Sample records for schu s4 aerosols

  1. Francisella tularensis SchuS4 and SchuS4 lipids inhibit IL-12p40 in primary human dendritic cells by inhibition of IRF1 and IRF8* (United States)

    Ireland, Robin; Wang, Rong; Alinger, Joshua B.; Small, Pamela; Bosio, Catharine M.


    Induction of innate immunity is essential for host survival of infection. Evasion and inhibition of innate immunity is a strategy used by pathogens, such as the highly virulent bacterium Francisella tularensis, to ensure their replication and transmission. The mechanism and bacterial components responsible for this suppression of innate immunity by F. tularensis are not defined. Here, we demonstrate that lipids enriched from virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4, but not attenuated Live Vaccine Strain (LVS), inhibit inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of inflammatory responses is associated with IκBα independent inhibition of NF-κBp65 activation and selective inhibition of activation of Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs). Interference with NF-κBp65 and IRFs is also observed following infection with viable SchuS4. Together these data provide novel insight as to how highly virulent bacteria selectively modulate the host to interfere innate immune responses required for survival of infection. PMID:23817430

  2. Mucosal immunization with live attenuated Francisella novicida U112ΔiglB protects against pulmonary F. tularensis SCHU S4 in the Fischer 344 rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L Signarovitz

    Full Text Available The need for an efficacious vaccine against Francisella tularensis is a consequence of its low infectious dose and high mortality rate if left untreated. This study sought to characterize a live attenuated subspecies novicida-based vaccine strain (U112ΔiglB in an established second rodent model of pulmonary tularemia, namely the Fischer 344 rat using two distinct routes of vaccination (intratracheal [i.t.] and oral. Attenuation was verified by comparing replication of U112ΔiglB with wild type parental strain U112 in F344 primary alveolar macrophages. U112ΔiglB exhibited an LD(50>10(7 CFU compared to the wild type (LD(50 = 5 × 10(6 CFU i.t.. Immunization with 10(7 CFU U112ΔiglB by i.t. and oral routes induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and potent humoral responses both systemically (IgG2a>IgG1 in serum and at the site of mucosal vaccination (respiratory/intestinal compartment. Importantly, vaccination with U112ΔiglB by either i.t. or oral routes provided equivalent levels of protection (50% survival in F344 rats against a subsequent pulmonary challenge with ~25 LD(50 (1.25 × 10(4 CFU of the highly human virulent strain SCHU S4. Collectively, these results provide further evidence on the utility of a mucosal vaccination platform with a defined subsp. novicida U112ΔiglB vaccine strain in conferring protective immunity against pulmonary tularemia.

  3. Low dose vaccination with attenuated Francisella tularensis strain SchuS4 mutants protects against tularemia independent of the route of vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeke Rockx-Brouwer

    Full Text Available Tularemia, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protect against tularemia. However, lower vaccinating inoculums did not offer similar immunity. One concern of using live vaccines is that the host may develop mild tularemia in response to infection and use of high inoculums may contribute to this issue. Thus, generation of a live vaccine that can efficiently protect against tularemia when delivered in low numbers, e.g. <100 organisms, may address this concern. Herein we describe the ability of three defined, attenuated mutants of F. tularensis SchuS4, deleted for FTT0369c, FTT1676, or FTT0369c and FTT1676, respectively, to engender protective immunity against tularemia when delivered at concentrations of approximately 50 or fewer bacteria. Attenuated strains for use as vaccines were selected by their inability to efficiently replicate in macrophages in vitro and impaired replication and dissemination in vivo. Although all strains were defective for replication in vitro within macrophages, protective efficacy of each attenuated mutant was correlated with their ability to modestly replicate and disseminate in the host. Finally, we demonstrate the parenteral vaccination with these strains offered superior protection against pneumonic tularemia than intranasal vaccination. Together our data provides proof of principle that low dose attenuated vaccines may be a viable goal in development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia.

  4. An in vitro co-culture mouse model demonstrates efficient vaccine-mediated control of Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 and identifies nitric oxide as a predictor of efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Golovlev


    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular bacterium and cell-mediated immunity is critical for protection, but mechanisms of protection against highly virulent variants, such as the prototypic strain F. tularensis strain SCHU S4, are poorly understood. To this end, we established a co-culture system, based on splenocytes from naïve or immunized mice and in vitro infected bone marrow-derived macrophages, that allowed assessment of mechanisms controlling infection with F. tularensis. We utilized the system to understand why the clpB gene deletion mutant, ΔclpB, of SCHU S4 shows superior efficacy as a vaccine in the mouse model as compared to the existing human vaccine, the live vaccine strain (LVS. Compared to naïve splenocytes, ΔclpB- or LVS-immune splenocytes conferred very significant control of a SCHU S4 infection and the ΔclpB-immune splenocytes were superior to the other splenocytes. Cultures with the latter splenocytes also contained higher levels of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide, and T cells expressing combinations of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-17 than did cultures with LVS-immune splenocytes. There was strong inverse correlation between bacterial replication and levels of nitrite, an end product of nitric oxide, and essentially no control was observed when BMDM from iNOS-/- mice were infected. Collectively, the mouse co-culture model identified a critical role of nitric oxide for protection against a highly virulent strain of F. tularensis.

  5. Correlates of protection following vaccination of mice with gene deletion mutants of Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis strain, SCHU S4 that elicit varying degrees of immunity to systemic and respiratory challenge with wild-type bacteria. (United States)

    Ryden, Patrik; Twine, Susan; Shen, Hua; Harris, Gregory; Chen, Wangxue; Sjostedt, Anders; Conlan, Wayne


    Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis is an extremely virulent facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen capable of causing significant mortality in humans when inhaled. Consequently, subspecies tularensis was developed as a biological weapon more than 50 years ago. To counter this threat the US Army empirically developed a live vaccine strain, F. tularensis LVS, from the less virulent holarctica subspecies. In human experiments LVS afforded substantial protection against transdermal challenge with clinical subspecies tularensis strain, SCHU S4, but lesser protection against infection initiated by inhalation of the pathogen. Several regulatory and clinical issues remain unresolved for this vaccine, including the absence of a robust correlate of protection. To try to address this, we have developed several defined gene deletion mutants of SCHU S4 that elicit varying degrees of protection in a mouse dermal or respiratory challenge model. In the present study, we have examined whether host immune responses to immunization with such live vaccine candidates can serve as correlates of protection. Antibody responses were unable to distinguish between effective and ineffective vaccine strains. However, several cytokine responses to vaccination showed some promise. Especially, serum levels of TNFα, IFNγ, and MCP-1 between days 4 and 7 after vaccination appear to correlate with protection against respiratory challenge. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole genome transcriptomics reveals global effects including up-regulation of Francisella pathogenicity island gene expression during active stringent response in the highly virulent Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis SCHU S4. (United States)

    Murch, Amber L; Skipp, Paul J; Roach, Peter L; Oyston, Petra C F


    During conditions of nutrient limitation bacteria undergo a series of global gene expression changes to survive conditions of amino acid and fatty acid starvation. Rapid reallocation of cellular resources is brought about by gene expression changes coordinated by the signalling nucleotides' guanosine tetraphosphate or pentaphosphate, collectively termed (p)ppGpp and is known as the stringent response. The stringent response has been implicated in bacterial virulence, with elevated (p)ppGpp levels being associated with increased virulence gene expression. This has been observed in the highly pathogenic Francisella tularensis sub spp. tularensis SCHU S4, the causative agent of tularaemia. Here, we aimed to artificially induce the stringent response by culturing F. tularensis in the presence of the amino acid analogue l-serine hydroxamate. Serine hydroxamate competitively inhibits tRNAser aminoacylation, causing an accumulation of uncharged tRNA. The uncharged tRNA enters the A site on the translating bacterial ribosome and causes ribosome stalling, in turn stimulating the production of (p)ppGpp and activation of the stringent response. Using the essential virulence gene iglC, which is encoded on the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) as a marker of active stringent response, we optimized the culture conditions required for the investigation of virulence gene expression under conditions of nutrient limitation. We subsequently used whole genome RNA-seq to show how F. tularensis alters gene expression on a global scale during active stringent response. Key findings included up-regulation of genes involved in virulence, stress responses and metabolism, and down-regulation of genes involved in metabolite transport and cell division. F. tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular pathogen capable of causing debilitating or fatal disease at extremely low infectious doses. However, virulence mechanisms are still poorly understood. The stringent response is widely

  7. Differential Growth of Francisella tularensis, Which Alters Expression of Virulence Factors, Dominant Antigens, and Surface-Carbohydrate Synthases, Governs the Apparent Virulence of Ft SchuS4 to Immunized Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Holland


    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft is both a potential biological weapon and a naturally occurring microbe that survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with distinct phenotypes in various environments. Previously, we used a number of measurements to characterize Ft grown in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI broth as (1 more similar to infection-derived bacteria, and (2 slightly more virulent in naïve animals, compared to Ft grown in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB. In these studies we observed that the free amino acids in MHB repress expression of select Ft virulence factors by an unknown mechanism. Here, we tested the hypotheses that Ft grown in BHI (BHI-Ft accurately displays a full protein composition more similar to that reported for infection-derived Ft and that this similarity would make BHI-Ft more susceptible to pre-existing, vaccine-induced immunity than MHB-Ft. We performed comprehensive proteomic analysis of Ft grown in MHB, BHI, and BHI supplemented with casamino acids (BCA and compared our findings to published “omics” data derived from Ft grown in vivo. Based on the abundance of ~1,000 proteins, the fingerprint of BHI-Ft is one of nutrient-deprived bacteria that—through induction of a stringent-starvation-like response—have induced the FevR regulon for expression of the bacterium's virulence factors, immuno-dominant antigens, and surface-carbohydrate synthases. To test the notion that increased abundance of dominant antigens expressed by BHI-Ft would render these bacteria more susceptible to pre-existing, vaccine-induced immunity, we employed a battery of LVS-vaccination and S4-challenge protocols using MHB- and BHI-grown Ft S4. Contrary to our hypothesis, these experiments reveal that LVS-immunization provides a barrier to infection that is significantly more effective against an MHB-S4 challenge than a BHI-S4 challenge. The differences in apparent virulence to immunized mice are profoundly greater

  8. Live Attenuated Mutants of Francisella tularensis Protect Rabbits against Aerosol Challenge with a Virulent Type A Strain (United States)

    Smith, Le'Kneitah P.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Santiago, Araceli E.; Mann, Barbara J.; Barry, Eileen M.


    Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of tularemia. No licensed vaccine is currently available for protection against tularemia, although an attenuated strain, dubbed the live vaccine strain (LVS), is given to at-risk laboratory personnel as an investigational new drug (IND). In an effort to develop a vaccine that offers better protection, recombinant attenuated derivatives of a virulent type A strain, SCHU S4, were evaluated in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Rabbits vaccinated via scarification with the three attenuated derivatives (SCHU S4 ΔguaBA, ΔaroD, and ΔfipB strains) or with LVS developed a mild fever, but no weight loss was detected. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all vaccinated rabbits were seropositive for IgG to F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thirty days after vaccination, all rabbits were challenged with aerosolized SCHU S4 at doses ranging from 50 to 500 50% lethal doses (LD50). All rabbits developed fevers and weight loss after challenge, but the severity was greater for mock-vaccinated rabbits. The ΔguaBA and ΔaroD SCHU S4 derivatives provided partial protection against death (27 to 36%) and a prolonged time to death compared to results for the mock-vaccinated group. In contrast, LVS and the ΔfipB strain both prolonged the time to death, but there were no survivors from the challenge. This is the first demonstration of vaccine efficacy against aerosol challenge with virulent type A F. tularensis in a species other than a rodent since the original work with LVS in the 1960s. The ΔguaBA and ΔaroD SCHU S4 derivatives warrant further evaluation and consideration as potential vaccines for tularemia and for identification of immunological correlates of protection. PMID:24614653

  9. Molecular immune responses to aerosol challenge with Francisella tularensis in mice inoculated with live vaccine candidates of varying efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Shen


    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen and the etiological agent of tularemia. The subspecies F. tularensis tularensis is especially virulent for humans when inhaled and respiratory tularemia is associated with high mortality if not promptly treated. A live vaccine strain (LVS derived from the less virulent holarctica subspecies confers incomplete protection against aerosol challenge with subsp. tularensis. Moreover, correlates of protection have not been established for LVS.In the present study we compare molecular immune responses elicited by LVS and two defined deletion mutants of clinical subsp. tularensis strain, SCHU S4, that confer enhanced protection in a mouse model. BALB/c mice were immunized intradermally then challenged with an aerosol of SCHU S4 six weeks later. Changes in the levels of a selected panel of cytokines and chemokines were examined in the lungs, spleens, and sera of vaccinated and challenged mice. Mostly, increased cytokine and chemokine levels correlated with increased bacterial burden. However, after adjusting for this variable, immunization with either of the two Schu S4 mutants resulted in higher levels of several pulmonary cytokines, versus those resulting after LVS immunization, including IL-17. Moreover, treatment of mice immunized with ΔclpB with anti-IL-17 antibodies post-challenge enhanced lung infection.This is the first report characterizing local and systemic cytokine and chemokine responses in mice immunized with vaccines with different efficacies against aerosol challenge with virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. It shows that increases in the levels of most of these immunomodulators, including those known to be critical for protective immunity, do not superficially correlate with protection unless adjusted for the effects of bacterial burden. Additionally, several cytokines were selectively suppressed in the lungs of naïve mice, suggesting that one mechanism of

  10. Two southern planetary nebulae ESO 263-PN 02 and SchuWe-3

    CERN Document Server

    West, R M


    Spectroscopic observations show that two newly discovered southern objects, ESO 263-PN 02 and SchuWe-3, are planetary nebulae. ESO 263-PN 02 has a high excitation at the center and the 15/sup m/ central star is of very early type. SchuWe-3 has ring-shape, is reddened (A /sub V/ approximately 1/sup m/) and has a low excitation and electron density in the ring. The distance is estimated between 0.6 and 5 kpc, but is probably closer to the lower value. The measured velocities are +33+or-20 and -194+or-15 km s/sup -1/, respectively. (10 refs).

  11. Addition of an Aerosol Transmission Model to the Aeronautical Systems Division Infra-Red Emission Prediction Program (ASDIR). (United States)


    2850 cm -’ (5) ozone in the IR between 575 and 3270 cm- 1, in the visible between 13000 and 23300 cm- ’, and in the UV for wavelengths shorter than...maritime aerosols . Urban, rural, maritime, tropospheric , and average continental aerosol models are available in LOWTRAN 4, the latest edition of the code...7 AAO83 908 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHu ADDITION OF AN AEROSOL TRANSMISSION MODEL TO THE AERONAUTICA. MAR 79 A C MCLELLAN

  12. Diversity of Francisella tularensis Schu4 antigens recognized by T lymphocytes after natural infections in humans: identification of candidate epitopes for inclusion in a rationally designed tularemia vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, Julie A; Gregory, Stephen H; Moise, Leonard


    The T lymphocyte antigens, which may have a role in protection against tularemia, were predicted by immunoinformatics analysis of Francisella tularensis Schu4. Twenty-seven class II putative promiscuous epitopes and 125 putative class I supertype epitopes were chosen for synthesis; peptides were...... tested in vitro for their ability to bind HLA and to induce immune responses from PBMCs of 23 previously infected subjects. While the immune responses of individual subjects showed heterogeneity, 95% of the subjects responded strongly to a pool of 27 promiscuous peptides; 25%, 33%, and 44% of subjects...

  13. Samsung Galaxy S4 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Bill


    Explore a world of possibilities with your Samsung Galaxy S 4 smartphone Everything's more exciting when you've got the Galaxy in your hand. Let For Dummies be your guide to getting the most out of your Galaxy S 4. You'll cruise through the smartphone basics and set up process before moving on to the fun stuff like staying in touch with e-mail and texting, surfing the web, navigating with maps, shooting and sharing photos and video, watching movies, listening to music, and so much more. Whether you're entering the smartphone world for the first time or just moving up to

  14. Comparative enzymology of (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine and (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamate. (United States)

    Cooper, Arthur J L; Krasnikov, Boris F; Pinto, John T; Kung, Hank F; Li, Jianyong; Ploessl, Karl


    Many cancer cells have a strong requirement for glutamine. As an aid for understanding this phenomenon the (18)F-labeled 2S,4R stereoisomer of 4-fluoroglutamine [(2S,4R)4-FGln] was previously developed for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). In the present work, comparative enzymological studies of unlabeled (2S,4R)4-FGln and its deamidated product (2S,4R)4-FGlu were conducted as an adjunct to these PET studies. Our findings are as follows: Rat kidney preparations catalyze the deamidation of (2S,4R)4-FGln. (2,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu are substrates of various aminotransferases. (2S,4R)4-FGlu is a substrate of glutamate dehydrogenase, but not of sheep brain glutamine synthetase. The compound is, however, a strong inhibitor of this enzyme. Rat liver cytosolic fractions catalyze a γ-elimination reaction with (2S,4R)4-FGlu, generating α-ketoglutarate. Coupling of a deamidase reaction with this γ-elimination reaction provides an explanation for the previous detection of (18)F(-) in tumors exposed to [(18)F](2S,4R)4-FGln. One enzyme contributing to this reaction was identified as alanine aminotransferase, which catalyzes competing γ-elimination and aminotransferase reactions with (2S,4R)4-FGlu. This appears to be the first description of an aminotransferase catalyzing a γ-elimination reaction. The present results demonstrate that (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu are useful analogues for comparative studies of various glutamine- and glutamate-utilizing enzymes in normal and cancerous mammalian tissues, and suggest that tumors may metabolize (2S,4R)4-FGln in a generally similar fashion to glutamine. In plants, yeast and bacteria a major route for ammonia assimilation involves the consecutive action of glutamate synthase plus glutamine synthetase (glutamate synthase cycle). It is suggested that (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu will be useful probes in studies of ammonia assimilation by the glutamate synthase pathway in these organisms. Finally, glutamine

  15. Organic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, J.E.


    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

  16. Tropospheric Aerosols (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.


    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  17. Higher spin gauge theory on fuzzy \\boldsymbol {S^4_N} (United States)

    Sperling, Marcus; Steinacker, Harold C.


    We examine in detail the higher spin fields which arise on the basic fuzzy sphere S^4N in the semi-classical limit. The space of functions can be identified with functions on classical S 4 taking values in a higher spin algebra associated to \

  18. Systematic Sensor Selection Strategy (S4) User Guide (United States)

    Sowers, T. Shane


    This paper describes a User Guide for the Systematic Sensor Selection Strategy (S4). S4 was developed to optimally select a sensor suite from a larger pool of candidate sensors based on their performance in a diagnostic system. For aerospace systems, selecting the proper sensors is important for ensuring adequate measurement coverage to satisfy operational, maintenance, performance, and system diagnostic criteria. S4 optimizes the selection of sensors based on the system fault diagnostic approach while taking conflicting objectives such as cost, weight and reliability into consideration. S4 can be described as a general architecture structured to accommodate application-specific components and requirements. It performs combinational optimization with a user defined merit or cost function to identify optimum or near-optimum sensor suite solutions. The S4 User Guide describes the sensor selection procedure and presents an example problem using an open source turbofan engine simulation to demonstrate its application.

  19. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  20. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman


    To support approval of pharmaceuticals for long term use in humans it is required that product safety is supported by acute and chronic toxicity studies in rodents and non-rodents. The duration of acute toxicity studies (S4A) and chronic rodent studies (S4B) were harmonised between the three ICH ...

  1. CMB-S4 Technology Book, First Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abitbol, Maximilian H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); et al.


    CMB-S4 is a proposed experiment to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to nearly the cosmic variance limit for the angular scales that are accessible from the ground. The science goals and capabilities of CMB-S4 in illuminating cosmic inflation, measuring the sum of neutrino masses, searching for relativistic relics in the early universe, characterizing dark energy and dark matter, and mapping the matter distribution in the universe have been described in the CMB-S4 Science Book. This Technology Book is a companion volume to the Science Book. The ambitious science goals of the proposed "Stage-IV" CMB-S4 will require a step forward in experimental capability from the current Stage-III experiments. To guide this process, the community summarized the current state of the technology and identify R&D efforts necessary to advance it for possible use in CMB-S4. The book focused on the technical challenges in four broad areas: Telescope Design; Receiver Optics; Focal-Plane Optical Coupling; and Focal-Plane Sensor and Readout.

  2. Aerosol gels (United States)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)


    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  3. Is NiCo2S4 really a semiconductor?

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan


    NiCo2S4 is a technologically important electrode material that has recently achieved remarkable performance in pseu-docapacitor, catalysis, and dye-synthesized solar cell applications.[1-5] Essentially, all reports on this material have pre-sumed it to be semiconducting, like many of the chalcogenides, with a reported band-gap in the range of 1.2-1.7 eV.[6,7] In this report, we have conducted detailed experimental and theoretical studies, most of which done for the first time, which overwhelmingly show that NiCo2S4 is in fact a metal. We have also calculated the Raman spectrum of this mate-rial and experimentally verified it for the first time, hence clarifying inconsistent Raman spectra reports. Some of the key results that support our conclusions include: (1) the measured carrier density in NiCo2S4 is 3.18×1022 cm-3, (2) Ni-Co2S4 has a room temperature resistivity of around 103 µΩ cm which increases with temperature, (3) NiCo2S4 exhibits a quadratic dependence of the magnetoresistance on magnetic field, (4) thermopower measurements show an extremely low Seebeck coefficient of 5 µV K-1, (5) first principles calculations confirm that NiCo2S4 is a metal. These results sug-gest that it is time to re-think the presumed semiconducting nature of this promising material. They also suggest that the metallic conductivity is another reason (besides the known significant redox activity) behind the excellent perfor-mance reported for this material.

  4. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina


    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  5. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    Aerosols are important climactically. Their specific emissions are key to reducing the uncertainty in global climate models. Marine aerosols make up the largest source of primary aerosols to the Earth's atmosphere. Uncertainty in marine aerosol mass and number flux lies in separating primary emis...... with decreasing temperature. Unique surface images of bubble size distributions allow the investigation of temperature, bubble size, and particle production......Aerosols are important climactically. Their specific emissions are key to reducing the uncertainty in global climate models. Marine aerosols make up the largest source of primary aerosols to the Earth's atmosphere. Uncertainty in marine aerosol mass and number flux lies in separating primary...... entrainment may account for the large discrepancy in energy input for the two systems. In the third study, the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol production is probed with the use of a highly stable temperature controlled plunging jet. Similar to previous studies, particle production increases...

  6. Family physics with S4 and Pati-Salam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Adelhart Toorop, R.


    Family symmetries and grand unified symmetries can bring more structure in the mass sector of the standard model and explain the patterns in the quarks’ and leptons’ masses and mixing. We discuss in particular a model with a Pati-Salam × S4 symmetry. This model can explain the observed neutrino

  7. Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Valdes, M


    Full Text Available Electrochimica Acta Vol. 128, pp 393-399 Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnS4thin films M. Valdesa, M. Modibedib, M. Matheb, T. Hilliec,d, M. Vazqueza,∗ aDivisión Electroquimica y Corrosión, INTEMA, UNMdP-CONICET, J. B. Justo 4302 B7608FDQ Mar del Plata, Argentina...

  8. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod


    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  9. CMB-S4 Science Book, First Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazajian, Kevork N. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); et al.


    This book lays out the scientific goals to be addressed by the next-generation ground-based cosmic microwave background experiment, CMB-S4, envisioned to consist of dedicated telescopes at the South Pole, the high Chilean Atacama plateau and possibly a northern hemisphere site, all equipped with new superconducting cameras. CMB-S4 will dramatically advance cosmological studies by crossing critical thresholds in the search for the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves, in the determination of the number and masses of the neutrinos, in the search for evidence of new light relics, in constraining the nature of dark energy, and in testing general relativity on large scales.

  10. Conserved higher-spin charges in AdS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Gelfond


    Full Text Available Gauge invariant conserved conformal currents built from massless fields of all spins in 4d Minkowski space–time and AdS4 are described in the unfolded dynamics approach. The current cohomology associated with non-zero conserved charges is found. The resulting list of charges is shown to match the space of parameters of the conformal higher-spin symmetry algebra in four dimensions.

  11. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    How do Aerosols Influence Climate? Although making up only one part in a billion of the mass of the atmosphere, aerosols have the potential to significantly influ- ence the climate. The global impact of aerosol is assessed as the change imposed on planetary radiation measured in Wm-2, which alters the global temperature ...

  12. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aerosols and Climate · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Principal efforts in improving the understanding of Climate impact of aerosols - · Slide 8 · Observations of Aerosol – from space (Spatial variation) · AOD around Indian region from AVHRR · Dust absorption efficiency over Great Indian Desert from Satellite ...

