poucos casos descritos na literatura, manifestando-se por formação de aneurisma, massa pulsátil em glúteo, isquemia aguda ou crônica de membro inferior e compressão de nervo isquiático. O diagnóstico é confirmado com exames de imagem: mapeamento duplex, angiotomografia e angiorressonância magnética. O tratamento é indicado nos casos sintomáticos ou quando há formação de aneurisma, realizado através de ligadura ou embolização por via endovascular, sendo necessário a revascularização do membro nos casos em que a artéria isquiática é a principal responsável pelo suprimento sangüíneo do membro. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 43 anos, com pseudoaneurisma de artéria isquiática confirmada por mapeamento duplex e angiorressonância magnética, com quadro de neuropatia isquiática por compressão nervosa e dor local. A paciente foi submetida à exploração cirúrgica com ligadura da artéria isquiática e remoção dos trombos. No seguimento de 12 meses, apresentou importante melhora da dor e realizou fisioterapia motora para recuperação das funções neurológicas do membro.The persistent sciatic artery is a rare anatomical variation, with few cases described on the literature. It presents clinically as aneurysm formation, pulsate gluteal mass, acute or chronic limb ischemia and sciatic nerve compression. Diagnosis is confirmed by imaging methods: duplex scan, CT angiographt and magnetic resonance angiography. Treatment is indicated in symptomatic cases and when there is aneurysm formation and it is performed by ligation of the sciatic artery or endovascular embolization, associated with limb revascularization in the cases the sciatic artery is the main blood supply to the limb. We report the case of a 43 year-old female patient, ,with a false aneurysm of the sciatic artery confirmed by duplex scan and magnetic resonance

  6. Sequential imaging of intraneural sciatic nerve endometriosis provides insight into symptoms of cyclical sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Stepan; Amrami, Kimberly K; Howe, Benjamin M; Collins, Mark S; Sandroni, Paola; Cheville, John C; Spinner, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis of the nerve often remains an elusive diagnosis. We report the first case of intraneural lumbosacral plexus endometriosis with sequential imaging at different phases of the menstrual cycle: during the luteal phase and menstruation. Compared to the first examination, the examination performed during the patient's period revealed the lumbosacral plexus larger and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. The intraneural endometriosis cyst was also larger and showed recent hemorrhage. Additionally, this case represents another example of perineural spread of endometriosis from the uterus to the lumbosacral plexus along the autonomic nerves and then distally to the sciatic nerve and proximally to the spinal nerves.

  7. Effects of Jinmaitong Capsule () on ciliary neurotrophic factor in sciatic nerves of diabetes mellitus rats.

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    Shi, Yue; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Qun-Li; Sun, Lian-Qing; Qu, Ling; Zhao, Li; Wang, Pu-Yan

    2013-02-01

    To study the effects of the Chinese medicine Jinmaitong Capsule (, JMT) on the pathomorphology of sciatic nerves, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and the mRNA expressions of CNTF in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM). The animal model was established by one time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The rats were simply divided by random into 5 groups including model group, low-dose JMT group (JL), medium-dose JMT group (JM), high-dose JMT group (JH) and neurotropin group. For each of the above 5 groups, a group of 10 normal Wistar rats matched in body weight, age and gender were set as normal group. Intragastric administrations were started after the animal model established. The JL group were administered with five times the JMT dose recommended for a human adult; the JM group were administered with ten times the JMT dose recommended for a human adult; the JH group were administered with twenty times the JMT dose recommended for a human adult. The neurotropin group was administered with ten times the neurotropin dose recommended for a human adult. All rats were given intragastric administration for 16 weeks and then killed. In the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th week, body weight and blood glucose level were detected before and after the intervention. The morphologic changes of the sciatic nerves were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. The CNTFmRNA expressions were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain protein, and the CNTF protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemical method. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-DM rats were much higher than normal group (P0.05). Before and after the intervention in the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th week, there were no significant differences in the body weight among all the groups (P>0.05). The sciatic nerves of STZ-DM rats might have pathomorphological changes in axons, myelin sheaths, and interstitium. The levels of CNTF and CNTF

  8. Primo-vessels and primo-nodes in rat brain, spine and sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Eom, Ki-Hoon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2010-06-01

    We report a method using Trypan blue staining to detect primo-vessels in the nervous system on internal organs or in the skin of rat. We applied this technique to visualize the primo-vessels and primo-nodes in the brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve of a rat. Primo-vessels and primo-nodes were preferentially stained at nerves, blood vessels, or fascia-like membranes and turned blue after the spread and washing of Trypan blue. The physiological role of the primo-vessels within the nervous system is an important question warranting further investigation. Copyright 2010 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  9. A randomized comparison between bifurcation and prebifurcation subparaneural popliteal sciatic nerve blocks.

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    Tran, De Q H; González, Andrea P; Bernucci, Francisca; Pham, Kevin; Finlayson, Roderick J

    2013-05-01

    In this prospective, randomized, observer-blinded trial, we compared ultrasound-guided subparaneural popliteal sciatic nerve blocks performed either at or proximal to the neural bifurcation (B). We hypothesized that the total anesthesia-related time (sum of performance and onset times) would be decreased with the prebifurcation (PB) technique. Ultrasound-guided posterior popliteal sciatic nerve block was performed in 68 patients. All subjects received an identical volume (30 mL) and mix of local anesthetic agent (1% lidocaine-0.25% bupivacaine-5 µg/mL epinephrine). In the PB group, the local anesthetic solution was deposited at the level of the common sciatic trunk, just distal to the intersection between its circular and elliptical sonographic appearances, inside the paraneural sheath. In the B group, the injection was performed inside the sheath between the tibial and peroneal divisions. A blinded observer recorded the success rate (complete tibial and peroneal sensory block at 30 minutes) and onset time. The performance time, number of needle passes, and adverse events (paresthesia, neural edema) were also recorded. All subjects were contacted 7 days after the surgery to inquire about the presence of persistent numbness or motor deficit. Both techniques resulted in comparable success rates (85%-88%; 95% confidence interval [CI] of the intergroup difference, -14% to 19%) and required similar performance times (8.1 minutes; 95% CI of the difference, -1.65 to 1.71 minutes), onset times (15.0-17.7 minutes; 95% CI of the difference, -7.65 to 2.31 minutes), and total anesthesia-related times (23.4-26.0 minutes; 95% CI of the difference, -7.83 to 2.74 minutes). The number of needle passes and incidence of paresthesia (25%-34%) were also similar between the 2 groups. Sonographic neural swelling was detected in 2 and 3 subjects in the PB and B groups, respectively. In all 5 cases, the needle was carefully withdrawn and the injection completed uneventfully. Patient

  10. The effect of spinal position on sciatic nerve excursion during seated neural mobilisation exercises: an in vivo study using ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Richard; Osborne, Samantha; Whitfield, Janessa; Parmar, Priya; Hing, Wayne

    2017-05-01

    Research has established that the amount of inherent tension a peripheral nerve tract is exposed to influences nerve excursion and joint range of movement (ROM). The effect that spinal posture has on sciatic nerve excursion during neural mobilisation exercises has yet to be determined. The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of different sitting positions (slump-sitting versus upright-sitting) on the amount of longitudinal sciatic nerve movement during different neural mobilisation exercises commonly used in clinical practice. High-resolution ultrasound imaging followed by frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis was used to assess sciatic nerve excursion. Thirty-four healthy participants each performed three different neural mobilisation exercises in slump-sitting and upright-sitting. Means comparisons were used to examine the influence of sitting position on sciatic nerve excursion for the three mobilisation exercises. Linear regression analysis was used to determine whether any of the demographic data represented predictive variables for longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. There was no significant difference in sciatic nerve excursion (across all neural mobilisation exercises) observed between upright-sitting and slump-sitting positions (P = 0.26). Although greater body mass index, greater knee ROM and younger age were associated with higher levels of sciatic nerve excursion, this model of variables offered weak predictability (R(2) = 0.22). Following this study, there is no evidence that, in healthy people, longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion differs significantly with regards to the spinal posture (slump-sitting and upright-sitting). Furthermore, although some demographic variables are weak predictors, the high variance suggests that there are other unknown variables that may predict sciatic nerve excursion. It can be inferred from this research that clinicians can individualise the design of seated neural mobilisation exercises

  11. Impact of insurance status and race on receipt of treatment for acoustic neuroma: A national cancer database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Kim, Ellen; Murphy, James D; Jaboin, Jerry J

    2017-08-01

    Acoustic neuroma (AN) management involves surgery, radiation, or observation. Previous studies have demonstrated that patient race and insurance status impact in-hospital morbidity/mortality following surgery; however the nationwide impact of these demographics on the receipt of each treatment modality has not been examined. The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) from 2004 to 2013 identified AN patients. Multivariate analysis adjusted for several variables within each treatment modality, including patient age, race, sex, income, primary payer for care, tumor size, and medical comorbidities. Patients who were African-American (OR=0.7; 95%CI=0.5-0.9; p=0.01), elderly (minimum age 65) (OR=0.4; 95%CI=0.4-0.6; p<0.0001), on Medicare (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.4-0.7; p=0.0005), or treated at a community hospital (OR=0.4; 95%CI=0.2-0.7; p=0.007) were less likely to receive surgery. Patients on Medicaid (OR=1.2; 95%CI=0.8-1.8; p=0.04) or treated at an integrated network (OR=1.2; 95%CI=0.9-1.6; p=0.0004) were more likely to receive surgery. Patients who were elderly (OR=2.2; 95%CI=1.7-2.9; p<0.0001) or treated in a comprehensive cancer center (OR=1.5; 95%CI=1.3-1.9; p=0.02) were more likely and Medicaid patients (OR=0.8; 95%CI=0.5-1.2; p=0.04) were less likely to receive radiation. Patients who were elderly (OR=2.2; 95%CI=1.7-2.7; p<0.0001), African-American (OR=1.5; 95%CI=1.1-2.0; p=0.01), on Medicare (OR=1.8; 95%CI=1.4-2.3; p=0.0003), or treated in a community hospital (OR=3.0; 95%CI=1.6-5.6; p=0.0007) were more likely to receive observation. Patients on Medicaid (OR=0.8; 95%CI=0.5-1.2; p=0.04) or treated in an integrated network (OR=0.8; 95%CI=0.6-1.0; p=0.0001) were less likely to receive observation. African-American race, elderly age, and community hospital treatment triaged towards observation/away from surgery; age also triaged towards radiation. Conversely, integrated networks triaged towards surgery/away from observation; comprehensive cancer centers triaged towards

  12. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect: stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional fnite element simulation model

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    Cheng-dong Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the magnitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional finite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 finite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These findings indicate that three-dimensional finite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anastomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  13. The Neuroprotective Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Neuronal Density of Spinal Cord Alpha Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

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    M Tehranipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries of the peripheral nerve system affect the neurons cell body leading to axon injury. Cannabis sativa plant has anti oxidant and anti apoptotic effects. Therefore the aim of present study was to study the neuroprotective effect of alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves on neuronal density of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Methods: In this experimental research, animals were divided into four groups; A: control, B: compression, C: compression+ treatment with 25 mg/kg alcoholic extract, D: compression + treatment with 50 mg/kg extract (n=8. At first, sciatic nerve compression in B, C and D groups was achieved for 60 seconds using locker pincers. Alcoholic extract was injected intra peritoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression, under profusion method, the lumbar spinal cord was sampled and the numerical density in each group was compared with the compression group. The data was analyzed with the use of Minitab 14 software and ANOVA statistical test. Results: Neuronal density showed a meaningful difference in the compression and control groups(P<0.001. Neuronal density in treatment groups(25, 50 mg/kg also had a meaningful increase(P<0.001 as compared to the compression group. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves has a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. This could be due to growth and regeneration factors present in the alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves that induce regeneration process in injured neurons or prevent degeneration.

  14. Effect of ozone and methylprednisolone treatment following crush type sciatic nerve injury.

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    Ozturk, Omur; Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Adali, Yasemen; Yıldırım, Can Hakan; Aksoy, Ozgur; Yagmurdur, Hatice; Bilge, Ali

    2016-11-01

    To assess and compare the histopathological effects of ozone therapy and/or methylprednisolone (MPS) treatment on regeneration after crush type sciatic nerve injury. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into four groups. Four groups received the following regimens intraperitoneally every day for 14 days after formation of crush type injury on sciatic nerve: Group I: ozone (20mcg/ml); Group II: methylprednisolone (2mg/kg); Group III: ozone (20 mcg/ml) and methylprednisolone (2mg/kg); Group IV: isotonic saline (0.9%). The histomorphological evaluation was made after biopsies were obtained from the sites of injury. Significant differences were noted between groups in terms of degeneration (p=0.019), nerve sheath cell atrophy (p=0.012), intraneural inflammatory cellular infiltration (p=0.002), perineural granulation tissue formation (p=0.019), perineural vascular proliferation (p=0.004), perineural inflammatory cellular infiltration (pozone treatment can have beneficial effects for regeneration after crush type nerve injury.

  15. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Sen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350 g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%, levobupivacaine group 3 (15%, and lidocaine group 6 (30%. CONCLUSION: In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency.

  16. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Sayilgan, Nevzat Cem; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur; Koksal, Guniz Meyanci; Oz, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%), levobupivacaine group 3 (15%), and lidocaine group 6 (30%). In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy improve the recovery of injured sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; He, Wei; Zhang, Yingze; Tian, Dehu; Zhao, Hongfang; Yu, Kunlun; Bai, Jiangbo

    2013-07-25

    Drug treatment, electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy have been shown to promote the repair and regeneration of the peripheral nerves at the injured site. This study prepared a Mackinnon's model of rat sciatic nerve compression. Electric stimulation was given immediately after neurolysis, and decimeter wave radiation was performed at 1 and 12 weeks post-operation. Histological observation revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy could improve the local blood circulation of repaired sites, alleviate hypoxia of compressed nerves, and lessen adhesion of compressed nerves, thereby decreasing the formation of new entrapments and enhancing compressed nerve regeneration through an improved microenvironment for regeneration. Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave could promote the expression of S-100 protein. Motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude, the number and diameter of myelinated nerve fibers, and sciatic functional index were significantly increased in the treated rats. These results verified that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy contributed to the regeneration and the recovery of the functions in the compressed nerves.

  18. N-Propionylmannosamine stimulates axonal elongation in a murine model of sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Witzel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that sialic acid plays an important role during nerve regeneration. Sialic acids can be modified in vitro as well as in vivo using metabolic oligosaccharide engineering of the N-acyl side chain. N-Propionylmannosamine (ManNProp increases neurite outgrowth and accelerates the reestablishment of functional synapses in vitro. We investigated the influence of systemic ManNProp application using a specific in vivo mouse model. Using mice expressing axonal fluorescent proteins, we quantified the extension of regenerating axons, the number of regenerating axons, the number of arborising axons and the number of branches per axon 5 days after injury. Sciatic nerves from non-expressing mice were grafted into those expressing yellow fluorescent protein. We began a twice-daily intraperitoneal application of either peracetylated ManNProp (200 mg/kg or saline solution 5 days before injury, and continued it until nerve harvest (5 days after transection. ManNProp significantly increased the mean distance of axonal regeneration (2.49 mm vs. 1.53 mm; P < 0.005 and the number of arborizing axons (21% vs. 16% P = 0.008 5 days after sciatic nerve grafting. ManNProp did not affect the number of regenerating axons or the number of branches per arborizing axon. The biochemical glycoengineering of the N-acyl side chain of sialic acid might be a promising approach for improving peripheral nerve regeneration.

  19. A novel nanoparticle delivery system for in vivo targeting of the sciatic nerve: impact on regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nádia Pereira; Oliveira, Hugo; Pêgo, Ana Paula; Saraiva, Maria João

    2012-08-01

    Innovative solutions in the development of drug delivery systems targeting the nerve tissue are awaited. In this regard, a novel system for the delivery of drugs to the sciatic nerve was created using nanomedical principles. Chitosan was the vehicle material used in the experiment. Heparin bound to growth factors has been administered to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, and since heparin possesses the appropriate charge to be able to form nanoparticles with chitosan, it appears to be a good candidate to base this new delivery system on. Maximal absorption took place throughout the extracellular matrix at day 15. No major inflammatory response was observed, indicating that this is a safe and biocompatible system for drug delivery to nerves. Sensorimotor performance and nerve regeneration of mice receiving these nanoparticles were superior as compared with controls. Our work demonstrates a versatile nanoparticle delivery system that successfully targets drugs 'in vivo' to the sciatic nerve, opening novel avenues in the field of nanomedicine to the design of therapeutic strategies that enhance axonal regeneration.

  20. Evoked bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve of white rats in experimental menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinsky A.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was analysis of the bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve in experimental menopause condition. Experiments were performed on 25 female white rats, divided into experimental and control groups. Menopause was modeled by total ovariohysterectomy. In 120 days after modeling we had recorded evoked action potentials of fibers of isolated ventral root L5 induced by stimulation of sciatic nerve with rectangular pulses. Threshold, chronaxia, latency, amplitude and duration of the action potential (AP were analysed. Refractory phenomenon was investigated by applying paired stimuli at intervals of 2 to 20 ms. In the context of long-term hypoestrogenemy threshold of AP appearance was 55,32±7,69%, chronaxy – 115,09±2,67%, latent period – 112,62±1,74% as compared with the control animals (p<0.01. In conditions of paired stimuli applying the amplitude of response to the testing stimulus in animals with ovariohysterectomy at intervals 3 and 4 ms was 61,25±36,45% and 53,48±18,64% (p<0.05 respectively.

  1. Liquid Metal as Connecting or Functional Recovery Channel for the Transected Sciatic Nerve

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the liquid metal GaInSn alloy (67% Ga, 20.5% In, and 12.5% Sn by volume) is proposed for the first time to repair the peripheral neurotmesis as connecting or functional recovery channel. Such material owns a group of unique merits in many aspects, such as favorable fluidity, super compliance, high electrical conductivity, which are rather beneficial for conducting the excited signal of nerve during the regeneration process in vivo. It was found that the measured electroneurographic signal from the transected bullfrog sciatic nerve reconnected by the liquid metal after the electrical stimulation was close to that from the intact sciatic nerve. The control experiments through replacement of GaInSn with the conventionally used Riger Solution revealed that Riger Solution could not be competitive with the liquid metal in the performance as functional recovery channel. In addition, through evaluation of the basic electrical property, the material GaInSn works more suitable for the conduction of the...

  2. Wallerian degeneration and axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve crush are altered in ICAM-1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Matthias; Campos Friz, Marianella; Vougioukas, Vassilios I; Hofmann, Hans-Dieter

    2009-10-01

    The intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been implicated in the recruitment of immune cells during inflammatory processes. Previous studies investigating its involvement in the process of Wallerian degeneration and focusing on its potential role in macrophage recruitement have come to controversial conclusions. To examine whether Wallerian degeneration is altered in the absence of ICAM-1, we have analyzed changes in the expression of axonal and Schwann cell markers following sciatic nerve crush in wildtype and ICAM-1-deficient mice. We report that the lack of ICAM-1 leads to impaired axonal degeneration and regeneration and to alterations in Schwann cell responses following sciatic nerve crush. Degradation of neurofilament protein, the collapse of axonal profiles, and the re-expression of neurofilament proteins are substantially delayed in the distal nerve segment of ICAM-1(-/-) mice. In contrast, the degradation of myelin, as determined by immunostaining for myelin protein zero, is unaltered in the mutants. Upregulation of GAP-43 and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) expression, characteristic for Schwann cells dedifferentiating in response to nerve injury, is differentially altered in the mutant animals. These results indicate that ICAM-1 is essential for the normal progression of axonal degeneration and regeneration in distal segments of injured peripheral nerves.

  3. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  1. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  12. Inhibition of the TRPM2 and TRPV1 Channels through Hypericum perforatum in Sciatic Nerve Injury-induced Rats Demonstrates their Key Role in Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress of Sciatic Nerve and Dorsal Root Ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Uslusoy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sciatic nerve injury (SNI results in neuropathic pain, which is characterized by the excessive Ca2+ entry, reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis processes although involvement of antioxidant Hypericum perforatum (HP through TRPM2 and TRPV1 activation has not been clarified on the processes in SNI-induced rat, yet. We investigated the protective property of HP on the processes in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN of SNI-induced rats. The rats were divided into five groups as control, sham, sham+HP, SNI, and SNI+HP. The HP groups received 30 mg/kg HP for 4 weeks after SNI induction. TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels were activated in the neurons by ADP-ribose or cumene peroxide and capsaicin, respectively. The SNI-induced TRPM2 and TRPV1 currents and intracellular free Ca2+ and ROS concentrations were reduced by HP, N-(p-amylcinnamoyl anthranilic acid (ACA, and capsazepine (CapZ. SNI-induced increase in apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization in sciatic nerve and DRGN of SNI group were decreased by HP, ACA, and CapZ treatments. PARP-1, caspase 3 and 9 expressions in the sciatic nerve, DRGN, skin, and musculus piriformis of SNI group were also attenuated by HP treatment. In conclusion, increase of mitochondrial ROS, apoptosis, and Ca2+ entry through inhibition of TRPM2 and TRPV1 in the sciatic nerve and DRGN neurons were decreased by HP treatment. The results may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of SNI by HP.

  13. Effects of early and late diabetic neuropathy on sciatic nerve block duration and neurotoxicity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Verhamme, C.; Boeckh, R.; Stevens, M. F.; ten Hoope, W.; Gerner, P.; Blumenthal, S.; de Girolami, U.; van Schaik, I. N.; Hollmann, M. W.; Picardi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The neuropathy of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. We aimed to test the hypothesis that in a rodent model of type II DM, neuropathy would lead to increased neurotoxicity and block duration after lidocaine-induced sciatic nerve block when compared with control

  14. Non-invasive assessment of sciatic nerve stiffness during human ankle motion using ultrasound shear wave elastography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade, R.J.; Nordez, A.; Hug, F.; Coppieters, M.W.J.; Pezarat-Correia, P.; de Freitas, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerves are exposed to mechanical stress during movement. However the in vivo mechanical properties of nerves remain largely unexplored. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the effect of passive dorsiflexion on sciatic nerve shear wave velocity (an index of stiffness) when

  15. Morphometric analysis of the fiber populations of the rat sciatic nerve, its spinal roots, and its major branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodanov, D.P.; Feierabend, H.K.P.

    2007-01-01

    Correspondence between the nerve composition and the functional characteristics of its fiber populations is not always evident. To investigate such correspondence and to give a systematic picture of the morphology of the rat hind limb nerves, extensive morphometric study was performed on the sciatic

  16. Homeobox gene expression in adult dorsal root ganglia during sciatic nerve regeneration: is regeneration a recapitulation of development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Vogelaar, C.F.; Hoekman, M.F.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    2003-01-01

    After damage of the sciatic nerve, a regeneration process is initiated. Neurons in the dorsal root ganglion regrow their axons and functional connections. The molecular mechanisms of this neuronal regenerative process have remained elusive, but a relationship with developmental processes has been

  17. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve. Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats,

  18. Extra-osseous Ewing′s sarcoma of sciatic nerve masquerading as an infected hemangioma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan K Dhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-osseous Ewing′s Sarcoma (EES arising from the peripheral nerve is rarely reported in children. Here, we report an instance of EES arising from the left sciatic nerve mimicking an infected hemangioma. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion and early histological diagnosis to avoid diagnostic delay.

  19. Sciatic nerve repair with tissue engineered nerve: Olfactory ensheathing cells seeded poly(lactic-co-glygolic acid conduit in an animal model

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    C W Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Synthetic nerve conduits have been sought for repair of nerve defects as the autologous nerve grafts causes donor site morbidity and possess other drawbacks. Many strategies have been investigated to improve nerve regeneration through synthetic nerve guided conduits. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs that share both Schwann cell and astrocytic characteristics have been shown to promote axonal regeneration after transplantation. The present study was driven by the hypothesis that tissue-engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA seeded with OECs would improve peripheral nerve regeneration in a long sciatic nerve defect. Materials and Methods: Sciatic nerve gap of 15 mm was created in six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and implanted with PLGA seeded with OECs. The nerve regeneration was assessed electrophysiologically at 2, 4 and 6 weeks following implantation. Histopathological examination, scanning electron microscopic (SEM examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed at the end of the study. Results: Nerve conduction studies revealed a significant improvement of nerve conduction velocities whereby the mean nerve conduction velocity increases from 4.2 ΁ 0.4 m/s at week 2 to 27.3 ΁ 5.7 m/s at week 6 post-implantation ( P < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed presence of spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated the expression of S100 protein in both cell nucleus and the cytoplasm in these cells, hence confirming their Schwann-cell-like property. Under SEM, these cells were found to be actively secreting extracellular matrix. Conclusion: Tissue-engineered PLGA conduit seeded with OECs provided a permissive environment to facilitate nerve regeneration in a small animal model.

  20. Assessing the permeability of the rat sciatic nerve epineural sheath against compounds with local anesthetic activity: an ex vivo electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagiava, Alexia; Theophilidis, George

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Studies have shown that the sciatic nerve epineural sheath acts as a barrier and has a delaying effect on the diffusion of local anesthetics into the nerve fibers and endoneurium. The purpose of this work is to assess and to quantify the permeability of the epineural sheath. For this purpose, we isolated the rat sciatic nerve in a three-chamber recording bath that allowed us to monitor the constant in amplitude evoked nerve compound action potential (nCAP) for over 24 h. For nerves exposed to the compounds under investigation, we estimated the IT50 the time required to inhibit the nCAP to 50% of its initial value. For desheathed nerves, the half-vitality time was denoted as IT50(-) and for the ensheath normal nerves as IT50(+). There was no significant difference between the IT50 of desheathed and ensheathed nerves exposed to normal saline. The IT50(-) for nerves exposed to 40 mM lidocaine was 12.1 ± 0.95 s (n=14) and the IT50(+) was 341.4 ± 2.49 s (n=6). The permeability (P) coefficient of the epineural sheath was defined as the ratio IT50(+)/IT50(-). The P coefficient for 40 mM lidocaine and linalool was 28.2 and 3.48, correspondingly, and for 30 mM 2-heptanone was 4.87. This is an indication that the epineural sheath provided a stronger barrier against lidocaine, compared to natural local anesthetics, linalool and 2-heptanone. The methodology presented here is a useful tool for studying epineural sheath permeability to compounds with local anesthetic properties.

  1. Evaluation of PVA biodegradable electric conductive membranes for nerve regeneration in axonotmesis injuries: the rat sciatic nerve animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jorge; Caseiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Tiago; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo Alexandre; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Amorim, Irina; Leal Reis, Inês; Amado, Sandra; Santos, José Domingos; Bompasso, Simone; Raimondo, Stefania; Varejão, Artur Severo Proença; Geuna, Stefano; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2017-05-01

    The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5 ± 0.5 × 10(-6) S/m, 579 ± 0.6 × 10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed. Morphometrical analysis demonstrated that PVA-CNTs group presented higher myelin thickness and lower g-ratio. The tibialis anterior muscle, in the PVA-PPy and PVA-CNTs groups showed a 9% and 19% increase of average fiber size area and a 5% and 10% increase of the "minimal Feret's diameter," respectively. No inflammation, degeneration, fibrosis or necrosis were detected in lung, liver, kidneys, spleen, and regional lymph nodes and absence of carbon deposits was confirmed with Von Kossa and Masson-Fontana stains. In conclusion, the membranes of PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy are biocompatible and have electrical conductivity. The higher electrical conductivity measured in PVA-CNTs membrane might be responsible for the positive results on maturation of myelinated fibers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1267-1280, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of Methylprednisolone on Motor Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Transection and Decellularized Scaffold Transplantation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdolmaleki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Following the peripheral nervous system trauma, prescribing anti-inflammatory agents is one of the strategies to control the damage and promoting the recovery process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methylprednisolone on improvement of motor function and tissue changes following sciatic nerve transection and repairing by decellularized scaffolds transplantation in rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10; negative control group (receiving no medication with transection of the sciatic nerve, sham group (nerve-mediated surgery with solvent drug, experimental groups 1 and 2 (transection of the sciatic nerve and scaffold transplantation with 1- and 30mg/kg of methylprednisolone intraperitoneally and experimental group 3 (transection of the sciatic nerve and scaffold transplantation with solvent drug. Behavioral, electrophysiological and tissue tests were performed during the experiment. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software and using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. Findings: the rate of repair and improvement of motor function was increased significantly in the treated groups with methylprednisolone compared to the control group (p<0.05. Musculoskeletal atrophy of gastrocnemius was decreased in methylprednisolone treated groups. In addition, the number of neural fibers, axon diameter and thickness of myelin sheath were significantly higher in the treated groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The prescription of methylprednisolone increases the amount of motor improvement and tissue repair after the sciatic nerve transection and the decellularized scaffold transplantation. Recovery of the motor and tissue functions at high dose of methylprednisolone is better than low dose.

  3. Electrospun micro- and nanofiber tubes for functional nervous regeneration in sciatic nerve transections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadio Stefano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many nerve prostheses have been proposed in recent years, in the case of consistent loss of nervous tissue peripheral nerve injury is still a traumatic pathology that may impair patient's movements by interrupting his motor-sensory pathways. In the last few decades tissue engineering has opened the door to new approaches;: however most of them make use of rigid channel guides that may cause cell loss due to the lack of physiological local stresses exerted over the nervous tissue during patient's movement. Electrospinning technique makes it possible to spin microfiber and nanofiber flexible tubular scaffolds composed of a number of natural and synthetic components, showing high porosity and remarkable surface/volume ratio. Results In this study we used electrospun tubes made of biodegradable polymers (a blend of PLGA/PCL to regenerate a 10-mm nerve gap in a rat sciatic nerve in vivo. Experimental groups comprise lesioned animals (control group and lesioned animals subjected to guide conduits implantated at the severed nerve stumps, where the tubular scaffolds are filled with saline solution. Four months after surgery, sciatic nerves failed to reconnect the two stumps of transected nerves in the control animal group. In most of the treated animals the electrospun tubes induced nervous regeneration and functional reconnection of the two severed sciatic nerve tracts. Myelination and collagen IV deposition have been detected in concurrence with regenerated fibers. No significant inflammatory response has been found. Neural tracers revealed the re-establishment of functional neuronal connections and evoked potential results showed the reinnervation of the target muscles in the majority of the treated animals. Conclusion Corroborating previous works, this study indicates that electrospun tubes, with no additional biological coating or drug loading treatment, are promising scaffolds for functional nervous regeneration. They

  4. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, D G; Sousa, S D G; Silva, R E R; Silva-Alves, K S; Ferreira-da-Silva, F W; Kerntopf, M R; Menezes, I R A; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Barbosa, R

    2015-08-01

    Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM) for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade) significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.

  5. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves

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    D.G. Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.

  6. Tramadol, but not its major metabolite (mono-O-demethyl tramadol) depresses compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, R; Fujita, T; Koga, A; Liu, T; Nakatsuka, T; Nakashima, M; Kumamoto, E

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although tramadol is known to exhibit a local anaesthetic effect, how tramadol exerts this effect is not understood fully. Experimental approach: The effects of tramadol and its metabolite mono-O-demethyl-tramadol (M1) on compound action potentials (CAPs) were examined by applying the air-gap method to frog sciatic nerves, and the results were compared with those of other local anaesthetics, lidocaine and ropivacaine. Key results: Tramadol reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=2.3 mM). On the other hand, M1 (1–2 mM), which exhibits a higher affinity for μ-opioid receptors than tramadol, did not affect CAPs. These effects of tramadol were resistant to the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the μ-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, did not affect CAPs. This tramadol action was not affected by a combination of the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine, and the 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Lidocaine and ropivacaine also concentration-dependently reduced CAP peak amplitudes with IC50 values of 0.74 and 0.34 mM, respectively. Conclusions and implications: These results indicate that tramadol reduces the peak amplitude of CAP in peripheral nerve fibres with a potency which is less than those of lidocaine and ropivacaine, whereas M1 has much less effect on CAPs. This action of tramadol was not produced by activation of μ-opioid receptors nor by inhibition of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake. It is suggested that the methyl group present in tramadol but not in M1 may play an important role in producing nerve conduction block. PMID:16921387

  7. Effect of Sciatic Nerve Transection on acetylcholinesterase activity in spinal cord and skeletal muscles of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus

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    A. Kroth

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sciatic nerve transection (SNT, a model for studying neuropathic pain, mimics the clinical symptoms of “phantom limb”, a pain condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In some vertebrate tissues, this condition decreases acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, the enzyme responsible for fast hydrolysis of released acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses. In spinal cord of frog Rana pipiens, this enzyme’s activity was not significantly changed in the first days following ventral root transection, another model for studying neuropathic pain. An answerable question is whether SNT decreases AChE activity in spinal cord of frog Lithobates catesbeianus, a species that has been used as a model for studying SNT-induced neuropathic pain. Since each animal model has been created with a specific methodology, and the findings tend to vary widely with slight changes in the method used to induce pain, our study assessed AChE activity 3 and 10 days after complete SNT in lumbosacral spinal cord of adult male bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus. Because there are time scale differences of motor endplate maturation in rat skeletal muscles, our study also measured the AChE activity in bullfrog tibial posticus (a postural muscle and gastrocnemius (a typical skeletal muscle that is frequently used to study the motor system muscles. AChE activity did not show significant changes 3 and 10 days following SNT in spinal cord. Also, no significant change occurred in AChE activity in tibial posticus and gastrocnemius muscles at day 3. However, a significant decrease was found at day 10, with reductions of 18% and 20% in tibial posticus and gastrocnemius, respectively. At present we cannot explain this change in AChE activity. While temporally different, the direction of the change was similar to that described for rats. This similarity indicates that bullfrog is a valid model for investigating AChE activity following SNT.

  8. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

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    Rosana Macher Teodori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1, those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14, injured rats not submitted to swimming (C, and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S. After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P0.05. Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury.

  9. Crosstalk between p38, Hsp25 and Akt in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Ul Haq, I.; Hill, C.; Park, E.; Smith, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Goldberg, D. J.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The p38 stress-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in regulation of phosphorylation of Hsp25, which in turn regulates actin filament dynamic in non-neuronal cells. We report that p38, Hsp25 and Akt signaling pathways were specifically activated in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve axotomy. The activation of the p38 kinase was required for induction of Hsp25 expression. Furthermore, Hsp25 formed a complex with Akt, a member of PI-3 kinase pathway that prevents neuronal cell death. Together, our observations implicate Hsp25 as a central player in a complex system of signaling that may both promote regeneration of nerve fibers and prevent neuronal cell death in the injured spinal cord.

  10. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

  11. Vascular entrapment of the sciatic plexus causing catamenial sciatica and urinary symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Nucelio; Marques, Renato Moretti; Kamergorodsky, Gil; Ploger, Christine; Schor, Eduardo; Girão, Manoel J B C

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic congestion syndrome is a well-known cause of cyclic pelvic pain (Ganeshan et al., Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 30(6):1105-11, 2007). What is much less well known is that dilated or malformed branches of the internal or external iliac vessels can entrap the nerves of the sacral plexus against the pelvic sidewalls, producing symptoms that are not commonly seen in gynecological practice, such as sciatica, or refractory urinary and anorectal dysfunction (Possover et al., Fertil Steril 95(2):756-8. 2011). The objective of this video is to explain and describe the symptoms suggestive of vascular entrapment of the sacral plexus, as well as the technique for the laparoscopic decompression of these nerves. Two anecdotal cases of intrapelvic vascular entrapment are used to review the anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus and demonstrate the laparoscopic surgical technique for decompression at two different sites, one on the sciatic nerve and one on the sacral nerve roots. After surgery, the patient with the sciatic entrapment showed full recovery of the sciatica and partial recovery of the myofascial pain. The patient with sacral nerve root entrapment showed full recovery with resolution of symptoms. The symptoms suggestive of intrapelvic nerve entrapment are: perineal pain or pain irradiating to the lower limbs in the absence of a spinal disorder, and lower urinary tract symptoms in the absence of prolapse of a bladder lesion. In the presence of such symptoms, the radiologist should provide specific MRI sequences of the intrapelvic portion of the sacral plexus and a team and equipment to expose and decompress the sacral nerves should be prepared.

  12. Liposomal Bupivacaine Versus Continuous Popliteal Sciatic Nerve Block in Total Ankle Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Ryan P; Morash, Joel G; DeOrio, James K; Parekh, Selene G

    2017-11-01

    Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) is widely used in joint arthroplasty, but there is little reported on the use of LB in foot and ankle surgery. Continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block (CPSNB) is more commonly used for major foot and ankle reconstructions. The purpose of this study was to compare use of intraoperative LB injection to CPSNB as a regional anesthetic for total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), with attention to postoperative pain scores, narcotic use, and complications. Retrospective review of TAA patients of 2 fellowship-trained orthopedic foot and ankle surgeons was performed. Patients received either preoperative single-shot popliteal sciatic nerve block with 0.2% ropivacaine followed by intraoperative injection of LB or preoperative CPSNB alone. Outcomes examined were visual analog scale (VAS) pain score at 8 hours, 24 hours, 1 week, and 3 weeks following surgery; need for opioid pain medication refill; physician office notification for pain issues or other adverse events; and complications within the first 90 days following surgery. Standard statistical analysis was performed, and P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy-five patients were identified who underwent TAA and met inclusion criteria. Forty-one received LB, and 34 received CPSNB. No statistical difference was seen between groups with regard to complications, emergency department visits, readmissions, reoperations, VAS pain score at any time point, physician office contacts, and narcotic refills. Sixteen of 41 (39%) LB patients had narcotic refills, versus 12 of 34 (35%) CPSNB patients ( P = .81). Two of 41 (5%) LB patients had a complication postoperatively, versus 4 of 34 (12%) CPSNB patients. There were no complications specific to the anesthetic used in either group. This is the first study evaluating the use of LB for total ankle arthroplasty. Liposomal bupivacaine was safe and effective as an option for regional anesthetic and postoperative pain control, with comparable results to CPSNB

  13. Lateral Supratrochanteric Approach to Sciatic and Femoral Nerve Blocks in Children: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Sciatic and femoral nerve blocks (SNB and FNB) result in effective lower limb analgesia. Classical SNB and FNB require patient repositioning which can cause pain and discomfort. Alternative approaches to sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in supine patients can be useful. Materials and Methods Neurostimulator-guided SNB and FNB from the lateral supratrochanteric approach were performed. Local anesthetic spread in SNB and FNB after radiographic opacification was analyzed. Time and number of attempts to perform blocks, needle depth, and clinical efficacy were assessed. Results Mean needle passes number and procedure time for SNB were 2.5 ± 0.3 and 2.4 ± 0.2 min, respectively. Mean needle passes number and procedure time for FNB were 2.7 ± 0.27 and 2.59 ± 0.23 min, respectively. Mean skin to nerve distance was 9.1 ± 0.45 cm for SNB and 8.8 ± 0.5 cm for FNB. Radiographic opacification of SNB showed local anesthetic spread close to the sacrum and involvement of sacral plexus nerve roots. Spread of local anesthetic in FNB was typical. Intraoperative fentanyl administration was required in 2 patients (9.5%) with mean dose 1.8 ± 0.2 mcg/kg. Mean postoperative pain score was 0.34 ± 0.08 of 10. Conclusion The lateral supratrochanteric approach to SNB and FNB in children can be an effective lower limb analgesic technique in supine patients. The trial is registered with ISRCTN70969666.

  14. Lateral Supratrochanteric Approach to Sciatic and Femoral Nerve Blocks in Children: A Feasibility Study

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    Andrew A. Albokrinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sciatic and femoral nerve blocks (SNB and FNB result in effective lower limb analgesia. Classical SNB and FNB require patient repositioning which can cause pain and discomfort. Alternative approaches to sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in supine patients can be useful. Materials and Methods. Neurostimulator-guided SNB and FNB from the lateral supratrochanteric approach were performed. Local anesthetic spread in SNB and FNB after radiographic opacification was analyzed. Time and number of attempts to perform blocks, needle depth, and clinical efficacy were assessed. Results. Mean needle passes number and procedure time for SNB were 2.5 ± 0.3 and 2.4 ± 0.2 min, respectively. Mean needle passes number and procedure time for FNB were 2.7 ± 0.27 and 2.59 ± 0.23 min, respectively. Mean skin to nerve distance was 9.1 ± 0.45 cm for SNB and 8.8 ± 0.5 cm for FNB. Radiographic opacification of SNB showed local anesthetic spread close to the sacrum and involvement of sacral plexus nerve roots. Spread of local anesthetic in FNB was typical. Intraoperative fentanyl administration was required in 2 patients (9.5% with mean dose 1.8 ± 0.2 mcg/kg. Mean postoperative pain score was 0.34 ± 0.08 of 10. Conclusion. The lateral supratrochanteric approach to SNB and FNB in children can be an effective lower limb analgesic technique in supine patients. The trial is registered with ISRCTN70969666.

  15. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

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    A.M. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  16. Percutaneous sciatic nerve block with tramadol induces analgesia and motor blockade in two animal pain models

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    Sousa, A.M.; Ashmawi, H.A.; Costa, L.S.; Posso, I.P. [LIM-08 - Anestesiologia Experimental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Slullitel, A. [Departamento de Anestesiologia, Hospital Santa Paula, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-23

    Local anesthetic efficacy of tramadol has been reported following intradermal application. Our aim was to investigate the effect of perineural tramadol as the sole analgesic in two pain models. Male Wistar rats (280-380 g; N = 5/group) were used in these experiments. A neurostimulation-guided sciatic nerve block was performed and 2% lidocaine or tramadol (1.25 and 5 mg) was perineurally injected in two different animal pain models. In the flinching behavior test, the number of flinches was evaluated and in the plantar incision model, mechanical and heat thresholds were measured. Motor effects of lidocaine and tramadol were quantified and a motor block score elaborated. Tramadol, 1.25 mg, completely blocked the first and reduced the second phase of the flinching behavior test. In the plantar incision model, tramadol (1.25 mg) increased both paw withdrawal latency in response to radiant heat (8.3 ± 1.1, 12.7 ± 1.8, 8.4 ± 0.8, and 11.1 ± 3.3 s) and mechanical threshold in response to von Frey filaments (459 ± 82.8, 447.5 ± 91.7, 320.1 ± 120, 126.43 ± 92.8 mN) at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Sham block or contralateral sciatic nerve block did not differ from perineural saline injection throughout the study in either model. The effect of tramadol was not antagonized by intraperitoneal naloxone. High dose tramadol (5 mg) blocked motor function as well as 2% lidocaine. In conclusion, tramadol blocks nociception and motor function in vivo similar to local anesthetics.

  17. Femoral and sciatic nerve blockades and incision site infiltration in rabbits undergoing stifle joint arthrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, K; Larenza Menzies, M P; Kloeppel, H; Pearce, S G; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R; Kutter, A P N

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether perineural injections of local anaesthetics decreases intraoperative nociception and improves postoperative analgesia in New Zealand White rabbits undergoing experimental stifle arthrotomy. All animals were anaesthetized using isoflurane and received morphine intramuscularly. The sciatic and femoral nerves of the leg to be operated on were located using a nerve stimulator (1 Hz, 0.5 mA). Rabbits were assigned to a treatment group (LB; n = 12) or a placebo group (P; n = 12) in a randomized blinded fashion. Group LB received lidocaine 2% (1 mg/kg) combined with bupivacaine 0.5% (0.25 mg/kg) injections around the sciatic and femoral nerves (0.1 mL/kg total volume per site) and subcutaneous infiltration of the incision site with lidocaine 1% (1.25 mg/kg). Group P received the same volume of 0.9% NaCl. Rabbits in group P required higher doses of intraoperative fentanyl and propofol to reduce heart rate and suppress increase in systolic blood pressure, and maintain an adequate anaesthetic plane. Interventional analgesia (buprenorphine and carprofen) was required significantly earlier in rabbits in group P (2 and 6 h after the first nerve blockade, respectively) based on assessment of their pain-related behaviour and range of motion. Using a visual analogue scale (0 mm= no pain to 100 mm= maximal possible pain), rabbits in group LB were judged to show significantly less pain compared with rabbits in group P (14 ± 10 mm and 37 ± 25 mm, respectively) 2 h after nerve blockade. In conclusion, this technique of perineural analgesia combined with incision site infiltration reduced intraoperative fentanyl requirements and improved postoperative analgesia in rabbits.