  13. Aerosol distribution apparatus (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  14. {{{ N}}=2} SUSY gauge theories on S4 (United States)

    Hosomichi, Kazuo


    We review exact results in {{ N}}=2 supersymmetric gauge theories defined on S 4 and its deformation. We first summarize the construction of rigid SUSY theories on curved backgrounds based on off-shell supergravity, then explain how to apply the localization principle to supersymmetric path integrals. Closed formulae for partition function as well as expectation values of non-local BPS observables are presented. This is a contribution to the review issue ‘Localization techniques in quantum field theories’ (ed V Pestun and M Zabzine) which contains 17 chapters available at [1].

  15. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Michael W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  16. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bakas


    Full Text Available Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS=δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric–magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy–momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  17. A natural S 4 × SO(10) model of flavour (United States)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; de Anda, Francisco J.; King, Stephen F.; Perdomo, Elena


    We propose a natural S 4 × SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified theory of flavour with an auxiliary Z_4^2× Z_4^R symmetry, based on small Higgs representations (nothing larger than an adjoint) and hence a type-I seesaw mechanism. The Yukawa structure of all fermions is determined by the hierarchical vacuum expectation values of three S 4 triplet flavons, with CSD3 vacuum alignments, where up-type quarks and neutrinos couple to one Higgs 10, and the down-type quarks and charged leptons couple to a second Higgs 10. The Yukawa matrices are obtained from sums of low-rank matrices, where each matrix in the sum naturally accounts for the mass of a particular family, as in sequential dominance in the neutrino sector, which predicts a normal neutrino mass hierarchy. The model accurately fits all available quark and lepton data, with predictions for the leptonic CP phase in 95% credible intervals given by 281° Higgs doublets emerging from the two Higgs 10s without mixing, and we demonstrate how a μ term of O(TeV) can be realised, as well as doublet-triplet splitting, with Planck scale operators controlled by symmetry, leading to acceptable proton decay.

  18. Simple, Scalable, Script-Based Science Processor (S4P) (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce; Berrick, Stephen; Mack, Robert; Pham, Long; Zhou, Bryan; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)


    The development and deployment of data processing systems to process Earth Observing System (EOS) data has proven to be costly and prone to technical and schedule risk. Integration of science algorithms into a robust operational system has been difficult. The core processing system, based on commercial tools, has demonstrated limitations at the rates needed to produce the several terabytes per day for EOS, primarily due to job management overhead. This has motivated an evolution in the EOS Data Information System toward a more distributed one incorporating Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). As part of this evolution, the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has developed a simplified processing system to accommodate the increased load expected with the advent of reprocessing and launch of a second satellite. This system, the Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor (S42) may also serve as a resource for future SIPS. The current EOSDIS Core System was designed to be general, resulting in a large, complex mix of commercial and custom software. In contrast, many simpler systems, such as the EROS Data Center AVHRR IKM system, rely on a simple directory structure to drive processing, with directories representing different stages of production. The system passes input data to a directory, and the output data is placed in a "downstream" directory. The GES DAAC's Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processing System is based on the latter concept, but with modifications to allow varied science algorithms and improve portability. It uses a factory assembly-line paradigm: when work orders arrive at a station, an executable is run, and output work orders are sent to downstream stations. The stations are implemented as UNIX directories, while work orders are simple ASCII files. The core S4P infrastructure consists of a Perl program called stationmaster, which detects newly arrived work orders and forks a job to run the

  19. S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures (United States)

    Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui


    We describe S4, a free implementation of the Fourier modal method (FMM), which has also been commonly referred to as rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), for simulating electromagnetic propagation through 3D structures with 2D periodicity. We detail design aspects that allow S4 to be a flexible platform for these types of simulations. In particular, we highlight the ability to select different FMM formulations, user scripting, and extensibility of program capabilities for eigenmode computations. Program summary Program title: S4 Catalogue identifier: AEMO_v1_0. Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 56910 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 433883 Distribution format: Programming language: C, C++. Computer: Any computer with a Unix-like environment and a C++ compiler. Developed on 2.3 GHz AMD Phenom 9600. Operating system: Any Unix-like environment; developed under MinGW32 on Windows 7. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Parallelized using MPI. RAM: Problem dependent (linearly proportional to number of layers and quadratic in number of Fourier components). A single layer calculation with approximately 100 Fourier components uses approximately 10 MB. Classification: 10. Electrostatics and Electromagnetics. External routines: Lua [1] and optionally exploits additional free software packages: FFTW [2], CHOLMOD [3], MPI message-passing interface [4], LAPACK and BLAS linear-algebra software [5], and Kiss FFT [6]. Nature of problem: Time-harmonic electromagnetism in layered bi-periodic structures. Solution method: The Fourier modal method (rigorous coupled wave analysis) and the scattering matrix method. Running time: Problem dependent and highly dependent on quality of the BLAS

  20. Isomonodromic deformations and SU 2-invariant instantons on S4 (United States)

    Manasliski, Richard Muñiz


    Anti-self-dual (ASD) solutions to the Yang-Mills equation (or instantons) over an anti-self-dual 4-manifold, which are invariant under an appropriate action of a three-dimensional Lie group, give rise, via twistor construction, to isomonodromic deformations of connections on CP having four simple singularities. As is well known, such deformations are governed by the sixth Painlevé equation P VI(α,β,γ,δ). We work out the particular case of the SU-action on S4, obtained from the irreducible representation on R5. In particular, we express the parameters (α,β,γ,δ) in terms of the instanton number. The present paper contains the proof of the result announced in [Richard Muñiz Manasliski, Painlevé VI equation from invariant instantons, in: Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum field theory, Contemp. Math., vol. 434, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2007, pp. 215-222].

  1. CMB-S4 and the hemispherical variance anomaly (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Márcio; Copi, Craig J.; Knox, Lloyd; Starkman, Glenn D.


    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) full-sky temperature data show a hemispherical asymmetry in power nearly aligned with the Ecliptic. In real space, this anomaly can be quantified by the temperature variance in the Northern and Southern Ecliptic hemispheres, with the Northern hemisphere displaying an anomalously low variance while the Southern hemisphere appears unremarkable [consistent with expectations from the best-fitting theory, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM)]. While this is a well-established result in temperature, the low signal-to-noise ratio in current polarization data prevents a similar comparison. This will change with a proposed ground-based CMB experiment, CMB-S4. With that in mind, we generate realizations of polarization maps constrained by the temperature data and predict the distribution of the hemispherical variance in polarization considering two different sky coverage scenarios possible in CMB-S4: full Ecliptic north coverage and just the portion of the North that can be observed from a ground-based telescope at the high Chilean Atacama plateau. We find that even in the set of realizations constrained by the temperature data, the low Northern hemisphere variance observed in temperature is not expected in polarization. Therefore, observing an anomalously low variance in polarization would make the hypothesis that the temperature anomaly is simply a statistical fluke more unlikely and thus increase the motivation for physical explanations. We show, within ΛCDM, how variance measurements in both sky coverage scenarios are related. We find that the variance makes for a good statistic in cases where the sky coverage is limited, however, full northern coverage is still preferable.

  2. Imaging aerosol viscosity (United States)

    Pope, Francis; Athanasiadis, Thanos; Botchway, Stan; Davdison, Nicholas; Fitzgerald, Clare; Gallimore, Peter; Hosny, Neveen; Kalberer, Markus; Kuimova, Marina; Vysniauskas, Aurimas; Ward, Andy


    Organic aerosol particles play major roles in atmospheric chemistry, climate, and public health. Aerosol particle viscosity is important since it can determine the ability of chemical species such as oxidants, organics or water to diffuse into the particle bulk. Recent measurements indicate that OA may be present in highly viscous states; however, diffusion rates of small molecules such as water appear not to be limited by these high viscosities. We have developed a technique for measuring viscosity that allows for the imaging of aerosol viscosity in micron sized aerosols through use of fluorescence lifetime imaging of viscosity sensitive dyes which are also known as 'molecular rotors'. These rotors can be introduced into laboratory generated aerosol by adding minute quantities of the rotor to aerosol precursor prior to aerosolization. Real world aerosols can also be studied by doping them in situ with the rotors. The doping is achieved through generation of ultrafine aerosol particles that contain the rotors; the ultrafine aerosol particles deliver the rotors to the aerosol of interest via impaction and coagulation. This work has been conducted both on aerosols deposited on microscope coverslips and on particles that are levitated in their true aerosol phase through the use of a bespoke optical trap developed at the Central Laser Facility. The technique allows for the direct observation of kinetic barriers caused by high viscosity and low diffusivity in aerosol particles. The technique is non-destructive thereby allowing for multiple experiments to be carried out on the same sample. It can dynamically quantify and track viscosity changes during atmospherically relevant processes such oxidation and hygroscopic growth (1). This presentation will focus on the oxidation of aerosol particles composed of unsaturated and saturated organic species. It will discuss how the type of oxidant, oxidation rate and the composition of the oxidized products affect the time

  3. Respiratory and oral vaccination improves protection conferred by the live vaccine strain against pneumonic tularemia in the rabbit model. (United States)

    Stinson, Elizabeth; Smith, Le'Kneitah P; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen M; Reed, Douglas S


    Tularemia is a severe, zoonotic disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis We have previously shown that rabbits are a good model of human pneumonic tularemia when exposed to aerosols containing a virulent, type A strain, SCHU S4. We further demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS), an attenuated type B strain, extended time to death when given by scarification. Oral or aerosol vaccination has been previously shown in humans to offer superior protection to parenteral vaccination against respiratory tularemia challenge. Both oral and aerosol vaccination with LVS were well tolerated in the rabbit with only minimal fever and no weight loss after inoculation. Plasma antibody titers against F. tularensis were higher in rabbits that were vaccinated by either oral or aerosol routes compared to scarification. Thirty days after vaccination, all rabbits were challenged with aerosolized SCHU S4. LVS given by scarification extended time to death compared to mock-vaccinated controls. One orally vaccinated rabbit did survive aerosol challenge, however, only aerosol vaccination extended time to death significantly compared to scarification. These results further demonstrate the utility of the rabbit model of pneumonic tularemia in replicating what has been reported in humans and macaques as well as demonstrating the utility of vaccination by oral and respiratory routes against an aerosol tularemia challenge. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Aerosols Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovski, Igor


    This self-contained handbook and ready reference examines aerosol science and technology in depth, providing a detailed insight into this progressive field. As such, it covers fundamental concepts, experimental methods, and a wide variety of applications, ranging from aerosol filtration to biological aerosols, and from the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to aerosol reactors.Written by a host of internationally renowned experts in the field, this is an essential resource for chemists and engineers in the chemical and materials disciplines across multiple industries, as well as ideal supplementary

  5. Sensitivity of aerosol direct radiative forcing to aerosol vertical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ok Choi


    Full Text Available Aerosol vertical profile significantly affects the aerosol direct radiative forcing at the TOA level. The degree to which the aerosol profile impacts the aerosol forcing depends on many factors such as presence of cloud, surface albedo and aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA. Using a radiation model, we show that for absorbing aerosols (with an SSA of 0.7–0.8 whether aerosols are located above cloud or below induces at least one order of magnitude larger changes of the aerosol forcing than how aerosols are vertically distributed in clear skies, above cloud or below cloud. To see if this finding also holds for the global average aerosol direct radiative effect, we use realistic AOD distribution by integrating MODIS, MISR and AERONET observations, SSA from AERONET and cloud data from various satellite observations. It is found that whether aerosols are above cloud or below controls about 70–80% of the effect of aerosol vertical profile on the global aerosol radiative effect. Aerosols below cloud contribute as much to the global aerosol radiative effect as aerosols above cloud.

  6. Atmosphere aerosol satellite project Aerosol-UA (United States)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Syniavskyi, Ivan; Bovchaliuk, Andrii; Degtyaryov, Oleksandr; Sosonkin, Mikhail; Mishchenko, Michael; Danylevsky, Vassyl; Ivanov, Yury; Oberemok, Yevgeny; Masley, Volodymyr; Rosenbush, Vera; Moskalev, Sergii


    The experiment Aerosol-UA is Ukrainian space mission aimed to the terrestrial atmospheric aerosol spatial distribution and microphysics investigations. The experiment concept is based on idea of Glory/APS mission of precise orbital measurements of polarization and intensity of the sunlight scattered by the atmosphere, aerosol and the surface the multichannel Scanning Polarimeter (ScanPol) with narrow field-of-view. ScanPol measurements will be accompanied by the wide-angle MultiSpectral Imager-Polarimeter (MSIP). The ScanPol is designed to measure Stokes parameters I, Q, U within the spectral range from the UV to the SWIR in a wide range of phase angles along satellite ground path. Expected ScanPol polarimetric accuracy is 0.15%. A high accuracy measurement of the degree of linear polarization is provided by on-board calibration of the ScanPol polarimeter. On-board calibration is performed for each scan of the mirror scanning system. A set of calibrators is viewed during the part of the scan range when the ScanPol polarimeter looks in the direction opposite to the Earth's surface. These reference assemblies provide calibration of the zero of the polarimetric scale (unpolarized reference assembly) and the scale factor for the polarimetric scale (polarized reference assembly). The zero of the radiometric scale is provided by the dark reference assembly.The spectral channels of the ScanPol are used to estimate the tropospheric aerosol absorption, the aerosol over the ocean and the land surface, the signals from cirrus clouds, stratospheric aerosols caused by major volcanic eruptions, and the contribution of the Earth's surface. The imager-polarimeter MSIP will collect 60°x60° field-of-view images on the state of the atmosphere and surface in the area, where the ScanPol polarimeter will measure, to retrieve aerosol optical depth and polarization properties of aerosol by registration of three Stokes parameters simultaneously in three spectral channels. The two more

  7. DARE : Dedicated Aerosols Retrieval Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Decae, R.; Court, A.J.; Leeuw, G. de; Visser, H.


    At present there is an increasing interest in remote sensing of aerosols from space because of the large impact of aerosols on climate, earth observation and health. TNO has performed a study aimed at improving aerosol characterisation using a space based instrument and state-of-the-art aerosol

  8. DFT study of optoelectronic and magnetic properties of iron-containing diamond-like materials Ag2FeSiS4, Li2FeSnS4, and Li2FeGeS4 (United States)

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz; Goumri-Said, Souraya


    Ag2FeSiS4, Li2FeSnS4, and Li2FeGeS4 have been studied by first-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT) added to the Coulomb energy (U Hubbard term) to treat the strong correlation of Fe 3d electrons. All three materials have shown that their conduction band minimum (CBM) and valence band maximum (VBM) were situated at Γ point, indicating a direct band gap of 1.99 and 2.26 eV, 2.24 eV for Ag2FeSiS4, Li2FeSnS4, and Li2FeGeS4 respectively. The lower part of the valence band was dominated by S-s orbitals while the mid part were contributed mostly by Sn/Ge-s and Ag-d states. Hence, the VBM and CBM were mainly due to Fe-d states. The bonding characterization have shown a strong covalent bonding between the Fe-S, Ge-S, Sn-S, Ag-S and Si-S atoms. The imaginary part of the dielectric constant have revealed that the first optical critical point energy occurred at 1.2 eV for Ag2FeSiS4, and at 2.0 eV for Li2FeSnS4, and Li2FeGeS4 compounds leading them to absorb less of visible spectrum. The existence of iron in the composition of these compounds have induced magnetic properties that we explored by the calculation of the magnetic moment and spin-densities maps.

  9. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.


    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  10. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.


    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  11. Computational Chemistry of Modified [MFe3S4] and [M2Fe2S4] Clusters: Assessment of Trends in Electronic Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ooi, Bee Lean; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager


    The aim of this work is to understand the molecular evolution of iron−sulfur clusters in terms of electronic structure and function. Metal-substituted models of biological [Fe4S4] clusters in oxidation states [MxFe4−xS4]3+/2+/1+ have been studied by density functional theory (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, ...

  12. Hierarchical NiCo2 S4 Nanotube@NiCo2 S4 Nanosheet Arrays on Ni Foam for High-Performance Supercapacitors. (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Chen, Si; Shao, Hongyan; Li, Chao; Fan, Meiqiang; Chen, Da; Tian, Guanglei; Shu, Kangying


    Hierarchical NiCo2 S4 nanotube@NiCo2 S4 nanosheet arrays on Ni foam have been successfully synthesized. Owing to the unique hierarchical structure, enhanced capacitive performance can be attained. A specific capacitance up to 4.38 F cm(-2) is attained at 5 mA cm(-2) , which is much higher than the specific capacitance values of NiCo2 O4 nanosheet arrays, NiCo2 S4 nanosheet arrays and NiCo2 S4 nanotube arrays on Ni foam. The hierarchical NiCo2 S4 nanostructure shows superior cycling stability; after 5000 cycles, the specific capacitance still maintains 3.5 F cm(-2) . In addition, through the morphology and crystal structure measurement after cycling stability test, it is found that the NiCo2 S4 electroactive materials are gradually corroded; however, the NiCo2 S4 phase can still be well-maintained. Our results show that hierarchical NiCo2 S4 nanostructures are suitable electroactive materials for high performance supercapacitors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Marine Aerosols and Clouds. (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah D; Thornton, Daniel C O


    The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gasphase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 10 is January 3, 2018. Please see for revised estimates.

  14. Physical metrology of aerosols; Metrologie physique des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulaud, D.; Vendel, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire


    The various detection and measuring methods for aerosols are presented, and their selection is related to aerosol characteristics (size range, concentration or mass range), thermo-hydraulic conditions (carrier fluid temperature, pressure and flow rate) and to the measuring system conditions (measuring frequency, data collection speed, cost...). Methods based on aerosol dynamic properties (inertial, diffusional and electrical methods) and aerosol optical properties (localized and integral methods) are described and their performances and applications are compared

  15. (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-perfluoro-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyproline: two conformationally distinct proline amino acids for sensitive application in 19F NMR. (United States)

    Tressler, Caitlin M; Zondlo, Neal J


    (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-perfluoro-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyproline were synthesized (as Fmoc-, Boc-, and free amino acids) in 2-5 steps. The key step of each synthesis was a Mitsunobu reaction with perfluoro-tert-butanol, which incorporated a perfluoro-tert-butyl group, with nine chemically equivalent fluorines. Both amino acids were incorporated in model α-helical and polyproline helix peptides. Each amino acid exhibited distinct conformational preferences, with (2S,4R)-perfluoro-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyproline promoting polyproline helix. Peptides containing these amino acids were sensitively detected by (19)F NMR, suggesting their use in probes and medicinal chemistry.

  16. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves (United States)

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz


    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  17. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk


    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during...... aerosol contribution from wood combustion will not be sufficient. Arctic aerosols were investigated during several time periods with different instruments and time resolutions. Two years of weekly measurements of black carbon and sulfate at the Villum Research Station showed elevated concentrations during...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size...

  19. Enriching s4 U-RNA Using Methane Thiosulfonate (MTS) Chemistry. (United States)

    Duffy, Erin E; Simon, Matthew D


    Metabolic labeling of cellular RNA is a useful approach to study RNA biology. 4-Thiouridine (s4 U) is a convenient nucleoside for metabolic labeling because it is cell permeable and is incorporated into newly transcribed RNA, and the sulfur moiety provides a handle for biochemical purification. However, a critical step in the purification of s4 U-RNA is the efficiency of the chemistry used to enrich s4 U-RNA. Here, we present a protocol for s4 U-RNA enrichment that includes efficient and reversible covalent chemistry to biotinylate s4 U-RNA using the activated disulfide methane thiosulfonate conjugated to biotin (MTS-biotin), followed by enrichment on streptavidin beads. The efficiency of this chemistry reduces enrichment bias and requires less starting material, thereby expanding the utility of s4 U to study RNA biology. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. [Anti-infective aerosols]. (United States)

    Diot, P; Dequin, P F; Rivoire, B; Gagnadoux, F; Faurisson, F; Diot, E; Boissinot, E; Lemarié, E


    Anti-infectious agents such as pentamidine, antibiotics (mainly colistine and aminoglycosides) and amphotericin B can be administered by aerosol. This route of administration is not officially approved and it constitutes an empirical approach which has benefited from recent research which is summarized hereafter. The most fundamental question is related to the potentially deleterious effects of nebulization processes, especially ultrasound, on the anti infectious properties of the drugs. Colimycin, which was chosen as a reference because its polypeptide structure makes it unstable a priori, proved to be resistant to high frequency ultrasound, which is encouraging for other molecules such as aminoglycosides or betalactamins. The nebulizer characteristics have also to be taken into account. An aerosol can be produced from an amphotericin B suspension and from colistine using both an ultrasonic nebulizer and a jet nebulizer. Distinction between good and bad nebulizers does not depend upon the physical process involved to nebulize the drug, but on the intrinsic characteristics of the device and its performance with a known drug. The inhaled mass of an aerosol in the respirable range must be high and dosimetric nebulizers represent a significant progress. Finally, adminnistration of anti infectious aerosols requires a new pharmacological approach to monitor treatment and urinary assays are promising.


    Basic performance requirements are given for a chamber assessment aerosol system to be designed, developed and fabricated for evaluating the...automated assessment system. These include light scattering particle counters and mathematical treatment of decay curves for analysis of size properties

  2. Finite-action solutions of Yang-Mills equations on de Sitter dS4 and anti-de Sitter AdS4 spaces (United States)

    Ivanova, Tatiana A.; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.


    We consider pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory on four-dimensional de Sitter dS4 and anti-de Sitter AdS4 spaces and construct various solutions to the Yang-Mills equations. On de Sitter space we reduce the Yang-Mills equations via an SU(2)-equivariant ansatz to Newtonian mechanics of a particle moving in R^3 under the influence of a quartic potential. Then we describe magnetic and electric-magnetic solutions, both Abelian and non-Abelian, all having finite energy and finite action. A similar reduction on anti-de Sitter space also yields Yang-Mills solutions with finite energy and action. We propose a lower bound for the action on both backgrounds. Employing another metric on AdS4, the SU(2) Yang-Mills equations are reduced to an analytic continuation of the above particle mechanics from R^3 to R^{2,1} . We discuss analytical solutions to these equations, which produce infinite-action configurations. After a Euclidean continuation of dS4 and AdS4 we also present self-dual (instanton-type) Yang-Mills solutions on these backgrounds.

  3. Computational studies of modified [Fe3S4] clusters: Why iron is optimal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta


    This work reports density functional computations of metal-substituted models of biological [Fe3S4] clusters in oxidation states [MFe2S4]+/0/−1 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo). Geometry optimization with a dielectric screening model is shown to provide a substantial improvement in structure,...

  4. Different proportions of C/KCu7S4 hybrid structure for high-performance supercapacitors (United States)

    Dai, Shuge; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Yue, Xule; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Guo


    KCu7S4 has the channel structure and minor resistance. Its double larger channels ensure that the ions can well exchange with other's, at the same time, can shorten the ionic diffusion path and improve the ionic and electronic transport. So KCu7S4 shows good electrochemical property. The paper reports a novel and high performance supercapacitor based on hybrid carbon particles and KCu7S4 (C/KCu7S4) electrode. For the hybrid structure with different proportions of C and KCu7S4, the C/KCu7S4 (1:10) hybrid supercapacitor shows preferable electrochemical performance and large specific capacitance (469 mF cm-2) at high charge-discharge rate (2 mA), still retaining ∼95% of the capacitance over 5000 cycles by charge-discharge process at a fixed current of 10 mA. Three supercapacitor units in series can light 50 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for 2.5 min, 10 LEDs for 4 min, one LED for 5.5 min. The much-increased capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability may be attributed to the superionic conductive KCu7S4 nanowires and C/KCu7S4 hybrid structure, which improve ionic and electronic transport, enhance the kinetics of redox reactions through the electrode system.

  5. Magnetic properties in spinel-type compounds MYb2S4 ( M= Mg, Mn) (United States)

    Ebisu, Shuji; Iwasa, Taku; Tamaki, Sachi; Nagata, Shoichi


    The spinel-type compounds MYb2S4 ( M= Mg, Mn) have been prepared and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been carried out. Two types of sample for MnYb 2S 4 were obtained. The stable phase has a normal-spinel structure and the newly found metastable phase has a modified spinel structure which is not the inverse spinel. Susceptibility data show clearly the difference between both samples of MnYb 2S 4, which reflects the difference of the crystal field on Yb 3+ ions. Moreover, the magnitude of the FC susceptibility data for each type of MnYb 2S 4 is slightly larger than that of ZFC below about 50 K, while such difference is not observed for MgYb 2S 4.

  6. Aerosol characterization during project POLINAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, D.E.; Hopkins, A.R.; Paladino, J.D.; Whitefield, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-East, St. Louis, MO (United States)


    The objectives of the aerosol/particulate characterization measurements of project POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor) are: to search for aerosol/particulate signatures of air traffic emissions in the region of the North Atlantic Flight Corridor; to search for the aerosol/particulate component of large scale enhancement (`corridor effects`) of air traffic related species in the North Atlantic region; to determine the effective emission indices for the aerosol/particulate component of engine exhaust in both the near and far field of aircraft exhaust plumes; to measure the dispersion and transformation of the aerosol/particulate component of aircraft emissions as a function of ambient condition; to characterize background levels of aerosol/particulate concentrations in the North Atlantic Region; and to determine effective emission indices for engine exhaust particulates for regimes beyond the jet phase of plume expansion. (author) 10 refs.