  18. Effects of estragole on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

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    J.H. Leal-Cardoso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estragole, a relatively nontoxic terpenoid ether, is an important constituent of many essential oils with widespread applications in folk medicine and aromatherapy and known to have potent local anesthetic activity. We investigated the effects of estragole on the compound action potential (CAP of the rat sciatic nerve. The experiments were carried out on sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats. Nerves, mounted in a moist chamber, were stimulated at a frequency of 0.2 Hz, with electric pulses of 50-100-µs duration at 10-20 V, and evoked CAP were monitored on an oscilloscope and recorded on a computer. CAP control parameters were: peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA, 9.9 ± 0.55 mV (N = 15, conduction velocity, 92.2 ± 4.36 m/s (N = 15, chronaxy, 45.6 ± 3.74 µs (N = 5, and rheobase, 3.9 ± 0.78 V (N = 5. Estragole induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 0.6 mM, estragole had no demonstrable effect. At 2.0 and 6.0 mM estragole, PPA was significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug to 85.6 ± 3.96 and 13.04 ± 1.80% of control, respectively. At 4.0 mM, estragole significantly altered PPA, conduction velocity, chronaxy, and rheobase (P <= 0.05, ANOVA; N = 5 to 49.3 ± 6.21 and 77.7 ± 3.84, 125.9 ± 10.43 and 116.7 ± 4.59%, of control, respectively. All of these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon a 300-min wash-out. The data show that estragole dose-dependently blocks nerve excitability.

  19. Cholera Toxin B Subunit Shows Transneuronal Tracing after Injection in an Injured Sciatic Nerve.

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    Bi-Qin Lai

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB has been extensively used in the past for monosynaptic mapping. For decades, it was thought to lack the ability of transneuronal tracing. In order to investigate whether biotin conjugates of CTB (b-CTB would pass through transneurons in the rat spinal cord, it was injected into the crushed left sciatic nerve. For experimental control, the first order afferent neuronal projections were defined by retrograde transport of fluorogold (FG, a non-transneuronal labeling marker as an experimental control injected into the crushed right sciatic nerve in the same rat. Neurons containing b-CTB or FG were observed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG at the L4-L6 levels ipsilateral to the tracer injection. In the spinal cord, b-CTB labeled neurons were distributed in all laminae ipsilaterally between C7 and S1 segments, but labeling of neurons at the cervical segment was abolished when the T10 segment was transected completely. The interneurons, distributed in the intermediate gray matter and identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic, were labeled by b-CTB. In contrast, FG labeling was confined to the ventral horn neurons at L4-L6 spinal segments ipsilateral to the injection. b-CTB immunoreactivity remained to be restricted to the soma of neurons and often appeared as irregular patches detected by light and electron microscopy. Detection of monosialoganglioside (GM1 in b-CTB labeled neurons suggests that GM1 ganglioside may specifically enhance the uptake and transneuronal passage of b-CTB, thus supporting the notion that it may be used as a novel transneuronal tracer.

  20. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

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    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  1. Evaluation of variation in the course of the facial nerve, nerve adhesion to tumors, and postoperative facial palsy in acoustic neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Tetsuro; Morita, Akio; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Fukushima, Takanori; Friedman, Allan H; Zenga, Francesco; Ducati, Alessandro; Mastronardi, Luciano

    2013-02-01

    Objective To investigate the variation in the course of the facial nerve (FN) in patients undergoing acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery, its adhesion to tumors, and the relationship between such adhesions and postoperative facial palsy. Methods The subjects were 356 patients who underwent AN surgery in whom the course of the FN could be confirmed. Patients were classified into six groups: ventro-central surface of the tumor (VCe), ventro-rostral (VR), ventro-caudal (VCa), rostral (R), caudal (C), and dorsal (D). Results The FN course was VCe in 185 cases, VR in 137, VCa in 19, R in 10, C in 4, and D in one. For tumors  3.0 cm, there was an increasing tendency for the FN to adhere strongly to the tumor capsule, and postoperative facial palsy was more severe in patients with stronger adhesions. Conclusions The VCe pattern was most common for small tumors. Strong or less strong adhesion to the tumor capsule was most strongly associated with postoperative FN palsy.

  2. In vivo study of acute effects of hip and knee positions on blood flow in canine sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Kei; Naito, Masatoshi; Akiyoshi, Yuichiro; Asayama, Isao; Shiramizu, Kei; Abe, Tatunobu; Kanbe, Taichi

    2002-01-01

    We studied blood flow in the canine sciatic nerve using a laser Doppler flowmeter. Blood flow was measured in 20 hind limbs of ten adult dogs at varying angles of hip flexion, hip rotation and knee flexion. Blood flow decreased as flexion and internal rotation of the hip increased and also with only slight flexion of the knee. With 90 degrees knee flexion, the mean blood flow did not change significantly when the hip was internally rotated from 0 degrees to 30 degrees. When the knee was straight, the blood flow changed significantly during the same procedure. To prevent sciatic nerve palsy, attention should be paid to the positioning of the hip and knee during total hip arthroplasty.

  3. A Case Report of Schwannoma Presenting as Sciatica

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    A Afshar Fard

    2012-08-01

    The patient underwent operation and sciatic nerve explored via posterior tight and unique neural branch of mass dissociated of sciatic and mass resected. Pathology report confirmed Schwannoma in the patient. Conclusion: In patients with sciatic pain, schwannoma nerve is one of the differential diagnosis and it needs to be considered in assessing of patients.

  4. Comparison of longitudinal sciatic nerve movement with different mobilization exercises: an in vivo study utilizing ultrasound imaging.

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    Ellis, Richard F; Hing, Wayne A; McNair, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a single-group, within-subjects comparison. To determine whether different types of neural mobilization exercises are associated with differing amounts of longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion measured in vivo at the posterior midthigh region. Recent research focusing on the upper limb of healthy subjects has shown that nerve excursion differs significantly between different types of neural mobilization exercises. This has not been examined in the lower limb. It is important to initially examine the influence of neural mobilization on peripheral nerve excursion in healthy people to identify peripheral nerve excursion impairments under conditions in which nerve excursion may be compromised. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was used to assess sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh region. Four different neural mobilization exercises were performed in 31 healthy participants. These neural mobilization exercises used combinations of knee extension and cervical spine flexion and extension. Frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis of the ultrasound images was used to calculate nerve excursion. A repeated-measures analysis of variance and isolated means comparisons were used for data analysis. Different neural mobilization exercises induced significantly different amounts of sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh region (Ptensioner exercise (simultaneous cervical spine flexion and knee extension). The single-joint neck flexion exercise resulted in the least amount of sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh (mean ± SD, -0.1 ± 0.1 mm), which was significantly smaller than the other 3 exercises (P<.001). These findings are consistent with the results of previous research that has examined median nerve excursion associated with different neural mobilization exercises. Such nerve excursion supports theories of nerve motion associated with cervical spine and extremity movement, as generalizable to the lower

  5. Jumping in aquatic environment after sciatic nerve compression: nociceptive evaluation and morphological characteristics of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats

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    Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Kakihata,Camila Mayumi Martin; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro,Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of jumping in aquatic environment on nociception and in the soleus muscle of trained and not trained Wistar rats, in the treatment of compressive neuropathy of the sciatic nerve. Methods Twenty-five Wistar rats were distributed into five groups: Control, Lesion, Trained + Lesion, Lesion + Exercise, and Trained + Lesion + Exercise. The training was jumping exercise in water environment for 20 days prior to injury, and treatment after the injury. No...

  6. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats.

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    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-10-18

    Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. AMPK activation by peri-sciatic nerve administration of ozone attenuates CCI-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

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    Lu, Lijuan; Pan, Cailong; Chen, Lu; Hu, Liang; Wang, Chaoyu; Han, Yuan; Yang, Yanjing; Cheng, Zhixiang; Liu, Wen-Tao

    2017-04-01

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating clinical condition with few efficacious treatments, warranting development of novel therapeutics. Ozone is widely used as an alternative therapy for many different pain conditions, with exact mechanisms still elusive. In this study, we found that a single peri-sciatic nerve injection of ozone decreased mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and normalized the phosphorylation of protein kinase C γ, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rat sciatic nerve. Meanwhile, ozone significantly suppressed CCI-induced activation of spinal microglia. More importantly, the anti-nociceptive effect of ozone depended on the activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which was proved by the fact that the phosphorylated AMPK level increased during the ozone therapy and AMPK antagonist abolished the effect of ozone in vivo and in vitro. In addition, direct injection of AMPK agonist could replicate the anti-nociceptive effect of ozone in CCI rats. In conclusion, our observations indicate that peri-sciatic nerve injection of ozone activates AMPK to attenuate CCI-induced neuropathic pain. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of early and late diabetic neuropathy on sciatic nerve block duration and neurotoxicity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirk, P; Verhamme, C; Boeckh, R; Stevens, M F; ten Hoope, W; Gerner, P; Blumenthal, S; de Girolami, U; van Schaik, I N; Hollmann, M W; Picardi, S

    2015-02-01

    The neuropathy of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. We aimed to test the hypothesis that in a rodent model of type II DM, neuropathy would lead to increased neurotoxicity and block duration after lidocaine-induced sciatic nerve block when compared with control animals. Experiments were carried out in Zucker diabetic fatty rats aged 10 weeks (early diabetic) or 18 weeks (late diabetic, with or without insulin 3 units per day), and age-matched healthy controls. Left sciatic nerve block was performed using 0.2 ml lidocaine 2%. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and F-wave latency were used to quantify nerve function before, and 1 week after nerve block, after which sciatic nerves were used for neurohistopathology. Early diabetic animals did not show increased signs of nerve dysfunction after nerve block. In late diabetic animals without insulin vs control animals, NCV was 34.8 (5.0) vs 41.1 (4.1) ms s(-1) (Pneuropathy. Our results do not support the hypothesis that neuropathy due to type II DM increases the risk of nerve injury after nerve block. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Change in hen sciatic nerve calcium after a single oral dose of tri-o-tolyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, W E; Olajos, E J; Pleban, P A

    1993-02-01

    Six trace elements were monitored in neural tissue homogenates from White Leghorn hens orally dosed with tri-o-tolyl phosphate (TOTP) or tri-m-tolyl phosphate (TMTP) (200 mg/kg). Treated birds were monitored daily for development of delayed neurotoxicity, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc were measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy at the time of maximal locomotor impairment (27-35 days postdosing). TOTP-treated birds manifested motor deficit by 15 days postdosing, while hens administered TMTP exhibited no signs of delayed neurotoxicity. Total calcium content in the sciatic nerve homogenates from TOTP-dosed hens was significantly less (P < 0.05) at the time of maximal locomotor impairment, while no shifts in the other trace elements were found. Therefore, the ortho isomer of tritolylphosphate elicited symptoms of delayed neurotoxicity in the hen (i.e., organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity or OPIDN) and caused a decrease in total calcium content in the sciatic nerve homogenates, in contrast to effects of the meta isomer. Analysis of neural homogenates at time of maximal locomotor impairment reflected secondary events in the degradative processes, since the initial assault of TOTP happens early after administration. Therefore, at fully developed OPIDN alteration of calcium balance in sciatic nerves is an indicator of axonopathy in a degenerated nerve following chemical injury.

  10. Topography of synchronization of somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by stimulation of the sciatic nerve in rat

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    Xuefeng eQu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Traditionally, the topography of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs is generated based on amplitude and latency. However, this operation focuses on the physical morphology and field potential-power, so it suffers from difficulties in performing identification in an objective manner. In this study, measurement of the synchronization of SEPs is proposed as a method to explore brain functional networks as well as the plasticity after peripheral nerve injury. Method: SEPs elicited by unilateral sciatic nerve stimulation in twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats in the normal group were compared with SEPs evoked after unilateral sciatic nerve hemisection in four peripheral nerve injured SD rats. The characterization of synchronized networks from SEPs was conducted using equal-time correlation, correlation matrix analysis, and comparison to randomized surrogate data. Eigenvalues of the correlation matrix were used to identify the clusters of functionally synchronized neuronal activity, and the participation index (PI was calculated to indicate the involvement of each channel in the cluster. The PI value at the knee point of the PI histogram was used as a threshold to demarcate the cortical boundary. Results: Ten out of the twelve normal rats showed only one synchronized brain network. The remaining two normal rats showed one strong and one weak network. In the peripheral nerve injured group, only one synchronized brain network was found in each rat. In the normal group, all network shapes appear regular and the network is largely contained in the posterior cortex. In the injured group, the network shapes appear irregular, the network extends anteriorly and posteriorly, and the network area is significantly larger. There are considerable individual variations in the shape and location of the network after peripheral nerve injury. Conclusion: The proposed method can detect functional brain networks. Compared to the results of the

  11. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX®) on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, A; Pereira, T; Armada-da-Silva, Pas; Amado, S; Veloso, Ap; Amorim, I; Ribeiro, J; Santos, Jd; Bárcia, Rn; Cruz, P; Cruz, H; Luís, Al; Santos, Jm; Geuna, S; Maurício, Ac

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX(®)), was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal(®), was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX(®) alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX(®) induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC). At opposite toe off (OT) and heel rise (HR), differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either uCx(®) alone or UCX(®) administered with Floseal(®). Overall, the UCX(®) application presented

  12. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX® on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries

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    Gärtner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX®, was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal®, was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL, ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX ® alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX® induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC. At opposite toe off (OT and heel rise (HR, differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either UCX® alone or UCX® administered with Floseal®. Overall, the UCX® application presented

  13. Acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Lower Limb Symptoms—The Relation between Acupuncture or Electroacupuncture Stimulation and Sciatic Nerve Blood Flow

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    Motohiro Inoue

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment for lumbar spinal canal stenosis and herniated lumbar disc and to clarify the mechanisms in an animal experiment that evaluated acupuncture on sciatic nerve blood flow. In the clinical trial, patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis or herniated lumbar disc were divided into three treatment groups; (i Ex-B2 (at the disordered level, (ii electrical acupuncture (EA on the pudendal nerve and (iii EA at the nerve root. Primary outcome measurements were pain and dysesthesia [evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS] and continuous walking distance. In the animal study, sciatic nerve blood flow was measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry at, before and during three kinds of stimulation (manual acupuncture on lumber muscle, electrical stimulation on the pudendal nerve and electrical stimulation on the sciatic nerve in anesthetized rats. For the clinical trial, approximately half of the patients who received Ex-B2 revealed amelioration of the symptoms. EA on the pudendal nerve was effective for the symptoms which had not improved by Ex-B2. Considerable immediate and sustained relief was observed in patients who received EA at the nerve root. For the animal study, increase in sciatic nerve blood flow was observed in 56.9% of the trial with lumber muscle acupuncture, 100% with pudendal nerve stimulation and 100% with sciatic nerve stimulation. Sciatic nerve stimulation sustained the increase longer than pudendal nerve stimulation. One mechanism of action of acupuncture and electrical acupuncture stimulation could be that, in addition to its influence on the pain inhibitory system, it participates in causing a transient change in sciatic nerve blood blow, including circulation to the cauda equine and nerve root.

  14. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: Can excision of upper trunk neuroma and nerve grafting improve function in babies with adequate elbow flexion at nine months of age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenta, Anne E; Brooker, Jack; MacIssac, Zoe; Natali, Megan; Greene, Stephanie; Stanger, Meg; Grunwaldt, Lorelei

    2016-05-01

    Accepted indications for exploration in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) vary by center. Most agree that full elbow flexion against gravity at nine months of age implies high chance of spontaneous recovery and thus excludes a baby from surgical intervention. However, there are certain movements of the shoulder and forearm that may not be used frequently by the infant, but are extremely important functionally as they grow. These movements are difficult to assess in a baby and may lead to some clinicians to recommend conservative treatment, when this cohort of infants may in fact benefit substantially from surgery. A retrospective review was conducted on all infants managed surgically at the Brachial Plexus Center of a major children's hospital from 2009 to 2014. Further analysis identified five patients who had near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion but who had weakness of shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, and/or forearm supination. In contrast to standard conservative management, this cohort underwent exploration, C5-6 neuroma excision, and sural nerve grafting. Data analysis was performed on this group to look for overall improvement in function. During an average follow-up period of 29 months, all patients made substantial gains in motor function of the shoulder and forearm, without loss of elbow flexion or extension, or worsening of overall outcome. In select infants with brachial plexus injuries but near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion, surgical intervention may be indicated to achieve the best functional outcome. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered protein phosphorylation in sciatic nerve from rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes

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    Schrama, L.H.; Berti-Mattera, L.N.; Eichberg, J.

    1987-11-01

    The effect of experimental diabetes on the phosphorylation of proteins in the rat sciatic nerve was studied. Nerves from animals made diabetic with streptozocin were incubated in vitro with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate and divided into segments from the proximal to the distal end, and proteins from each segment were then separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The principal labeled species were the major myelin proteins, P0, and the basic proteins. After 6 wk of diabetes, the incorporation of isotope into these proteins rose as a function of distance along the nerve in a proximal to distal direction and was significantly higher at the distal end compared with incorporation into nerves from age-matched controls. The overall level of isotope uptake was similar in nerves from diabetic animals and weight-matched controls. The distribution of /sup 32/P among proteins also differed in diabetic nerve compared with both control groups in that P0 and the small basic protein accounted for a greater proportion of total label incorporated along the entire length of nerve. In contrast to intact nerve, there was no significant difference in protein phosphorylation when homogenates from normal and diabetic nerve were incubated with (/sup 32/P)-gamma-ATP. The results suggest that abnormal protein phosphorylation, particularly of myelin proteins, is a feature of experimental diabetic neuropathy and that the changes are most pronounced in the distal portion of the nerve.

  16. In vivo introduction of transgenes into mouse sciatic nerve cells in situ using viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sergio; Fernando, Ruani N; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The myelin sheath is essential for the rapid and efficient propagation of action potentials. However, our understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms that regulate myelination, demyelination and remyelination is limited. Schwann cells produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system and remain associated with the axons of peripheral neurons throughout axonal migration to the target. Owing to the intimate relationship between these cell types it is difficult to fully reproduce their function in vitro. For this reason, we developed an approach based on the injection of an engineered virus into the sciatic nerve of mice to locally transduce peripheral nerve cells. This approach can be used as an alternative to germline transgenesis to facilitate the investigation of peripheral nerve biology in vivo. The detailed protocol, described here, requires 3 weeks to complete. In comparison with genetic modification strategies, this protocol is a fast, reproducible and straightforward method for introducing exogenous factors into myelinating Schwann cells and myelinated axons in vivo to investigate specific molecular mechanisms.

  17. Correlation among ultrasound, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the sciatic nerve: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayeri, Nizar; van Geffen, Geert J; Bruhn, Jörgen; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2010-01-01

    Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy matched with ultrasound views of the major SN block sites will be helpful in pattern recognition, especially when combined with images that show the internal architecture of the nerve. From 1 cadaver, consecutive parts of the upper leg corresponding to the 4 major blocks sites were sectioned and deeply frozen. Using cryomicrotomy, consecutive transverse sections were acquired and photographed at 78-microm intervals, along with histologic sections at 5-mm intervals. Multiplanar reformatting was done to reconstruct the optimal planes for an accurate comparison of ultrasonography and gross anatomy. The anatomic and histologic images were matched with ultrasound images that were obtained from 2 healthy volunteers. By simulating the exact position and angulation as in the ultrasonographic images, detailed anatomic overviews of SN and adjacent structures were reconstructed in the gluteal, subgluteal, midfemoral, and popliteal regions. Throughout its trajectory, SN contains numerous fascicles with connective and adipose tissues. In this study, we provide an optimal matching between histology, anatomic cross sections, and short-axis ultrasound images of SN. Reconstructing ultrasonographic planes with this high-resolution digitized anatomy not only enables an overview but also shows detailed views of the architecture of internal SN. The undulating course of the nerve fascicles within SN may explain its varying echogenic appearance during probe manipulation.

  18. Platelet-rich plasma gel in combination with Schwann cells for repair of sciatic nerve injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fagang; Li, Haiyan; Qiao, Guangxi; Chen, Feng; Tao, Hao; Ji, Aiyu; Hu, Yanling

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits, culture-expanded and differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells. Autologous platelet-rich plasma and Schwann cell-like cells were mixed in suspension at a density of 1 × 106 cells/mL, prior to introduction into a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit. Fabricated tissue-engineered nerves were implanted into rabbits to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve defects (platelet-rich plasma group). Controls were established using fibrin as the seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells at identical density to construct tissue-engineered nerves (fibrin group). Twelve weeks after implantation, toluidine blue staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate an increase in the number of regenerating nerve fibers and thickness of the myelin sheath in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. Fluoro-gold retrograde labeling revealed that the number of Fluoro-gold-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and the spinal cord anterior horn was greater in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the fibrin group. Electrophysiological examination confirmed that compound muscle action potential and nerve conduction velocity were superior in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. These results indicate that autologous platelet-rich plasma gel can effectively serve as a seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells to construct tissue-engineered nerves to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:25538751

  19. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

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    M.R. Moreira

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 µM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 µM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity of CAP were significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug, from 3.28 ± 0.22 mV and 33.5 ± 7.05 m/s, respectively, to 1.91 ± 0.51 mV and 26.2 ± 4.55 m/s. At 600 µM, terpineol significantly reduced peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity from 2.97 ± 0.55 mV and 32.8 ± 3.91 m/s to 0.24 ± 0.23 mV and 2.72 ± 2.72 m/s, respectively (N = 5. All these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon 180-min washout.