  7. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A


    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  8. Photothermal spectroscopy of aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo, A.J.; Lin, H.B.


    In situ aerosol absorption spectroscopy was performed using two novel photothermal detection schemes. The first, based on a photorefractive effect and coherent detection, called phase fluctuation optical heterodyne (PFLOH) spectroscopy, could, depending on the geometry employed, yield particle specific or particle and gas absorption data. Single particles of graphite as small as 1 were detected in the particle specific mode. In another geometrical configuration, the total absorption (both gas and particle) of submicron sized aerosols of ammonium sulfate particles in equilibrium with gaseous ammonia and water vapor were measured at varying CO/sub 2/ laser frequencies. The specific absorption coefficient for the sulfate ion was measured to be 0.5 m/sup 2//g at 1087 cm/sup -1/. The absorption coefficient sensitivity of this scheme was less than or equal to 10/sup -8/ cm/sup -1/. The second scheme is a hybrid visible Mie scattering scheme incorporating photothermal modulation. Particle specific data on ammonium sulfate droplets were obtained. For chemically identical species, the relative absorption spectrum versus laser frequency can be obtained for polydisperse aerosol distributions directly from the data without the need for complex inverse scattering calculations.

  9. MAu2GeS4-Chalcogel (M = Co, Ni): Heterogeneous Intra- and Intermolecular Hydroamination Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar


    High surface area macroporous chalcogenide aerogels (chalcogels) MAu2GeS4 (M = Co, Ni) were prepared from K2Au2GeS4 precursor and Co(OAc)2 or NiCl2 by one-pot sol-gel metathesis reactions in aqueous media. The MAu2GeS4-chalcogels were screened for catalytic intramolecular hydroamination of 4-pentyn-1-amine substrate at different temperatures. 87% and 58% conversion was achieved at 100 °C, using CoAu2GeS4- and NiAu2GeS4-chalcogels respectively, and the reaction kinetics follows the first order. It was established that the catalytic performance of the aerogels is associated with the M(2+) centers present in the structure. Intermolecular hydroamination of aniline with 1-R-4-ethynylbenzene (R = -H, -OCH3, -Br, -F) was carried out at 100 °C using CoAu2GeS4-chalcogel catalyst, due to its promising catalytic performance. The CoAu2GeS4-chalcogel regioselectively converted the pair of substrates to respective Markovnikov products, (E)-1-(4-R-phenyl)-N-phenylethan-1-imine, with 38% to 60% conversion.

  10. Dry Live Aerosol Anthrax Vaccine (United States)

    In preparing the dry live aerosol anthrax vaccine the use of a spore culture of the STI-1 single vaccine strain and culturing of the latter on 10 billion spores in 1 mm of wash. Dry live aerosol anthrax vaccine is suitable for aerosol immunization if the calculated aspiration dose, when...the viable spores in dry live aerosol anthrax vaccine, it is necessary to store it under deep vacuum (in the range of 100-150 microns) and at temperatures not exceeding +10 degrees.

  11. Aerosol Data Assimilation at GMAO (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Buchard, Virginie


    This presentation presents an overview of the aerosol data assimilation work performed at GMAO. The GMAO Forward Processing system and the biomass burning emissions from QFED are first presented. Then, the current assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), performed by means of the analysis splitting method is briefly described, followed by some results on the quality control of observations using a Neural Network trained using AERONET AOD. Some applications are shown such as the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991 using the MERRA-2 aerosol dataset. Finally preliminary results on the EnKF implementation for aerosol assimilation are presented.

  12. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M


    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  13. Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier


    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006 significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing clear-sky from −0.79 to −0.53 W m−2 (33% and all-sky from −0.47 to −0.13 W m−2 (72%. Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W m−2 (36% clear-sky and of 0.12 W m−2 (92% all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W

  14. Valence and core-level binding energy shifts in realgar (As 4S 4) and pararealgar (As 4S 4) arsenic sulfides (United States)

    Bullen, Heather A.; Dorko, Michael J.; Oman, Jason K.; Garrett, Simon J.


    The core level and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectra (XP spectra) of two arsenic sulfides, As 4S 4 (α-realgar) and As 4S 4 (pararealgar), are reported. Pararealgar is a polymorph of realgar created by irradiation of realgar with visible light. The core level spectra of the materials can be distinguished by small differences in core level binding energies (BEs). For example, the As 3d 5/2 and S 2p 3/2 peaks are at 43.1 and 162.8 eV BE, respectively, in realgar and 43.2 and 162.7 eV BE, respectively, in pararealgar. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level were performed on single As 4S 4 clusters to determine the ground state orbital energies for realgar and pararealgar and electrostatic potential-derived atomic charges. The shifts in the core level BEs are qualitatively reproduced in the orbital energies and can be rationalized based on an increased average charge in pararealgar (S=-0.21, As=+0.21) versus realgar (S=-0.19, As=+0.19). A large variation in calculated charge between inequivalent As sites in pararealgar (from +0.09 to +0.31) broadens the observed arsenic XP spectra features. In addition, the four main features in the valence bands of these materials have been identified based on the DFT calculations.

  15. Intelligence and Information-Sharing Elements of S.4 and H.R. 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masse, Todd


    Title I of S.4 and Title VII of H.R. 1 include corresponding measures related to enhancing information and intelligence sharing, both horizontally within the Federal Government and vertically between the Federal Government and state...

  16. Complete O(αs4) QCD corrections to hadronic Z decays. (United States)

    Baikov, P A; Chetyrkin, K G; Kühn, J H; Rittinger, J


    Corrections of order α(s)(4) for the axial singlet contributions for the decay rate of the Z boson into hadrons are evaluated in the limit of the heavy top quark mass. Combined with recently finished O(α(s)(4)) calculations of the nonsinglet corrections, the new results directly lead us to the first complete O(α(s)(4)) prediction for the total hadronic decay rate of the Z boson. The new O(α(s)(4)) term in Z-decay rate leads to a significant stabilization of the perturbative series, to a reduction of the theory uncertainty in the strong coupling constant α(s), as extracted from these measurements, and to a small shift of the central value.

  17. Spectroscopic investigation and normal mode analysis of As 4S 4 polymorphs (United States)

    Muniz-Miranda, M.; Sbrana, G.; Bonazzi, P.; Menchetti, S.; Pratesi, G.


    Tetra-arsenic tetrasulfide polymorphs have been investigated by IR, Raman and UV-visible spectroscopies. The mineral realgar ( α-As 4S 4) and the high-temperature phase β-As 4S 4 transform to pararealgar by exposure to monochromatic laser light with a reaction rate depending on the wavelength of the exciting radiation. The photoinduced alteration process has been monitored by Raman spectroscopy, following in real time the spectral changes of the samples undergoing irradiation. A satisfactory assignment of realgar, β-As 4S 4 and pararealgar was obtained by employing a simplified valence force field which provided a complete set of normal coordinates suitable for describing the vibrational spectra of these As 4S 4 polymorphs.

  18. Coalescence Sampling and Analysis of Aerosols using Aerosol Optical Tweezers. (United States)

    Haddrell, Allen E; Miles, Rachael E H; Bzdek, Bryan R; Reid, Jonathan P; Hopkins, Rebecca J; Walker, Jim S


    We present a first exploratory study to assess the use of aerosol optical tweezers as an instrument for sampling and detecting accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol. A subpicoliter aqueous aerosol droplet is captured in the optical trap and used as a sampling volume, accreting mass from a free-flowing aerosol generated by a medical nebulizer or atomizer. Real-time measurements of the initial stability in size, refractive index, and composition of the sampling droplet inferred from Raman spectroscopy confirm that these quantities can be measured with high accuracy and low noise. Typical standard deviations in size and refractive index of the sampling droplet over a period of 200 s are droplet as discrete coalescence events. With accumulation-mode aerosol, we show that fluxes as low as 0.068 pg s -1 can be detected over a 50 s period, equivalent to ∼3 pg of sampled material.

  19. Horizontal gene transfer of zinc and non-zinc forms of bacterial ribosomal protein S4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthey-Schulten Zaida


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The universal ribosomal protein S4 is essential for the initiation of small subunit ribosomal assembly and translational accuracy. Being part of the information processing machinery of the cell, the gene for S4 is generally thought of as being inherited vertically and has been used in concatenated gene phylogenies. Here we report the evolution of ribosomal protein S4 in relation to a broad sharing of zinc/non-zinc forms of the gene and study the scope of horizontal gene transfer (HGT of S4 during bacterial evolution. Results In this study we present the complex evolutionary history of ribosomal protein S4 using 660 bacterial genomes from 16 major bacterial phyla. According to conserved characteristics in the sequences, S4 can be classified into C+ (zinc-binding and C- (zinc-free variants, with 26 genomes (mainly from the class Clostridia containing genes for both. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of the S4 sequences was incongruent with the standard bacterial phylogeny, indicating a departure from strict vertical inheritance. Further analysis using the genome content near the S4 genes, which are usually located in a conserved gene cluster, showed not only that HGT of the C- gene had occurred at various stages of bacterial evolution, but also that both the C- and C+ genes were present before the individual phyla diverged. To explain the latter, we theorize that a gene pool existed early in bacterial evolution from which bacteria could sample S4 gene variants, according to environmental conditions. The distribution of the C+/- variants for seven other zinc-binding ribosomal proteins in these 660 bacterial genomes is consistent with that seen for S4 and may shed light on the evolutionary pressures involved. Conclusion The complex history presented for "core" protein S4 suggests the existence of a gene pool before the emergence of bacterial lineages and reflects the pervasive nature of HGT in subsequent bacterial evolution

  20. Violation of Bell inequalities from S_4 symmetry: the three orbits case (United States)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna; Sobieski, Ścibór


    The recently proposed (Güney and Hillery in Phys Rev A 90:062121, 2014; Phys Rev A 91:052110, 2015) group theoretical approach to the problem of violating the Bell inequalities is applied to S_4 group. The Bell inequalities based on the choice of three orbits in the representation space corresponding to standard representation of S_4 are derived and their violation is described. The corresponding nonlocal games are analyzed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Altstädter


    Full Text Available To observe the origin, vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of aerosol particles, and especially ultrafine particles recently formed, we plan to employ the remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS Carolo-P360 "ALADINA" of TU Braunschweig. The goal of the presented project is to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution, transport and small-scale variability of aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer using RPAS. Two additional RPAS of type MASC of Tübingen University equipped with turbulence instrumentation add the opportunity to study the interaction of the aerosol concentration with turbulent transport and exchange processes of the surface and the atmosphere. The combination of different flight patterns of the three RPAS allows new insights in atmospheric boundary layer processes. Currently, the different aerosol sensors are miniaturized at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig and together with the TU Braunschweig adapted to fit into the RPAS. Moreover, an additional meteorological payload for measuring temperature, humidity and turbulence properties is constructed by Tübingen University. Two condensation particle counters determine the total aerosol number with a different lower detection threshold in order to investigate the horizontal and vertical aerosol variability and new particle formation (aerosol particles of some nm diameter. Further the aerosol size distribution in the range from about 0.300 to ~5 μm is given by an optical particle counter.

  2. Aerosol dynamics in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazaryan, L.


    In this thesis, a computational model was developed for the simulation of aerosol formation through nucleation, followed by condensation and evaporation and filtration by porous material. Understanding aerosol dynamics in porous media can help improving engineering models that are used in various

  3. Aerosol therapy in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Janssens (Hettie)


    textabstractInhalation of aerosolized drugs has become an established means for treatment of pulmonary diseases in the last fifiy years. The majoriry of aerosol therapy in childhood concerns inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators in the management of asthma. Administration of drugs via the

  4. Aerosol Variability Observed with Rpas (United States)

    Altstädter, B.; Lampert, A.; Scholtz, A.; Bange, J.; Platis, A.; Hermann, M.; Wehner, B.


    To observe the origin, vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of aerosol particles, and especially ultrafine particles recently formed, we plan to employ the remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) Carolo-P360 "ALADINA" of TU Braunschweig. The goal of the presented project is to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution, transport and small-scale variability of aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer using RPAS. Two additional RPAS of type MASC of Tübingen University equipped with turbulence instrumentation add the opportunity to study the interaction of the aerosol concentration with turbulent transport and exchange processes of the surface and the atmosphere. The combination of different flight patterns of the three RPAS allows new insights in atmospheric boundary layer processes. Currently, the different aerosol sensors are miniaturized at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig and together with the TU Braunschweig adapted to fit into the RPAS. Moreover, an additional meteorological payload for measuring temperature, humidity and turbulence properties is constructed by Tübingen University. Two condensation particle counters determine the total aerosol number with a different lower detection threshold in order to investigate the horizontal and vertical aerosol variability and new particle formation (aerosol particles of some nm diameter). Further the aerosol size distribution in the range from about 0.300 to ~5 μm is given by an optical particle counter.

  5. The Climatology of Australian Aerosol (United States)

    Mitchell, Ross M.; Forgan, Bruce W.; Campbell, Susan K.


    Airborne particles or aerosols have long been recognised for their major contribution to uncertainty in climate change. In addition, aerosol amounts must be known for accurate atmospheric correction of remotely sensed images, and are required to accurately gauge the available solar resource. However, despite great advances in surface networks and satellite retrievals over recent years, long-term continental-scale aerosol data sets are lacking. Here we present an aerosol assessment over Australia based on combined sun photometer measurements from the Bureau of Meteorology Radiation Network and CSIRO/AeroSpan. The measurements are continental in coverage, comprising 22 stations, and generally decadal in timescale, totalling 207 station-years. Monthly climatologies are given at all stations. Spectral decomposition shows that the time series can be represented as a weighted sum of sinusoids with periods of 12, 6 and 4 months, corresponding to the annual cycle and its second and third harmonics. Their relative amplitudes and phase relationships lead to sawtooth-like waveforms sharply rising to an austral spring peak, with a slower decline often including a secondary peak during the summer. The amplitude and phase of these periodic components show significant regional change across the continent. Fits based on this harmonic analysis are used to separate the periodic and episodic components of the aerosol time series. An exploratory classification of the aerosol types is undertaken based on (a) the relative periodic amplitudes of the Ångström exponent and aerosol optical depth, (b) the relative amplitudes of the 6- and 4-month harmonic components of the aerosol optical depth, and (c) the ratio of episodic to periodic variation in aerosol optical depth. It is shown that Australian aerosol can be broadly grouped into three classes: tropical, arid and temperate. Statistically significant decadal trends are found at 4 of the 22 stations. Despite the apparently small

  6. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences


    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  7. DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes (United States)

    Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya

    The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.

  8. Storm Aerosol Environments and Aerosol Sources in Subtropical South America (United States)

    Cancelada, M.; Salio, P. V.; Nesbitt, S. W.


    Several studies have shown a strong interaction in the subtropical area of Southeastern South America (SESA) between deep moist convection and the presence of the South American low level jet (SALLJ), which advects humidity and heat from tropical latitudes creating ideal conditions in the environment for convective activity. Moreover, the SALLJ is considered an important mechanism for transport of gases and particulate matter emitted in tropical South America. Biomass burning season associated with deforestation and land clearing for agricultural use is observed in these regions principally from August to October. Past studies have shown, through modeling and in-situ measurements, an increase in optical depth and Angstrom exponent during SALLJ events. Evidence of an increase in aerosol loading during burning biomass season, along with favorable conditions for deep moist convection activity, supports the hypothesis of an indirect effect from aerosols in convective development in SESA. The objective of this work is to characterize aerosol environments in SESA associated with the presence of mesoscale convective system development. High aerosol concentration events during biomass burning season from 2002 to 2015 were detected using corrected aerosol optical depth (CAOD) with 10-km horizontal resolution from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Products. Environmental variables from NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) were examined to detect SALLJ events and deep moist convection development was observed through infrared channel from GOES. This combination of aerosol data and SALLJ presence determined a data-set for polluted and non-polluted environments. A remarkable correlation between higher values of CAOD in central Argentina and SALLJ was found. A case of study with evidence of SALLJ, high CAOD values and strong convection development was examined. A Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation has been performed in order

  9. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas


    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  10. Free volume structure of realgar α-As4S4 by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (United States)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Ingram, A.; Demchenko, P.


    Atomic-deficient free volume structure of realgar α-As4S4, the low-temperature modification, of tetraarsenic tetrasulfide polymorphs, is studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Eventual channels of positron annihilation in this molecular crystal are shown to be connected with low electron density entities around cage As4S4 molecules composing realgar-type structure of monoclinic P21/n space group. The overlapped spaces of bond-free solid angles around S atoms forming self-closed As4S4 molecules contribute preferentially to positron trapping modes, while a competitive influence of bound positron-electron states (positronium) stabilized in intermolecular spaces occurs also to be essential in the decomposed lifetime spectra too.

  11. Structural analysis of the S4-S5 linker of the human KCNQ1 potassium channel. (United States)

    Gayen, Shovanlal; Li, Qingxin; Kang, CongBao


    KCNQ1 plays important roles in the cardiac action potential and consists of an N-terminal domain, a voltage-sensor domain, a pore domain and a C-terminal domain. KCNQ1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel and its channel activity is regulated by membrane potentials. The linker between transmembrane helices 4 and 5 (S4-S5 linker) is important for transferring the conformational changes from the voltage-sensor domain to the pore domain. In this study, the structure of the S4-S5 linker of KCNQ1 was investigated by solution NMR, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The S4-S5 linker adopted a helical structure in detergent micelles. The W248 may interact with the cell membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Young, S.E.; Becker, C.H.; Coggiola, M.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)


    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  13. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venzie, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  14. A Performance Update of the InterOcean S4 Electromagnetic Current Meter. (United States)


    150 - -S4 300- wj 150- H__VMCM a_ 0 _ _ 1 2 3 4 5 6 HOURS • ,. 5~ Figure 6. R/V ASTERIAS VMCI/S4 Tbw Test Time Series A yoyo -ing experiment for 16...914-92-C- 6619F/ 14/2N E, hhh,~EmEEmoEE.EEEEI IN U--. 1.84 IJI2 2A LL 1.16 ",W111’ 2- 111 "- lll __- -: -IJ. .t~o MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART...working instrument. Presented are the test procedures and results performed on three production units placing emphasis on the oceanographic users point

  15. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Mekibib


    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  16. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses. (United States)

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K


    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  17. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)


    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  18. High-Purity Fe3S4 Greigite Microcrystals for Magnetic and Electrochemical Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Guowei; Zhang, Baomin; Yu, Feng; Novakova, Alla A.; Krivenkov, Maxim S.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Y.; Chang, Liao; Rao, Jiancun; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Blake, Graeme R.; de Groot, Robert A.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.


    High-purity Fe3S4 (greigite) microcrystals with octahedral shape were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method using a surfactant. The as-prepared samples have the inverse spinel structure with high crystallinity. The saturation magnetization (M-s) reaches 3.74 mu(B) at 5 K and 3.51 mu(B) at

  19. depmixS4: an R-package for hidden Markov models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, I.; Speekenbrink, M.


    depmixS4 implements a general framework for defining and estimating dependent mixture models in the R programming language. This includes standard Markov models, latent/hidden Markov models, and latent class and finite mixture distribution models. The models can be fitted on mixed multivariate data

  20. Hydrogen Evolution on Supported Incomplete Cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaramillo, Thomas; Bonde, Jacob Lindner; Zhang, Jingdong


    Electrocatalytic properties of biomimetic supported incomplete cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) clusters are investigated. The activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is evaluated on both a high surface area gas diffusion electrode in a membrane electrode assembly and on highly orientated...

  1. Investigating the role of (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline in elastin model peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochicchio, Brigida; Laurita, Alessandro; Heinz, Andrea


    Post-translational modifications play a key role in defining the biological functions of proteins. Among them, the hydroxylation of proline producing the (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) is one of the most frequent modifications observed in vertebrates, being particularly abundant in the proteins o...

  2. Particle properties and their modification in mechanically activated realgar As4S4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Baláž


    Full Text Available In this work mechanical activation of realgar As4S4 was studied. The addition of sodium chloride NaCl as a solid diluent intothe milling process substantially improved solid state properties of the obtained fines. However, the polymorphous transformationof

  3. Spray-coated ligand-free Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Murthy, Swathi; Kofod, Guggi

    We have fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films from spray-coating ligand-free nanoparticle inks. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [1], which allows the use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that user...

  4. Structural, microstructural and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 5. Structural, microstructural and optical properties of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin films prepared by thermal evaporation: effect of substrate temperature and annealing. U CHALAPATHI S UTHANNA V SUNDARA RAJA. Volume 40 Issue 5 September 2017 pp 887-895 ...

  5. Ni 2-uptake in Pseudomonas putida strain S4: a possible role of Mg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Essential metal ion homeostasis is based on regulated uptake of metal ions, both during its scarcity and abundance. Pseudomonas putida strain S4, a multimetal resistant bacterium, was employed to investigate Ni2+ entry into cells. It was observed that Mg2+ regulates the entry of Ni2+ and by this plays a protective role to ...

  6. Thin films of absorber material Cu2ZnSnS4 for solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Schou, Jørgen


    Pulsed Laser Deposition technique is applied to the production of thin films of CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4).This vacuum technique has proven to be particularly successful in the production of films with acomplex stoichiometry, as in the case of high temperature superconductors. The material ablated bythe la...

  7. Aerosol Size Distributions In Auckland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coulson, G.; Olivares, G.; Talbot, Nicholas


    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 23-28 E-ISSN 1836-5876 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosol size distribution * particle number concentration * roadside Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. Earth Observatory Aerosol Optical Depth (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tiny solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere are called aerosols. Windblown dust, sea salts, volcanic ash, smoke from wildfires, and pollution from...

  9. Eulerian modeling of aerosol dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederix, E.M.A.


    We explore the feasibility and applicability of the Eulerian approach in the mathematical modeling of aerosol dynamics including droplet nucleation, condensation, drift, diffusion and deposition. Both the methodology as well as a number of illustrating applications are contained, establishing the

  10. Hygroscopic organic aerosols during BRAVO? (United States)

    Lowenthal, Douglas H; Kumar, Naresh; Hand, Jenny; Day, Derek; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Collett, Jeffrey; Lee, Taehyoung; Ashbaugh, Lowell


    The hygroscopic properties of the organic fraction of aerosols are poorly understood. The ability of organic aerosols to absorb water as a function of relative humidity (RH) was examined using data collected during the 1999 Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study (BRAVO). (On average, organics accounted for 22% of fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) mass). Hourly RH exceeded 80% only 3.5% of the time and averaged 44%. BRAVO aerosol chemical composition and dry particle size distributions were used to estimate PM2.5 light scattering (Bsp) at low and high ambient RH. Liquid water growth associated with inorganic species was sufficient to account for measured Bsp for RH between 70 and 95%.

  11. Aerosol Inlet Characterization Experiment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Robert L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kuang, Chongai [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Uin, Janek [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observation System inlet stack was characterized for particle penetration efficiency from 10 nm to 20 μm in diameter using duplicate scanning mobility particle sizers (10 nm-450 nm), ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometers (60 nm-μm), and aerodynamic particle sizers (0.5 μm-20 μm). Results show good model-measurement agreement and unit transmission efficiency of aerosols from 10 nm to 4 μm in diameter. Large uncertainties in the measured transmission efficiency exist above 4 μm due to low ambient aerosol signal in that size range.

  12. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model (United States)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.


    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  13. Modeling urban and regional aerosols (United States)

    Sun, Qing

    Aerosol particles in Earth's atmosphere have long been associated with adverse human health effects. They also play an important role in visibility reduction and global climate change. Atmospheric formation and removal of particles are governed by a number of complex dynamic processes which make the aerosol modeling a far more challenging task than the modeling of gas-phase species. Wexler et al. (1994) identified and analyzed the atmospheric aerosol processes that govern particulate mass concentrations and estimated the relative importance of each term using typical atmospheric conditions. In this thesis I start from the general dynamic equation resulted from their analysis and develop a working and optimized aerosol model that can be incorporated into a host Eulerian air quality model to simulate particulate pollution on an urban or a regional scale. Chapter 1 presents the background of the model and highlights the important issues that need to be addressed. Chapter 2 presents the mathematical representation of the aerosol model and introduces an acid equilibrium assumption, that is, when the aerosol particles are close to acid neutral the aerosol hydrogen ion concentration can be assumed to be in equilibrium with the gas-phase acidity. This assumption greatly reduced the CPU requirement of the aerosol model and hence enable us to complete the simulation of an particulate pollution episode in a reasonable time. In Chapter 3 the aerosol model IS incorporated into the Urban Airshed Model to predict the size and composition distribution of particulate matter (PM) during the June 24-25 1987 SCAQS episode. The predicted size distribution is compared to available SCAQS measurement data. In Chapter 4 the aerosol model is further optimized and incorporated into MCNC's Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP) to investigate the particulate pollution in eastern United States using a July 9-13 1995 episode. A cloud model is modified for the sectional

  14. The MERRA-2 Aerosol Reanalysis (United States)

    da Silva, A.; Randles, C. A.; Buchard, V.; Darmenov, A.; Colarco, P. R.


    MERRA-2 is NASA's latest reanalysis for the satellite era (1980-present) using GEOS-5 earth system model. This project focuses on historical analyses of the hydrological cycle on a broad range of weather and climate time scales, and includes interactive aerosols for the entire period. MERRA-2 provides several improvements over its predecessor MERRA reanalysis, including: 1) modern satellite observing systems not available with MERRA, 2) reduction in discontinuities associated with a changing observing system, and 3) reduced biases and imbalances in the hydrologic cycle. As another step towards an integrated Earth System Analysis (IESA), MERRA-2 includes for the first time aerosols in a reanalysis, improves the representation of stratospheric ozone, and better characterizes cryospheric processes. In this talk we will present results relating to the introduction of aerosols in MERRA-2. The assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in GEOS-5 involves very careful cloud screening and homogenization of the observing system by means of a Neural Net scheme that translates MODIS and AVHRR radiances into AERONET calibrated AOD. The system also assimilates MISR and AERONET AOD observations. For the EOS period (2000-present) GEOS-5 is driven by daily biomass burning emissions derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals using the so-called QFED emissions. Historical emissions are calibrated as to minimize discontinuities the EOS/pre-EOS boundaries. MERRA-2 aerosols are also driven by historical anthropogenic and volcanic emissions. We will present a summary of our efforts to validate the MERRA-2 aerosols. The GEOS-5 assimilated aerosol fields are first validated by comparison to independent in-situ measurements. In order to assess aerosol absorption on a global scale, we perform a detailed radiative transfer calculation to simulate the UV aerosol index, comparing our results to OMI measurements. By simulating aerosol-attenuated backscatter, we use CALIPSO measurements

  15. Optical Properties of Biological Aerosols (United States)


    biologi al aerosols, i.e. aerosols omposed of biologi al sporesand other organi ompounds, presents unique diÆ ulties both on the experimental and on...thetheoreti al side. On the experimental side, we ite, as an example, the fa t that all organi materials,both spores and organi ompounds present a...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Universita di Messina Dipartimento di Fisica Della Materia e TEcnologie Fische Avanzate, Salita Sperone, 31

  16. Cation/Anion Substitution in Cu2ZnSnS4 for Improved Photovoltaic Performance (United States)

    Ananthoju, Balakrishna; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Jangid, Manoj K.; Bahadur, D.; Medhekar, N. V.; Aslam, M.


    Cations and anions are replaced with Fe, Mn, and Se in CZTS in order to control the formations of the secondary phase, the band gap, and the micro structure of Cu2ZnSnS4. We demonstrate a simplified synthesis strategy for a range of quaternary chalcogenide nanoparticles such as Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS), Cu2MnSnS4 (CMTS), Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 (CZTSSe) by thermolysis of metal chloride precursors using long chain amine molecules. It is observed that the crystal structure, band gap and micro structure of the CZTS thin films are affected by the substitution of anion/cations. Moreover, secondary phases are not observed and grain sizes are enhanced significantly with selenium doping (grain size ~1 μm). The earth-abundant Cu2MSnS4/Se4 (M = Zn, Mn and Fe) nanoparticles have band gaps in the range of 1.04–1.51 eV with high optical-absorption coefficients (~104 cm−1) in the visible region. The power conversion efficiency of a CZTS solar cell is enhanced significantly, from 0.4% to 7.4% with selenium doping, within an active area of 1.1 ± 0.1 cm2. The observed changes in the device performance parameters might be ascribed to the variation of optical band gap and microstructure of the thin films. The performance of the device is at par with sputtered fabricated films, at similar scales. PMID:27748406

  17. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio


    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can be precisely controlled. The stagnation interface can be generated, for example, by the opposed flow of the hot stream and the cold stream. The aerosol generator and the aerosol generation methods are capable of producing aerosols with precise particle sizes and a narrow size distribution. The properties of the aerosol can be controlled by controlling one or more of the stream temperatures, the saturation level of the hot stream, and the flow times of the streams.

  18. Gas/Aerosol partitioning: a simplified method for global modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, S.M.


    The main focus of this thesis is the development of a simplified method to routinely calculate gas/aerosol partitioning of multicomponent aerosols and aerosol associated water within global atmospheric chemistry and climate models. Atmospheric aerosols are usually multicomponent mixtures,

  19. Are anthropogenic aerosols affecting rainfall? (United States)

    Junkermann, Wolfgang; Hacker, Jorg


    Modification of cloud microphysics by anthropogenic aerosols is well known since several decades. Whether the underlying processes leads to changes in precipitation is by far less confirmed. Several different factors affect the production of rain in a way that a causality between increasing aerosol load in the atmosphere and a change of annual rainfall is very difficult to confirm. What would be expected as an effect of additional cloud condensation nuclei is a shift in the spatial and temporal rainfall distribution towards a lower number of days with low rain intensity and more frequent or more vigorous single events. In fact such a shift has been observed in several locations worldwide and has been suggested to be caused by increasing aerosol load, however, without further specification of the nature and number of the aerosols involved. Measurements of aerosols which might be important for cloud properties are extremely sparse and no long term monitoring data sets are available up to now. The problem of missing long term aerosol data that could be compared to available long term meteorological data sets can possibly be resolved in certain areas where well characterized large anthropogenic aerosol sources were installed in otherwise pristine areas without significant changes in land use over several decades. We investigated aerosol sources and current aerosol number, size and spatial distributions with airborne measurements in the planetary boundary layer over two regions in Australia that are reported to suffer from extensive drought despite the fact that local to regional scale water vapor in the atmosphere is slowly and constantly increasing. Such an increase of the total water in the planetary boundary layer would imply also an increase in annual precipitation as observed in many other locations elsewhere. The observed decline of rainfall in these areas thus requires a local to regional scale physical process modifying cloud properties in a way that rain

  20. AERONET - Aerosol Climatology From Megalopolis Aerosol Source Regions (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.; Artaxo, P.; Leyva, A.; Lu, D.; Sano, I.; Singh, R. P.; Quel, E.; Tanre, D.; Zibordi, G.


    AERONET is a globally distributed network of ~170 identical sun and sky scanning spectral radiometers expanded by federation with collaborating investigators that contribute to the AERONET public domain data-base. We will detail the current distribution and plans for expanded collaboration. Recent products available through the project database are important for assessment of human health as well as climate forcing issues. We will illustrate a summary of aerosol optical properties measured in Indian, East Asian, North American, South American and European megalopolis source regions. We will present monthly mean fine and coarse particle aerosol optical depth, particle size distributions and single scattering albedos. Each region represents a population in excess of 10 million inhabitants within a 200 km radius of the observation site that dictate the anthropogenic aerosol sources contributing to significantly diverse aerosol properties as a function of economic development and seasonally dependent meteorological processes. The diversity of the measured optical properties of urban aerosols illustrates the need for long-term regional monitoring that contribute to comparative assessments for health and climate change investigations.

  1. Comments on Penrose Limit of AdS_4 x M^{1,1,1}


    Ahn, Changhyun


    We construct a Penrose limit of AdS_4 x M^{1,1,1} where M^{1,1,1}= SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1)/(SU(2) x U(1) x U(1)) that provides the pp-wave geometry equal to the one in the Penrose limit of AdS_4 x S^7. There exists a subsector of three dimensional N=2 dual gauge theory which has enhanced N=8 maximal supersymmetry. We identify operators in the N=2 gauge theory with supergravity KK excitations in the pp-wave geometry and describe how the gauge theory operators made out of two kinds of chiral field...

  2. Ground-based aerosol climatology of China: aerosol optical depths from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network 2002-2013

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Che, H; Zhang, X.-Y; Xia, X; Goloub, P; Holben, B; Zhao, H; Wang, Y; Zhang, X.-C; Wang, H; Blarel, L; Damiri, B; Zhang, R; Deng, X; Ma, Y; Wang, T; Geng, F; Qi, B; Zhu, J; Yu, J; Chen, Q; Shi, G


      Long-term measurements of aerosol optical depths (AODs) at 440 nm and Ångström exponents (AE) between 440 and 870 nm made for CARSNET were compiled into a climatology of aerosol optical properties for China...

  3. Finite-size corrections for quantum strings on AdS4 x CP3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astolfi, D.; Puletti, V.G.M.; Grignani, G.


    We revisit the calculation of curvature corrections to the pp-wave energy of type IIA string states on AdS4×CP3 initiated in arXiv:0807.1527. Using the near pp-wave Hamiltonian found in arXiv:0912.2257, we compute the first non-vanishing correction to the energy of a set of bosonic string states...

  4. Logarithmic corrections to entropy of magnetically charged AdS4 black holes (United States)

    Jeon, Imtak; Lal, Shailesh


    Logarithmic terms are quantum corrections to black hole entropy determined completely from classical data, thus providing a strong check for candidate theories of quantum gravity purely from physics in the infrared. We compute these terms in the entropy associated to the horizon of a magnetically charged extremal black hole in AdS4×S7 using the quantum entropy function and discuss the possibility of matching against recently derived microscopic expressions.

  5. New insights into the structure, chemistry, and properties of Cu4SnS4 (United States)

    Choudhury, Amitava; Mohapatra, Sudip; Yaghoobnejad Asl, Hooman; Lee, Seng Huat; Hor, Yew San; Medvedeva, Julia E.; McClane, Devon L.; Hilmas, Gregory E.; McGuire, Michael A.; May, Andrew F.; Wang, Hsin; Dash, Shreeram; Welton, Aaron; Boolchand, Punit; Devlin, Kasey P.; Aitken, Jennifer; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Petříček, Váčlav


    The ambient temperature structure of Cu4SnS4 has been revisited and the recently reported low temperature structure has been confirmed from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. A structural phase transition from a large monoclinic unit cell at low temperature to a smaller orthorhombic unit cell at high temperature has been observed. The room temperature phase exhibited disorder in the two copper sites, which is a different finding from earlier reports. The low temperature monoclinic form crystallizes in P21/c space group, which is isostructural with Cu4GeS4. The phase transition has also been studied with variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivity of polycrystalline Cu4SnS4 are reported from 16 to 400 K on hot pressed pellets. Thermal conductivity measurements at high temperatures, 350 - 750 K exhibited very low thermal conductivities in the range 0.28 - 0.35 W K-1 m-1. In all the transport measurements the phase transition has been observed at around 232 K. Resistivity decreases, while Seebeck coefficient increases after the phase transition during warming up from low to high temperatures. This change in resistivity has been correlated with the results of first-principles electronic band structure calculations using highly-accurate screened-exchange local density approximation. It was found that both the low hole effective mass of 0.63 me for the Γ→Y crystallographic direction and small band gap, 0.49 eV, are likely to contribute to the observed higher conductivity of the orthorhombic phase. Cu4SnS4 is also electrochemically active and shows reversible reaction with lithium between 1.7 and 3.5 volts.

  6. Double gaps along Shaker S4 demonstrate omega currents at three different closed states. (United States)

    Gamal El-Din, Tamer M; Heldstab, Hansjakob; Lehmann, Claudia; Greeff, Nikolaus G


    The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail how the voltage sensor in the Shaker potassium channel moves during the gating process. After the publication of the open channel structure from the crystallized K(V)AP channel in 2003, an alternative so-called "paddle" model was put forward in contrast to the existing helical screw model. The voltage sensor S4 contains 4 arginine residues relevant for gating, R1(362), R2(365), R3(368) and R4(371), each separated by 2 neutral residues. These charged residues coil as one of three threads on the S4-alpha-helix. Based on a previous finding that the mutation R1S leads to the so-called omega leak current through a "gating-pore" in the closed state, we introduced gaps systematically along the arginine thread substituting long arginines by short serines. Mutations R2S or R3S did neither create transient nor steady leaks. The fact that the native residue A359, which is located three amino acids in front of R1, is a short one, motivated us to check its role. Mutation of A359 to arginine blocked the omega current in the R1S mutant indicating that the omega pore is occupied by A359 and R1. Introducing further double gaps (RR to SS) at sequential positions (0 + 1, 1 + 2, 2 + 3), produced clear leak currents which were remarkably stable over a wide voltage range. These leaks contradict that S4 would swing together with S3 in lipid according to the paddle hypothesis. Rather, our results show that during gating the S4 segment moves in 3 helical steps through a fixed pore formed by the channel protein.

  7. The Extremes in Intra-Night Blazar Variability: The S4 0954+65 Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Bachev


    Full Text Available We present results of optical observations of the extremely violently variable blazar S4 0954+65 on intra-night time scales. The object showed flux changes of up to 100% within a few hours. Time delays between optical bands, color changes and “rms-flux” relations are investigated and the results are discussed in terms of existing models of blazar variability.

  8. Photoinduced features of energy bandgap in quaternary Cu2CdGeS4 crystals (United States)

    Brik, M. G.; Kityk, I. V.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Myronchuk, G. L.


    The quaternary chalcogenide crystal Cu2CdGeS4 was studied both experimentally and theoretically in the present paper. Investigations of polarized fundamental absorption spectra demonstrated a high sensitivity to external light illumination. The photoinduced changes were studied using a cw 532 nm green laser with energy density about 0.4 J cm-2. The spectral maximum of the photoinduced anisotropy was observed at spectral energies equal to about 1.4 eV (energy gap equal to about 1.85 eV) corresponding to maximal density of the intrinsic defect levels. Spectroscopic measurements were performed for polarized and unpolarized photoinducing laser light to separate the contribution of the intrinsic defect states from that of the pure states of the valence and conduction bands. To understand the origin of the observed photoinduced absorption near the fundamental edge, the benchmark first-principles calculations of the structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties of Cu2CdGeS4 were performed by the general gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA) methods. The calculated dielectric function and optical absorption spectra exhibit some anisotropic behavior (shift of the absorption maxima in different polarizations) within the 0.15-0.20 eV energy range not only near the absorption edge; optical anisotropy was also found for the deeper inter-band transition spectral range. Peculiar features of chemical bonds in Cu2CdGeS4 were revealed by studying the electron density distribution. Possible intrinsic defects are shown to affect the optical absorption spectra considerably. Pressure effects on the structural and electronic properties were modeled by optimizing the crystal structure and calculating all relevant properties at elevated hydrostatic pressure. The first estimations of the bulk modulus (69 GPa (GGA) or 91 GPa (LDA)) and its pressure derivative for Cu2CdGeS4 are also reported.

  9. Unraveling the electrolyte properties of Na3SbS4 through computation and experiment (United States)

    Rush, Larry E.; Hood, Zachary D.; Holzwarth, N. A. W.


    Solid-state sodium electrolytes are expected to improve next-generation batteries on the basis of favorable energy density and reduced cost. Na3SbS4 represents a new solid-state ion conductor with high ionic conductivities in the mS/cm range. Here, we explore the tetragonal phase of Na3SbS4 and its interface with metallic sodium anode using a combination of experiments and first-principles calculations. The computed Na-ion vacancy migration energies of 0.1 eV are smaller than the value inferred from experiment, suggesting that grain boundaries or other factors dominate the experimental systems. Analysis of symmetric cells of the electrolyte—Na/Na 3SbS4/Na —show that a conductive solid electrolyte interphase forms. Computer simulations infer that the interface is likely to be related to Na3SbS3 , involving the conversion of the tetrahedral SbS43 - ions of the bulk electrolyte into trigonal pyramidal SbS33 - ions at the interface.

  10. Classifying aerosol type using in situ surface spectral aerosol optical properties (United States)

    Schmeisser, Lauren; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick; Jefferson, Anne; Sharma, Sangeeta; Kim, Jeong Eun; Sherman, James P.; Sorribas, Mar; Kalapov, Ivo; Arsov, Todor; Angelov, Christo; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Labuschagne, Casper; Kim, Sang-Woo; Hoffer, András; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chia, Hao-Ping; Bergin, Michael; Sun, Junying; Liu, Peng; Wu, Hao


    Knowledge of aerosol size and composition is important for determining radiative forcing effects of aerosols, identifying aerosol sources and improving aerosol satellite retrieval algorithms. The ability to extrapolate aerosol size and composition, or type, from intensive aerosol optical properties can help expand the current knowledge of spatiotemporal variability in aerosol type globally, particularly where chemical composition measurements do not exist concurrently with optical property measurements. This study uses medians of the scattering Ångström exponent (SAE), absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from 24 stations within the NOAA/ESRL Federated Aerosol Monitoring Network to infer aerosol type using previously published aerosol classification schemes.Three methods are implemented to obtain a best estimate of dominant aerosol type at each station using aerosol optical properties. The first method plots station medians into an AAE vs. SAE plot space, so that a unique combination of intensive properties corresponds with an aerosol type. The second typing method expands on the first by introducing a multivariate cluster analysis, which aims to group stations with similar optical characteristics and thus similar dominant aerosol type. The third and final classification method pairs 3-day backward air mass trajectories with median aerosol optical properties to explore the relationship between trajectory origin (proxy for likely aerosol type) and aerosol intensive parameters, while allowing for multiple dominant aerosol types at each station.The three aerosol classification methods have some common, and thus robust, results. In general, estimating dominant aerosol type using optical properties is best suited for site locations with a stable and homogenous aerosol population, particularly continental polluted (carbonaceous aerosol), marine polluted (carbonaceous aerosol mixed with sea salt) and continental dust/biomass sites

  11. Classifying aerosol type using in situ surface spectral aerosol optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Schmeisser


    Full Text Available Knowledge of aerosol size and composition is important for determining radiative forcing effects of aerosols, identifying aerosol sources and improving aerosol satellite retrieval algorithms. The ability to extrapolate aerosol size and composition, or type, from intensive aerosol optical properties can help expand the current knowledge of spatiotemporal variability in aerosol type globally, particularly where chemical composition measurements do not exist concurrently with optical property measurements. This study uses medians of the scattering Ångström exponent (SAE, absorption Ångström exponent (AAE and single scattering albedo (SSA from 24 stations within the NOAA/ESRL Federated Aerosol Monitoring Network to infer aerosol type using previously published aerosol classification schemes.Three methods are implemented to obtain a best estimate of dominant aerosol type at each station using aerosol optical properties. The first method plots station medians into an AAE vs. SAE plot space, so that a unique combination of intensive properties corresponds with an aerosol type. The second typing method expands on the first by introducing a multivariate cluster analysis, which aims to group stations with similar optical characteristics and thus similar dominant aerosol type. The third and final classification method pairs 3-day backward air mass trajectories with median aerosol optical properties to explore the relationship between trajectory origin (proxy for likely aerosol type and aerosol intensive parameters, while allowing for multiple dominant aerosol types at each station.The three aerosol classification methods have some common, and thus robust, results. In general, estimating dominant aerosol type using optical properties is best suited for site locations with a stable and homogenous aerosol population, particularly continental polluted (carbonaceous aerosol, marine polluted (carbonaceous aerosol mixed with sea salt and continental dust

  12. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.


    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  13. PET imaging of glutaminolysis in tumors by 18F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine. (United States)

    Lieberman, Brian P; Ploessl, Karl; Wang, Limin; Qu, Wenchao; Zha, Zhihao; Wise, David R; Chodosh, Lewis A; Belka, George; Thompson, Craig B; Kung, Hank F


    Changes in gene expression, metabolism, and energy requirements are hallmarks of cancer growth and self-sufficiency. Upregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTor pathway in tumor cells has been shown to stimulate aerobic glycolysis, which has enabled (18)F-FDG PET tumor imaging. However, of the millions of (18)F-FDG PET scans conducted per year, a significant number of malignant tumors are (18)F-FDG PET-negative. Recent studies suggest that several tumors may use glutamine as the key nutrient for survival. As an alternative metabolic tracer for tumors, (18)F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine was developed as a PET tracer for mapping glutaminolytic tumors. A series of in vitro cell uptake and in vivo animal studies were performed to demonstrate tumor cell addiction to glutamine. Cell uptake studies of this tracer were performed in SF188 and 9L glioblastoma tumor cells. Dynamic small-animal PET studies of (18)F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine were conducted in 2 animal models: xenografts produced in F344 rats by subcutaneous injection of 9L tumor cells and transgenic mice with M/tomND spontaneous mammary gland tumors. In vitro studies showed that both transformed 9L and SF188 tumor cells displayed a high rate of glutamine uptake (maximum uptake, ≈ 16% dose/100 μg of protein). The cell uptake of (18)F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine by SF188 cells is comparable to that of (3)H-L-glutamine but higher than that of (18)F-FDG. The tumor cell uptake can be selectively blocked. Biodistribution and PET studies showed that (18)F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine localized in tumors with a higher uptake than in surrounding muscle and liver tissues. Data suggest that certain tumor cells may use glutamine for energy production. The results support that (18)F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine is selectively taken up and trapped by tumor cells. It may be useful as a novel metabolic tracer for tumor imaging.

  14. Aerosol Emission during Human Speech (United States)

    Asadi, Sima; Ristenpart, William


    The traditional emphasis for airborne disease transmission has been on coughing and sneezing, which are dramatic expiratory events that yield easily visible droplets. Recent research suggests that normal speech can release even larger quantities of aerosols that are too small to see with the naked eye, but are nonetheless large enough to carry a variety of pathogens (e.g., influenza A). This observation raises an important question: what types of speech emit the most aerosols? Here we show that the concentration of aerosols emitted during healthy human speech is positively correlated with both the amplitude (loudness) and fundamental frequency (pitch) of the vocalization. Experimental measurements with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) indicate that speaking in a loud voice (95 decibels) yields up to fifty times more aerosols than in a quiet voice (75 decibels), and that sounds associated with certain phonemes (e.g., [a] or [o]) release more aerosols than others. We interpret these results in terms of the egressive airflow rate associated with each phoneme and the corresponding fundamental frequency, which is known to vary significantly with gender and age. The results suggest that individual speech patterns could affect the probability of airborne disease transmission.

  15. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide


    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  16. Miniature Sensor for Aerosol Mass Measurements Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project seeks to develop a miniature sensor for mass measurement of size-classified aerosols. A cascade impactor will be used to classify aerosol sample...

  17. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measures particle mass loading and chemical composition in real time for non-refractory sub-micron aerosol particles. The ACSM is designed for long-term unattended deployment and routine monitoring applications.

  18. MISR Aerosol Climatology Product V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MISR Aerosol Climatology Product is 1) the microphysical and scattering characteristics of pure aerosol upon which routine retrievals are based; 2) mixtures of pure...

  19. Sacral sparing in SCI: beyond the S4-S5 and anorectal examination. (United States)

    Zariffa, José; Kramer, John L K; Jones, Linda A T; Lammertse, Daniel P; Curt, Armin; Steeves, John D


    Sensory and/or motor function sparing, including the S4-S5 spinal cord segment, is central to classifying neurologic impairment after spinal cord injury (SCI) using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grades within the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI). Within the ISNCSCI protocol, which is essential for both clinical and research purposes, assessing sacral sparing requires an anorectal and S4-S5 examination. However, in situations where these data are incomplete, the relationships between anorectal/S4-S5 examinations and functional preservation at more rostral sacral segments may be useful. To evaluate whether slightly more rostral sensory and motor outcomes of the ISNCSCI can accurately predict caudal sacral sparing (S4-S5 dermatome sensation, "deep pressure" anal sensation [AS], and voluntary anal contraction [AC]). Retrospective analysis of the European Multicenter Study about Spinal Cord Injury database. One thousand four hundred sixty-seven AIS-A, AIS-B, and AIS-C subjects. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury examinations. The value of six factors (sensory preservation at S1, S2, and S3; motor preservation at S1; motor function at more than three segments below the motor level; and sensory function at more than three segments below the neurologic level) for predicting ISNCSCI sacral sparing measures (AS, S4-S5 dermatome sensation, AC) was evaluated. Combinations of the most promising factors were then evaluated for their ability to accurately predict the AIS grade. Preserved sensation at the first sacral segment (S1S) provided good prediction (90.5%) of caudal sacral sensory sparing (ie, AS or S4-S5 sensation). Voluntary anal contraction was accurately predicted by preserved motor function within the first sacral segment (S1M) in 85.4% of cases. The alternate classification schemes evaluated for accurately predicting the AIS classification

  20. Origins of atmospheric aerosols. Basic concepts on aerosol main physical properties; L`aerosol atmospherique: ses origines quelques notions sur les principales proprietes physiques des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, A. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France). Laboratoire de Physique des aerosols et de transferts des contaminations


    Natural and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric aerosols are reviewed and indications of their concentrations and granulometry are given. Calculation of the lifetime of an atmospheric aerosol of a certain size is presented and the various modes of aerosol granulometry and their relations with photochemical and physico-chemical processes in the atmosphere are discussed. The main physical, electrical and optical properties of aerosols are also presented: diffusion coefficient, dynamic mobility and relaxation time, Stokes number, limit rate of fall, electrical mobility, optical diffraction

  1. Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holzer-Popp


    Full Text Available Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI project Aerosol_cci (2010–2013, algorithms for the production of long-term total column aerosol optical depth (AOD datasets from European Earth Observation sensors are developed. Starting with eight existing pre-cursor algorithms three analysis steps are conducted to improve and qualify the algorithms: (1 a series of experiments applied to one month of global data to understand several major sensitivities to assumptions needed due to the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem, (2 a round robin exercise of "best" versions of each of these algorithms (defined using the step 1 outcome applied to four months of global data to identify mature algorithms, and (3 a comprehensive validation exercise applied to one complete year of global data produced by the algorithms selected as mature based on the round robin exercise. The algorithms tested included four using AATSR, three using MERIS and one using PARASOL. This paper summarizes the first step. Three experiments were conducted to assess the potential impact of major assumptions in the various aerosol retrieval algorithms. In the first experiment a common set of four aerosol components was used to provide all algorithms with the same assumptions. The second experiment introduced an aerosol property climatology, derived from a combination of model and sun photometer observations, as a priori information in the retrievals on the occurrence of the common aerosol components. The third experiment assessed the impact of using a common nadir cloud mask for AATSR and MERIS algorithms in order to characterize the sensitivity to remaining cloud contamination in the retrievals against the baseline dataset versions. The impact of the algorithm changes was assessed for one month (September 2008 of data: qualitatively by inspection of monthly mean AOD maps and quantitatively by comparing daily gridded satellite data against daily averaged AERONET sun

  2. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.