  20. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  1. Comparison of Anesthesia Quality for Arthroscopic Knee Surgery: Combined Sciatic Femoral Block and Unilateral Spinal Anesthesia

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    Sinem Sarı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the quality of anesthesia of combined sciatic and femoral 3-in-1 nerve blocks (CSFB and unilateral spinal anesthesia technique with low-dose levobupivacaine in outpatients undergoing knee arthroscopy surgery. Materials and Methods: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status I-II patients were randomly allocated into two groups and unilateral spinal anesthesia with low-dose levobupivacaine (group S, n=20 or CSFB (group B, n=20 was performed. Besides the quality of anesthesia, anesthetic effectiveness, hemodynamic values, duration of the technique application, maximum motor and sensorial block levels and durations, the first analgesics need, and total analgesic consumptions during postoperative 24 hours and determined complications were compared between the two groups. Results: The quality of anesthesia was better in group S, no patient received either sedation or analgesic intraoperatively while first analgesic need and number of patient was higher (p=0.014, p<0.001, p=0.032 respectively. The duration of technical application was shorter while maximum motor and sensorial block levels were higher in group S (p<0.0001, p=0.008, p<0.001 respectively. Motor block duration was significantly longer in group B (p<0.0001. Conclusion: We concluded that CSFB practice is an effective anesthetic alternative for unilateral spinal anesthesia. Introduction

  2. Do Resin Cements Alter Action Potentials of Isolated Rat Sciatic Nerve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Ahmet Atila; Beriat, Nilufer Celebi; Onur, Mehmet Ali; Tan, Gamze; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects dual-cure resin cements on nerve conduction. Methods: Panavia F, RelyX ARC, and Variolink II polymerized either by light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) were used in the study (n=10). The conductance of sciatic nerves of 50 rats were measured before and after contact with the specimens for 1 h. Results: The time-dependent change in nerve conductance and the comparison of LED versus QTH showed that differences between groups are significant (P<.05). For both polymerization techniques, pair-wise comparisons of resin cements showed that the nerve conductance between groups is different (P<.05). RelyX ARC elicited irreversible inhibition of compound action potentials (more than 50% change) and Panavia F and Variolink II polymerized by LED and QTH did not alter nerve conduction beyond physiologic limits. Conclusions: Resin cements may alter nerve conductance and even lead to neurotoxic effects. PMID:21494389

  3. Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Mathews, K. S.; Normann, R. A.; Fernandez, E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Before peripheral nerve electrodes can be used for the restoration of sensory and motor functions in patients with neurological disorders, the behavioral and histological consequences of these devices must be investigated. These indices of biocompatibility can be defined in terms of desired functional outcomes; for example, a device may be considered for use as a therapeutic intervention if the implanted subject retains functional neurons post-implantation even in the presence of a foreign body response. The consequences of an indwelling device may remain localized to cellular responses at the device-tissue interface, such as fibrotic encapsulation of the device, or they may affect the animal more globally, such as impacting behavioral or sensorimotor functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall consequences of implantation of high-electrode count intrafascicular peripheral nerve arrays, High Density Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (HD-USEAs; 25 electrodes mm-2). Approach. HD-USEAs were implanted in rat sciatic nerves for one and two month periods. We monitored wheel running, noxious sensory paw withdrawal reflexes, footprints, nerve morphology and macrophage presence at the tissue-device interface. In addition, we used a novel approach to contain the arrays in actively behaving animals that consisted of an organic nerve wrap. A total of 500 electrodes were implanted across all ten animals. Main results. The results demonstrated that chronic implantation (⩽8 weeks) of HD-USEAs into peripheral nerves can evoke behavioral deficits that recover over time. Morphology of the nerve distal to the implantation site showed variable signs of nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration. Cytology adjacent to the device-tissue interface also showed a variable response, with some electrodes having many macrophages surrounding the electrodes, while other electrodes had few or no macrophages present. This variability was also seen along the length

  4. Bilateral elevation of interleukin-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar and cervical dorsal root ganglia following unilateral chronic compression injury of the sciatic nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Current research implicates interleukin (IL)-6 as a key component of the nervous-system response to injury with various effects. Methods We used unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of rat sciatic nerve as a model for neuropathic pain. Immunofluorescence, ELISA, western blotting and in situ hybridization were used to investigate bilateral changes in IL-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar (L4-L5) and cervical (C7-C8) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following CCI. The operated (CCI) and sham-operated (sham) rats were assessed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Withdrawal thresholds for mechanical hyperalgesia and latencies for thermal hyperalgesia were measured in both ipsilateral and contralateral hind and fore paws. Results The ipsilateral hind paws of all CCI rats displayed a decreased threshold of mechanical hyperalgesia and withdrawal latency of thermal hyperalgesia, while the contralateral hind and fore paws of both sides exhibited no significant changes in mechanical or thermal sensitivity. No significant behavioral changes were found in the hind and fore paws on either side of the sham rats, except for thermal hypersensitivity, which was present bilaterally at 3 days. Unilateral CCI of the sciatic nerve induced a bilateral increase in IL-6 immunostaining in the neuronal bodies and satellite glial cells (SGC) surrounding neurons of both lumbar and cervical DRG, compared with those of naive control rats. This bilateral increase in IL-6 protein levels was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. More intense staining for IL-6 mRNA was detected in lumbar and cervical DRG from both sides of rats following CCI. The DRG removed from sham rats displayed a similar pattern of staining for IL-6 protein and mRNA as found in naive DRG, but there was a higher staining intensity in SGC. Conclusions Bilateral elevation of IL-6 protein and mRNA is not limited to DRG homonymous to the injured nerve, but also extended to DRG that are heteronymous to the injured nerve. The

  5. Dexamethasone as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine Prolongs the Duration of Thermal Antinociception and Prevents Bupivacaine-Induced Rebound Hyperalgesia via Regional Mechanism in a Mouse Sciatic Nerve Block Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ke; Elkassabany, Nabil M.; Liu, Jiabin

    2015-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone has been studied as an effective adjuvant to prolong the analgesia duration of local anesthetics in peripheral nerve block. However, the route of action for dexamethasone and its potential neurotoxicity are still unclear. Methods A mouse sciatic nerve block model was used. The sciatic nerve was injected with 60ul of combinations of various medications, including dexamethasone and/or bupivacaine. Neurobehavioral changes were observed for 2 days prior to injection, and then continuously for up to 7 days after injection. In addition, the sciatic nerves were harvested at either 2 days or 7 days after injection. Toluidine blue dyeing and immunohistochemistry test were performed to study the short-term and long-term histopathological changes of the sciatic nerves. There were six study groups: normal saline control, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) only, dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg) only, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with low-dose (0.14mg/kg) dexamethasone, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with high-dose (0.5mg/kg) dexamethasone, and bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with intramuscular dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg). Results High-dose perineural dexamethasone, but not systemic dexamethasone, combined with bupivacaine prolonged the duration of both sensory and motor block of mouse sciatic nerve. There was no significant difference on the onset time of the sciatic nerve block. There was “rebound hyperalgesia” to thermal stimulus after the resolution of plain bupivacaine sciatic nerve block. Interestingly, both low and high dose perineural dexamethasone prevented bupivacaine-induced hyperalgesia. There was an early phase of axon degeneration and Schwann cell response as represented by S-100 expression as well as the percentage of demyelinated axon and nucleus in the plain bupivacaine group compared with the bupivacaine plus dexamethasone groups on post-injection day 2, which resolved on post-injection day 7. Furthermore, we demonstrated that perineural dexamethasone

  6. Preventive Effects of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities on Sciatic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Pengsong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and hypoxia are important physiological changes in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Chinese herbal medicine prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities (TDFE is useful for increasing blood flow. To help determine whether TDFE could protect the peripheral nerves of diabetic patients from the degeneration caused by high blood glucose, TDFE was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 6 or 12 weeks. Plantar thermal stimulation reaction time thresholds, sciatic nerve conduction velocities, and the levels of HIF-1α mRNA, HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and the endothelial marker vWF in sciatic nerves were measured at the end of the sixth and twelfth weeks. The thermal thresholds and sciatic nerve conduction velocities of the rats differed after 12 weeks, and the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats that were given TDFE displayed higher levels of HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and HIF-1α mRNA than those of the diabetic model rats. The results at 6 weeks differed from those at 12 weeks. These results suggest that the early preventive application of TDFE effectively delayed the development of DPN and that TDFE increased HIF-1α mRNA levels in the sciatic nerves of diabetic rats through 12 weeks of treatment.

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Cell Fates of Induced Schwann Cells from Subcutaneous Fat Tissue and Naïve Schwann Cells in the Sciatic Nerve Injury Model

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    Mingzi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The fate and function of the induced Schwann cells (iSCs like cells from adipose tissue have not been critically evaluated in vivo after transplantation. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of iSCs with naïve SCs (nSCs after transplantation into the lesion sites of sciatic nerve, respectively. Methods. Adipose-derived stem cells from eGFP-expressing transgenic rat’s subcutaneous fat were induced to iSCs in vitro. iSCs were injected to the sciatic nerve lesion area after crush injury and the cells fate was comparatively analyzed with that of nSCs from the same rat. Results. At 12 weeks after transplantation, nSCs were detected only in the restricted area of cell transplantation site but iSCs were widely distributed all over the sciatic nerve. Based on double fluorescence observations, both iSCs and naïve ones were colocalized with P0-expressing myelin sheath, outbound by laminin-expressing basal membrane, and terminated at contactin-associated protein-expressing doublets. However, some of iSCs were also differentiated to the fibrocyte/fibroblast-like cells. In the histological analysis of repaired sciatic nerves, axon density was higher in iSC-received group than in the nSCs group and normal sciatic nerve. Conclusion. iSCs induced from subcutaneous fat tissues have higher engraftment and migration capacity than nSCs.

  8. An artery accompanying the sciatic nerve (arteria comitans nervi ischiadici) and the position of the hip joint: a comparative histological study using chick, mouse, and human foetal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, A; Hayashi, S; Nasu, H; Abe, H; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Murakami, G

    2013-02-01

    Birds and reptiles always carry a long and thick artery accompanying the sciatic nerve (i.e., the sciatic artery), whereas mammals do not. We attempted to demonstrate a difference in courses of the nerve and artery in fetuses in relation with the hip joint posture. Eight mid-term human fetuses (15-18 weeks), five mouse fetuses (E18) and five chick embryos (11 days after incubation) were examined histologically. Thin feeding arteries in the sciatic nerve were consistently observed in human fetuses in spite of the long, inferiorly curved course of the nerve around the ischium. The tissue around the human sciatic nerve was not so tight because of the medial and inferior shift of the nerve away from the hip joint. The fetal hip joint position differed among the species, being highly flexed in humans and almost at right angle flexion in mice and chicks. Because of deep adduction of the hip joint in the mouse, the knee was located near the midline of the body. The mouse sciatic nerve ran through the tight tissue along the head of the femur, whereas the chick nerve ran through the loose space even in the gluteal region. In birds, evolution of the pelvis including the hip joint without adduction seemed to make the arterial development possible. In mammals, highly flexed or adducted hip joint seemed to be one of the disturbing factors against development of the long and thick artery. A slight change in posture may cause significant arterial variation.

  9. Morphological study on the pressure ulcer-like dermal lesions formed in the rat heel skin after transection of the sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Daijiro; Minami, Chie; Miyagawa, Miki; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Miki, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Due to transection of bilateral sciatic nerves, pressure ulcer-like dermal lesion occurred in the hairy skin covering of the heel skin in almost all rats. In the present study, chronological changes of the rat heel skin after the transection were morphologically and immunohistochemically examined. In the heel skin, redness and swelling began by 3days after the operation, and open wound formed by 17days. At the redness and swelling stage, edema extensively occurred in the dermis. At the thickening stage, the epidermis at the pressed site became transiently thicker, and at the whitening stage, rapidly thinner. At these stages, the epidermis in the skin surrounding the pressed site became gradually thicker. At the yellow scar stage, the skin was covered only by necrotic tissues and horny layer. These layers were scratched during walking and turning, and the yellow scar stage became the open wound stage. Inflammatory reaction began at the thickening stage, and at the yellow scar and open wound stages, necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells and dilation of small blood vessels were observed. These morphological features are quite similar to those in the human pressure ulcer. These findings suggest that these dermal injuries could compare the human pressure ulcer for medical treatment and depressurization in future study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Noncovalent Bonding of RGD and YIGSR to an Electrospun Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Conduit through Peptide Self-Assembly to Synergistically Promote Sciatic Nerve Regeneration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Wang, Kai; Ma, Teng; Huang, Liangliang; Xia, Bing; Zhu, Shu; Yang, Yafeng; Liu, Zhongyang; Quan, Xin; Luo, Kai; Kong, Deling; Huang, Jinghui; Luo, Zhuojing

    2017-04-01

    The nerve conduit with biofunctionalities can regulate neurite outgrowth, as well as the migration, proliferation, and myelination activity of Schwann cells. In the present study, polycaprolactone (PCL) conduits are coated with Naphthalene-phenylalanine-phenylalanine-glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic (Nap-FFGRGD) and Naphthalene-phenylalanine-phenylalanine-glycine-cysteine-aspartic-proline-glycine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (Nap-FFGCDPGYIGSR) by self-assembly. In vitro studies demonstrate that arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) and tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) are capable of synergistically enhancing the ability of PCL to support the adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells, as well as increasing neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglions explants. This synergistic effect may occur via the activation of both the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathways. RGD/YIGSR modifications demonstrate beneficial effects across a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in axonal regeneration and functional recovery. In addition, increased vascularization is observed in the RGD/YIGSR-PCL group, which might contribute to their beneficial effects on nerve regeneration. These findings indicate the potential of the RGD/YIGSR-PCL conduit to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery, making the RGD/YIGSR-PCL conduit an attractive candidate for the treatment of a critical nerve defect. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The effects of self-mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves on physical functions and health of low back pain patients with lower limb radiating pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ui-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Park, Young-Han; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of self-mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves on the quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain in the lower limbs accompanied by radiating pain. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were divided into two groups: a group receiving of lumbar segmental stabilization exercise training including sciatic nerve mobilization techniques, which included 8 males and 7 females, and a group receiving lumbar segmental stabilization exercise training, which included 8 males and 7 females. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in comparison of measurement results between the groups before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Application of mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves may promote healing of the soft tissues by stimulating the functions of the nervous system to improve nervous system adaptability and decrease sensitivity, helping to alleviate the symptoms.

  12. Piriformis muscle syndrome with assessment of sciatic nerve using diffusion tensor imaging and tractography: a case report

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    Wada, Keizo; Goto, Tomohiro; Takasago, Tomoya; Hamada, Daisuke; Sairyo, Koichi [The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is difficult to diagnose by objective evaluation of sciatic nerve injury. Here we report a case of PMS diagnosed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the sciatic nerve, which can assess and visualize the extent of nerve injury. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 2-year history of continuous pain and numbness in the left leg. His symptoms worsened when sitting. Physical examination, including sensorimotor neurologic tests, the deep tendon reflex test, and the straight leg raise test, revealed no specific findings. The hip flexion adduction and internal rotation test and resisted contraction maneuvers for the piriformis muscle were positive. There were no abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine. The transverse diameter of piriformis muscle was slightly thicker in affected side on MRI of the pelvis. A single DTI sequence was performed during MRI of the pelvis. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the sciatic nerve were quantified at three levels using the fiber-tracking method. FA values were significantly lower and ADC values were significantly higher distal to the piriformis muscle. We performed endoscopic-assisted resection of the piriformis tendon. Intraoperatively, the motor-evoked potentials in the left gastrocnemius were improved by resection of the piriformis tendon. The patient's symptoms improved immediately after surgery. There was no significant difference in FA or ADC at any level between the affected side and the unaffected side 3 months postoperatively. MRI-DTI may aid the diagnosis of PMS. (orig.)

  13. Increased electrical nerve stimulation threshold of the sciatic nerve in patients with diabetic foot gangrene: a prospective parallel cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyl, Cornelius; Held, Tanja; Albiez, Georg; Schmack, Astrid; Wiesenack, Christoph

    2013-07-01

    Peripheral neuropathy may affect nerve conduction in patients with diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the electrical stimulation threshold for a motor response of the sciatic nerve is increased in patients suffering from diabetic foot gangrene compared to non-diabetic patients. Prospective non-randomised trial with two parallel groups. Two university-affiliated hospitals. Patients scheduled for surgical treatment of diabetic foot gangrene (n = 30) and non-diabetic patients (n = 30) displaying no risk factors for neuropathy undergoing orthopaedic foot or ankle surgery. The minimum current intensity required to elicit a typical motor response (dorsiflexion or eversion of the foot) at a pulse width of 0.1 ms and a stimulation frequency of 1 Hz when the needle tip was positioned under ultrasound control directly adjacent to the peroneal component of the sciatic nerve. The non-diabetic patients were younger [64 (SD 12) vs. 74 (SD 7) years] and predominantly female (23 vs. 8). The geometric mean of the motor stimulation threshold was 0.26 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.24 to 0.28] mA in non-diabetic and 1.9 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.2) mA in diabetic patients. The geometric mean of the electrical stimulation threshold was significantly (P diabetic compared to non-diabetic patients. The electrical stimulation threshold for a motor response of the sciatic nerve is increased by a factor of 7.2 in patients with diabetic foot gangrene, which might hamper nerve identification.

  14. Kinetics of Uptake and Washout of Lidocaine in Rat Sciatic Nerve In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Stanley; Strichartz, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background The potency and efficacy of local anesthetics injected clinically for peripheral nerve block depends strongly on the rate of neural drug uptake. However, since diffusion into surrounding tissues and removal by the vascular system are major factors in the overall distribution of lidocaine in vivo, true kinetics of drug/neural tissue interactions must be studied in the absence of those confounding factors. Methods Uptake: Ensheathed or desheathed isolated rat sciatic nerves were exposed to [14C]-lidocaine for 0-180min and then removed and the lidocaine content of nerve and sheath analyzed. Washout: Isolated nerves were soaked in [14C]-lidocaine for 60min and then placed in lidocaine-free solution for 0-30min, with samples removed at different times to assess the drug content. Experimental variables included the effects of the ensheathing epineurium, lidocaine concentration, pH, presence of CO2-bicarbonate, and incubation duration. Results The equilibrium uptake of lidocaine increased with incubation time, concentration and the fraction of molecules in the non-ionized form. The uptake rate was unaffected by drug concentration, but was about halved by the presence of the epineurial sheath, with the washout rate slowed less. Slight alkalinization, from pH 6.8 to pH 7.4, by bicarbonate-CO2 buffer or a non-bicarbonate buffer, enhanced the neural uptake, and to the same degree. The washout of lidocaine was faster after shorter incubations at high concentrations than when equal amounts of lidocaine were taken up after long incubations at low lidocaine concentrations. Conclusion Lidocaine enters a nerve by a process other than free diffusion, through an epineurial sheath that is a slight obstacle. Given the rapid entry in vitro compared to the much smaller and transient content measured in vivo, it seems highly unlikely that lidocaine equilibrates with the nerve during a peripheral blockade. PMID:23400993

  15. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

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    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  16. In vivo study of acute effects of hip and knee positions on blood flow in canine sciatic nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Koga, Kei; Naito, Masatoshi; Akiyoshi, Yuichiro; Asayama, Isao; Shiramizu, Kei; Abe, Tatunobu; Kanbe, Taichi

    2002-01-01

    We studied blood flow in the canine sciatic nerve using a laser Doppler flowmeter. Blood flow was measured in 20 hind limbs of ten adult dogs at varying angles of hip flexion, hip rotation and knee flexion. Blood flow decreased as flexion and internal rotation of the hip increased and also with only slight flexion of the knee. With 90° knee flexion, the mean blood flow did not change significantly when the hip was internally rotated from 0° to 30°. When the knee was straight, the blood flow c...

  17. In vivo evaluation of rabbit sciatic nerve regeneration with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI): correlations with histology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tetsuro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Oda, Ryo; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Nagae, Masateru; Shirai, Toshiharu; Morisaki, Shinsuke; Ikoma, Kazuya; Masugi-Tokita, Miwako; Yamada, Kei; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is widely used in the study of the central nervous system. DTI represents a potential diagnostic tool for the peripheral nerve. However, more detailed information is needed for application of DTI in the clinical setting. In this study, peripheral degeneration and regeneration were evaluated using DTI-based analyses in a rabbit model. The changes in DTI parameters were compared to histological and functional changes after nerve injury. We used a high magnetic field (7.04T) MRI system. Japanese white male rabbits were used as the model of sciatic nerve crush injury. MR images were obtained before injury and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-injury. The DTI parameters of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (λ||), and radial diffusivity (λ⊥) were calculated. Our results showed decreased FA and increased λ⊥ during the degenerative phase after sciatic nerve injury. In contrast, increased FA and decreased λ⊥ were observed during the regenerative phase. FA changes were correlated with axon number and with motor function recovery, assessed with the toe-spreading index. This study clearly demonstrates the validity of applying DTI parameters to the in vivo evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration. Furthermore, results suggest that DTI can be a potent tool for predicting the extent of functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cordycepin Decreases Compound Action Potential Conduction of Frog Sciatic Nerve In Vitro Involving Ca2+-Dependent Mechanisms

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    Li-Hua Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin has been widely used in oriental countries to maintain health and improve physical performance. Compound nerve action potential (CNAP, which is critical in signal conduction in the peripheral nervous system, is necessary to regulate physical performance, including motor system physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, regulatory effects of cordycepin on CNAP conduction should be elucidated. In this study, the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves was investigated. Results revealed that cordycepin significantly decreased CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. At 50 mg/L cordycepin, CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity decreased by 62.18 ± 8.06% and 57.34% ± 6.14% compared with the control amplitude and conductive velocity, respectively. However, the depressive action of cordycepin on amplitude and conductive velocity was not observed in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of Ca2+ channel blockers (CdCl2/LaCl3. Pretreatment with L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist (nifedipine/deltiazem also blocked cordycepin-induced responses; by contrast, T-type and P-type Ca2+ channel antagonists (Ni2+ failed to block such responses. Therefore, cordycepin decreased the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves via L-type Ca2+ channel-dependent mechanism.