    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  3. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E


    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...

  4. Aerosol processes relevant for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.


    Particulate matter (or aerosols) are particles suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosols are believed to be the most important pollutant associated with increased human mortality and morbidity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the relationship between sources of aerosols (such as industry) and

  5. DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Court, A.J.; Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Visser, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Decae, R.


    Satellite remote sensing of aerosols is a largely unresolved problem. A dedicated instrument aimed at aerosols would be able to reduce the large uncertainties connected to this kind of remote sensing. TNO is performing a study of a space based instrument for aerosol measurements, together with the

  6. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.


    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  7. High Concentration Standard Aerosol Generator. (United States)


    through entrances (1) and (3) so as to attain an anular flow of aerosol. The merging flow is then accelerated by the narrowing cross-section of the duct...tration (if a lower flow or a wider size distribution is acceptable and 2) precautions and suggestions for use of different aerosol materials. Additional...particles of interest. The flow split in both VPI and VP2 is 10% so that 4 slpm exits through the token flow Q2T of VP2. A venturi is utilized to

  8. Ultra-thin Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Crovetto, Andrea; Yan, Chang


    We report on the fabrication of a 5.2% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) featuring an ultra-thin absorber layer (less than 450 nm). Solutions to the issues of reproducibility and micro-particulate ejection often encountered with PLD are proposed....... At the optimal laser fluence, amorphous CZTS precursors with optimal stoichiometry for solar cells are deposited from a single target. Such precursors do not result in detectable segregation of secondary phases after the subsequent annealing step. In the analysis of the solar cell device, we focus on the effects...

  9. Optical Outburst of the Blazar S4 0954+658 in Early 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Morozova


    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of the BL Lac object S4 0954+658 during an unprecedented bright optical flare in early 2015. The optical flare was accompanied by a powerful γ -ray flare and the detection of very-high-energy γ -ray emission. We analyze total and polarized intensity images obtained with the VLBA at 43 GHz and discover a new bright polarized superluminal knot, which was ejected from the VLBI-core during the peak of the flare.

  10. Development of a Tetrathioether (S4) Bifunctional Chelate System for Rh-105 (United States)


    Figure 8: Summary of trans-RhX2-S4-(COOH)2 HPLC analysis Waters RP-18 1% - 90% B 8min iso at 90% 1 min 15 Since the existence of at least two trans...2000 4000 m Vo lts 0 2000 4000 Figure 9: HPLC analysis of samples prepared under reaction conditions 1-4. Waters RP-18 1% - 90% B 8min iso at...1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 In te ns ity 544.91 572.88 508.87 718.50 1090.05805.12492.92

  11. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xin, Xukai; Lin, Zhiqun


    Semiconductor quantum dots exhibit great potential for applications in next generation high efficiency, low cost solar cells because of their unique optoelectronic properties. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have recently received much attention as building blocks for use in solar energy conversion due to their outstanding properties and advantageous characteristics, including high optical absorptivity, tunable bandgap, and earth abundant chemical composition. In this Feature Article, recent advances in the synthesis and utilization of CZTS nanocrystals and colloidal GQDs for photovoltaics are highlighted, followed by an outlook on the future research efforts in these areas.

  12. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E


    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London...

  13. Breeding potential of S4 maize lines in topcrosses for agronomic and forage traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Martins Marcondes


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the performance of 46 maize lines (S4 obtained from crosses between the commercial hybrids Penta x P30F53 in topcrosses with the commercial simple cross hybrid Dow8460 (tester and checks (hybrids Penta, P30F53, Dow8460 and Status. The grain yield was evaluated in two environments in Guarapuava, Paraná State, and the effects of genotype, environment and genotype x environment interaction were significant. The grain yield of the topcross hybrids ranged from 8,416 to 13,428 kg ha-1. The agronomic characteristics of the forage and the bromatological characteristics of the silage were evaluated in environment 1. The green mass yield of the forage ranged from 48,767 to 87,714 kg ha-1 and the dry mass yield ranged from 14,749 to 26,130 kg ha-1. The neutral detergent fiber content ranged from 44.85 to 58.45% and the acid detergent fiber content ranged from 28.28 to 37.06%. The relative feed value of the silage ranged between 100.5 and 138.5. The tester, hybrid Dow8460, was efficient to discriminate the relative performance of the S4 lines in the topcrosses.

  14. Two design of the S4.BEN01 magnet for the CBETA splitter/merger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The splitter/merger section of the CBETA project [1] consists of 4 beam lines as shown in Fig. 1. Two of the functions of the splitter’s/merger’s lines is to match the beam parameters at the exit of the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) to the beam parameters at the entrance of the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) arc, and also place the reference particles of the beam bunches at the entrance of the FFAG arc on specified trajectories according to their energies. In this technical note we are presenting results from the 2D and 3D electromagnetic analysis of the S4.BEN01 magnet which is one of the dipole magnets of the 150 MeV line of the splitter/merger. In particular we present results from two designs of the S4.BEN01 magnet, one based on iron dominated current-excited magnet, and the other design based on Halbach-type permanent magnet. An evaluation of the two designs will be given in the section under “conclusion”.

  15. Green Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 Powder Using Hydrothermal Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri kant Verma


    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS powder was synthesized by a hydrothermal process, using thiourea as sulfur precursor. The powder was qualitatively analyzed using X-ray to identify the phase, and the size of the particles was determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Raman peak at 337.5 cm−1 confirms the formation of pure CZTS particles. The powder was also synthesized solvothermally using ethylenediamine as solvent. The hydrothermally synthesized powder indicated the presence of the kesterite phase Cu2ZnSnS4 and particle size of about 4-5 nm. This environmentally green synthesis by hydrothermal route can produce gram scale synthesis of material with a chemical yield in excess of ~ 90%. UV Vis absorption spectra measurements indicated the band gap of as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles to be 1.7 eV, which is near the optimum value for photovoltaic solar cell, showing its possible use in photovoltaics.

  16. The S4---S5 linker - gearbox of TRP channel gating. (United States)

    Hofmann, Laura; Wang, Hongmei; Zheng, Wang; Philipp, Stephan E; Hidalgo, Patricia; Cavalié, Adolfo; Chen, Xing-Zhen; Beck, Andreas; Flockerzi, Veit


    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cation channels which participate in a wide variety of physiological processes in organisms ranging from fungi to humans. They fulfill roles in body homeostasis, are sensors for noxious chemicals and temperature in the mammalian somatosensory system and are activated by light stimulated phospholipase C activity in Drosophila or by hypertonicity in yeast. The transmembrane topology of TRP channels is similar to that of voltage-gated cation channels. TRP proteins assemble as tetramers with each subunit containing six transmembrane helices (S1-S6) and intracellular N- and C-termini. Here we focus on the emerging functions of the cytosolic S4-S5 linker on TRP channel gating. Most of this knowledge comes from pathogenic mutations within the S4-S5 linker that alter TRP channel activities. This knowledge has stimulated forward genetic approaches to identify additional residues around this region which are essential for channel gating and is supported, in part, by recent structures obtained for TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV6, TRPA1, and TRPP2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, T. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)


    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Anthropogenic production of aerosols is mainly connected with combustion of fossil fuel. Measured by particulate mass, the anthropogenic sulphate production is the dominating source of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. Particles emitted in mechanical processes, fly ash etc. are less important because of their shorter atmospheric residence time. Possible climatological effects of anthropogenic aerosols are usually classified in two groups: direct and indirect. Direct effects are alterations of the radiative heating budget due to the aerosol particles in clear air. Indirect effects involve the interaction between particles and cloud processes. A simplified one-layer radiation model gave cooling in the most polluted mid-latitude areas and heating due to soot absorption in the Arctic. This differential trend in heating rates may have significant effects on atmospheric meridional circulations, which is important for the atmosphere as a thermodynamic system. Recently the description of sulphur chemistry in the hemispheric scale dispersion model has been improved and will be used in a model for Mie scattering and absorption

  18. NASA's Aerosol Sampling Experiment Summary (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.


    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  19. Near UV Aerosol Group Report (United States)

    Torres, Omar


    2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  20. Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia: AEROSOL AND MONSOON CLIMATE INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanqing [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Lau, W. K. -M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Ramanathan, V. [Department of Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, University of California, San Diego California USA; Wu, G. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Ding, Y. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Manoj, M. G. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Liu, J. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Qian, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Li, J. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhou, T. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Rosenfeld, D. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem Israel; Ming, Y. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton New Jersey USA; Wang, Y. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Huang, J. [College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou China; Wang, B. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Hawaii USA; School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Xu, X. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Lee, S. -S. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Cribb, M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Zhang, F. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Yang, X. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhao, C. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Takemura, T. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Japan; Wang, K. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Xia, X. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Yin, Y. [School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Zhang, H. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Guo, J. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhai, P. M. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Sugimoto, N. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba Japan; Babu, S. S. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Brasseur, G. P. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg Germany


    Asian monsoons and aerosols have been studied extensively which are intertwined in influencing the climate of Asia. This paper provides a comprehensive review of ample studies on Asian aerosol, monsoon and their interactions. The region is the primary source of aerosol emissions of varies species, influenced by distinct weather and climatic regimes. On continental scale, aerosols reduce surface insolation and weaken the land-ocean thermal contrast, thus inhibiting the development of monsoons. Locally, aerosol radiative effects alter the thermodynamic stability and convective potential of the lower atmosphere leading to reduced temperatures, increased atmospheric stability, and weakened wind and atmospheric circulation. The atmospheric thermodynamic state may also be altered by the aerosol serving as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. Many mechanisms have been put forth regarding how aerosols modulate the amplitude, frequency, intensity, and phase of numerous monsoon climate variables. A wide range of theoretical, observational, and modeling findings on the Asian monsoon, aerosols, and their interactions are synthesized. A new paradigm is proposed on investigating aerosol-monsoon interactions, in which natural aerosols such as desert dust, black carbon from biomass burning, and biogenic aerosols from vegetation are considered integral components of an intrinsic aerosol-monsoon climate system, subject to external forcings of global warming, anthropogenic aerosols, and land use and change. Future research on aerosol-monsoon interactions calls for an integrated approach and international collaborations based on long-term sustained observations, process measurements, and improved models, as well as using observations to constrain model simulations and projections.

  1. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO. (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.


    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  2. Holographic microstate counting for AdS4 black holes in massive IIA supergravity (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Hristov, Kiril; Passias, Achilleas


    We derive the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for a class of BPS black holes in the massive type IIA supergravity background AdS4 × S 6 from a microscopic counting of supersymmetric ground states in a holographically dual field theory. The counting is performed by evaluating the topologically twisted index of three-dimensional N=2 Chern-Simons-matter gauge theories in the large N limit. The I-extremization principle is shown to match the attractor mechanism for the near-horizon geometries constructed in the four-dimensional dyonic N=2 gauged supergravity, that arises as a consistent truncation of massive type IIA supergravity on S 6. In particular, our results prove that the imaginary part of the three-dimensional partition functions plays a crucial rôle in holography.

  3. Hybrid Functional Study of Sodium and Potassium Incorporation in Cu2ZnSnS4 (United States)

    Tse, Kin Fai; Wong, Manhoi; Zhang, Yiou; Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhu, Junyi

    The thermodynamics of Na and K incorporation and its effects in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is studied using density functional theory with hybrid functional. The allowed chemical potential of Na/K in CZTS is established. Formation energy calculations shows that Na can be significantly incorporated as both substitutional defects and interstitial defects, and incorporation of K related defects are generally less favorable. Transition energy calculations is performed showing that both Na and K exhibit benign defect properties and act as a p-type dopant. The qualitative disagreement between GGA with rigid band edge shifting and HSE calculations, formation of defect complexes, and implications in experiment will also be discussed. The understandings on the defect properties of Na and K provides an essential knowledge to further understand the surfactant effects of Na and K observed in experiments. This work is supported by General Research Fund Ref. No: 14319416.

  4. Neutrino mixing and leptonic CP violation from S 4 flavour and generalised CP symmetries (United States)

    Penedo, J. T.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.


    We consider a class of models of neutrino mixing with S 4 lepton flavour symmetry combined with a generalised CP symmetry, which are broken to residual Z 2 and Z 2 × H CP ν symmetries in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors, respectively, H CP ν being a remnant CP symmetry of the neutrino Majorana mass term. In this set-up the neutrino mixing angles and CP violation (CPV) phases of the neutrino mixing matrix depend on three real parameters — two angles and a phase. We classify all phenomenologically viable mixing patterns and derive predictions for the Dirac and Majorana CPV phases. Further, we use the results obtained on the neutrino mixing angles and leptonic CPV phases to derive predictions for the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay.

  5. Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanoparticle Absorber Layers for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    In the search for a new material for solar cells, the quaternary chalcogenide copper zinc tin sulde (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) is one potential candidate. It is abundant, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive, and presently it has a mediocre record effciency of around 10% with potential to reach above 15......%. This thesis is a part of the work done in making the prospects of solutionprocessed CZTS more fruitful. In addition to an inexpensive material, a cheap production pathway is also required for the material to be suitable for solar cells of the future. Solution-processing comprises either a nanoparticle ink...... or a precursor ink that can be printed, sprayed, or in another way coated on a substrate appropriate for mass production. For CZTS, the power conversion effciency of these device are lagging behind the vacuum processed CZTS thin films, as certain challenges arise with solution-processing. The conversion...

  6. Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Cu2FeSnS4 Nanocrystals with a Novel Zincblende Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Liang


    Full Text Available Diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu2FeSnS4 nanocrystals with a novel zincblende structure have been successfully synthesized by a hot-injection approach. Cu+, Fe2+, and Sn4+ ions occupy the same position in the zincblende unit cell, and their occupancy possibilities are 1/2, 1/4, and 1/4, respectively. The nanocrystals were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The nanocrystals have an average size of 7.5 nm and a band gap of 1.1 eV and show a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature.

  7. [Ratification of UE 4.4 S4 "simulated blood transfusion": inquiry and answers]. (United States)

    Cabaud, J-J; Fournier-Prud'Homme, C; Couto, L; Lepleux, F; Male, F; Novel, C; Sandrin, M-C; Zamboni, M-A


    The new training reference guide related to state registered degree has been applied since 31 July 2009. Training and valuation projects developed by nurse training institutes have been amended to comply with learning concept: understanding-action-transfer. Validation of grade 4.4 S4 is part of competence 4 validation "implementation of actions related to diagnostic and therapy". The requirement for all students to ratify simulated transfusion lead teachers to update their knowledge and to be more committed to knowledge acquisition. To complete its work, the research and quality control department of the French Transfusion Company regarding the result of the national 2011 inquiry, proposes in relation with the National Transfusion Institute to provide the professional network with tools and supports making knowledge exchanges and experience sharing easier. The reference transfusional teaching guide updating intended to training institutes is being carried out and considered as a priority. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization study for the experimental configuration of CMB-S4 (United States)

    Barron, Darcy; Chinone, Yuji; Kusaka, Akito; Borril, Julian; Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen; Ferraro, Simone; Keskitalo, Reijo; Lee, Adrian T.; Roe, Natalie A.; Sherwin, Blake D.; Suzuki, Aritoki


    The CMB Stage 4 (CMB-S4) experiment is a next-generation, ground-based experiment that will measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization to unprecedented accuracy, probing the signature of inflation, the nature of cosmic neutrinos, relativistic thermal relics in the early universe, and the evolution of the universe. CMB-S4 will consist of O(500,000) photon-noise-limited detectors that cover a wide range of angular scales in order to probe the cosmological signatures from both the early and late universe. It will measure a wide range of microwave frequencies to cleanly separate the CMB signals from galactic and extra-galactic foregrounds. To advance the progress towards designing the instrument for CMB-S4, we have established a framework to optimize the instrumental configuration to maximize its scientific output. The framework combines cost and instrumental models with a cosmology forecasting tool, and evaluates the scientific sensitivity as a function of various instrumental parameters. The cost model also allows us to perform the analysis under a fixed-cost constraint, optimizing for the scientific output of the experiment given finite resources. In this paper, we report our first results from this framework, using simplified instrumental and cost models. We have primarily studied two classes of instrumental configurations: arrays of large-aperture telescopes with diameters ranging from 2–10 m, and hybrid arrays that combine small-aperture telescopes (0.5-m diameter) with large-aperture telescopes. We explore performance as a function of telescope aperture size, distribution of the detectors into different microwave frequencies, survey strategy and survey area, low-frequency noise performance, and balance between small and large aperture telescopes for hybrid configurations. Both types of configurations must cover both large (~ degree) and small (~ arcmin) angular scales, and the performance depends on assumptions for performance vs. angular scale

  9. Effects of indium contents on photocatalytic performance of ZnIn2S4 for hydrogen evolution under visible light (United States)

    Song, Kelin; Zhu, Rongshu; Tian, Fei; Cao, Gang; Ouyang, Feng


    A series of ZnInxS4+y (x=1.6, 2.0, 2.3, 2.6, 2.9, 3.1) photocatalysts were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and characterized by various analytical techniques, such as XRD, EDS, UV-vis DRS, SEM, TEM, BET and PL. The ZnInxS4+y photocatalysts had a similar crystal structure. With the increase of indium content, the absorption edges of ZnInxS4+y photocatalysts shifted to longer wavelength, their crystal sizes decreased firstly and then increased and the variation of the specific surface area and total pore volume was exactly opposite. Especially, when x=2.3, ZnIn2.3S4+y catalyst had smallest crystal size, largest specific surface area and total pore volume. Additionally, the morphology of ZnInxS4+y greatly depended on the contents of indium. The photocatalytic activity of ZnInxS4+y was evaluated by photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible light. The ZnIn2.3S4+y sample had the highest photocatalytic activity among these ZnInxS4+y photocatalysts and its hydrogen production rate was 363 μmol/g h.

  10. Cascading gauge theory on dS4 and String Theory landscape (United States)

    Buchel, Alex; Galante, Damián A.


    Placing anti-D3 branes at the tip of the conifold in Klebanov-Strassler geometry provides a generic way of constructing meta-stable de Sitter (dS) vacua in String Theory. A local geometry of such vacua exhibit gravitational solutions with a D3 charge measured at the tip opposite to the asymptotic charge. We discuss a restrictive set of such geometries, where anti-D3 branes are smeared at the tip. Such geometries represent holographic dual of cascading gauge theory in dS4 with or without chiral symmetry breaking. We find that in the phase with unbroken chiral symmetry the D3 charge at the tip is always positive. Furthermore, this charge is zero in the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. We show that the effective potential of the chirally symmetric phase is lower than that in the symmetry broken phase, i.e., there is no spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for cascading gauge theory in dS4. The positivity of the D3 brane charge in smooth de-Sitter deformed conifold geometries with fluxes presents difficulties in uplifting AdS vacua to dS ones in String Theory via smeared anti-D3 branes. First, turning on fluxes on Calabi-Yau compactifications of type IIB string theory produces highly warped geometry with stabilized complex structure (but not Kähler) moduli of the compactification [3]; Next, including non-perturbative effects (which are under control given the unbroken supersymmetry), one obtains anti-de Sitter (AdS4) vacua with all moduli fixed; Finally, one uses anti-D3 branes of type IIB string theory to uplift AdS4 to de Sitter (dS4) vacua. As the last step of the construction completely breaks supersymmetry, it is much less controlled. In fact, in [4-7] it was argued that putting anti-D3 branes at the tip of the Klebanov-Strassler (KS) [8] geometry (as done in KKLT construction) leads to a naked singularity. Whether or not the resulting singularity is physical is subject to debates. When M4=dS4 and the chiral symmetry is unbroken, the D3 brane

  11. Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Lau, W. K.-M.; Ramanathan, V.; Wu, G.; Ding, Y.; Manoj, M. G.; Liu, J.; Qian, Y.; Li, J.; Zhou, T.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ming, Y.; Wang, Y.; Huang, J.; Wang, B.; Xu, X.; Lee, S.-S.; Cribb, M.; Zhang, F.; Yang, X.; Zhao, C.; Takemura, T.; Wang, K.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zhang, H.; Guo, J.; Zhai, P. M.; Sugimoto, N.; Babu, S. S.; Brasseur, G. P.


    The increasing severity of droughts/floods and worsening air quality from increasing aerosols in Asia monsoon regions are the two gravest threats facing over 60% of the world population living in Asian monsoon regions. These dual threats have fueled a large body of research in the last decade on the roles of aerosols in impacting Asian monsoon weather and climate. This paper provides a comprehensive review of studies on Asian aerosols, monsoons, and their interactions. The Asian monsoon region is a primary source of emissions of diverse species of aerosols from both anthropogenic and natural origins. The distributions of aerosol loading are strongly influenced by distinct weather and climatic regimes, which are, in turn, modulated by aerosol effects. On a continental scale, aerosols reduce surface insolation and weaken the land-ocean thermal contrast, thus inhibiting the development of monsoons. Locally, aerosol radiative effects alter the thermodynamic stability and convective potential of the lower atmosphere leading to reduced temperatures, increased atmospheric stability, and weakened wind and atmospheric circulations. The atmospheric thermodynamic state, which determines the formation of clouds, convection, and precipitation, may also be altered by aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon and desert dust in Asian monsoon regions may also induce dynamical feedback processes, leading to a strengthening of the early monsoon and affecting the subsequent evolution of the monsoon. Many mechanisms have been put forth regarding how aerosols modulate the amplitude, frequency, intensity, and phase of different monsoon climate variables. A wide range of theoretical, observational, and modeling findings on the Asian monsoon, aerosols, and their interactions are synthesized. A new paradigm is proposed on investigating aerosol-monsoon interactions, in which natural aerosols such as desert dust, black carbon from

  12. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured Fe3S4, an isostructural compound of half-metallic Fe3O4

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng


    High-purity, well-crystallized spinel Fe3S4 nanoplatelets were synthesized by the hydrothermal method, and the saturation magnetic moment of Fe3S4 was measured at 1.83 μB/f.u. The temperature-dependent resistivity of Fe3S4 was metallic-like for T < 180 K: room-temperature resistivity was measured at 7.711 × 103  μΩ cm. The anomalous Hall conductivity of Fe3S4 decreased with increasing longitudinal conductivity, in sharp contrast with the accepted theory of the anomalous Hall effect in a dirty-metal regime. Furthermore, negligible spin-dependent magnetoresistance was observed. Band structure calculations confirmed our experimental observations that Fe3S4 is a metal and not a half metal as expected.

  13. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton. (United States)

    Paytan, Adina; Mackey, Katherine R M; Chen, Ying; Lima, Ivan D; Doney, Scott C; Mahowald, Natalie; Labiosa, Rochelle; Post, Anton F


    Atmospheric aerosol deposition is an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the open ocean that can enhance ocean productivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Using aerosol samples from different back trajectories in incubation experiments with natural communities, we demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to aerosol additions depends on specific components in aerosols and differs across phytoplankton species. Aerosol additions enhanced growth by releasing nitrogen and phosphorus, but not all aerosols stimulated growth. Toxic effects were observed with some aerosols, where the toxicity affected picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus but not Prochlorococcus. We suggest that the toxicity could be due to high copper concentrations in these aerosols and support this by laboratory copper toxicity tests preformed with Synechococcus cultures. However, it is possible that other elements present in the aerosols or unknown synergistic effects between these elements could have also contributed to the toxic effect. Anthropogenic emissions are increasing atmospheric copper deposition sharply, and based on coupled atmosphere-ocean calculations, we show that this deposition can potentially alter patterns of marine primary production and community structure in high aerosol, low chlorophyll areas, particularly in the Bay of Bengal and downwind of South and East Asia.