  19. Electrical stimulation does not enhance nerve regeneration if delayed after sciatic nerve injury: the role of fibrosis

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    Na Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate and enhance nerve regeneration in sensory and motor neurons after injury, but there is little evidence that focuses on the varying degrees of fibrosis in the delayed repair of peripheral nerve tissue. In this study, a rat model of sciatic nerve transection injury was repaired with a biodegradable conduit at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 2 months after injury, when the rats were divided into two subgroups. In the experimental group, rats were treated with electrical stimuli of frequency of 20 Hz, pulse width 100 ms and direct current voltage of 3 V; while rats in the control group received no electrical stimulation after the conduit operation. Histological results showed that stained collagen fibers comprised less than 20% of the total operated area in the two groups after delayed repair at both 1 day and 1 week but after longer delays, the collagen fiber area increased with the time after injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression level of transforming growth factor β (an indicator of tissue fibrosis decreased at both 1 day and 1 week after delayed repair but increased at both 1 and 2 months after delayed repair. These findings indicate that if the biodegradable conduit repair combined with electrical stimulation is delayed, it results in a poor outcome following sciatic nerve injury. One month after injury, tissue degeneration and distal fibrosis are apparent and are probably the main reason why electrical stimulation fails to promote nerve regeneration after delayed repair.

  20. A prospective randomised controlled trial of ultrasound guided versus nerve stimulation guided distal sciatic nerve block at the popliteal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, G J; van den Broek, E; Braak, G J J; Giele, J L P; Gielen, M J; Scheffer, G J

    2009-01-01

    The direct visualisation of nerves and adjacent anatomical structures may make ultrasonography the preferred method for nerve localisation. In this prospective randomised study, we investigated whether, for distal sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa, an ultrasound guided technique would result in the use of less local anaesthetic without changing block characteristics and quality. Using electrical nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance, the nerve was identified in two groups of 20 patients scheduled for lower limb surgery. Hereafter lignocaine 1.5% with adrenaline 5 microg/ml was injected. The attending anaesthesiologist assessed the injected volume. Significantly less local anaesthetic was injected in the ultrasound group compared to the nerve stimulation group (17 vs. 37 ml, P success rate was increased (100% vs. 75%; P = 0.017). We conclude that the use of ultrasound localisation for distal sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa reduces the required dose of local anaesthetic significantly, and is associated with a higher success rate compared to nerve stimulation without changing block characteristics.

  1. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is delivered under the pubic bone. After the shoulder, the rest of the body is usually delivered without a problem. Alternative Names Shoulder presentation; Malpresentations; Breech birth; Cephalic presentation; Fetal lie; ...

  2. The Use of Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cocultured with Schwann Cells and Vascular Endothelial Cells to Repair Rabbit Sciatic Nerve Defect with Vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function.

  3. Effect of local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B on functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration: A sciatic nerve transection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzadeh, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Effects of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Forty-five male, white Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Normal control group (NC), silicon group (SIL), and PDGF-B treated group (SIL/PDGF). In NC group, left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis muscle was sutured. In the SIL group, the left sciatic nerve was exposed in the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone conduit and filled with 10 μL phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/PDGF group, the silicon conduit was filled with 10 μL PDGF-B (0.5 ng/mL). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five and were studied in 4, 8, 12 weeks after surgery. Behavioral testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass, and histomorphometric studies showed earlier regeneration of axons in SIL/PDGF than in SIL group (P recovery and may have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection.

  4. Effect of laser therapy (660 nm) on recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats after injury through neurotmesis followed by epineural anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Filipe Abdalla; Belchior, Ana Carulina Guimarães; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; da Silva, Baldomero Antônio Kato; Pereira, Daniel Martins; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) laser (660 nm) on the myelin sheath and functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. The sciatic nerves of 12 Wistar rats were subjected to injury through neurotmesis and epineural anastomosis, and the animals were divided into two groups: group 1 was the control and group 2, underwent low-level laser therapy (LLLT). After the injury, AlGaAs laser at 660 nm, 4 J/cm(2), 26.3 mW and beam area of 0.63 cm(2) was administered to three equidistant points on the injury for 20 consecutive days. In the control group the mean area of the myelin impairment was 0.51 (+/- 0.11) on day 21 after the operation, whereas this value was 1.31 (+/- 0.22) in the LLLT group. Student's t-test revealed a P value = 0.0229 for the mean area values of the myelin sheath between the LLLT and control groups. Comparison of the sciatic functional index (SFI) showed that there was no significant difference between the pre-lesion value in the laser therapy group and the control group. The use of AlGaAs laser (660 nm) provided significant changes to the morphometrically assessed area of the myelin sheath, but it did not culminate in positive results for functional recovery in the sciatic nerve of the rats after injury through neurotmesis.

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Repair of Tibia and Fibula Fractures in a Bennett’s Wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus

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    Paolo Monticelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locoregional anesthetic techniques may be a very useful tool for the anesthetic management of wallabies with injuries of the pelvic limbs and may help to prevent capture myopathies resulting from stress and systemic opioids’ administration. This report describes the use of ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks in Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus referred for orthopaedic surgery. Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks were attempted at the femoral triangle and proximal thigh level, respectively. Whilst the sciatic nerve could be easily visualised, the femoral nerve could not be readily identified. Only the sciatic nerve was therefore blocked with ropivacaine, and methadone was administered as rescue analgesic. The ultrasound images were stored and sent for external review. Anesthesia and recovery were uneventful and the wallaby was discharged two days postoperatively. At the time of writing, it is challenging to provide safe and effective analgesia to Macropods. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of these species is at the basis of successful locoregional anesthesia. The development of novel analgesic techniques suitable for wallabies would represent an important step forward in this field and help the clinicians dealing with these species to improve their perianesthetic management.

  6. Third-Degree Hindpaw Burn Injury Induced Apoptosis of Lumbar Spinal Cord Ventral Horn Motor Neurons and Sciatic Nerve and Muscle Atrophy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe burns result in hypercatabolic state and concomitant muscle atrophy that persists for several months, thereby limiting patient recovery. However, the effects of burns on the corresponding spinal dermatome remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether burns induce apoptosis of spinal cord ventral horn motor neurons (VHMNs and consequently cause skeletal muscle wasting. Methods. Third-degree hindpaw burn injury with 1% total body surface area (TBSA rats were euthanized 4 and 8 weeks after burn injury. The apoptosis profiles in the ventral horns of the lumbar spinal cords, sciatic nerves, and gastrocnemius muscles were examined. The Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve were marked with S100. The gastrocnemius muscles were harvested to measure the denervation atrophy. Result. The VHMNs apoptosis in the spinal cord was observed after inducing third-degree burns in the hindpaw. The S100 and TUNEL double-positive cells in the sciatic nerve increased significantly after the burn injury. Gastrocnemius muscle apoptosis and denervation atrophy area increased significantly after the burn injury. Conclusion. Local hindpaw burn induces apoptosis in VHMNs and Schwann cells in sciatic nerve, which causes corresponding gastrocnemius muscle denervation atrophy. Our results provided an animal model to evaluate burn-induced muscle wasting, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  7. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  8. CATCHY PRESENTATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian; Ovesen, Nis

    2011-01-01

    and ideas in many areas and avoiding “Death by Powerpoint”. This paper discusses the need and tools for making short presentations and describes the result from a business development project where engineering graduate students in architecture and design used the Pecha Kucha format to present...

  9. The Chitranjan Ranawat Award: Periarticular injections and femoral & sciatic blocks provide similar pain relief after TKA: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangehl, Mark J; Clarke, Henry D; Hentz, Joseph G; Misra, Lopa; Blocher, Joshua L; Seamans, David P

    2015-01-01

    Two of the more common methods of pain management after TKA are peripheral nerve blocks and intraarticular/periarticular injections. However, we are not aware of any study directly comparing the commonly used combination of a continuous femoral block given with a single-shot sciatic block with that of a periarticular injection after TKA. This randomized clinical trial compared a combined femoral and sciatic nerve block with periarticular injection as part of a multimodal pain protocol after total knee arthroplasty with respect to (1) pain; (2) narcotic use; (3) quadriceps function and length of stay; and (4) peripheral nerve complications. One hundred sixty patients completed randomization into two treatment arms: (1) peripheral nerve blocks (PNB; n=79) with an indwelling femoral nerve catheter and a single shot sciatic block; or (2) periarticular injection (PAI; n=81) using ropivacaine, epinephrine, ketorolac, and morphine. All patients received standardized general anesthesia and oral medications. The primary outcome was postoperative pain, on a 0 to 10 scale, measured on the afternoon of postoperative day 1 (POD 1). Secondary outcomes were narcotic use, quadriceps function, length of stay, and peripheral nerve complications. Mean pain scores on the afternoon of POD 1 were not different between groups (PNB group: 2.9 [SD 2.4]; PAI group: 3.0 [SD 2.2]; 95% confidence interval, -0.8 to 0.6; p=0.76). Mean pain scores taken at three times points on POD 1 were also similar between groups. Hospital length of stay was shorter for the PAI group (2.44 days [SD 0.65] versus 2.84 days [SD 1.34] for the PNB group; p=0.02). Narcotic consumption was higher the day of surgery for the PAI group (PAI group: 11.7 mg morphine equivalents [SD 13.1]; PNB group: 4.6 mg [SD 9.1]; pblocks. Periarticular injections provide adequate pain relief, are simple to use, and avoid the potential complications associated with nerve blocks. Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for

  10. Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  11. Poster Presentations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    [...]high index of suspicion was observed when other 4 patients presented with biopsy proven secondary membranous with history of intake of indigenous medications and all were shown to have increased urinary mercury levels...

  12. CERN presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Presentation by CERN (10 minutes each) Rolf Landua - Education and Outreach Salvatore Mele - Open Access Jean-Yves Le Meur - Digital Library in Africa Francois Fluckiger - Open Source/Standards (tbc) Tim Smith - Open Data for Science Tullio Basiglia - tbc

  13. Acute Compartment Syndrome Which Causes Rhabdomyolysis by Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Sciatic Nerve Injury Associated with It: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is most frequently caused by soft tissue injury with trauma to the extremities. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis may be caused by alcohol or drug abuse, infection, collagen disease, or intensive exercise, but incidence is low. In particular, rhabdomyolysis resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning is especially rare. If caught before death, carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown to cause severe muscle necrosis and severe muscle damage leading to acute renal failure. In cases of carbon-monoxide-induced rhabdomyolsis leading to acute compartment syndrome in the buttocks and sciatic nerve injury are rare. We have experience treating patients with acute compartment syndrome due to rhabdomyolysis following carbon monoxide poisoning. We report the characteristic features of muscle necrosis observed during a decompression operation and magnetic resonance imaging findings with a one-year follow-up in addition to a review of the literature.

  14. Gamma knife irradiation of injured sciatic nerve induces histological and behavioral improvement in the rat neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Yagasaki

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of gamma knife (GK irradiation on injured nerves using a rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL model. GK irradiation was performed at one week after ligation and nerve preparations were made three weeks after ligation. GK irradiation is known to induce immune responses such as glial cell activation in the central nervous system. Thus, we determined the effects of GK irradiation on macrophages using immunoblot and histochemical analyses. Expression of Iba-1 protein, a macrophage marker, was further increased in GK-treated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. Immunohistochemical study of Iba-1 in GK-irradiated injured sciatic nerves demonstrated Iba-1 positive macrophage accumulation to be enhanced in areas distal to the ligation point. In the same area, myelin debris was also more efficiently removed by GK-irradiation. Myelin debris clearance by macrophages is thought to contribute to a permissive environment for axon growth. In the immunoblot study, GK irradiation significantly increased expressions of βIII-tubulin protein and myelin protein zero, which are markers of axon regeneration and re-myelination, respectively. Toluidine blue staining revealed the re-myelinated fiber diameter to be larger at proximal sites and that the re-myelinated fiber number was increased at distal sites in GK-irradiated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. These results suggest that GK irradiation of injured nerves facilitates regeneration and re-myelination. In a behavior study, early alleviation of allodynia was observed with GK irradiation in PSL rats. When GK-induced alleviation of allodynia was initially detected, the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potent analgesic factor, was significantly increased by GK irradiation. These results suggested that GK irradiation alleviates allodynia via increased GDNF. This study provides novel evidence that GK

  15. Effects of Lippia sidoides essential oil, thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene on rat sciatic nerve excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lippia sidoides Cham is a typical herb species of Northeast Brazil with widespread use in folk medicine. The major constituents of the essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLs are thymol, p-cymene, myrcene, and caryophyllene. Several studies have shown that the EOLs and its constituents have pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the effects of the EOLs and their main constituents on rat sciatic nerve excitability. The sciatic nerves of adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated by square wave pulses, with an amplitude of 40 V, duration of 100 μs to 0.2 Hz. Both EOLs and thymol inhibited compound action potential (CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. Half maximal inhibitory concentration for CAP peak-to-peak amplitude blockade were 67.85 and 40 µg/mL for EOLs and thymol, respectively. CAP peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly reduced by concentrations ≥60 µg/mL for EOLs and ≥30 µg/mL for thymol. EOLs and thymol in the concentration of 60 µg/mL significantly increased chronaxie and rheobase. The conduction velocities of 1st and 2nd CAP components were also concentration-dependently reduced by EOLs and thymol in the range of 30-100 µg/mL. Differently from EOLs and thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene did not reduce CAP in the higher concentrations of 10 mM. These data demonstrated that EOLs and thymol inhibited neuronal excitability and were promising agents for the development of new drugs for therapeutic use.

  16. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  17. Effects of Lippia sidoides essential oil, thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene on rat sciatic nerve excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, R; Cruz-Mendes, Y; Silva-Alves, K S; Ferreira-da-Silva, F W; Ribeiro, N M; Morais, L P; Leal-Cardoso, J H

    2017-10-19

    Lippia sidoides Cham is a typical herb species of Northeast Brazil with widespread use in folk medicine. The major constituents of the essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLs) are thymol, p-cymene, myrcene, and caryophyllene. Several studies have shown that the EOLs and its constituents have pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the effects of the EOLs and their main constituents on rat sciatic nerve excitability. The sciatic nerves of adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated by square wave pulses, with an amplitude of 40 V, duration of 100 μs to 0.2 Hz. Both EOLs and thymol inhibited compound action potential (CAP) in a concentration-dependent manner. Half maximal inhibitory concentration for CAP peak-to-peak amplitude blockade were 67.85 and 40 µg/mL for EOLs and thymol, respectively. CAP peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly reduced by concentrations ≥60 µg/mL for EOLs and ≥30 µg/mL for thymol. EOLs and thymol in the concentration of 60 µg/mL significantly increased chronaxie and rheobase. The conduction velocities of 1st and 2nd CAP components were also concentration-dependently reduced by EOLs and thymol in the range of 30-100 µg/mL. Differently from EOLs and thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene did not reduce CAP in the higher concentrations of 10 mM. These data demonstrated that EOLs and thymol inhibited neuronal excitability and were promising agents for the development of new drugs for therapeutic use.

  18. Injury-Dependent and Disability-Specific Lumbar Spinal Gene Regulation following Sciatic Nerve Injury in the Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Austin

    Full Text Available Allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain are cardinal sensory signs of neuropathic pain. Clinically, many neuropathic pain patients experience affective-motivational state changes, including reduced familial and social interactions, decreased motivation, anhedonia and depression which are severely debilitating. In earlier studies we have shown that sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI disrupts social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle and endocrine function in one third of rats, a subgroup reliably identified six days after injury. CCI consistently produces allodynia and hyperalgesia, the intensity of which was unrelated either to the altered social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle or endocrine changes. This decoupling of the sensory consequences of nerve injury from the affective-motivational changes is reported in both animal experiments and human clinical data. The sensory changes triggered by CCI are mediated primarily by functional changes in the lumbar dorsal horn, however, whether lumbar spinal changes may drive different affective-motivational states has never been considered. In these studies, we used microarrays to identify the unique transcriptomes of rats with altered social behaviours following sciatic CCI to determine whether specific patterns of lumbar spinal adaptations characterised this subgroup. Rats underwent CCI and on the basis of reductions in dominance behaviour in resident-intruder social interactions were categorised as having Pain & Disability, Pain & Transient Disability or Pain alone. We examined the lumbar spinal transcriptomes two and six days after CCI. Fifty-four 'disability-specific' genes were identified. Sixty-five percent were unique to Pain & Disability rats, two-thirds of which were associated with neurotransmission, inflammation and/or cellular stress. In contrast, 40% of genes differentially regulated in rats without disabilities were involved with more general homeostatic processes (cellular

  19. Voting Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During his time as a state senator in Illinois, Barack Obama voted “Present” 129 times, a deliberate act of nonvoting that subsequently became an important campaign issue during the 2008 presidential elections. In this article, I examine the use of Present votes in the Illinois state senate. I find evidence that Present votes can largely be characterized as protest votes used as a legislative tool by the minority party. Incorporating information from Present votes into a Bayesian polytomous item-response model, I find that this information increases the efficiency of ideal point estimates by approximately 35%. There is little evidence of significant moderation by Obama when Present votes are accounted for, though my results suggest that Obama’s voting record may have moderated significantly before his subsequent election to the U.S. Senate. My results also suggest that because legislative nonvoting may occur for a variety of reasons, naive inclusion of nonvoting behavior into vote choice models may lead to biased results.

  20. Neurofibromatosis and the Painful Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    4 INTRODUCTION A percentage of NF1 patients may experience an increase in pain after surgical removal of a neurofibroma. This pain is due to...Examination of more proximal nerve segments demonstrated segmental Wallerian Degeneration as would be expected for a toxin producing cell death. The lowest...preservation of myelinated axons, there appeared to be a decrease in C-fibers in segments of the nerve however, given the random distribution of C-fibers

  1. Suspected Acoustic Neuroma Demyelinating Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuming; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiejun; Wu, Qiang; Huang, Guodong; Li, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Demyelinating lesions were recognized as a kind of rare central nervous system demyelinating lesion. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of demyelinating lesions is difficult. Once the diagnosis was delayed or incorrect, it will make a great impact on patients.Demyelinating lesions often involved in young and middle-aged, but this patient was the aged, which is rare.

  2. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survey/Registry AN Research Patient Registry Other Caregivers Public Webinars Patient Stories Keywords Shop ANA Discussion Forum Request a patient kit Healthcare Back Choosing a Healthcare Provider Related Links Healthcare ...

  3. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    RADIOSPARES, the leading catalogue distributor of components (electronic, electrical, automation, etc.) and industrial supplies will be at CERN on Friday 3 October 2008 (Main Building, Room B, from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.) to introduce its new 2008/2009 catalogue. This will be the opportunity for us to present our complete range of products in more detail: 400 000 part numbers available on our web site (Radiospares France, RS International, extended range of components from other manufacturers); our new services: quotations, search for products not included in the catalogue, SBP products (Small Batch Production: packaging in quantities adapted to customers’ requirements); partnership with our focus manufacturers; demonstration of the on-line purchasing tool implemented on our web site in conjunction with CERN. RADIOSPARES will be accompanied by representatives of FLUKE and TYCO ELECTRONICS, who will make presentations, demonstrate materials and answer any technical questio...

  4. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    07 April 2009 Technical presentation by Leuze Electronics: 14.00 – 15.00, Main Building, Room 61-1-017 (Room A) Photoelectric sensors, data identification and transmission systems, image processing systems. We at Leuze Electronics are "the sensor people": we have been specialising in optoelectronic sensors and safety technology for accident prevention for over 40 years. Our dedicated staff are all highly customer oriented. Customers of Leuze Electronics can always rely on one thing – on us! •\tFounded in 1963 •\t740 employees •\t115 MEUR turnover •\t20 subsidiaries •\t3 production facilities in southern Germany Product groups: •\tPhotoelectric sensors •\tIdentification and measurements •\tSafety devices

  5. Feasibility Study on MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Sciatic Nerve in a Swine Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, Elena A., E-mail: kayee@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Gutta, Narendra Babu, E-mail: gnbabu.aiims@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien, E-mail: monettes@mskcc.org [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Gulati, Amitabh, E-mail: gulatia@mskcc.org; Loh, Jeffrey, E-mail: jeffreyloh@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Anesthesiology-Critical Care (United States); Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan, E-mail: srimaths@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Ezell, Paula C., E-mail: paula.ezell@intusurg.com [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Erinjeri, Joseph P., E-mail: erinjerj@mskcc.org; Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org; Maybody, Majid, E-mail: maybodym@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    IntroductionSpastic patients often seek neurolysis, the permanent destruction of the sciatic nerve, for better pain management. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) may serve as a noninvasive alternative to the prevailing, more intrusive techniques. This in vivo acute study is aimed at performing sciatic nerve neurolysis using a clinical MRgHIFU system.MethodsThe HIFU ablation of sciatic nerves was performed in swine (n = 5) using a HIFU system integrated with a 3 T MRI scanner. Acute lesions were confirmed using T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The animals were euthanized immediately following post-ablation imaging.ResultsReddening and mild thickening of the nerve and pallor of the adjacent muscle were seen in all animals. The HIFU-treated sections of the nerves displayed nuclear pyknosis of Schwann cells, vascular hyperemia, perineural edema, hyalinization of the collagenous stroma of the nerve, myelin sheet swelling, and loss of axons. Ablations were visible on CE MRI. Non-perfused volume of the lesions (5.8–64.6 cc) linearly correlated with estimated lethal thermal dose volume (4.7–34.2 cc). Skin burn adjacent to the largest ablated zone was observed in the first animal. Bilateral treatment time ranged from 55 to 138 min, and preparation time required 2 h on average.ConclusionThe acute pilot study in swine demonstrated the feasibility of a noninvasive neurolysis of the sciatic nerve using a clinical MRgHIFU system. Results revealed that acute HIFU nerve lesions were detectable on CE MRI, gross pathology, and histology.

  6. Sciatic nerve ligation causes impairment of mitochondria associated with changes in distribution, respiration, and cardiolipin composition in related spinal cord neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilhoff, Gerburg; Becker, Axel; Kropf, Siegfried; Schild, Lorenz

    2016-10-01

    Sciatic nerve irritation is often associated with disturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis in related neurons of the spinal cord. Since mitochondria substantially contribute to Ca(2+) homeostasis and little information is available, we studied the effects of loose sciatic nerve ligation, a chronic constriction injury (CCI), on neuronal mitochondria of the L3-L6 regions. Three groups of rats (untreated, sham operated, and ligated) were explored. For the characterization of mitochondria, specimens of the L3-L6 spinal cord regions were evaluated with respect to intracellular localization using pyruvate dehydrogenase immunohistochemistry and Mitotracker Red, and the ATP producing machinery by LC-MS/MS technique for the analysis of cardiolipin and high-resolution respirometry for the measurement of oxygen consumption. Therefore, the phospholipid cardiolipin supports electron transfer within the respiratory chain as part of mitochondrial respiration and is of high impact on the physical properties of the mitochondrial membrane system. Histological analysis of spinal cord motor neurons revealed clustering of mitochondria in ipsilateral samples from ligated animals 14 days after the insult. This phenomenon was similarly evident in the respective contralateral side. The intensity of MT-Red staining was enhanced exclusively at the ipsilateral side, indicating increased mitochondrial activity. CCI of the sciatic nerve caused massive changes in the composition of cardiolipin reflecting mitochondrial impairment in the early phase followed by regeneration processes as late response. Sciatic nerve CCI caused decrease in the capacity of mitochondrial ATP production that recovered within 14 days after treatment. In conclusion, we provide evidence that clustering of mitochondria, already verified for the spinal cord sensory neurons after CCI, also occurs in the respective motor neurons. Further we have demonstrated transient impairment of the capacity of mitochondrial ATP production in tissue

  7. Acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Lower Limb Symptoms?The Relation between Acupuncture or Electroacupuncture Stimulation and Sciatic Nerve Blood Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Motohiro; Kitakoji, Hiroshi; Yano, Tadashi; Ishizaki, Naoto; Itoi, Megumi; Katsumi, Yasukazu

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment for lumbar spinal canal stenosis and herniated lumbar disc and to clarify the mechanisms in an animal experiment that evaluated acupuncture on sciatic nerve blood flow. In the clinical trial, patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis or herniated lumbar disc were divided into three treatment groups; (i) Ex-B2 (at the disordered level), (ii) electrical acupuncture (EA) on the pudendal nerve and (iii) EA at the nerve root. Primary o...

  8. The morphological and functional effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Lucinéia; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise in the aquatic environment, performed before and/or after sciatic nerve compression in Wistar rats on morphological and functional parameters. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), lesion (L), trained+lesion (TL), lesion+exercise (LE), and training+lesion+exercise (TLE), who underwent right sciatic nerve compression on day 21 of the experiment. The TL and TLE groups were submitted to a jumping exercise in a water environment for 20 days prior to injury and the LE and TLE groups after injury. The functional analysis was carried out using the sciatic functional index (SFI). On the last day of the experiment, the right sciatic nerves were collected, processed and analysed according to morphology and morphometry. The C group showed higher SFI in relation to the other groups. In the morphometric analysis, in comparison to C, all groups showed a decrease in the diameter of the injured nerve fibre, the myelin sheath and an increase in the percentage of connective tissue. There was a decrease in axon diameter in L, TL, and LE groups and a decrease in the density of nerve fibres in the TL and LE groups. The exercise did not affect functional recovery. However, the exercise prior to the injury improved morphology of the nervous tissue, and when performed pre- and postinjury, there was also an improvement in nerve regeneration, but this was not the case with exercise performed after the injury demonstrating worse results.

  9. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    2016-05-13

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  10. Dysregulated expression of death, stress and mitochondrion related genes in the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic SOD1G93A mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystian Junqueira Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells are the main source of paracrine support to motor neurons. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been correlated to motor neuron death in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. Despite the involvement of Schwann cells in early neuromuscular disruption in ALS, detailed molecular events of a dying-back triggering are unknown. Sciatic nerves of presymptomatic (60-day-old SOD1G93A mice were submitted to a high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. DAVID demonstrated the deregulated genes related to death, stress and mitochondrion, which allowed the identification of Cell cycle, ErbB signaling, Tryptophan metabolism and Rig-I-like receptor signaling as the most representative KEGG pathways. The protein-protein interaction networks based upon deregulated genes have identified the top hubs (TRAF2, H2AFX, E2F1, FOXO3, MSH2, NGFR, TGFBR1 and bottlenecks (TRAF2, E2F1, CDKN1B, TWIST1, FOXO3. Schwann cells were enriched from the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic mice using flow cytometry cell sorting. qPCR showed the up regulated (Ngfr, Cdnkn1b, E2f1, Traf2 and Erbb3, H2afx, Cdkn1a, Hspa1, Prdx, Mapk10 and down-regulated (Foxo3, Mtor genes in the enriched Schwann cells. In conclusion, molecular analyses in the presymptomatic sciatic nerve demonstrated the involvement of death, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial pathways in the Schwann cell non-autonomous mechanisms in the early stages of ALS.

  11. Comparative study between standard and inside-out vein graft techniques on sciatic nerve repair of rats. Muscular and functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Pereira, Mizael; Aparecido, Idvaldo; Buchaim, Rogerio Leone; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues, Antônio de Castro; Marco, Geraldo

    2017-04-01

    To compare the functional result of standart vein grafts and inside-out vein graft technique on sciatic nerve repair. We used 24 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control group (CG), standard vein graft group (SVG), Inside-out vein graft group (IOVG) and denervated Group (DG). SVG, IOVG and DG underwent total section of the sciatic nerve, SVG and IOVG however underwent nerve repair surgery using a graft with normal jugular vein and inside-out jugular vein, respectively. Histological analysis of the soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL), and Sciatic Functional Index were used to compare the results after 6 weeks. Both grafts acted favorably in muscle recovery and improved functionality; They were similar in all parameters, however, in more points SVG achieved similar to the CG, in the other hand IOVG more times was similar to DG. Fact that makes the graft with normal vein the most viable option between the two options. Both types of grafts acted beneficially wherein the graft normal vein has proved to be the best option.

  12. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury

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    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI, decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb. The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis.

  13. The effects of different tensile parameters for the neurodynamic mobilization technique on tricipital muscle wet weight and MuRf-1 expression in rabbits with sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Ming; Tang, Qiang; Zhu, Luwen; Koleini, Melanie; Zou, Dequan

    2015-04-15

    After peripheral nerve injury, muscles without innervation begin to undergo atrophy. Research has suggested that MuRf-1 may play a role in muscle atrophy. The neurodynamic mobilization technique (NMT) is a manual therapy method used to elongate a nerve along its long axis, resulting in improved blood flow to the nerve. However, the nerve can be damaged if elongated too much. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of NMT on muscle wet weight and MuRf-1 expression in rabbits with sciatic nerve injury. Six adult rabbits were measured to determine the relationship between the joint angle of the lower limb and percent of sciatic nerve elongation to define the tensile parameters of NMT; Thirty adult rabbits were randomly assigned into a sham, model, NMT-A, NMT-B, or NMT-C groups. Four weeks post-treatment, the wet mass of the tricipital muscles and MuRf-1 expression were observed. The wet mass of the tricipital muscles in the NMT-B group was significantly greater than the NMT-A, NMT-C, and model groups. In addition, MuRf-1 expression was significantly reduced in the NMT-B group compared with the NMT-A, NMT-C, and model groups. Elongating the nerve by NMT of 9% in rabbits decreased MuRf-1 expression and decelerated muscle atrophy in the subjects with sciatic nerve injury.

  14. Biocompatible heterogeneous porous gel matrix NeuroGel(TM) promotes regeneration of rat sciatic nerve within tubular silicone prosthesis (experimental study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatskiy, Alexander A; Tretyak, Ihor B; Tsymbaliuk, Vitaliy

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of NeuroGel™ to promote and enhance the regeneration of rat sciatic nerve within a 10-mm gap using silicone tubular prosthesis, and to evaluate and compare the regeneration outcomes versus autologous grafting. The 10-mm gap of rat sciatic nerve was bridged through silicone tubular prosthesis filled with dehydrated NeuroGel™, and NeuroGel™ saturated with rat NGF-B (NG30-NGG60, NGgfB30-NGgfB60). To assess the regeneration of the peripheral nerve we utilized three general and most commonly applied methods: electrophysiologic, hystomorphometric, and functional methods. The average M-wave amplitude (AMW index), or the intermediary index of the number of regenerated axons, in animal groups NGG60 and NGgfB60 60 days post-op was: 2.44 ± 0.57 mV and 1.87 ± 0.48 mV. These indices were statistically lower compared to the indices obtained after autologous grafting. The average impulse conduction velocity along motor fibers (VMF index), or the intermediary index of myelination rate, was: 13.3 mm/ms and 13.3 mm/ms, respectively, statistically equal to indices obtained after autologous grafting. The average density (D) of regenerated fibers (direct numerical indicator in contrast to intermediary AMW index) in animal groups NGG60 and NGgfB60 was: 4,920 ± 178.88 and 5,340 ± 150.33 per mm(2), respectively. These indices were statistically higher versus indices obtained after autologous grafting. Myelination rates of regenerated fibers in animal groups NGG60 and NGgfB60 were 73 and 86 %, respectively. They were also statistically higher. The average sciatic functional index (SFI) in NGG60 and NGgfB60 was: -25.57 ± 3.05 and -24.124 ± 4.8, respectively, which is statistically equal to indices obtained after autologous grafting. Neurogel™ strongly promotes the regeneration of rat sciatic nerve within silicone tubular prosthesis. After bridging a 10-mm gap through silicone prosthesis with

  15. Laparoscopic neurolysis of the sacral plexus and the sciatic nerve for extensive endometriosis of the pelvic wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possover, M; Baekelandt, J; Flaskamp, C; Li, D; Chiantera, V

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the feasibility of laparoscopic neurolysis of the plexus sacralis and the sciatic nerve in deep endometriotic infiltration of the lateral pelvic wall. A transperitoneal approach to the pelvic nerves combined with the LANN technique for intraoperative assessment of the function of the exposed nerves permit exposure and sparing of all somatic nerves during resection of the endometriotic lesion. We report on our short experience with 21 patients who underwent this technique for the treatment of endometriotic infiltration of the sacral plexus at different levels. In young patients with chronic unilateral sciatica or unilateral pudendal neuralgia - Alcock's canal syndrome - where no neurological/orthopedic etiologies have been found, endometriotic infiltration of the lateral pelvic wall has to be implicated as a potential etiology and an indication for laparoscopy must be discussed. Laparoscopic neurolysis of the pelvic somatic nerves is a feasible procedure for trained laparoscopic surgeons who have a good knowledge of the retroperitoneal pelvic (neuro)anatomy.

  16. Immediate Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor-α (Etanercept) Therapy Enhances Axonal Regeneration After Sciatic Nerve Crush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kinshi; Liu, Huaqing; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Myers, Robert R.; Shubayev, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration begins immediately after injury. Understanding the mechanisms by which early modulators of axonal degeneration regulate neurite outgrowth may affect the development of new strategies to promote nerve repair. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a crucial role in the initiation of degenerative cascades after peripheral nerve injury. Here we demonstrate using real-time Taqman quantitative RT-PCR that, during the time course (days 1–60) of sciatic nerve crush, TNF-α mRNA expression is induced at 1 day and returned to baseline at 5 days after injury in nerve and the corresponding dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Immediate therapy with the TNF-α antagonist etanercept (fusion protein of TNFRII and human IgG), administered systemically (i.p.) and locally (epineurially) after nerve crush injury, enhanced the rate of axonal regeneration, as determined by nerve pinch test and increased number of characteristic clusters of regenerating nerve fibers distal to nerve crush segments. These fibers were immunoreactive for growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and etanercept, detected by anti-human IgG immunofluorescence. Increased GAP-43 expression was found in the injured nerve and in the corresponding DRG and ventral spinal cord after systemic etanercept compared with vehicle treatments. This study established that immediate therapy with TNF-α antagonist supports axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:19746434

  17. Effects of Liposomes Charge on Extending Sciatic Nerve Blockade of N-ethyl Bromide of Lidocaine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qinqin; Ke, Bowen; Chen, Xiaobing; Guan, Yikai; Feng, Ping; Chen, Guo; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Wensheng; Nie, Yu

    2016-12-01

    N-methyl bromide of lidocaine (QX-314) is a potential local anaesthetic with compromised penetration through cell membranes due to its obligated positive charge. Liposomes have been widely used for drug delivery with promising efficacy and safety. Therefore we investigated the local anaesthetic effects and tissue reactions of QX-314 in combination with anionic, cationic or neutral liposomes in rat sciatic nerve block model, and explored the effects of these liposomes on cellular entry of QX-314 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results demonstrated that anionic liposomes substantially prolonged the duration of sensory (25.7 ± 8.3 h) and motor (41.4 ± 6.1 h) blocks of QX-314, while cationic and neutral ones had little effects. Tissue reactions from QX-314 with anionic liposomes were similar to those with commonly used local anaesthetic bupivacaine. Consistent with in vivo results, the anionic liposomes produced the greatest promotion of cellular entry of QX-314 in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, ultra-long lasting nerve blocks were achieved by a mixture of QX-314 and anionic liposomes with a satisfactory safety profile, indicating a potential approach to improve postoperative pain management. The liposome-induced enhancement in cellular uptake of QX-314 may underlie the in vivo effects.

  18. Differences Exist in the Left and Right Sciatic Nerves of Naïve Rats and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Michael B; Tresco, Patrick A

    2015-08-01

    The sciatic nerve of rats and cats is commonly used in experimental models of peripheral nerve injury and repair, as well as experiments involving peripheral nerve electrode implantation. In such experiments, morphometric parameters from the implanted nerve are commonly evaluated and compared to control values obtained from the contralateral nerves. However, this may not be an appropriate approach as differences may naturally exist in the structure of the two nerves owing to developmental or behavioral asymmetry. Additionally, in the cat, baseline values for standard morphometric parameters are not well established. In this study, we characterized fascicle area, fiber count, fiber density, fiber packing, mean g-ratio, and fiber diameter distributions in the rat and cat, as well as investigated the potential for naturally occurring sided differences in these parameters in both species. We also investigated whether animal age or location along the nerve influenced these parameters. We found that sided or left/right leg differences exist in some parameters in both the rat and the cat, calling into question the validity of using the contralateral nerve as a control. We also found that animal age and location along the nerve can make significant differences in the parameters tested, establishing the importance of using control nerves from age- and behaviorally matched animals whose morphometric parameters are collected and compared from the same location. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Modulates Spinal Cord Neuronal Degeneration by Enhancing Growth-Associated Protein 43, B-Cell Lymphoma 2, and Decreasing B-Cell Lymphoma 2-Associated X Protein Expression after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Rao, Muddanna S.; Khraishah, Haitham

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our previous studies have established that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has both neuroprotective and -regenerative capacity after sciatic nerve injury. Moreover, this improvement was evident on the behavioral level. The aim of this study was to investigate the central effects of ECGC on spinal cord motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury. Our study showed that administering 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally i.p. of EGCG to sciatic nerve-injured rats improved their performance on different motor functions and mechanical hyperesthesia neurobehavioral tests. Histological analysis of spinal cords of EGCG-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH+ECGC) animals showed an increase in the number of neurons in the anterior horn, when compared to the naïve, sham, and saline-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH) control groups. Additionally, immunohistochemical study of spinal cord sections revealed that EGCG reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and increased the expression of growth-associated protein 43, a marker of regenerating axons. Finally, EGCG reduced the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein/Bcl-2 and increased the expression of survivin gene. This study may shed some light on the future clinical use of EGCG and its constituents in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25025489

  20. Lentiviral vectors enveloped with rabies virus glycoprotein can be used as a novel retrograde tracer to assess nerve recovery in rat sciatic nerve injury models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yujun; Gong, Kai; Ao, Qiang; Wang, Aijun; Gong, Yandao; Zuo, Huancong; Zhang, Yuqi; Wang, James; Wang, Guihuai

    2014-02-01

    Retrograde labeling has become the new "gold standard" technique to evaluate the recovery of injured peripheral nerves. In this study, lentiviral vectors with rabies virus glycoprotein envelop (RABV-G-LV) and RFP genes are injected into gastrocnemius muscle to determine the location of RFP in sciatic nerves. We then examine RFP expression in the L4-S1 spinal cord and sensory dorsal root ganglia and in the rat sciatic nerve, isolated Schwann cells, viral dose to expression relationship and the use of RABV-G-LV as a retrograde tracer for regeneration in the injured rat sciatic nerve. VSV-G-LV was used as control for viral envelope specificity. Results showed that RFP were positive in the myelin sheath and lumbar spinal motorneurons of the RABV-G-LV group. RFP gene could be detected both in myelinated Schwann cells and lumbar spinal motor neurons in the RABV-G-LV group. Schwann cells isolated from the RABV-G-LV injected postnatal Sprague Dawley rats were also RFP-gene positive. All the results obtained in the VSV-G-LV group were negative. Distribution of RFP was unaltered and the level of RFP expression increasing with time progressing. RABV-G-LV could assess the amount of functional regenerating nerve fibers two months post-operation in the four models. This method offers an easy-operated and consistent standardized approach for retrograde labeling regenerating peripheral nerves, which may be a significant supplement for the previous RABV-G-LV-related retrograde labeling study.

  1. Investigation into Regeneration Mechanism of Hydroalcoholic Lavender (Lavandula officianalis Extract through the Evaluation of NT3 Gene Expression after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rats

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    Fereshteh Naderi Allaf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Retrograde transport to the alpha motoneurons causes spinal degeneration. The neurotrophic factor (NT3 increases the number of myelinated axons in the dorsal root, leads to differentiation and survival of sensory neurons, parasympathetic motoneurons and prevents cell death. Lavender is a plant in the family Lamiaceae which is reported to have antioxidant, antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-asthmatic, refrigerant, and antipyretic effects. This study examined NT3 gene expression changes after sciatic nerve compression in rats, in the presence of Lavandula officinalis extract. Materials and Methods: Lavender Soxhlet hydroalcoholic extraction was prepared. 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups including control, compression and treatment (compression group + hydroalcoholic extract of Lavender injections 75mg/kg groups. In controls the muscle was opened without damage to gain access to the sciatic nerve. In compression and treatment groups, the sciatic nerve (right leg was compressed. The extract was injected intraperitoneally in two occasions. A biopsy was taken from the spinal cord segments L4-L6 on day 28, total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and NT3 gene expression changes were analyzed by ANOVA test by using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that NT3 gene expression had a significant reduction in compression group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and it had a significant increase in treatment group compared with the compression group (p<0.001. Conclusion: A significant increase in gene expression shows that Lavandula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract improves nerve regeneration via NT3 gene expression.

  2. The effects of co-administration of pregabalin and vitamin E on neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymandi, Manzumeh-Shamsi; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Abdolsamadi, Mona; Shaabani, Mohammad; Heravi, Gioia; Yazdanpanah, Omid; Aghtaei, Mohammadmehdi-Moeini

    2017-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of pregabalin co-administration with vitamin E in Partial Sciatic Nerve Ligation (PSNL)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated as control, sham, and PSNL groups (n = 8). PSNL was induced by tight ligation of the sciatic nerve with a copper wire. On day 14th, the PSNL and sham operated rats received either pregabalin (1, 3, and 30 mg/kg), vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg), or their combination intraperitoneally. An antinociceptive effect was evaluated as latency times and Maximum possible Effect Percent (%MPE) using tail-flick test. Locomotor activity was evaluated by open-field test before PSNL surgery and then twice at the 14th days (before and after drug injection). Ligated nerves were removed on the 28th days after surgery for histological examinations. The time course of latency times and %MPE showed significant decrease in PSNL but not in sham and control groups. Pregabalin (3 and 30 mg/kg) and vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg) caused significant increases in latency time in PSNL (but not sham) group compared to control group. Vitamin E 200 mg/kg increased significantly %MPE in PSNL group compared to sham group. In addition, the %MPE following combination treatment of pregabalin (30 mg/kg) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg) was significantly higher than both vitamin E and control group. Also combination of pregabalin with 100 mg/kg of vitamin E reversed Wallerian degeneration of sciatic nerve and the inflammatory responses to almost similar to sham group. Pregabalin and vitamin E did not affect locomotor activity. Our results showed antinociceptive effects of both vitamin E and pregabalin alone or in combination in PSNL rats and also neuroprotective properties without affecting locomotor activity.

  3. Internal-specific morphological analysis of sciatic nerve fibers in a radiofrequency-induced animal neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samjin Choi

    Full Text Available This study investigated the reversible effects of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF treatment at 42 °C on the ultrastructural and biological changes in nerve and collagen fibers in the progression of neuropathic pain after rat sciatic nerve injury. Assessments of morphological changes in the extracellular matrices by atomic force microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and picrosirius-red staining as well as the expressions of two fibril-forming collagens, types-I and -III, and two inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were evaluated on day 30 after RF exposure. There were four groups for different RF thermal treatments: no treatment, no current, PRF, and continuous RF (CRF. An RF procedure similar to that used in human clinical trials was used in this study. The CRF treatment at 82 °C led to neural and collagen damage by the permanent blockage of sensory nociceptors. The PRF treatment led to excellent performance and high expandability compared to CRF, with effects including slight damage and swelling of myelinated axons, a slightly decreased amount of collagen fibers, swelling of collagen fibril diameters, decreased immunoreactivity of collagen types-I and -III, presence of newly synthesized collagen, and recovery of inflammatory protein immunoreactivity. These evidence-based findings suggest that PRF-based pain relief is responsible for the temporary blockage of nerve signals as well as the preferential destruction of pain-related principal sensory fibers like the Aδ and C fibers. This suggestion can be supported by the interaction between the PRF-induced electromagnetic field and cell membranes; therefore, PRF treatment provides pain relief while allowing retention of some tactile sensation.