  14. Visible light responsive Cu2MoS4 nanosheets incorporated reduced graphene oxide for efficient degradation of organic pollutant (United States)

    Rameshbabu, R.; Vinoth, R.; Navaneethan, M.; Harish, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Neppolian, B.


    Visible light active copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets were successfully anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using facile hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal reaction, reduction of graphene oxide into rGO and the formation of Cu2MoS4 nanosheets were successfully obtained. The charge transfer interaction between the rGO sheets and Cu2MoS4 nanosheets extended the absorption to visible region in comparison with bare Cu2MoS4 nanosheets i.e without rGO sheets. Furthermore, the notable photoluminescence quenching observed for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite revealed the effective role of rGO towards the significant inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination. The photocatalytic efficiencies of bare Cu2MoS4 and Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methyl orange dye under visible irradiation (λ > 420 nm). A maximum photodegradation efficiency of 99% was achieved for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite, while only 64% photodegradation was noted for bare Cu2MoS4. The enhanced optical absorption in visible region, high surface area, and low charge carrier recombination in the presence of rGO sheets were the main reasons for the enhancement in photodegardation of MO dye. In addition, the resultant Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was found to be reusable for five successive cycles without significant loss in its photocatalytic performance.

  15. Aerosol optical absorption measurements with photoacoustic spectroscopy (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming


    Many parameters related to radiative forcing in climate research are known only with large uncertainties. And one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing is the contribution from aerosols. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the electromagnetic radiation, thus may have negative or positive effects on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, respectively [1]. And the magnitude of the effect is directly related to the quantity of light absorbed by aerosols [2,3]. Thus, sensitivity and precision measurement of aerosol optical absorption is crucial for climate research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the light absorption of aerosols [4]. A PAS based sensor for aerosol optical absorption measurement was developed. A 532 nm semiconductor laser with an effective power of 160 mW was used as a light source of the PAS sensor. The PAS sensor was calibrated by using known concentration NO2. The minimum detectable optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosol was determined to be 1 Mm-1. 24 hours continues measurement of OAC of aerosol in the ambient air was carried out. And a novel three wavelength PAS aerosol OAC sensor is in development for analysis of aerosol wavelength-dependent absorption Angstrom coefficient. Reference [1] U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715-737 (2005) [2] M. Z. Jacobson, Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature 409, 695-697 (2001) [3] V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichae, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, nature geoscience 1, 221-227 (2008) [4] W.P Arnott, H. Moosmuller, C. F. Rogers, T. Jin, and R. Bruch, Photoacoustic spectrometer for measuring light absorption by aerosol: instrument description. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2845-2852 (1999).

  16. On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data presented in the figures of the paper "On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass"...

  17. Beschrijving van een verdampings-condensatie aerosol generator voor de produktie van submicron aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijt; A.*; Meulen; A.van der


    Dit rapport is een handleiding voor een bedrijfszeker, routinematig gebruik van een zgn. Evaporation-Condensation aerosol Conditioner. Met deze aerosol generatie apparatuur kunnen op stabiele, reproduceerbare manier zeer hoge concentraties (tot 1 miljoen deeltjes per cc) monodispers submicron

  18. Highly Resolved Paleoclimatic Aerosol Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Ernesto

    with frequently changing signs are preserved. Therefore, these aerosol records can be used for dating by annual layer counting. However, with increasing depth the annual layer thicknesses decreases due to pressure and ice flow and accurate dating is possible only as long as the rapid variations can be resolved...... soluble aerosols can be analysed for concentration changes only, insoluble aeolian dust can reveal additional information on its atmospheric residence time via changes in the mean grain sizes. Volumes of particulate matter in ice cores are most reliably determined with Coulter counters, but since...... a Coulter counter performs measurements on discrete samples, it cannot be connected to a CFA system. Attenuation sensors, on the other hand, can be integrated into a CFA set-up, but are known to yield poor dust size records. The dilemma between high quality sizing and high depth resolution was found...

  19. OSIRIS Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol (United States)

    Bourassa, Adam; Degenstein, Doug; Llewellyn, Edward J.

    The Canadian built OSIRIS instrument, currently in operation on the Swedish Odin satel-lite, has collected over nine years of limb radiance spectra at UV, visible and near infrared wavelengths. These measurements are used to retrieve vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction. The relatively high horizontal sampling of the limb scatter technique, which pro-vides nearly global coverage, combined with the almost decade long duration of the mission, makes this an increasingly useful and important data set. This work shows comparisons with coincident measurements and highlights the features of the OSIRIS stratospheric aerosol data product including the potential for studies of long term trends, stratospheric dynamics, and the effect of recent volcanic eruptions on climate.

  20. Biogeochemical Recycling on Aerosol Particles (United States)

    Arimoto, R.; Stewart, B.; Khaing, H.; Tatro, D. P.


    Trace elements are recycled on sea-salt particles that are produced and later re-deposited in the surface ocean. This recycling process involves aluminum, iron, and other elements commonly associated with mineral dust. Non-crustal Al can amount to as much as ~ 30% of the total aerosol Al at Bermuda, but this occurs only during a few months of the year when the dust concentrations and deposition rates are low. Simple model calculations suggest that ~15 to 20% of the total Al dry deposition during December and January can be attributed to recycled sea salt, but when dust concentrations are higher, recycling accounts for only ~ 1% of the Al dry deposition. Non-crustal/non-sea salt (NC/NSS) sources account for > 70% of the aerosol Sb, Se, V, and Zn, but differences in the dry deposition velocities for particles of different sizes are such that the amount of Sb and Se recycled on sea spray approaches or exceeds their new inputs to the open ocean from dust and the NC/NSS sources. More recently, recycling on aerosol particles has been found to occur in other environments, including the deserts in the southwestern USA. In this case, the recycling of radionuclides released during nuclear weapons tests many years ago occurs via the resuspension of contaminated soil particles. Studies conducted near Carlsbad, NM have shown that the temporal variability in ^{239,240}Pu and ^{241}Am activities tracks that of Al, a mineral dust indictor, in aerosol samples. Analyses of soil samples from various sites have shown that plutonium is released from the particles by chemical procedures developed for removing iron oxides from mineral particles; this implies that the dust/plutonium relationship is mediated by iron oxides.

  1. Tumor microenvironmental changes induced by the sulfamate carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitor S4 in a laryngeal tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineke W H Meijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX plays a pivotal role in pH homeostasis, which is essential for tumor cell survival. We examined the effect of the CAIX inhibitor 4-(3'(3",5"-dimethylphenyl-ureidophenyl sulfamate (S4 on the tumor microenvironment in a laryngeal tumor model by analyzing proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, hypoxia, metabolism and CAIX ectodomain shedding. METHODS: SCCNij202 tumor bearing-mice were treated with S4 for 1, 3 or 5 days. CAIX ectodomain shedding was measured in the serum after therapy. Effects on tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, hypoxia (pimonidazole and CAIX were investigated with quantitative immunohistochemistry. Metabolic transporters and enzymes were quantified with qPCR. RESULTS: CAIX ectodomain shedding decreased after treatment with S4 (p<0.01. S4 therapy did neither influence tumor cell proliferation nor the amount of apoptosis and necrosis. Hypoxia (pimonidazole and CAIX expression were also not affected by S4. CHOP and MMP9 mRNA as a reference of intracellular pH did not change upon treatment with S4. Compensatory mechanisms of pH homeostasis at the mRNA level were not observed. CONCLUSION: As the clinical and biological meaning of the decrease in CAIX ectodomain shedding after S4 therapy is not clear, studies are required to elucidate whether the CAIX ectodomain has a paracrine or autocrine signaling function in cancer biology. S4 did not influence the amount of proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis and hypoxia. Therefore, it is unlikely that S4 can be used as single agent to influence tumor cell kill and proliferation, and to target primary tumor growth.

  2. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))


    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between {approximately}0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Characterization of Aerosols Containing Microcystin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine C. Backer


    Full Text Available Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in both freshwater and brackishwater sources throughout the world. One class of cyanobacterial toxins, calledmicrocystins, is cyclic peptides. In addition to ingestion and dermal, inhalation is a likelyroute of human exposure. A significant increase in reporting of minor symptoms,particularly respiratory symptoms was associated with exposure to higher levels ofcyanobacteria during recreational activities. Algae cells, bacteria, and waterborne toxinscan be aerosolized by a bubble-bursting process with a wind-driven white-capped wavemechanism. The purposes of this study were to: evaluate sampling and analysis techniquesfor microcystin aerosol, produce aerosol droplets containing microcystin in the laboratory,and deploy the sampling instruments in field studies. A high-volume impactor and an IOMfilter sampler were tried first in the laboratory to collect droplets containing microcystins.Samples were extracted and analyzed for microcystin using an ELISA method. Thelaboratory study showed that cyanotoxins in water could be transferred to air via a bubble-bursting process. The droplets containing microcystins showed a bimodal size distributionwith the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD of 1.4 and 27.8 μm. The samplingand analysis methods were successfully used in a pilot field study to measure microcystinaerosol in situ.

  4. Nebulizer delivery of micafungin aerosols. (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara D; Winkler, Thomas P; Shi, Shuai; Ashley, Elizabeth S Dodds; Hickey, Anthony J


    To determine the optimal nebulization system for aerosolizing micafungin and to further assess the physiochemical properties of aerosolized micafungin. In vitro experiment. University research center. NEBULIZERS: Pari LC Star, Hudson Updraft, Small Volume Nebulizer, and Aeroclipse II. Using a commercially available cascade impactor, the four nebulizers were tested for their ability to deliver micafungin to the lungs. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and fine particle fraction (FPF) percent less than 3.3 μm (FPF(3.3)) and less than 5.8 μm (FPF(5.8)) were determined during two sampling periods for each of three trials of all nebulizers. The mean ± standard error of the mean MMAD for the nebulizers ranged from 1.93 ± 0.09 to 2.49 ± 0.25 μm; FPF(3.3) and FPF(5.8) were approximately 50% and 90%, respectively, for all nebulizers. Although all nebulizers appeared acceptable to deliver micafungin to the lungs, the Pari LC Star had the smallest MMAD and highest FPF(3.3) and FPF(5.8). These properties of the Pari LC Star should result in greater delivery of the aerosol to the lungs. Additional research on pulmonary delivery and clinical tolerability is warranted.

  5. Aerosol from Organic Nitrogen in the Southeast United States (United States)

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) contribute significantly to organic aerosol in the southeastern United States. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), a portion of ambient organic aerosol was attributed to isoprene oxidation and organic nitrogen from BVO...


    Part I of this report discusses the U.S. aerosol industry's experience in converting from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants to alternative aerosol formulations. Detailed examples of non-CFC formulations are provided for 28 categories of aerosol products. ydrocarbon propellants...

  7. Synthesis of CdIn2S4 Microsphere and Its Photocatalytic Activity for Azo Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Huang


    Full Text Available CdIn2S4 was prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The prepared CdIn2S4 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS, and N2-sorption techniques. Aqueous photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the decomposition of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that the prepared CdIn2S4 has spherical morphology with mesoporous structure which can efficiently degrade methyl orange in water. The sample prepared at 500°C exhibits the optimized photocatalytic activity.

  8. Synthesis of CdIn 2 S 4 Microsphere and Its Photocatalytic Activity for Azo Dye Degradation


    Huang, Jianhui; Lin, Wei; Chen, Jianqin


    CdIn2S4 was prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The prepared CdIn2S4 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and N2-sorption techniques. Aqueous photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the decomposition of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that the prepared CdIn2S4 has spherical morphology with mesopo...

  9. Exceptional $N=6$ and $N=2 AdS_4$ Supergravity, and Zero-Center Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Ferrara, Sergio; Grassi, P A; Trigiante, M


    We study the gauging of the orthosymplectic algebras OSp(6|4)xSO(2) and its "dual" OSp(2|4)x SO(6), both based on supergravities with the same exceptional coset SO*(12)/U(6), and gauge group SO(6)xSO(2). The two dual theories are obtained by two different truncations of gauged N=8 AdS_4 supergravity. We explicitly study the gauge sector of the two dual theories with the most general group allowed by supersymmetry. In the ungauged (super-Poincar\\'e) case they exhibit the same (large) black-hole attractor solutions with dual relations between the 1/N-BPS and non-BPS configurations. The N=6 gravity multiplet has also the exceptional property to be a {\\em zero-center module} of OSp(6|4), as it is the case for superconformal Yang--Mills theory in four dimensions based on SU(2,2|n) (PSU(2,2|4) for n=4) or OSp(n|4).

  10. Static structures of the BCS-like holographic superfluid in AdS4 spacetime (United States)

    Lan, Shanquan; Liu, Wenbiao; Tian, Yu


    We investigate in detail the m2=0 Abelian Higgs model in AdS4 , which is considered as the holographic dual of the most BCS-like superfluid. In homogeneous and isotropic superfluid solutions, we calculate the fourth-sound speeds, the square of which approaches 1 /2 with increasing chemical potential (lowering temperature). Then we present the single dark soliton solutions, which becomes thinner with increasing chemical potential. For the first time, we also find the interesting double and triple dark soliton solutions, which is unexpected and shows the possibility of more complicated static configurations. Finally, we investigate vortex solutions. For winding number n =1 , the vortex becomes thinner with increasing chemical potential. At a given chemical potential, with increasing winding number, first the vortex becomes bigger and the charge density depletion becomes larger, and then the charge density depletion settles down at a certain value and the growth of the vortex size is found to obey a scaling symmetry.

  11. Structural, Optical and Electrical Conductivity Properties of Stannite Cu2ZnSnS4 (United States)

    Zakhvalinskii, V. S.; Nguyen, Thi Tham Hong; Pham, Thi Thao; Dang, Ngoc Toan; Piliuk, E. A.; Taran, S. V.


    A precursor powder was obtained from drying the solutions of a mixture of different ratios of Cu, Zn and Sn chloride and thiourea. The Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) samples were prepared from thermal decomposition of the corresponding precursors in vacuum, and were then characterized using scanning emission microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray powder diffraction and Raman scattering. According to x-ray diffraction analysis, all the synthesized samples had a tetragonal structure of space group I\\overline{4} 2m. The electrical properties of the CZTS samples were investigated in the temperature range of 10-325 K. The charge carrier concentration was measured to be about p = 1 × 1016 cm-3. A crossover from a nearest-neighbor hopping conduction mechanism at high temperatures ( T > 150 K) to a Mott variable-range hopping conduction mechanism at low temperatures ( T quartz substrates was obtained using magnetron sputtering, for which a band gap of E g = 1.3 eV was determined from transmittance measurements.

  12. FeCr2S4 in magnetic fields: possible evidence for a multiferroic ground state (United States)

    Bertinshaw, J.; Ulrich, C.; Günther, A.; Schrettle, F.; Wohlauer, M.; Krohns, S.; Reehuis, M.; Studer, A. J.; Avdeev, M.; Quach, D. V.; Groza, J. R.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Deisenhofer, J.


    We report on neutron diffraction, thermal expansion, magnetostriction, dielectric, and specific heat measurements on polycrystalline FeCr2S4 in external magnetic fields. The ferrimagnetic ordering temperatures TC ≈ 170 K and the transition at TOO ≈ 10 K, which has been associated with orbital ordering, are only weakly shifted in magnetic fields up to 9 T. The cubic lattice parameter is found to decrease when entering the state below TOO. The magnetic moments of the Cr- and Fe-ions are reduced from the spin-only values throughout the magnetically ordered regime, but approach the spin-only values for fields >5.5 T. Thermal expansion in magnetic fields and magnetostriction experiments indicate a contraction of the sample below about 60 K. Below TOO this contraction is followed by a moderate expansion of the sample for fields larger than ~4.5 T. The transition at TOO is accompanied by an anomaly in the dielectric constant. The dielectric constant depends on both the strength and orientation of the external magnetic field with respect to the applied electric field for T magnetic-field-induced change of the dielectric constant and the magnetic-field dependent magnetization is observed. This behaviour is consistent with the existence of a ferroelectric polarization and a multiferroic ground state below 10 K. PMID:25123960

  13. Progress in Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Cu2ZnSnS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wang


    Full Text Available The research in thin film solar cells has been dominated by light absorber materials based on CdTe and Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS in the last several decades. The concerns of environment impact of cadmium and the limited availability of indium in those materials have driven the research towards developing new substitute light absorbers made from earth abundant, environment benign materials. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS semiconductor material has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for this aim and has attracted considerable interest recently. Significant progress in this relatively new research area has been achieved in the last three years. Over 130 papers on CZTS have been published since 2007, and the majority of them are on the preparation of CZTS thin films by different methods. This paper, will review the wide range of techniques that have been used to deposit CZTS semiconductor thin films. The performance of the thin film solar cells using the CZTS material will also be discussed.

  14. Investigating the role of (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline in elastin model peptides. (United States)

    Bochicchio, Brigida; Laurita, Alessandro; Heinz, Andrea; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Pepe, Antonietta


    Post-translational modifications play a key role in defining the biological functions of proteins. Among them, the hydroxylation of proline producing the (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) is one of the most frequent modifications observed in vertebrates, being particularly abundant in the proteins of the extracellular matrix. In collagen, hydroxylation of proline plays a critical role, conferring the correct structure and mechanical strength to collagen fibers. In elastin, the exact role of this modification is not yet understood. Here we show that Hyp-containing elastin polypeptides have flexible molecular structures, analogously to proline-containing polypeptides. In turn, the self-assembly of the elastin peptides is significantly altered by the presence of Hyp, evidencing different supramolecular structures. Also the in vitro susceptibility to protease digestion is changed. These findings give a better insight into the elastic fiber formation and degradation processes in the extracellular matrix. Furthermore, our results could contribute in defining the subtle role of proline structural variants in the folding and self-assembly of elastin-inspired peptides, helping the rational design of elastin biomaterials.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of the semiconductor material Cu2ZnTiS4 (United States)

    Pérez Bustos, H. G.; Patarroyo-Mesa, M.; Gómez-Cuaspud, J. A.; Pineda-Triana, Y.; Vera-López, E.


    This paper describes the results of the synthesis and characterization of a quaternary semiconductor based on Cu2ZnTiS4 (abbreviated CZTiS), using a hydrothermal technique. The results confirm that time (24, 48 and 72 hours) and temperature (250, 275, and 300°C) factors, used in synthesis process, regulate different levels of electrical conductivity in these materials. The results of ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) analysis, confirm the production of semiconductor solids with Band-gap values around 1.4eV, being coherent with a strong absorption in the ultraviolet region. The X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD), confirm that there is an opposite and proportional relationship between the crystal sizes, the reaction times and the synthesis temperature. In all cases, the particle sizes were 50-100nm. The results derived from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), confirm the obtaining of homogenous materials with optimal morphological properties in accordance with synthesis method. Similarly, the composition values derived from the Energy-Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy analysis (EDS), shown that obtained compositions are in agree with expected values. Finally, the results of electric characterization, confirm that used synthesis parameters show a strong dependence on the conductive behaviour of solids being the most relevant result the shown by the solid obtained at 300°C and 72 hours of reaction in accordance with preliminary works.

  16. DPRK's 4{sup th} Nuclear Test and its Tritium Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Joon; Chang, Sun Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    On January 6, 2016 at 10:30am, the artificial earthquake in the DPRK was detected by multiple international seismic organizations. After 2 hours, the DPRK announced on state TV that 'The first H-bomb test was successfully conducted in the DPRK at 10:00 am on Wednesday, Juche 105(2016), pursuant to the strategic determination of the ruling communist party.' There has been a doubt about the real nature of the DPRK's 4th nuclear test, since 2 months have been passed after its nuclear test. To analyze the nature of the DPRK's nuclear test, it is necessary to check possible options for production of essential materials. The pathways to produce nuclear fusion material (tritium) and to have a relatively high possibility for the DPRK are described in this article. Tritium is key material for H-bomb. And there are two options for the DPRK which are 1) production and 2) illicit trafficking. And this study is focused on production possibility of DPRK. Determination of the nature of DPRK's nuclear test is very hard issue.

  17. SO(10) × S 4 grand unified theory of flavour and leptogenesis (United States)

    de Anda, Francisco J.; King, Stephen F.; Perdomo, Elena


    We propose a Grand Unified Theory of Flavour, based on SO(10) together with a non-Abelian discrete group S 4, under which the unified three quark and lepton 16-plets are unified into a single triplet 3'. The model involves a further discrete group ℤ 4 R × ℤ 4 3 which controls the Higgs and flavon symmetry breaking sectors. The CSD2 flavon vacuum alignment is discussed, along with the GUT breaking potential and the doublet-triplet splitting, and proton decay is shown to be under control. The Yukawa matrices are derived in detail, from renormalisable diagrams, and neutrino masses emerge from the type I seesaw mechanism. A full numerical fit is performed with 15 input parameters generating 19 presently constrained observables, taking into account supersymmetry threshold corrections. The model predicts a normal neutrino mass ordering with a CP oscillation phase of 260°, an atmospheric angle in the first octant and neutrinoless double beta decay with m ββ = 11 meV. We discuss N 2 leptogenesis, which fixes the second right-handed neutrino mass to be M 2 ≃ 2 × 1011 GeV, in the natural range predicted by the model.

  18. ZnIn2S4 as a window in heterojunction solar cells (United States)

    Vigil, O.; Calzadilla, O.; Seuret, D.; Vidal, J.; Leccabue, F.


    The physical properties of ZnIn2S5 (n-type) crystals have been investigated experimentally in order to determine the possibility of using them as windows in the preparation of heterojunction solar cells with chalcopyrite compounds as p-type absorbers. The crystals have a high resistivity of between 0.8 and 10 ohms per cm and they were prepared by an annealing process under a high manganese pressure. Optical transmission spectra for the material were obtained for a sample 63 microns thick with a band gap of about 2.34 eV, and a heterojunction was formed by vacuum deposition of CuInSe2 onto ZnIn2S4. Prior to evaporation, the substrates were etched in a 3HCl: 1HNO3 solution and the thin films were deposited by flash evaporation techniques. An analysis of the spectral response of the material showed that it is possible to obtain crystals which are good enough to be used as windows in solar cells. It is recommended that the materials be used in the form of thin films with a resistivity of about 0.1 ohms/c.

  19. Compressibility and polymorphism of α-As4S4 realgar under high pressure (United States)

    Tuktabiev, M. A.; Popova, S. V.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Lyapin, A. G.; Katayama, Y.


    The energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction technique has been employed to study the structure and equation of state of realgar As4S4 under pressures up to 8 GPa at room temperature. We have obtained pressure dependences of the unit cell parameters and volume for the monoclinic structure of realgar. An approximation of the equation of state through the Murnaghan equation gives the bulk modulus and its derivative, B0 = 8.1 ± 0.5 GPa and B0' = 9.0 ± 0.5, respectively. A comparison of the obtained values with the corresponding values for other molecular crystals is drawn and discussed. At a pressure of around 7 GPa, realgar showed a polymorph transition to a new molecular phase with a supposedly orthorhombic structure. Such identification is evidenced by the presence of geometrical correlations between the parameters of the parent monoclinic phase and those of the new phase, and the phase transition is likely to be associated with the removal of a monoclinic distortion in the unit cell.

  20. Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Reactions on Nanostructured Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) Electrocatalyst (United States)

    Digraskar, Renuka V.; Mulik, Balaji B.; Walke, Pravin S.; Ghule, Anil V.; Sathe, Bhaskar R.


    A novel and facile one-step sonochemical method is used to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles (2.6 ± 0.4 nm) as cathode electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reactions. The detailed morphology, crystal and surface structure, and composition of the CZTS nanostructures were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, Electron dispersive analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy respectively. Electrocatalytic abilities of the nanoparticles toward Hydrogen Evolution Reactions (HER) were verified through cyclic voltammograms (CV) and Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Tafel polarization measurements. It reveals enhanced activity at lower onset potential 300 mV v/s RHE, achieved at exceptionally high current density -130 mA/cm2, which is higher than the existing non-nobel metal based cathodes. Further result exhibits Tafel slope of 85 mV/dec, exchange current density of 882 mA/cm2, excellent stability (> 500 cycles) and lower charge transfer resistance. This sonochemically fabricated CZTSs nanoparticles are leading to significantly reduce cell cost and simplification of preparation process over existing high efficiency Pt and other nobel metal-free cathode electrocatalyst.