  4. Preferential and comprehensive reconstitution of severely damaged sciatic nerve using murine skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tamaki

    Full Text Available Loss of vital functions in the somatic motor and sensory nervous systems can be induced by severe peripheral nerve transection with a long gap following trauma. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts have been used as the gold standard, with the expectation of activation and proliferation of graft-concomitant Schwann cells associated with their paracrine effects. However, there are a limited number of suitable sites available for harvesting of nerve autografts due to the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions. To overcome this problem, the potential of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs was examined as a novel alternative cell source for peripheral nerve regeneration. Cultured/expanded Sk-MSCs were injected into severely crushed sciatic nerve corresponding to serious neurotmesis. After 4 weeks, engrafted Sk-MSCs preferentially differentiated into not only Schwann cells, but also perineurial/endoneurial cells, and formed myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium, encircling the regenerated axons. Increased vascular formation was also observed, leading to a favorable blood supply and waste product excretion. In addition, engrafted cells expressed key neurotrophic and nerve/vascular growth factor mRNAs; thus, endocrine/paracrine effects for the donor/recipient cells were also expected. Interestingly, skeletal myogenic capacity of expanded Sk-MSCs was clearly diminished in peripheral nerve niche. The same differentiation and tissue reconstitution capacity of Sk-MSCs was sufficiently exerted in the long nerve gap bridging the acellular conduit, which facilitated nerve regeneration/reconnection. These effects represent favorable functional recovery in Sk-MSC-treated mice, as demonstrated by good corduroy walking. We also demonstrated that these differentiation characteristics of the Sk-MSCs were comparable to native peripheral nerve-derived cells, whereas the therapeutic capacities were largely superior in Sk

  5. Effects of tapentadol on mechanical hypersensitivity in rats with ligatures of the infraorbital nerve versus the sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, B; Bourgoin, S; Kayser, V; Hamon, M

    2013-07-01

    Convergent data showed that neuropathic pain has specific characteristics at cephalic versus extra-cephalic level, where single-targeted drugs differentially alleviate pain. Because the novel analgesic drug, tapentadol, is acting at two targets, μ-opioid receptors (as agonist) and noradrenaline reuptake (as inhibitor), we tested its effects on neuropathic pain at both cephalic and extra-cephalic levels. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral constriction injury (CCI) to the infraorbital nerve (ION; cephalic territory) or the sciatic nerve (SN; extra-cephalic territory), and alleviation of nerve lesion-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia was assessed after acute or repeated (for 4 days) treatment with tapentadol compared with morphine and/or reboxetine (noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) 2 weeks after surgery. Possible changes in the expression of the neuroinflammatory markers activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by repeated tapentadol treatment were quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in ganglia and central tissues. Acute administration of tapentadol (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced allodynia in both CCI-SN and CCI-ION rats. Although morphine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) or reboxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was only marginally active, the combination of both drugs produced supra-additive effects like those observed with tapentadol. In contrast to repeated morphine whose effects vanished, the anti-allodynic effects of tapentadol remained unchanged after a 4-day treatment. However, the latter treatment with tapentadol did not affect nerve lesion-evoked overexpression of ATF3, IL-6 and BDNF transcripts. The dual synergistic pharmacological properties of tapentadol, which result in clear-cut anti-neuropathic pain effects at both cephalic and extra-cephalic levels, probably involve mechanisms downstream of nerve injury-induced neuroinflammatory reaction.

  6. Preferential and Comprehensive Reconstitution of Severely Damaged Sciatic Nerve Using Murine Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multipotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Soeda, Shuichi; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Nakazato, Kenei; Okada, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Mochida, Joji

    2014-01-01

    Loss of vital functions in the somatic motor and sensory nervous systems can be induced by severe peripheral nerve transection with a long gap following trauma. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts have been used as the gold standard, with the expectation of activation and proliferation of graft-concomitant Schwann cells associated with their paracrine effects. However, there are a limited number of suitable sites available for harvesting of nerve autografts due to the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions. To overcome this problem, the potential of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs) was examined as a novel alternative cell source for peripheral nerve regeneration. Cultured/expanded Sk-MSCs were injected into severely crushed sciatic nerve corresponding to serious neurotmesis. After 4 weeks, engrafted Sk-MSCs preferentially differentiated into not only Schwann cells, but also perineurial/endoneurial cells, and formed myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium, encircling the regenerated axons. Increased vascular formation was also observed, leading to a favorable blood supply and waste product excretion. In addition, engrafted cells expressed key neurotrophic and nerve/vascular growth factor mRNAs; thus, endocrine/paracrine effects for the donor/recipient cells were also expected. Interestingly, skeletal myogenic capacity of expanded Sk-MSCs was clearly diminished in peripheral nerve niche. The same differentiation and tissue reconstitution capacity of Sk-MSCs was sufficiently exerted in the long nerve gap bridging the acellular conduit, which facilitated nerve regeneration/reconnection. These effects represent favorable functional recovery in Sk-MSC-treated mice, as demonstrated by good corduroy walking. We also demonstrated that these differentiation characteristics of the Sk-MSCs were comparable to native peripheral nerve-derived cells, whereas the therapeutic capacities were largely superior in Sk-MSCs. Therefore, Sk-MSCs can

  7. Sciatic and femoral nerve blockade using bupivacaine alone, or in combination with dexmedetomidine or buprenorphine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, M C; Doodnaught, G M; Fantoni, D T; Steagall, P V M

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study was to determine the onset and offset of antinociception after sciatic (ScN) and femoral (FN) nerve blocks. Six healthy adult cats (4.8±1.3years; 4.3±0.4 kg) were included in a randomised, crossover, blinded and controlled study. Following sedation with dexmedetomidine (25 µg/kg, intramuscular), each ScN and FN injection was performed using 0.1 ml/kg of saline (CONTROL), bupivacaine (0.46 per cent, 0.46 mg/kg; BUPI), bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg; BUPI-DEX) or bupivacaine and buprenorphine (2.5 µg/kg; BUPI-BUPRE). Atipamezole (250 µg/kg) was administered after injections. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) and motor blockade were evaluated before sedation and up to 24 hours. The PWT were significantly increased at half an hour in CONTROL, from two to four hours in BUPI and BUPI-DEX when compared with baseline. Motor blockade was observed between one and three hours in treatments using bupivacaine. Ability to walk was significantly impaired in BUPI at half an hour to two hours, BUPI-DEX at one to two hours and BUPI-BUPRE at two hours. Antinociception was observed in BUPI between one and eight hours, and in BUPI-DEX and BUPI-BUPRE between one and four hours. This study could not demonstrate a benefit of administering bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine or buprenorphine in cats. Results in BUPI-DEX may have been biased by the administration of atipamezole. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Elevated IL-1β and IL-6 levels in lumbar herniated discs in patients with sciatic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Pablo; Hoogland, Govert; Garcia, Miguel A; Steinbusch, Harry W; Daemen, Marc A; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle

    2013-04-01

    Previous experimental models have shown that proinflammatory cytokines modulate peripheral and central nociception. However, the direct correlation between inflammation and pain in patients remains unclear. Our aim is to correlate the levels of inflammation in the spine with pre- and postoperative pain scores after discectomy. Paravertebral muscle, annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) biopsies were intraoperatively collected from ten lumbar disc hernia (LDH) patients suffering from chronic sciatic pain and, as painless controls, five scoliosis patients. IL-1β and IL-6 expressions in these biopsies were assessed by qPCR and western blot. The amount of pain, indicated on a 0-10 point visual analogue scale (VAS), was assessed 1 day before surgery and 6 weeks and 1 year after surgery. For analysis purposes, LDH patients were grouped into painful (VAS ≥ 3.5) and non-painful (VAS < 3.5). LDH painful patient group showed a onefold increased mRNA expression of IL-1β in the NP, and IL-6 in the AF and NP (p < 0.05 vs. controls). By western blot analysis, both cytokines were clearly visible in all LDH biopsies, but not in controls. However, cytokine expression of the painful patient group did not differ from those of the non-painful patient group. In addition, there was no correlation between VAS scores and either marker. These findings support the idea that LDH is accompanied by a local inflammatory process. Yet, the lack of correlation between IL-1β or IL-6 expression and the severity pain suggests that these cytokines may not play a leading role in maintaining a pain generating network.

  9. Altered expression of sodium channel distribution in the dorsal root ganglion after gradual elongation of rat sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Katsunori; Yokota, Atsushi; Hirofuji, Shinji; Kanbara, Kiyoto; Ohtsuka, Hisashi; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2010-04-01

    To elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic nerve-stretch injury, we gradually lengthened rat femurs by 15 mm at the rate of 0.5 mm/day (group L, n = 13). The control groups comprised sham-operated (group S, n = 10) and naive (group N, n = 8) rats. Immediately after the lengthening, we performed a conduction study on their sciatic nerves and harvested samples. Electrophysiological and histological analyses showed mild conduction slowing and axonal degeneration of unmyelinated fibers in group L rats. Altered mRNA expression of the voltage-gated sodium channels in the dorsal root ganglion was also observed. Tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium-channel Nav1.8 mRNA expression was significantly decreased and TTX-R sodium-channel Nav1.9 mRNA expression showed a tendency to decrease when compared with the mRNA expressions in the control groups. However, tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium-channel Nav1.3 mRNA expression remained unaltered. The immunohistochemical alteration of Nav1.8 protein expression was parallel to the results of the mRNA expression. Previous studies involving neuropathic states have suggested that pain/paresthesia is modulated by a subset of sodium channels, including downregulation and/or upregulation of TTX-R and TTX-S sodium channels, respectively. Our findings indicate that Nav1.8 downregulation may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in limb lengthening-induced neuropathy.

  10. A comparison of the onset time of complete blockade of the sciatic nerve in the application of ropivacaine and its equal volumes mixture with lidocaine: a double-blind randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    Valery, Piacherski; Aliaksei, Marochkov

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study is to create a new mixture of local anesthetics-one with a short time of block development and short action term (5 ml of 1% lidocaine solution) and another with a longer time of anesthesia development and a long analgetic effect (5 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine)-for use during surgical operations on extremities. The primary end point was the development of the complete sensory block of the sciatic nerve. Methods Sixty blocks of sciatic nerve were used in...

  11. Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera ameliorates sciatic nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Kanyadhara

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study validate the use of EEAV to treat neuropathic pain. This effect may be attributed to the decreased migration of neutrophils and due to the anti-oxidant properties of A. vera. Further studies to confirm the mechanism of action will help develop suitable A. vera formulations for neuropathic pain therapy .

  12. Localization and expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in postmortem sciatic nerve from patients with motor neuron disease and diabetic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.A. [Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States); Gross, L.; Wittrock, D.A.; Windebank, A.J. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the mature motor system. The factor is found most abundantly in myelinating Schwann cells in the adult sciatic nerve. Lack of neuronal growth factors has been proposed as one possible etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Growth factor replacement therapies are currently being evaluated as a treatment for motor neuron disease. In this report we determined whether the expression of CNTF in sciatic nerve differed in patients with motor neuron disease compared to controls or patients with another form of axonopathy. We identified 8 patients (7 with ALS and 1 with SMA) with motor neuron disease and 6 patients with diabetic motor neuropathy who had autopsy material available. Immunoperoxidase staining showed reduced CNTF expression in nerves of patients with motor neuron disease but not in patients with diabetic motor neuropathy. Decreased CNTF appears be associated with primary motor neuron disease rather than a generalized process of axon loss. This result supports suggestions that CNTF deficiency may be an important factor in the development of motor neuron disease. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Low-Level Laser-Accelerated Peripheral Nerve Regeneration within a Reinforced Nerve Conduit across a Large Gap of the Transected Sciatic Nerve in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Chyi Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a novel combination of neural regeneration techniques for the repair of damaged peripheral nerves. A biodegradable nerve conduit containing genipin-cross-linked gelatin was annexed using beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP ceramic particles (genipin-gelatin-TCP, GGT to bridge the transection of a 15 mm sciatic nerve in rats. Two trigger points were irradiated transcutaneously using 660 nm of gallium-aluminum arsenide phosphide (GaAlAsP via laser diodes for 2 min daily over 10 consecutive days. Walking track analysis showed a significant improvement in sciatic functional index (SFI (P<0.01 and pronounced improvement in the toe spreading ability of rats undergoing laser stimulation. Electrophysiological measurements (peak amplitude and area illustrated by compound muscle action potential (CMAP curves demonstrated that laser stimulation significantly improved nerve function and reduced muscular atrophy. Histomorphometric assessments revealed that laser stimulation accelerated nerve regeneration over a larger area of neural tissue, resulting in axons of greater diameter and myelin sheaths of greater thickness than that observed in rats treated with nerve conduits alone. Motor function, electrophysiological reactions, muscular reinnervation, and histomorphometric assessments all demonstrate that the proposed therapy accelerated the repair of transected peripheral nerves bridged using a GGT nerve conduit.

  14. Ipsilateral common iliac artery plus femoral artery clamping for inducing sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: a reliable and simple method

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    Barzegar-Fallah Anita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a practical model of sciatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury producing serious neurologic deficits and being technically feasible compared with the current time consuming or ineffective models. Thirty rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 5. Animal were anesthetized by using ketamine (50 mg/kg and xylazine (4 mg/kg. Experimental groups included a sham-operated group and five I/R groups with different reperfusion time intervals (0 h, 3 h, 1 d, 4 d, 7 d. In I/R groups, the right common iliac artery and the right femoral artery were clamped for 3 hrs. Sham-operated animals underwent only laparotomy without induction of ischemia. Just before euthanasia, behavioral scores (based on gait, grasp, paw position, and pinch sensitivity were obtained and then sciatic nerves were removed for light-microscopy studies (for ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD and edema. Behavioral score deteriorated among the ischemic groups compared with the control group (p

  15. Combined Fascia Iliaca and Sciatic Nerve Block for Hip Surgery in the Presence of Severe Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case-Based Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingmin; Liu, Jin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yanzi; Liu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate anesthetic technique for patients with ankylosing spondylitis undergoing hip surgery is challenging because of a potentially difficult airway, the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory complications, and the technical difficulty of performing central neuraxial blocks in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Our objective was to report a case in which combination neural blockade was used successfully in an elderly patient with ankylosing spondylitis undergoing hip fracture surgery. In addition, a literature review of the anesthetic techniques reported for these patients was conducted. A 70-year-old man with severe ankylosing spondylitis and respiratory dysfunction was scheduled for a closed intertrochanteric fracture reduction and internal fixation. Combined fascia iliaca block and parasacral sciatic nerve block were used successfully for the surgery. Postoperative analgesia was accomplished by continuous fascia iliaca block. According to the literature review, general anesthesia is the most commonly performed anesthetic technique for patients with ankylosing spondylitis undergoing hip surgeries. Special intubation techniques and cautious airway management were very important for these patients. Although both general anesthesia and central neuraxial blockade pose considerable risks to the patients, this case report suggests that combined fascia iliaca block and sciatic nerve block might be a promising option.

  16. Pharmacological switch in Aβ-fiber stimulation-induced spinal transmission in mice with partial sciatic nerve injury

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    Ma Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that different spinal transmissions are involved in the nociceptive behavior caused by electrical stimulation of Aβ-, Aδ- or C-fibers using a Neurometer® in naïve mice. In this study, we attempted to pharmacologically characterize the alteration in spinal transmission induced by partial sciatic nerve injury in terms of nociceptive behavior and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK in the spinal dorsal horn. Results Aβ-fiber responses (2000-Hz, which were selectively blocked by the AMPA/kainate antagonist CNQX in naïve mice, were hypersensitized but blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and AP-5 in injured mice in an electrical stimulation-induced paw withdrawal (EPW test. Although Aδ-fiber responses (250-Hz were also hypersensitized by nerve injury, there was no change in the pharmacological characteristics of Aδ-fiber responses through NMDA receptors. On the contrary, C-fiber responses (5-Hz were hyposensitized by nerve injury. Moreover, Aδ- and C-, but not Aβ-fiber stimulations significantly increased the number of pERK-positive neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horns of naïve mice, and corresponding antagonists used in the EPW test inhibited this increase. In mice with nerve injury, Aβ- as well as Aδ-fiber stimulations significantly increased the number of pERK-positive neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, whereas C-fiber stimulation decreased this number. The nerve injury-specific pERK increase induced by Aβ-stimulation was inhibited by MK-801 and AP-5, but not by CNQX. However, Aβ- and Aδ-stimulations did not affect the number or size of pERK-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion, whereas C-fiber-stimulation selectively decreased the number of pERK-positive neurons. Conclusion These results suggest that Aβ-fiber perception is newly transmitted to spinal neurons, which originally receive only Aδ- and C

  17. Ginsenoside Re Promotes Nerve Regeneration by Facilitating the Proliferation, Differentiation and Migration of Schwann Cells via the ERK- and JNK-Dependent Pathway in Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yuan, Damin; Zhang, Dongmei; Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Chun; Cheng, Hongbing; Song, Yan; Tan, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Exploring effective drugs that are capable of promoting nerve regeneration has gained much attention. Ginsenoside Re (Re) is the main ingredient of ginseng berries and roots. Research in the area has shown that ginsenoside Re exhibits multiple pharmacological activities via different mechanisms both in vivo and in vitro. But the potential therapeutic effects of Re on sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC) have been little investigated. Herein, we investigated the protect effect of Re on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat SNC model. Walking track analysis revealed that Re treatment significantly promoted functional recovery of crushed sciatic nerve in rats. The expression of PCNA in rat sciatic nerve was up-regulated by Re treatment, and peaked when the concentration of Re was 2.0 mg/kg. Using immunofluorescent staining, we found that Re greatly increased the expression of GAP-43 and S100 in injured rat sciatic nerve. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of Re on proliferation, differentiation, and migration of Schwann cells in SNC rat models. Our studies reveal that Re promotes nerve regeneration is depend on ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling pathway. Elevated Oct-6 expression and featured morphological changes indicated that Re facilitated the differentiation of Schwann cells following SNC. Also, transwell and wound-healing assay demonstrated that the migration capabilities of Schwann cell were significantly enhanced after Re treatment.

  18. Pelvic Primary Staphylococcal Infection Presenting as a Thigh Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-abdominal disease can present as an extra-abdominal abscess and can follow several routes, including the greater sciatic foramen, obturator foramen, femoral canal, pelvic outlet, and inguinal canal. Nerves and vessels can also serve as a route out of the abdomen. The psoas muscle extends from the twelfth thoracic and fifth lower lumbar vertebrae to the lesser trochanter of the femur, which means that disease in this muscle group can migrate along the muscle, out of the abdomen, and present as a thigh abscess. We present a case of a primary pelvic staphylococcal infection presenting as a thigh abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man who presented with left posterior thigh pain and fever. Physical examination revealed a diffusely swollen left thigh with overlying erythematous, shiny, and tense skin. X-rays revealed no significant soft tissue lesions, ultrasound was suggestive of an inflammatory process, and MRI showed inflammatory changes along the left hemipelvis and thigh involving the iliacus muscle group, left gluteal region, and obturator internus muscle. The abscess was drained passively via two incisions in the posterior left thigh, releasing large amounts of purulent discharge. Subsequent bacterial culture revealed profuse growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The patient recovered uneventfully except for a moderate fever on the third postoperative day.

  19. Pelvic Primary Staphylococcal Infection Presenting as a Thigh Abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, T. O.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal disease can present as an extra-abdominal abscess and can follow several routes, including the greater sciatic foramen, obturator foramen, femoral canal, pelvic outlet, and inguinal canal. Nerves and vessels can also serve as a route out of the abdomen. The psoas muscle extends from the twelfth thoracic and fifth lower lumbar vertebrae to the lesser trochanter of the femur, which means that disease in this muscle group can migrate along the muscle, out of the abdomen, and present as a thigh abscess. We present a case of a primary pelvic staphylococcal infection presenting as a thigh abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man who presented with left posterior thigh pain and fever. Physical examination revealed a diffusely swollen left thigh with overlying erythematous, shiny, and tense skin. X-rays revealed no significant soft tissue lesions, ultrasound was suggestive of an inflammatory process, and MRI showed inflammatory changes along the left hemipelvis and thigh involving the iliacus muscle group, left gluteal region, and obturator internus muscle. The abscess was drained passively via two incisions in the posterior left thigh, releasing large amounts of purulent discharge. Subsequent bacterial culture revealed profuse growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The patient recovered uneventfully except for a moderate fever on the third postoperative day. PMID:23607037

  20. Morphometric analysis of the diameter and g-ratio of the myelinated nerve fibers of the human sciatic nerve during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrenović, Sladjana; Jovanović, Ivan; Vasović, Ljiljana; Kundalić, Braca; Čukuranović, Rade; Stefanović, Vladisav

    2016-06-01

    Myelinated nerve fibers suffer from different degrees of atrophy with age. The success of subsequent regeneration varies. The aim of this research was to analyze myelinated fibers of the human sciatic nerve during the aging process. Morphometric analysis was performed on 17 cases with an age range from 9 to 93 years. The outer and inner diameter of 100 randomly selected nerve fibers was measured in each of the cases evaluated, and the g-ratio (axonal diameter/outer diameter of the whole nerve fiber) of each was calculated. Scatter plots of the diameters and g-ratios of the analyzed fibers were then analyzed. Nerve fibers of each case were classified into three groups according to the g-ratio values: group I (g-ratio lower than 0.6), group II (g-ratio from 0.6 to 0.7) and group III (g-ratio higher than 0.7). Afterwards, nerve fibers of group II were further classified into small and large subgroups. The percentages of each group of nerve fibers were computed for each case and these values were used for correlational and bivariate linear regression analysis. The percentage of myelinated nerve fibers with large diameter and optimal g-ratio of the sciatic nerve declines significantly with age. This is accompanied by a simultaneous significant increase in the percentage of small myelinated fibers with g-ratio values close to 1 that occupy the upper left quadrant of the scatter plot. It can be concluded that aging of the sciatic nerve is associated with significant atrophy of large myelinated fibers. Additionally, a significant increase in regenerated nerve fibers with thinner myelin sheath is observed with age, which, together with the large myelinated fiber atrophy, might be the cause of the age-related decline in conduction velocity. A better understanding of the changes in aging peripheral nerves might improve interpretation of their pathological changes, as well as comprehension of their regeneration in individuals of different age.