  1. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M


    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  2. Electronic cigarette solutions and resultant aerosol profiles. (United States)

    Herrington, Jason S; Myers, Colton


    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are growing in popularity exponentially. Despite their ever-growing acceptance, their aerosol has not been fully characterized. The current study focused on evaluating e-cigarette solutions and their resultant aerosol for potential differences. A simple sampling device was developed to draw e-cigarette aerosol into a multi-sorbent thermal desorption (TD) tube, which was then thermally extracted and analyzed via a gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. This novel application provided detectable levels of over one hundred fifteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a single 40mL puff. The aerosol profiles from four commercially available e-cigarettes were compared to their respective solution profiles with the same GC-MS method. Solution profiles produced upwards of sixty four unidentified and identified (some only tentatively) constituents and aerosol profiles produced upwards of eighty two compounds. Results demonstrated distinct analyte profiles between liquid and aerosol samples. Most notably, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and siloxanes were found in the aerosol profiles; however, these compounds were never present in the solutions. These results implicate the aerosolization process in the formation of compounds not found in solutions; have potential implications for human health; and stress the need for an emphasis on electronic cigarette aerosol testing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SMEX02 Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Properties Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of observations of atmospheric parameters including spectral aerosol optical depths, precipitable water, sky radiance distributions and...

  4. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark


    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  5. Aerosol composition of the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Froyd


    Full Text Available Aerosol composition was measured by the NOAA single-particle mass spectrometer (PALMS aboard the NASA WB-57 high altitude aircraft platform during two Aura Validation Experiment (AVE campaigns based in Costa Rica in 2004 and 2006. These studies yielded the most complete set of aerosol composition measurements to date throughout the tropical tropopause layer (TTL and tropical lower stratosphere. We describe the aerosol properties of the tropical atmosphere and use composition tracers to examine particle sources, the role of recent convection, and cirrus-forming potential in the TTL. Tropical dynamics and regional air sources played principal roles in dictating tropospheric aerosol properties. There was a sharp change in aerosol chemical composition at about 12 km altitude coincident with a change in convective influence. Below this level, maritime convection lofted condensable material that generated acidic, sulfate-rich aerosol. These particles contained significant amounts of methanesulfonic acid (MSA and showed evidence of cloud processes. In contrast, continental convection injected particles and precursors directly into the TTL, yielding a population of neutralized, organic-rich aerosol. The organics were often highly oxidized and particles with oxidized organics also contained nitrate. Above the tropopause, chemical composition gradually changed toward sulfuric acid particles but neutralized particles were still abundant 2 km above the tropopause. Deep continental convection, though sporadic and geographically localized, may strongly influence TTL aerosol properties on a global scale. The abundance of organic-rich aerosol may inhibit ice nucleation and formation of tropopause level cirrus.

  6. A global aerosol classification algorithm incorporating multiple satellite data sets of aerosol and trace gas abundances (United States)

    Penning de Vries, M. J. M.; Beirle, S.; Hörmann, C.; Kaiser, J. W.; Stammes, P.; Tilstra, L. G.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Wagner, T.


    Detecting the optical properties of aerosols using passive satellite-borne measurements alone is a difficult task due to the broadband effect of aerosols on the measured spectra and the influences of surface and cloud reflection. We present another approach to determine aerosol type, namely by studying the relationship of aerosol optical depth (AOD) with trace gas abundance, aerosol absorption, and mean aerosol size. Our new Global Aerosol Classification Algorithm, GACA, examines relationships between aerosol properties (AOD and extinction Ångström exponent from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), UV Aerosol Index from the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, GOME-2) and trace gas column densities (NO2, HCHO, SO2 from GOME-2, and CO from MOPITT, the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument) on a monthly mean basis. First, aerosol types are separated based on size (Ångström exponent) and absorption (UV Aerosol Index), then the dominating sources are identified based on mean trace gas columns and their correlation with AOD. In this way, global maps of dominant aerosol type and main source type are constructed for each season and compared with maps of aerosol composition from the global MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) model. Although GACA cannot correctly characterize transported or mixed aerosols, GACA and MACC show good agreement regarding the global seasonal cycle, particularly for urban/industrial aerosols. The seasonal cycles of both aerosol type and source are also studied in more detail for selected 5° × 5° regions. Again, good agreement between GACA and MACC is found for all regions, but some systematic differences become apparent: the variability of aerosol composition (yearly and/or seasonal) is often not well captured by MACC, the amount of mineral dust outside of the dust belt appears to be overestimated, and the abundance of secondary organic aerosols is underestimated in comparison

  7. A global aerosol classification algorithm incorporating multiple satellite data sets of aerosol and trace gas abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. M. Penning de Vries


    Full Text Available Detecting the optical properties of aerosols using passive satellite-borne measurements alone is a difficult task due to the broadband effect of aerosols on the measured spectra and the influences of surface and cloud reflection. We present another approach to determine aerosol type, namely by studying the relationship of aerosol optical depth (AOD with trace gas abundance, aerosol absorption, and mean aerosol size. Our new Global Aerosol Classification Algorithm, GACA, examines relationships between aerosol properties (AOD and extinction Ångström exponent from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, UV Aerosol Index from the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, GOME-2 and trace gas column densities (NO2, HCHO, SO2 from GOME-2, and CO from MOPITT, the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument on a monthly mean basis. First, aerosol types are separated based on size (Ångström exponent and absorption (UV Aerosol Index, then the dominating sources are identified based on mean trace gas columns and their correlation with AOD. In this way, global maps of dominant aerosol type and main source type are constructed for each season and compared with maps of aerosol composition from the global MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate model. Although GACA cannot correctly characterize transported or mixed aerosols, GACA and MACC show good agreement regarding the global seasonal cycle, particularly for urban/industrial aerosols. The seasonal cycles of both aerosol type and source are also studied in more detail for selected 5° × 5° regions. Again, good agreement between GACA and MACC is found for all regions, but some systematic differences become apparent: the variability of aerosol composition (yearly and/or seasonal is often not well captured by MACC, the amount of mineral dust outside of the dust belt appears to be overestimated, and the abundance of secondary organic aerosols is underestimated in

  8. Estimating aerosol emissions by assimilating observed aerosol optical depth in a global aerosol model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Huneeus


    Full Text Available This study estimates the emission fluxes of a range of aerosol species and one aerosol precursor at the global scale. These fluxes are estimated by assimilating daily total and fine mode aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS into a global aerosol model of intermediate complexity. Monthly emissions are fitted homogenously for each species over a set of predefined regions. The performance of the assimilation is evaluated by comparing the AOD after assimilation against the MODIS observations and against independent observations. The system is effective in forcing the model towards the observations, for both total and fine mode AOD. Significant improvements for the root mean square error and correlation coefficient against both the assimilated and independent datasets are observed as well as a significant decrease in the mean bias against the assimilated observations. These improvements are larger over land than over ocean. The impact of the assimilation of fine mode AOD over ocean demonstrates potential for further improvement by including fine mode AOD observations over continents. The Angström exponent is also improved in African, European and dusty stations. The estimated emission flux for black carbon is 15 Tg yr−1, 119 Tg yr−1 for particulate organic matter, 17 Pg yr−1 for sea salt, 83 TgS yr−1 for SO2 and 1383 Tg yr−1 for desert dust. They represent a difference of +45 %, +40 %, +26 %, +13 % and −39 % respectively, with respect to the a priori values. The initial errors attributed to the emission fluxes are reduced for all estimated species.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) dataset was collected by the Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE), which measures ultrafine...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) dataset is data collected from in situ aerosol sensors: condensation nuclei counters, optical particle...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) dataset contains data collected from the following in situ aerosol sensors: condensation nuclei counters,...

  12. A nontoxic and low-cost hydrothermal route for synthesis of hierarchical Cu2ZnSnS4 particles. (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengguo; Fang, Xiaoming; Liang, Guozheng


    We explore a facile and nontoxic hydrothermal route for synthesis of a Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material by using l-cysteine as the sulfur source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the complexing agent. The effects of the amount of EDTA, the mole ratio of the three metal ions, and the hydrothermal temperature and time on the phase composition of the obtained product have been systematically investigated. The addition of EDTA and an excessive dose of ZnCl2 in the hydrothermal reaction system favor the generation of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4. Pure kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 has been synthesized at 180°C for 12 h from the reaction system containing 2 mmol of EDTA at 2:2:1 of Cu/Zn/Sn. It is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy that those binary and ternary phases are absent in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 product. The kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 material synthesized by the hydrothermal process consists of flower-like particles with 250 to 400 nm in size. It is revealed that the flower-like particles are assembled from single-crystal Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoflakes with ca. 20 nm in size. The band gap of the Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material is estimated to be 1.55 eV. The films fabricated from the hierarchical Cu2ZnSnS4 particles exhibit fast photocurrent responses under intermittent visible-light irradiation, implying that they show potentials for use in solar cells and photocatalysis.

  13. Gravitational wave memory in dS4+2n and 4D cosmology (United States)

    Chu, Y.-Z.


    We argue that massless gravitons in all even dimensional de Sitter (dS) spacetimes higher than two admit a linear memory effect arising from their propagation inside the null cone. Assume that gravitational waves (GWs) are being generated by an isolated source, and over only a finite period of time {η\\text{i}}≤slant η ≤slant {η\\text{f}} . Outside of this time interval, suppose the shear-stress of the GW source becomes negligible relative to its energy-momentum and its mass quadrupole moments settle to static values. We then demonstrate, the transverse-traceless (TT) GW contribution to the perturbation of any dS4+2n written in a conformally flat form ({{a}2}{ημ ν}\\text{d}{{x}μ}\\text{d}{{x}ν} )—after the source has ceased and the primary GW train has passed—amounts to a spacetime constant shift in the flat metric proportional to the difference between the TT parts of the source’s final and initial mass quadrupole moments. As a byproduct, we present solutions to Einstein’s equations linearized about de Sitter backgrounds of all dimensions greater than three. We then point out there is a similar but approximate tail induced linear GW memory effect in 4D matter dominated universes. Our work here serves to improve upon and extend the 4D cosmological results of Chu (2015 Phys. Rev. D 92 124038), which in turn preceded complementary work by Bieri et al (2015 arXiv:1509.01296) and by Kehagias and Riotto (2016 arXiv:1602.02653).

  14. Globular Cluster Populations: Results Including S4G Late-type Galaxies (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; McCabe, Kelsey; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Courtois, Helene M.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Kim, Taehyun; Knapen, Johan H.; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Salo, Heikki; Sheth, Kartik


    Using 3.6 and 4.5 μm images of 73 late-type, edge-on galaxies from the S4G survey, we compare the richness of the globular cluster populations of these galaxies to those of early-type galaxies that we measured previously. In general, the galaxies presented here fill in the distribution for galaxies with lower stellar mass, M*, specifically {log}({M}*/{M}⊙ )\\lt 10, overlap the results for early-type galaxies of similar masses, and, by doing so, strengthen the case for a dependence of the number of globular clusters per 109M⊙ of galaxy stellar mass, TN, on M*. For 8.5\\lt {log}({M}*/{M}⊙ )\\lt 10.5 we find the relationship can be satisfactorily described as {T}{{N}}={({M}*/{10}6.7)}-0.56 when M* is expressed in solar masses. The functional form of the relationship is only weakly constrained, and extrapolation outside this range is not advised. Our late-type galaxies, in contrast to our early types, do not show the tendency for low-mass galaxies to split into two TN families. Using these results and a galaxy stellar mass function from the literature, we calculate that, in a volume-limited, local universe sample, clusters are most likely to be found around fairly massive galaxies (M* ˜ 1010.8M⊙) and present a fitting function for the volume number density of clusters as a function of parent-galaxy stellar mass. We find no correlation between TN and large-scale environment, but we do find a tendency for galaxies of fixed M* to have larger TN if they have converted a larger proportion of their baryons into stars.

  15. Synchronous separation, seaming, sealing and sterilization (S4) using brazing for sample containerization and planetary protection (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Freeman, David; Campos, Sergio


    The potential return of samples back to Earth in a future NASA mission would require protection of our planet from the risk of bringing uncontrolled biological materials back with the samples. In order to ensure this does not happen, it would be necessary to "break the chain of contact (BTC)", where any material reaching Earth would have to be inside a container that is sealed with extremely high confidence. Therefore, it would be necessary to contain the acquired samples and destroy any potential biological materials that may contaminate the external surface of their container while protecting the sample itself for further analysis. A novel synchronous separation, seaming, sealing and sterilization (S4) process for sample containerization and planetary protection has been conceived and demonstrated. A prototype double wall container with inner and outer shells and Earth clean interstitial space was used for this demonstration. In a potential future mission, the double wall container would be split into two halves and prepared on Earth, while the potential on-orbit execution would consist of inserting the sample into one of the halves and then mating to the other half and brazing. The use of brazing material that melts at temperatures higher than 500°C would assure sterilization of the exposed areas since all carbon bonds are broken at this temperature. The process would be executed in two-steps, Step-1: the double wall container halves would be fabricated and brazed on Earth; and Step-2: the containerization and sterilization process would be executed on-orbit. To prevent potential jamming during the process of mating the two halves of the double wall container and the extraction of the brazed inner container, a cone-within-cone approach has been conceived and demonstrated. The results of this study will be described and discussed.

  16. Electrodeposition mechanism of quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4: Effect of the additives (United States)

    Tang, Aiyue; Li, Zhilin; Wang, Feng; Dou, Meiling; Liu, Jingjun; Ji, Jing; Song, Ye


    The electrodeposition mechanism of pure phase Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film with subsequent annealing was investigated in detail. An electrolyte design principle of quaternary compounds was proposed. The complex ions of Cu(H2C6H5O7)+, Cu2(C6H5O7)+, Zn(C4H5O6)+, Sn(H2C6H5O7)+ and Sn2(C6H5O7)+, which influenced the reduction process and played important roles in co-deposition, were identified by UV spectra. Electrochemical studies indicated that trisodium citrate and tartaric acid could narrow the co-deposition potential range of the four elements to -0.8 V to -1.2 V (vs. SCE). The cause was the synergetic effect that trisodium citrate inhibited the reduction of Cu2+ and Sn2+ and tartaric acid promoted the reduction of Zn2+. The reduction of S2O32- was mainly attributed to the induction effect of the metallic ions, and the H+ dissociated from tartaric acid could also promote the cathode process of S2O32-. The reaction mechanism could be summarized as the following steps: (I) Cu(H2C6H5O7)+, Cu2(C6H5O7)+ → Cu, Sn(H2C6H5O7)+, Sn2(C6H5O7)+ → Sn, Zn(C4H5O6)+ → Zn; (II) the desorption of (H2C6H5O7)- and (C6H5O7)-, and the reduction of S2O32- induced by metallic ions and H+. The mechanism studies provided a path of electrolyte design for multicomponent compounds.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos


    Full Text Available Entre los principales problemas que afectan la producción del cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L., podemos citar a las enfermedades, causadas por diferentes patógenos, entre ellos la mancha foliar de curvularia causada por Curvularia spp. El control más barato, viable y que no causa daños al medio ambiente contra casi cualquier patógeno, es a través de la resistencia genética de la planta hospedante es decir, mediante el mejoramiento genético y utilización de variedades resistentes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la severidad de curvularia en líneas promisorias autofecundadas S4 de maíz amarillo, obtenidos a partir de materiales comerciales. En la primera población (LM1 se encontraron valores máximos de 5.6 y menores de 1.4 lesiones cm-2, mientras que en la segunda población (LM2 los promedios máximos y mínimos fueron de 8.0 y 1.5 lesiones cm-2, respectivamente. Se constató diferencia entre las líneas evaluadas en función de la severidad de mancha de curvularia, en los dos experimentos. Con la información obtenida se torna importante considerar los valores de severidad obtenidos en estos experimentos, para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos híbridos de maíz con caracteres contrastantes en el comportamiento de la planta a determinadas enfermedades, asegurando el éxito de un programa de mejoramiento genético. Por otro lado, para futuros trabajos similares se recomienda realizar más de una evaluación y en diferentes estadios fenológicos del cultivo.

  18. Effect of aerosol subgrid variability on aerosol optical depth and cloud condensation nuclei: Implications for global aerosol modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigum, Natalie; Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip


    A fundamental limitation of grid-based models is their inability to resolve variability on scales smaller than a grid box. Past research has shown that significant aerosol variability exists on scales smaller than these grid-boxes, which can lead to discrepancies in simulated aerosol climate effects

  19. Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth From Eight Different Regions and Aerosol Types (United States)

    Jefferson, A.; Ogren, J.


    The change in the aerosol scattering coefficient with relative humidity has been measured at eight regions across the Earth over a time period of a few months to eight years. The measurement sites include the Arctic, Northeastern North America, Central US, Northwestern US, the Korean Peninsula, Indian Ocean, African Sahel and Central Europe. The aerosol types in these studies include mixtures of dust, smoke, pollution and marine aerosol. The covariance in the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor with other aerosol properties and source regions will be discussed as well as implications for direct and indirect radiative forcing.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of CaIn2S4-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with increased photocatalytic performance. (United States)

    Ding, Jianjun; Yan, Wenhao; Sun, Song; Bao, Jun; Gao, Chen


    A series of CaIn2S4-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites with different RGO contents were fabricated using a facile hydrothermal approach. During the hydrothermal process, the reduction of graphene oxide to RGO, in situ deposition of synthesized CaIn2S4 nanoparticles on RGO nanosheets and formation of chemical-bonding CaIn2S4-RGO nanocomposites were performed simultaneously. Under visible light irradiation, the as-prepared CaIn2S4-RGO nanocomposites showed enhanced photocatalytic performance for rhodamine B degradation and phenol oxidation. The sample with 5 wt % RGO hybridized CaIn2S4 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. The enhancement of photocatalytic performance may be related to the increased adsorption/reaction sites, positive shift of the valence band potential, and high separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers due to the electronic interaction between CaIn2S4 and RGO. We hope that this work can not only provide an in-depth study on the photocatalytic mechanism of RGO-enhanced activity, but also provide some insights for fabricating efficient and stable RGO-based photocatalysts in the potential applications of purifying polluted water resources.

  1. Heterogeneous Chemistry: Understanding Aerosol/Oxidant Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce E. Penner


    Global radiative forcing of nitrate and ammonium aerosols has mostly been estimated from aerosol concentrations calculated at thermodynamic equilibrium or using approximate treatments for their uptake by aerosols. In this study, a more accurate hybrid dynamical approach (DYN) was used to simulate the uptake of nitrate and ammonium by aerosols and the interaction with tropospheric reactive nitrogen chemistry in a three-dimensional global aerosol and chemistry model, IMPACT, which also treats sulfate, sea salt and mineral dust aerosol. 43% of the global annual average nitrate aerosol burden, 0.16 TgN, and 92% of the global annual average ammonium aerosol burden, 0.29 TgN, exist in the fine mode (D<1.25 {micro}m) that scatters most efficiently. Results from an equilibrium calculation differ significantly from those of DYN since the fraction of fine-mode nitrate to total nitrate (gas plus aerosol) is 9.8%, compared to 13% in DYN. Our results suggest that the estimates of aerosol forcing from equilibrium concentrations will be underestimated. We also show that two common approaches used to treat nitrate and ammonium in aerosol in global models, including the first-order gas-to-particle approximation based on uptake coefficients (UPTAKE) and a hybrid method that combines the former with an equilibrium model (HYB), significantly overpredict the nitrate uptake by aerosols especially that by coarse particles, resulting in total nitrate aerosol burdens higher than that in DYN by +106% and +47%, respectively. Thus, nitrate aerosol in the coarse mode calculated by HYB is 0.18 Tg N, a factor of 2 more than that in DYN (0.086 Tg N). Excessive formation of the coarse-mode nitrate in HYB leads to near surface nitrate concentrations in the fine mode lower than that in DYN by up to 50% over continents. In addition, near-surface HNO{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentrations are underpredicted by HYB by up to 90% and 5%, respectively. UPTAKE overpredicts the NO{sub x} burden by 56% and near

  2. Aerosol Blanket Likely Thinned During 1990s (United States)


    Each day, a blanket of tiny particles drifting through the Earth's atmosphere filters out some of the sunlight headed for the planet's surface. These aerosols, including dust, smoke, and human-produced pollution, can reflect incoming light or absorb it, directly affecting the Earth's energy balance and climate. Aerosols also influence the climate indirectly, by affecting the brightness and amount of clouds. Research by NASA scientists on global aerosol patterns since the 1990s indicate the global aerosol blanket has likely thinned, allowing more sunlight to reach the Earth's surface over the past decade. The thinning of the blanket is shown by this trio of images based on satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness, a measurement that scientists use to describe how much the aerosols filter the incoming sunlight. Higher optical thickness (orange and red) means more sunlight blocking. The globes show average aerosol optical thickness for 1988-1991 (top), 2002-2005 (middle), and the change between the two time periods (bottom). Overall, the 1988-1991 image appears redder, a sign that aerosols were blocking more incoming sunlight; the 2002-2005 image has more light yellow areas. In the bottom image, small pockets of red (increased aerosol optical thickness), mostly near land masses in the Northern Hemisphere, are far outnumbered by blue areas (decreased aerosol optical thickness). Because they block incoming sunlight from reaching Earth's surface, aerosols may counterbalance greenhouse gas warming. The decline in the dimming power of aerosols over the past decade may have made the greenhouse warming trend more evident in the past decade than in previous decades. The scientists describe their results as a 'likely' trend because the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite sensors they used in their analysis were not specifically designed to observe aerosols, and may contain some errors. However, specific, major aerosol events, such as large

  3. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  4. Aerosol Therapy: Nebulizer vs Metered Dose Inhaler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newhouse, M; Dolovich, M


    ... aerosol generation using metered-dose inhalers. Previously, aerosol delivery by means of intermittent positive pressure breathing devices attached to nebulizers enjoyed unwarranted popularity for decades, only to be abandoned when convincing evidence became available that they were no better than nebulizers alone for administering bronchodilato...

  5. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)


    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  6. Atmospheric aerosol light scattering and polarization peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Patlashenko, Zh I


    This paper considers environmental problems of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution and its global and regional monitoring. Efficient aerosol investigations may be achieved by spectropolarimetric measurements. Specifically second and fourth Stokes parameters spectral dependencies carry information on averaged refraction and absorption indexes and on particles size distribution functions characteristics.

  7. Evaluation of MERRAero (MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis) (United States)

    Buchard, Virginie; da Silva, Arlindo; Randles, Cynthia; Colarco, Peter; Darmenov, Anton; Govindaraju, Ravi


    This presentation focuses on MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) which is the first aerosol reanalysis produced at GMAO. This presentation involve an overview of MERRAero. The evaluation of MERRAero absorption and the evaluation of MERRAero Surface PM 2.5 will also be discussed.

  8. Impact of aerosols on ice crystal size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao


    Full Text Available The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. In particular, the impact of aerosols on ice crystal effective radius (Rei, which is a key parameter determining ice clouds' net radiative effect, is highly uncertain due to limited and conflicting observational evidence. Here we investigate the effects of aerosols on Rei under different meteorological conditions using 9-year satellite observations. We find that the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters. While there is a significant negative correlation between Rei and aerosol loading in moist conditions, consistent with the "Twomey effect" for liquid clouds, a strong positive correlation between the two occurs in dry conditions. Simulations based on a cloud parcel model suggest that water vapor modulates the relative importance of different ice nucleation modes, leading to the opposite aerosol impacts between moist and dry conditions. When ice clouds are decomposed into those generated from deep convection and formed in situ, the water vapor modulation remains in effect for both ice cloud types, although the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols differ noticeably between them due to distinct formation mechanisms. The water vapor modulation can largely explain the difference in the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings in various seasons. A proper representation of the water vapor modulation is essential for an accurate estimate of aerosol–cloud radiative forcing produced by ice clouds.

  9. Optical manipulation of aerosol particle arrays (United States)

    Reid, J. P.; Haddrell, A. E.; Walker, J. S.; Power, R.; Bones, D. L.; Davies, J. F.


    Aerosols play a crucial role in many areas of science, ranging from atmospheric chemistry and physics, to drug delivery to the lungs, combustion science and spray drying. The development of new methods to characterise the properties and dynamics of aerosol particles is of crucial importance if the complex role that particles play is to be more fully understood. Optical tweezers provide a valuable new tool to address fundamental questions in aerosol science. Single or multiple particles 1-15 μm in diameter can be manipulated over indefinite timescales using optical tweezing. Linear and non-linear Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies can be used to probe a particle's composition and size. In this paper we will report on the latest developments in the use of holographic optical trapping (HOT) to study aerosols. Although widely used to trap and manipulate arrays of particles in the condensed phase, the application of HOT to aerosols is still in its infancy. We will explore the opportunities provided by the formation of complex optical landscapes for controlling aerosol flow, for comparing the properties of multiple particles, for performing the first ever digital microfluidic operations in the aerosol phase and for examining interparticle interactions that can lead to coalescence/coagulation. Although aerosol coagulation is the primary process driving the evolution of particle size distributions, it remains very poorly understood. Using HOT, we can resolve the time-dependent motion of trapped particles and the light scattering from particles during the coalescence process.