  1. Long-term regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve through a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide: tissue reactions with focus on collagen III/IV reformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Koen; Meek, Marcel F; van der Werff, John F A; van Wachem, Pauline B; van Luyn, Marja J A

    2004-05-01

    Long-term studies on nerve-guide regeneration are scarce. Therefore, in rats, long-term (16 months) sciatic nerve regeneration through poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) [poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL)] nerve guides was studied and compared with the nonoperated control side. Poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) degradation and possible long-term foreign body reaction against poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides, as well as the distribution of both collagen type III and IV were studied. In vivo poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) studies have been performed before but not for such long time points; also, a detailed analysis of collagen III/IV has not been presented before. The results demonstrate that biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides yield good nerve regeneration and collagen III/IV deposition relative to the anatomy of the control side. Regenerated nerve showed almost similar collagen type III/IV distribution patterns as compared with the nonoperated control side, although the delineation of matrix was clearer in the control side. The relative amount of collagen III and IV immunostaining in nerve cross-sections did not, however, differ between the control nerve tissue and the operated side after 16 months. After 16 months of implantation, however, some very small fragments of biomaterial could still be found on the edge of the epineurium of the regenerated nerve, indicating remnants of a secondary foreign body reaction. The biomaterial fragments and foreign body reaction did not influence the nerve regeneration process after 16 months. Biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides are useful for long-term bridging of short peripheral nerve gaps. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 69A: 334-341, 2004

  2. Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachta indica standardized extract in partial sciatic nerve injury in rats: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhare, Amit D.; Mukherjee, Anwesha A.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is a common and widely recognized pain syndrome for patients and difficult to manage for physicians. Azadirachta indica (AI) possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of AI standardized extract in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). PSNL was induced in male Wistar rats (180-200 g) with tight ligation of the nerve. Rats received treatment with either vehicle i.e. distilled water (PSNL control), Pyridoxine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or AI (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 28 days. Various behavioral parameters, biochemical, molecular and histological parameters were evaluated. PSNL resulted in a significant decrease (p Azadirachta indica exerts its neuroprotection against PSNL induced neuropathic pain via inhibition of oxidative-nitrosative stress, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis to improve MNCV (graphical abstract, Figure 1(Fig. 1)). PMID:28694757

  3. Effects of proton irradiation of the lumbar intumescence on intra-axonal transport of acetylcholine and cholinergic enzymes in rat sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeoej, S.; Dahlstroem, A.; Larsson, P.A.; Rosander, K.; Rosengren, B. (Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Institutionen foer Neurobiologi)

    1980-01-01

    The content and intra-axonal transport of acetylcholine (ACh) and the cholinergic enzymes cholineacetyl-transferase (CAT) and ACh-esterase (AChE) in sciatic nerve were investigated in rats following single dose proton irradiation of the lumbar intumescence of the spinal cord with 60 Gy or 200 Gy. One, 7 or 30 days after irradiation nerve-crush operations were performed 12 hours before killing and the levels of ACh and enzyme activities in nerve segments relative to the crushes were estimated by biologic (ACh) to chemical (enzyme) methods. The results indicate that alterations in intra-neuronal dynamics of ACh and related enzymes are not a major cause for the development of neurologic symptoms of the motor system after irradiation, and that descending myelinated axons are of minor importance for the regulation of cholinergic substances in rat motor nerves.

  4. Effect of electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve on synaptic plasticity of spinal dorsal horn and spinal c-fos expression in neonatal, juvenile and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Hu, Qisheng; Huang, Deying; Chen, Xueling; Chen, Jie

    2012-04-11

    To explore the response to nociceptive stimuli in spinal cord of immature rat and observe the electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve on synaptic plasticity of the spinal dorsal horn and spinal c-fos expression in rats of different ages, MK-801 was added to the spinal cord of rats, and the resulting changes in field potential as well as c-fos expression were recorded. LTP in neonatal rats was mainly evoked by A-type nerve fibers, whereas LTP in juvenile and adult rats was mainly evoked by C-type nerve fibers. C-fos expression was significantly increased in the superficial and deep layers of the spinal dorsal horn and in the ventral horn in neonatal rats indicating that the pain signal changed with age. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Insulin and IGF-II, but not IGF-I, stimulate the in vitro regeneration of adult frog sciatic sensory axons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edbladh, M; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Ekström, P A

    1994-01-01

    We used the in vitro regenerating frog sciatic nerve to look for effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, IGF-II) on regeneration of sensory axons and on injury induced support cell proliferation in the outgrowth region. In nerves cultured for 11 days, a physiological...... increased the outgrowth distance of the furthest regenerating sensory axons by 10%. The preparation was particularly sensitive to insulin during the first 5 days of culturing. Furthermore, both insulin and IGF-II were found to inhibit proliferation of support cells in the outgrowth region in a manner...... suggesting effects via their individual receptors. The inhibition, about 30%, was observable after 4 but not 11 days in culture. It is not clear if this reflects a stimulated differentiation of some cells. By contrast, IGF-I lacked effects on both regeneration and proliferation. In conclusion, the results...

  6. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kono, Yumiko, E-mail: kohnoy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kan, Naoki, E-mail: kanna@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  7. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis.

  8. The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurie, Hirofumi; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kaizawa, Yukitoshi; Tajino, Junichi; Ito, Akira; Ohta, Souichi; Oda, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Hisataka; Akieda, Shizuka; Tsuji, Manami; Nakayama, Koichi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Although autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, several alternative methods have been developed, including nerve conduits that use supportive cells. However, the seeding efficacy and viability of supportive cells injected in nerve grafts remain unclear. Here, we focused on a novel completely biological, tissue-engineered, scaffold-free conduit. We developed six scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts using a Bio 3D Printer. Twelve adult male rats with immune deficiency underwent mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm Bio 3D conduits (Bio 3D group, n = 6) and silicone tube (silicone group, n = 6). Several assessments were conducted to examine nerve regeneration eight weeks post-surgery. Kinematic analysis revealed that the toe angle to the metatarsal bone at the final segment of the swing phase was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (-35.78 ± 10.68 versus -62.48 ± 6.15, respectively; p Bio 3D group than the silicone group (53.60 ± 26.36% versus 2.93 ± 1.84%; p Bio 3D group. The wet muscle weight of the tibialis anterior muscle was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (0.544 ± 0.063 versus 0.396 ± 0.031, respectively; p Bio 3D conduits composed entirely of fibroblast cells promote nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

  9. The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Yurie

    Full Text Available Although autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, several alternative methods have been developed, including nerve conduits that use supportive cells. However, the seeding efficacy and viability of supportive cells injected in nerve grafts remain unclear. Here, we focused on a novel completely biological, tissue-engineered, scaffold-free conduit.We developed six scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts using a Bio 3D Printer. Twelve adult male rats with immune deficiency underwent mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm Bio 3D conduits (Bio 3D group, n = 6 and silicone tube (silicone group, n = 6. Several assessments were conducted to examine nerve regeneration eight weeks post-surgery.Kinematic analysis revealed that the toe angle to the metatarsal bone at the final segment of the swing phase was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (-35.78 ± 10.68 versus -62.48 ± 6.15, respectively; p < 0.01. Electrophysiological studies revealed significantly higher compound muscle action potential in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (53.60 ± 26.36% versus 2.93 ± 1.84%; p < 0.01. Histological and morphological studies revealed neural cell expression in all regions of the regenerated nerves and the presence of many well-myelinated axons in the Bio 3D group. The wet muscle weight of the tibialis anterior muscle was significantly higher in the Bio 3D group than the silicone group (0.544 ± 0.063 versus 0.396 ± 0.031, respectively; p < 0.01.We confirmed that scaffold-free Bio 3D conduits composed entirely of fibroblast cells promote nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model.

  10. Dexmedetomidine Added to Local Anesthetic Mixture of Lidocaine and Ropivacaine Enhances Onset and Prolongs Duration of a Popliteal Approach to Sciatic Nerve Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiawei; Li, Jinlei; Zhou, Riyong; Wang, Quanguang; Xia, Fangfang; Halaszynski, Thomas; Xu, Xuzhong

    2017-01-01

    A literature review of multiple clinical studies on mixing additives to improve pharmacologic limitation of local anesthetics during peripheral nerve blockade revealed inconsistency in success rates and various adverse effects. Animal research on dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant on the other hand has promising results, with evidence of minimum unwanted results. This randomized, double-blinded, contrastable observational study examined the efficacy of adding dexmedetomidine to a mixture of lidocaine plus ropivacaine during popliteal sciatic nerve blockade (PSNB). Sixty patients undergoing varicose saphenous vein resection using ultrasonography-guided PSNB along with femoral and obturator nerve blocks as surgical anesthesia were enrolled. All received standardized femoral and obturator nerve blocks, and the PSNB group was randomized to receive either 0.5 mL (50 µg) of dexmedetomidine (DL group) or 0.5 mL of saline (SL group) together with 2% lidocaine (9.5 mL) plus 0.75% ropovacaine (10 mL). Sensory onset and duration of lateral sural cutaneous nerve, sural nerve, superficial peroneal nerve, deep peroneal nerve, lateral plantar nerve, and medial plantar nerve were recorded. Motor onset and duration of tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve were also examined. Sensory onset of sural nerve, superficial peroneal nerve, lateral plantar nerve, and medial plantar nerve was significantly quicker in the DL group than in the SL group (P 0.05). Motor onset of tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve was faster in the DL group than in in the SL group (P lidocaine and ropivacaine enhanced efficacy of popliteal approach to sciatic nerve blockade with faster onset and longer duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Botox-A SNAP-25 protein expression and the mechanism of inhibitory neurotransmitter imbalance in chronic sciatic nerve pain rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu-Dong; Wang, Wei; Ding, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhong, Jing; Chen, Hua-Xian

    2017-06-01

    The Botox-A impact on the expression of SNAP-25 protein in rat chronic sciatic nerve pain model was assessed and the mechanism of inhibitory neurotransmitter imbalance was studied. A chronic constriction injury (CCI) model consisted of 30 healthy male rats. The rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated group, CCI group and BoNT/A intervention group, and during 1, 7 and 14 days we conducted mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) test and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) test before and after operation. After 14 days, the animals were sacrificed. SNAP-25 protein expression level, mRNA subunit NR2B within excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate GLT and protein expression level, as well as GAT mRNA, the inhibitory GABA neurotransmitter transporter and protein expression level were studied by RT-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The difference between MWT and TWL at each point in time before and after operation showed no statistical significance (P>0.05) in the sham-operated group. For the CCI group at each time point, MWT and TWL were obviously lower than the sham-operated group and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). The expression level of protein of SNAP-25 and NR2B mRNA in the CCI group was clearly higher than sham-operated group. Additionally, the expression level of GAT-1 mRNA and protein in CCI group was apparently lower than the sham-operated group. In conclusion, Botox-A helped reduce SNAP-25 within rat chronic sciatic nerve pain model thereby relieving pain.

  12. Inside-out and standard vein grafts associated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in sciatic nerve repair. A histomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, José Sidney; Pomini, Karina Torres; Buchaim, Rogério Leone; Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Roque, Domingos Donizeti; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Rosa, Geraldo Marco; Moraes, Luis Henrique Rapucci; Viterbo, Fausto

    2017-08-01

    To evaluated the tubulization technique with standard and inside-out vein, filled or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in sciatic nerve repair. Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: IOVNF (Inside-Out Vein with No Filling); IOVPRP (Inside-Out Vein filled with PRP); SVNF (Standard Vein with No Filling); SVPRP (Standard Vein filled with PRP); Sham (Control). The left external jugular vein was used as graft in a 10 mm nervous gap. In the morphological analysis of all groups, myelinated nerve fibers with evident myelin sheath, neoformation of the epineurium and perineurium, organization of intraneural fascicles and blood vessels were observed. In the morphometry of the distal stump fibers, SVPRP group had the highest means regarding fiber diameter (3.63±0.42 μm), axon diameter (2.37±0.31 μm) and myelin sheath area (11.70±0.84 μm2). IOVPRP group had the highest means regarding axon area (4.39±1.16 μm2) and myelin sheath thickness (0.80±0.19 μm). As for values of the fiber area, IOVNF group shows highest means (15.54±0.67 μm2), but are still lower than the values of the Sham group. The graft filled with platelet-rich plasma, with use standard (SVPRP) or inside-out vein (IOVPRP), promoted the improvement in axonal regeneration on sciatic nerve injury.

  13. Sciatic nerve regeneration by transplantation of Schwann cells via erythropoietin controlled-releasing polylactic acid/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/gelatin nanofibrils neural guidance conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Majid; Naseri-Nosar, Mahdi; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Nourani, Mohammdreza; Khojasteh, Arash; Hamidieh, Amir-Ali; Amani, Amir; Farzamfar, Saeed; Ai, Jafar

    2017-07-04

    The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using an electrically conductive biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit for transplantation of allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was produced from polylactic acid (PLA), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) coated with the recombinant human erythropoietin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (rhEpo-CNPs). The PLA/MWCNTs/GNFs/rhEpo-CNPs conduit had the porosity of 85.78 ± 0.70%, the contact angle of 77.65 ± 1.91° and the ultimate tensile strength and compressive modulus of 5.51 ± 0.13 MPa and 2.66 ± 0.34 MPa, respectively. The conduit showed the electrical conductivity of 0.32 S cm(-1) and lost about 11% of its weight after 60 days in normal saline. The produced conduit was able to release the rhEpo for at least 2 weeks and exhibited favorable cytocompatibility towards SCs. For functional analysis, the conduit was seeded with 1.5 × 10(4) SCs and implanted into a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect of Wistar rat. After 14 weeks, the results of sciatic functional index, hot plate latency, compound muscle action potential amplitude, weight-loss percentage of wet gastrocnemius muscle and Histopathological examination using hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue staining demonstrated that the produced conduit had comparable nerve regeneration to the autograft, as the gold standard to bridge the nerve gaps. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Schwann cells and mesenchymal stem cells in laminin- or fibronectin-aligned matrices and regeneration across a critical size defect of 15 mm in the rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Hernández, Joaquim; Heimann, Claudia; Phillips, James B; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Artificial nerve guides are being developed to substitute for autograft repair after peripheral nerve injuries. However, the use of conduits is limited by the length of the gap that needs to be bridged, with the success of regeneration highly compromised in long gaps. Addition of aligned proregenerative cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components inside the conduit can be a good strategy to achieve artificial grafts that recreate the natural environment offered by a nerve graft. The purpose of this study was to functionalize chitosan devices with different cell types to support regeneration in limiting gaps in the rat peripheral nerve. METHODS The authors used chitosan devices combined with proteins of the ECM and cells in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Combinations of fibronectin and laminin with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or Schwann cells (SCs) were aligned within tethered collagen-based gels, which were placed inside chitosan tubes that were then used to repair a critical-size gap of 15 mm in the rat sciatic nerve. Electrophysiology and algesimetry tests were performed to analyze functional recovery during the 4 months after injury and repair. Histological analysis was performed at the midlevel and distal level of the tubes to assess the number of regenerated myelinated fibers. RESULTS Functional analysis demonstrated that SC-aligned scaffolds resulted in 100% regeneration success in a 15-mm nerve defect in this rat model. In contrast, animals that underwent repair with MSC-aligned constructs had only 90% regeneration success, and those implanted with acellular bridges had only 75% regeneration success. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that the combination of chitosan conduits with ECM-enriched cellular gels represents a good alternative to the use of autografts for repairing long nerve gaps.

  15. Virtual Presenters: Towards Interactive Virtual Presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cappellini, V.; Hemsley, J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss having virtual presenters in virtual environments that present information to visitors of these environments. Some current research is surveyed and we will look in particular to our research in the context of a virtual meeting room where a virtual presenter uses speech, gestures, pointing

  16. Jumping in aquatic environment after sciatic nerve compression: nociceptive evaluation and morphological characteristics of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of jumping in aquatic environment on nociception and in the soleus muscle of trained and not trained Wistar rats, in the treatment of compressive neuropathy of the sciatic nerve. Twenty-five Wistar rats were distributed into five groups: Control, Lesion, Trained + Lesion, Lesion + Exercise, and Trained + Lesion + Exercise. The training was jumping exercise in water environment for 20 days prior to injury, and treatment after the injury. Nociception was evaluated in two occasions, before injury and seven after injury. On the last day of the experiment, the right soleus muscles were collected, processed and analyzed as to morphology and morphometry. In the assessment of nociception in the injury site, the Control Group had higher average than the rest, and the Lesion Group was larger than the Trained + Lesion and Lesion + Exercise Groups. The Control Group showed higher nociceptive threshold in paw, compared to the others. In the morphometric analysis, in relation to Control Group, all the injured groups showed decreased muscle fiber area, and in the Lesion Group was lower than in the Lesion + Exercise Group and Trained + Lesion Group. Considering the diameter of the muscle fiber, the Control Group had a higher average than the Trained + Lesion Group and the Trained + Lesion + Exercise Group; and the Lesion Group showed an average lower than the Trained + Lesion and Lesion + Exercise Groups. Resistance exercise produced increased nociception. When performed prior or after nerve damage, it proved effective in avoiding hypotrophy. The combination of the two protocols led to decrease in diameter and area of the muscle fiber. Avaliar os efeitos do salto em meio aquático, na nocicepção e no músculo sóleo, em ratos Wistar treinados e não treinados, no tratamento de neuropatia compressiva do nervo isquiático. Foram distribuídos em cinco grupos 25 ratos Wistar: Controle, Lesão, Treinado + Lesão, Lesão + Exercício e Treinado + Lesão + Exerc

  17. Presentation rubric: improving faculty professional presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Arlene N; McDaniel, Gretchen S

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the content of a presentation evaluation rubric for use in the development and improvement in faculty performance to enhance learning. Lectures or professional presentations require skills that can be learned through the use of evidence-based practices for all forms of public speaking. A core competency of nursing faculty is to serve as a role model in skilled oral communication. The use of an evaluation presentation rubric can increase faculty competency in this area. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Making your presentation fun: creative presentation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KEENEN,MARTHA JANE

    2000-05-18

    What possesses someone to volunteer and go through hoops and red tape to make a presentation at a conference? For that matter, why does anyone ever present anything to anyone? Actually, presentations are a fact of life and there are many reasons for doing a presentation and doing it well. New and existing staff need training and orientation to the way things are done here. Handing all of them a manual and hoping they read it is pretty much a waste of paper. On the other hand, an effective, entertaining and upbeat presentation on the relevant topics is more likely to stick with those people. They will even have a name and face to remember and seek out when they have an issue on or with that topic. This can be a very effective beginning for networking with new peers. The presenter is seen as knowledgeable, as a source of information on company topics and possibly evaluated as a potential mentor or future manager. Project staff and/or peers benefit from clear, concise, presentations of topical knowledge. This is one way that a group working on various aspects of the same project or program can stay in touch and in step with each other. Most importantly, presentations may be the best or only door into the minds (and budgets) of management and customers. These presentations are a wonderful opportunity to address legal and compliance issues, budget, staffing, and services. Here is a chance, maybe the only one, to demonstrate and explain the wonderfulness of a program and the benefit they get by using the services offered most effectively. An interactive presentation on legal and compliance issues can be an effective tool in helping customers and/or management make good risk management decisions.

  19. “Three Methods and Three Points” regulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuina is a traditional Chinese treatment for sensory disturbances caused by peripheral nerve injury and related diseases. Our previous studies showed that tuina regulates relevant regions and indices of the spinal dorsal horn using the Dian, Bo, and Rou method in Yinmen (BL37, Yanglingquan (GB34, and Weizhong (BL40. Treatment prevents muscle atrophy, protects spinal cord neurons, and promotes sciatic nerve repair. The mechanisms of action of tuina for treating peripheral nerve injury remain poorly understood. This study established rat models of sciatic nerve injury using the crushing method. Rats received Chinese tuina in accordance with the principle of “Three Methods and Three Points,” once daily for 20 days. Tuina intervention reduced paw withdrawal latency and improved wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as promoting morphological recovery of sciatic nerve fibers, Schwann cells, and axons. The protein expression levels of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β also decreased. These findings indicate that “Three Methods and Three Points” promoted morphological recovery and improved behavior of rats with peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Origem e distribuição dos nervos isquiáticos do preá Origin and distribuition of sciatic nerves of the Galea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O preá do semiárido nordestino (Galea spixii Wagler, 1831 é um roedor pertencente à família Caviidae. Pouca literatura é encontrada sobre essa espécie em relação a sua morfologia e seu comportamento ambiental e reprodutivo. Com o objetivo de entender a morfologia geral, em foco, na inervação do membro pélvico dessa espécie, neste trabalho, foi explorado o nervo isquiático, o qual é o maior de todos os nervos do organismo. Foram utilizados 10 preás (cinco machos e cinco fêmeas que vieram a óbito por causas naturais, oriundos do Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido (CEMAS/UFERSA. Os animais foram fixados após o óbito em solução aquosa de formaldeído 10% e, após 48 horas de imersão nessa solução, foram dissecados para exposição do nervo isquiático. Dessa forma, os dados obtidos foram compilados em tabelas e expressos em desenhos esquemáticos e fotografias. Os pares de nervos isquiáticos originaram-se de raízes ventrais de L6L7S1 (70% e de L7S1S2 (30% e distribuíram-se pelos músculos glúteo profundo, bíceps femural, semitendinoso e semimembranoso.The Galea of the semi-arid northeast (Galea spixii Wagler, 1831 is a rodent belonging to the family Caviidae. Little literature is found on this species in relation to morphology, environmental and reproductive behavior. With a view to understanding the general morphology, particularly, in the innervation of the pelvic limb of this species, ponder the sciatic nerve, which is the largest of all the nerves of the body. 10 cavies were used (five males, five females that they had died of natural causes, originating from breeders scientific, legally licensed by IBAMA, the UFRSA, Mossoró, RN. The animals were fixed after the death in an aqueous solution of formaldehyde 10% and after 48 hours of immersion in it, were dissected to expose the sciatic nerve. Thus, the data were compiled in tables and expressed in drawings and