  10. Physical properties of aerosols at Maitri, Antarctica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements of the submicron aerosol size distribution made at the Indian Antarctic station, Maitri (70° 45′S, 11° 44′E) from January 10th to February 24th, 1997, are reported. Total aerosol concentrations normally range from 800 to 1200 particles cm-3 which are typical values for the coastal stations at Antarctica in ...

  11. What Aerosol Water do Organic Compounds See? (United States)

    Large amounts of aerosol water are associated with inorganic salts such as ammonium sulfate with generally smaller but important contributions from hydrophilic organics. Ambient aerosols can be externally or internally mixed in addition to containing one or multiple phases. The d...

  12. Aerosol light-scattering in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, H.M. ten; Veefkind, J.P.; Waijers-IJpelaan, A.; Hage, J.C. van der


    The relation between the (midday) aerosol light-scattering and the concentrations of nitrate and sulfate has been assessed at a site near the coast of the North Sea in The Netherlands. Midday was selected for the measurements because this is the time at which the aerosol is most effective in the

  13. Size segregated aerosol mass concentration measurements over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass concentration and mass size distribution of total (composite) aerosols near the surface are essential inputs needed in developing aerosol models for radiative forcing estimation as well as to infer the environment and air quality. Using extensive measurements onboard the oceanographic research vessel, Sagar Kanya ...

  14. Na2EuAs2S5, NaEuAsS4, and Na4Eu(AsS4)2: controlling the valency of arsenic in polysulfide fluxes. (United States)

    Bera, Tarun K; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G


    The reactivity of europium with As species in Lewis basic alkali-metal polysulfide fluxes was investigated along with compound formation and the As(3+)/As(5+) interplay vis-à-vis changes in the flux basicity. The compound Na(2)EuAs(2)S(5) containing trivalent As(3+) is stabilized from an arsenic-rich polysulfide flux. It crystallizes in the monoclinic centrosymmetric space group P2(1)/c. Na(2)EuAs(2)S(5) has [As(2)S(5)](4-) units, built of corner sharing AsS(3) pyramids, which are coordinated to Eu(2+) ions to give a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure. A sodium polysulfide flux with comparatively less arsenic led to the As(5+) containing compounds NaEuAsS(4) (orthorhombic, Ama2) and Na(4)Eu(AsS(4))(2) (triclinic, P1) depending on Na(2)S/S ratio. The NaEuAsS(4) and Na(4)Eu(AsS(4))(2) have a three-dimensional (3D) structure built of [AsS(4)](3-) tetrahedra coordinated to Eu(2+) ions. All compounds are semiconductors with optical energy gaps of ∼2 eV.

  15. Estimating marine aerosol particle volume and number from Maritime Aerosol Network data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sayer


    Full Text Available As well as spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD, aerosol composition and concentration (number, volume, or mass are of interest for a variety of applications. However, remote sensing of these quantities is more difficult than for AOD, as it is more sensitive to assumptions relating to aerosol composition. This study uses spectral AOD measured on Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN cruises, with the additional constraint of a microphysical model for unpolluted maritime aerosol based on analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET inversions, to estimate these quantities over open ocean. When the MAN data are subset to those likely to be comprised of maritime aerosol, number and volume concentrations obtained are physically reasonable. Attempts to estimate surface concentration from columnar abundance, however, are shown to be limited by uncertainties in vertical distribution. Columnar AOD at 550 nm and aerosol number for unpolluted maritime cases are also compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, for both the present Collection 5.1 and forthcoming Collection 6. MODIS provides a best-fitting retrieval solution, as well as the average for several different solutions, with different aerosol microphysical models. The "average solution" MODIS dataset agrees more closely with MAN than the "best solution" dataset. Terra tends to retrieve lower aerosol number than MAN, and Aqua higher, linked with differences in the aerosol models commonly chosen. Collection 6 AOD is likely to agree more closely with MAN over open ocean than Collection 5.1. In situations where spectral AOD is measured accurately, and aerosol microphysical properties are reasonably well-constrained, estimates of aerosol number and volume using MAN or similar data would provide for a greater variety of potential comparisons with aerosol properties derived from satellite or chemistry transport model data. However, without accurate AOD data and prior knowledge of

  16. Spectroelectrochemistry and modeling of enargite (Cu3AsS4) reactivity under atmospheric conditions (United States)

    Gow, Robert Nicholas Verne

    Raman spectroscopy has been a useful technology for fundamental studies in the mining industry. Surface changes through oxidation and reduction reactions can be monitored in-situ, allowing the changes to be monitored in real time. In conjunction with cyclic voltammetry, to change the conditions at which a mineral surface is subjected to, reaction and reaction conditions can be identified. The results can then be plotted to create a map similar to that of an EH-pH diagram. In this study, the copper arsenic sulfide mineral, enargite (Cu 3AsS4) was subjected to a series of tests. Relatively pure samples were obtained from Butte, MT and Quirivilca, Peru and used to create mineral electrodes. The electrodes were cycled over an EH range of -1000 to +1000 mV (vs SHE) at pH values ranging from 1 to 13. Changes to the surface of the mineral were identified by comparing Raman spectra to a mineral Raman database. Plotted results were then compared against mass-balanced EH-pH diagrams for the Cu-As-S-H2O system, created using the STABCAL thermodynamic calculation program. Ultimately, the EH-pH diagram is modified based on the results, and an updated version was created. The mass-balanced methodology is applied, in conjunction with Gibbs' phase rule, to an aqueous quaternary system. Variations in EH-pH diagrams of the Cu-As-S-H2O system based on slight changes in concentrations of copper, arsenic and sulfur are examined. Finally, a novel nano-graphene material was tested for its ability to adsorb arsenic. Arsenic remediation, downstream of an enargite leach, remains an unsolved issue. The nano-graphene platelets were not able to successfully reduce arsenic levels in solution below the EPA-required limitation of 10 ppb. A thermodynamic evaluation of the adsorption characterized the process as physisorption, and likely unsuitable for long-term arsenic storage. A functionalized version of the nano-graphene may enhance results.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R


    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  18. Characterization of Cooking-Related Aerosols (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.


    The temperatures at which food is cooked are usually high enough to drive oils and other organic compounds out of materials which are being prepared for consumption. As these compounds move away from the hot cooking surface and into the atmosphere, they can participate in chemical reactions or condense to form particles. Given the high concentration of cooking in urban areas, cooking-related aerosols likely contribute to the overall amount of particulate matter on a local scale. Reported here are results for the mid-infrared optical characterization of aerosols formed during the cooking of several meat and vegetable samples in an inert atmosphere. The samples were heated in a novel aerosol generator that is designed to collect particles formed immediately above the cooking surface and inject them into a laminar aerosol flow cell. Preliminary results for the chemical processing of cooking-related aerosols in synthetic air will also be presented.

  19. Effect of an aerosol- reduction device on spreading infected aerosols during ultrasonic scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalyani Isfahani P. Assistant Professor"


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Ultrasonic Scaling is one of the main sources of producing infected aerosols in dentistry. These aerosols are able to spread pathogens such as microorganisms associated with tuberculosis, conjunctivitis, influenza and other respiratory diseases, herpetic and other skin diseases, ADIS and hepatitis B."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of an aerosol- reduction device attaching to ultrasonic scaler handpiece."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study 18 patients participated. Randomly, mandibular and maxillary quadrants of one side, in each subject, were scaled using an ultrasonic scaler with aerosol-reduction device for 5 minutes. After 30 minutes, another quadrant was scaled by ultrasonic scaler without aerosol- reduction device. In order to determine the effectiveness of aerosol- reduction device, blood agar plates attached to the surgical mask of the operator, 30 cm far from the patient's mouth, were incubated in 37°c for three days and the colonies were counted. Median, Interquartile eange and Wilcoxon test, at the 0.05 level of significance, were used to analyze the data."nResults: The median and interquartile range for the number of colony forming units (CFUS without aerosol- reduction device was 17.5 (8, 24, while the median for the number of CFUS when using aerosol-reduction device was 0 (0, 1, indicating significant statistical difference (PO.001 Conclusion: The aerosol- reduction device significantly reduces the amount of aerosols produced during ultrasonic scaling.

  20. Filter-based Aerosol Measurement Experiments using Spherical Aerosol Particles under High Temperature and High Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chan; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Doo Young [FNC TECH., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    Optical Particle Counter (OPC) is used to provide real-time measurement of aerosol concentration and size distribution. Glass fiber membrane filter also be used to measure average mass concentration. Three tests (MTA-1, 2 and 3) have been conducted to study thermal-hydraulic effect, a filtering tendency at given SiO{sub 2} particles. Based on the experimental results, the experiment will be carried out further with a main carrier gas of steam and different aerosol size. The test results will provide representative behavior of the aerosols under various conditions. The aim of the tests, MTA 1, 2 and 3, are to be able to 1) establish the test manuals for aerosol generation, mixing, sampling and measurement system, which defines aerosol preparation, calibration, operating and evaluation method under high pressure and high temperature 2) develop commercial aerosol test modules applicable to the thermal power plant, environmental industry, automobile exhaust gas, chemical plant, HVAC system including nuclear power plant. Based on the test results, sampled aerosol particles in the filter indicate that important parameters affecting aerosol behavior aerosols are 1) system temperature to keep above a evaporation temperature of ethanol and 2) aerosol losses due to the settling by ethanol liquid droplet.

  1. Quantitative comparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol indirect effects in three polluted Asian cities (United States)

    Das, B.; Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Durbin, P.


    Advances in satellite technology and ground based measurement techniques have resulted in vast amount of data on aerosol and cloud parameters. Aerosol indirect effects are characterized by the effects of aerosol on cloud radiative properties. This being a subject of significant interest for climate change and human health effects, many computational and satellite data analysis studies have been made to understand this mechanism. However, most of the studies are made on understanding the global effects. In this work we attempt to understand the local effects by making quantitative analysis of aerosol and its indirect effects in three polluted Asian cities. We analyze aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MISR (Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), aerosol extinction optical depth, absorption optical depth, and aerosol index (AI) data from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and compare with AOD data of AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) at Beijing, China; Dalanzadgad, Mongolia; and Kanpur, India. Cloud parameters from MODIS data are correlated with aerosol optical depth. Seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth and its effect on cloud radiative properties are discussed. Large differences in AOD are observed in the measurements by different instruments. The differences in the results of indirect effects indicate considerable influence of local environment.

  2. Characterization of Florida red tide aerosol and the temporal profile of aerosol concentration. (United States)

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Pierce, Richard H; Henry, Mike; Baden, Daniel G


    Red tide aerosols containing aerosolized brevetoxins are produced during the red tide bloom and transported by wind to coastal areas of Florida. This study reports the characterization of Florida red tide aerosols in human volunteer studies, in which an asthma cohort spent 1h on Siesta Beach (Sarasota, Florida) during aerosolized red tide events and non-exposure periods. Aerosol concentrations, brevetoxin levels, and particle size distribution were measured. Hourly filter samples were taken and analyzed for brevetoxin and NaCl concentrations. In addition, the aerosol mass concentration was monitored in real time. The results indicated that during a non-exposure period in October 2004, no brevetoxin was detected in the water, resulting in non-detectable levels of brevetoxin in the aerosol. In March 2005, the time-averaged concentrations of brevetoxins in water samples were moderate, in the range of 5-10 microg/L, and the corresponding brevetoxin level of Florida red tide aerosol ranged between 21 and 39 ng/m(3). The temporal profiles of red tide aerosol concentration in terms of mass, NaCl, and brevetoxin were in good agreement, indicating that NaCl and brevetoxins are components of the red tide aerosol. By continuously monitoring the marine aerosol and wind direction at Siesta Beach, we observed that the marine aerosol concentration varied as the wind direction changed. The temporal profile of the Florida red tide aerosol during a sampling period could be explained generally with the variation of wind direction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties. (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G; Hashimoto, Bryce I; Schichtel, Bret A; Betterton, Eric A


    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March-May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls.

  4. Quantitative assessment of surf-produced sea spray aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; De Leeuw, G.; Jansen, M.; Stive, M.J.F.


    The first results are presented from a quantitative model describing the aerosol production in the surf zone. A comparison is made with aerosol produced in the surf zone as measured during EOPACE experiments in La Jolla and Monterey. The surf aerosol production was derived from aerosol concentration

  5. Synthesis of the ZnGa2S4 Nanocrystals and Their Visible-Light Photocatalytic Degradation Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Peng


    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnGa2S4 with indirect band gap was prepared by a simple thiourea reduction method. As-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis. The visible-light photocatalytic activity of the ZnGa2S4 was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB aqueous solution. The high photoactivities of ZnGa2S4 can be attributed to the small band gap and large surface area, which is beneficial for degradation of pollutants and enhancement of transfer of photogenerated carriers.

  6. An empirical model of L-band scintillation S4 index constructed by using FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Ping; Bilitza, Dieter; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Caton, Ronald; Chang, Loren C.; Yeh, Wen-Hao


    Modern society relies heavily on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology for applications such as satellite communication, navigation, and positioning on the ground and/or aviation in the troposphere/stratosphere. However, ionospheric scintillations can severely impact GNSS systems and their related applications. In this study, a global empirical ionospheric scintillation model is constructed with S4-index data obtained by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) satellites during 2007-2014 (hereafter referred to as the F3CGS4 model). This model describes the S4-index as a function of local time, day of year, dip-latitude, and solar activity using the index PF10.7. The model reproduces the F3/C S4-index observations well, and yields good agreement with ground-based reception of satellite signals. This confirms that the constructed model can be used to forecast global L-band scintillations on the ground and in the near surface atmosphere.

  7. Smoke and Pollution Aerosol Effect on Cloud Cover (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Koren, Ilan


    Pollution and smoke aerosols can increase or decrease the cloud cover. This duality in the effects of aerosols forms one of the largest uncertainties in climate research. Using solar measurements from Aerosol Robotic Network sites around the globe, we show an increase in cloud cover with an increase in the aerosol column concentration and an inverse dependence on the aerosol absorption of sunlight. The emerging rule appears to be independent of geographical location or aerosol type, thus increasing our confidence in the understanding of these aerosol effects on the clouds and climate. Preliminary estimates suggest an increase of 5% in cloud cover.

  8. The S4-S5 linker acts as a signal integrator for HERG K+ channel activation and deactivation gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Ann Ng

    Full Text Available Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG K(+ channels have unusual gating kinetics. Characterised by slow activation/deactivation but rapid inactivation/recovery from inactivation, the unique gating kinetics underlie the central role hERG channels play in cardiac repolarisation. The slow activation and deactivation kinetics are regulated in part by the S4-S5 linker, which couples movement of the voltage sensor domain to opening of the activation gate at the distal end of the inner helix of the pore domain. It has also been suggested that cytosolic domains may interact with the S4-S5 linker to regulate activation and deactivation kinetics. Here, we show that the solution structure of a peptide corresponding to the S4-S5 linker of hERG contains an amphipathic helix. The effects of mutations at the majority of residues in the S4-S5 linker of hERG were consistent with the previously identified role in coupling voltage sensor movement to the activation gate. However, mutations to Ser543, Tyr545, Gly546 and Ala548 had more complex phenotypes indicating that these residues are involved in additional interactions. We propose a model in which the S4-S5 linker, in addition to coupling VSD movement to the activation gate, also contributes to interactions that stabilise the closed state and a separate set of interactions that stabilise the open state. The S4-S5 linker therefore acts as a signal integrator and plays a crucial role in the slow deactivation kinetics of the channel.

  9. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo


    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  10. Synthesis of AgGaGeS4 polycrystalline materials by vapor transporting and mechanical oscillation method (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhao, Beijun; Zhu, Shifu; He, Zhiyu; Chen, Baojun; Pu, Yunxiao; Lin, Li; Zhao, Zhangrui; Zhong, Yikai


    Single-phase AgGaGeS4 polycrystalline materials were synthesized directly from the constituent elements by vapor transporting and mechanical oscillation method. The problem of explosions was solved by careful control of the heating and cooling cycle and adopting the two-zone rocking furnace with specially designed temperature profile. The mechanical and temperature oscillations, as well as gradient cooling, were introduced in the synthesis process. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) micro analysis indicated that the synthesized compound is a single-phase AgGaGeS4 polycrystalline material.

  11. Photochemistry on Pluto - I. Hydrocarbons and aerosols (United States)

    Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Mandt, Kathleen; Jessup, Kandis-Lea; Kammer, Joshua; Hue, Vincent; Hamel, Mark; Filwett, Rachael


    In light of the recent New Horizons flyby measurements, we present a coupled ion-neutral-photochemistry model developed for simulating the atmosphere of Pluto. Our model results closely match the observed density profiles of CH4, N2 and the C2 hydrocarbons in the altitude range where available New Horizons measurements are most accurate (above ∼100-200 km). We found a high eddy coefficient of 106 cm2 s-1 from the surface to an altitude of 150 km, and 3 × 106 cm2 s-1 above 150 km for Pluto's atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that C2 hydrocarbons must stick to and be removed by aerosol particles in order to reproduce the C2 profiles observed by New Horizons. Incorporation into aerosols in Pluto's atmosphere is a significantly more effective process than condensation, and we found that condensation alone cannot account for the observed shape of the vertical profiles. We empirically determined the sticking efficiency of C2 hydrocarbons to aerosol particles as a function of altitude, and found that the sticking efficiency of C2 hydrocarbons is inversely related to the aerosol surface area. Aerosols must harden and become less sticky as they age in Pluto's atmosphere. Such hardening with ageing is both necessary and sufficient to explain the vertical profiles of C2 hydrocarbons in Pluto's atmosphere. This result is in agreement with the fundamental idea of aerosols hardening as they age, as proposed for Titan's aerosols.

  12. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO. (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.


    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  13. Condensing Organic Aerosols in a Microphysical Model (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.


    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  14. In Situ Measurement of Aerosol Extinction (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Castaneda, R.; Owano, T. G.; Bear, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)


    Aerosols are important contributors to the radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Much of the uncertainty in our knowledge of climate forcing is due to uncertainties in the radiative forcing due to aerosols as illustrated in the IPCC reports of the last ten years. Improved measurement of aerosol optical properties, therefore, is critical to an improved understanding of atmospheric radiative forcing. Additionally, attempts to reconcile in situ and remote measurements of aerosol radiative properties have generally not been successful. This is due in part to the fact that it has been impossible to measure aerosol extinction in situ in the past. In this presentation we introduce a new instrument that employs the techniques used in cavity ringdown spectroscopy to measure the aerosol extinction and scattering coefficients in situ. A prototype instrument has been designed and tested in the lab and the field. It is capable of measuring aerosol extinction coefficient to 2x10(exp -6) per meter. This prototype instrument is described and results are presented.

  15. Effect of aerosol vertical distribution on aerosol-radiation interaction: A theoretical prospect. (United States)

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Koren, Ilan; Rudich, Yinon


    This study presents a theoretical investigation of the effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the aerosol radiative effect (ARE). Four aerosol composition models (dust, polluted dust, pollution and pure scattering aerosols) with varying aerosol vertical profiles are incorporated into a radiative transfer model. The simulations show interesting spectral dependence of the ARE on the aerosol layer height. ARE increases with the aerosol layer height in the ultraviolet (UV: 0.25-0.42 μm) and thermal-infrared (TH-IR: 4.0-20.0 μm) regions, whereas it decreases in the visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR: 0.42-4.0 μm) region. Changes in the ARE with aerosol layer height are associated with different dominant processes for each spectral region. The combination of molecular (Rayleigh) scattering and aerosol absorption is the key process in the UV region, whereas aerosol (Mie) scattering and atmospheric gaseous absorption are key players in the VIS-NIR region. The longwave emission fluxes are controlled by the environmental temperature at the aerosol layer level. ARE shows maximum sensitivity to the aerosol layer height in the TH-IR region, followed by the UV and VIS-NIR regions. These changes are significant even in relatively low aerosol loading cases (aerosol optical depth ∼0.2-0.3). Dust aerosols are the most sensitive to altitude followed by polluted dust and pollution in all three different wavelength regions. Differences in the sensitivity of the aerosol type are explained by the relative strength of their spectral absorption/scattering properties. The role of surface reflectivity on the overall altitude dependency is shown to be important in the VIS-NIR and UV regions, whereas it is insensitive in the TH-IR region. Our results indicate that the vertical distribution of water vapor with respect to the aerosol layer is an important factor in the ARE estimations. Therefore, improved estimations of the water vapor profiles are needed for the further reduction in

  16. Effect of aerosol vertical distribution on aerosol-radiation interaction: A theoretical prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Mishra


    Full Text Available This study presents a theoretical investigation of the effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the aerosol radiative effect (ARE. Four aerosol composition models (dust, polluted dust, pollution and pure scattering aerosols with varying aerosol vertical profiles are incorporated into a radiative transfer model. The simulations show interesting spectral dependence of the ARE on the aerosol layer height. ARE increases with the aerosol layer height in the ultraviolet (UV: 0.25–0.42 μm and thermal-infrared (TH-IR: 4.0–20.0 μm regions, whereas it decreases in the visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR: 0.42–4.0 μm region. Changes in the ARE with aerosol layer height are associated with different dominant processes for each spectral region. The combination of molecular (Rayleigh scattering and aerosol absorption is the key process in the UV region, whereas aerosol (Mie scattering and atmospheric gaseous absorption are key players in the VIS-NIR region. The longwave emission fluxes are controlled by the environmental temperature at the aerosol layer level. ARE shows maximum sensitivity to the aerosol layer height in the TH-IR region, followed by the UV and VIS-NIR regions. These changes are significant even in relatively low aerosol loading cases (aerosol optical depth ∼0.2–0.3. Dust aerosols are the most sensitive to altitude followed by polluted dust and pollution in all three different wavelength regions. Differences in the sensitivity of the aerosol type are explained by the relative strength of their spectral absorption/scattering properties. The role of surface reflectivity on the overall altitude dependency is shown to be important in the VIS-NIR and UV regions, whereas it is insensitive in the TH-IR region. Our results indicate that the vertical distribution of water vapor with respect to the aerosol layer is an important factor in the ARE estimations. Therefore, improved estimations of the water vapor profiles are needed for the

  17. Comparison of aerosol lidar retrieval methods for boundary layer height detection using ceilometer aerosol backscatter data (United States)

    Caicedo, Vanessa; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Lefer, Barry; Morris, Gary; Toledo, Daniel; Delgado, Ruben


    Three algorithms for estimating the boundary layer heights are assessed: an aerosol gradient method, a cluster analysis method, and a Haar wavelet method. Over 40 daytime clear-sky radiosonde profiles are used to compare aerosol backscatter boundary layer heights retrieved by a Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Overall good agreement between radiosonde- and aerosol-derived boundary layer heights was found for all methods. The cluster method was found to be particularly sensitive to noise in ceilometer signals and lofted aerosol layers (48.8 % of comparisons), while the gradient method showed limitations in low-aerosol-backscatter conditions. The Haar wavelet method was demonstrated to be the most robust, only showing limitations in 22.5 % of all observations. Occasional differences between thermodynamically and aerosol-derived boundary layer heights were observed.

  18. Secondary organic aerosols: Formation potential and ambient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.


    Organic aerosols comprise a significant fraction of the total atmospheric particle loading and are associated with radiative forcing and health impacts. Ambient organic aerosol concentrations contain both a primary and secondary component. Herein, fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used...... in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to predict the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Lower Fraser Valley (LEV) of British Columbia. The predicted concentrations of SOA show reasonable accord with ambient aerosol measurements and indicate considerable...

  19. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ


    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  20. Air aerosol pollution and lidar measurements (United States)

    Yegorov, Alexander D.; Kopp, Ilia Z.; Perelman, Anri Y.


    The means and techniques of lidar sounding are nowadays widely used to obtain the data on the aerosol pollution of the atmosphere, including the industrial emissions and atmospheric characteristics around highways. To add to that scope, pioneering unconventional lidar sounding of optical and microphysical aerosol characteristics was organized during the recent field programs: CLE (Leningrad, 1984), Soviet-American AUTOEX experiment (Leningrad, 1988), Leningrad experiment (1991). The paper presents lidar data obtained from these programs. The problem of interpreting lidar measurements data is discussed. The relationships between optical and microphysical aerosol characteristics are analysed.

  1. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie


    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  2. Implementation of bin scheme into sulfate aerosol module in aerosol climate model (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Takemura, T.; Suzuki, K.; Goto, D.


    Atmospheric aerosols are known for inducing climate change, but uncertainty still remains about the assessment of aerosol climate impact. More accurate evaluation of their effects on climate system requires to reduce uncertainty of estimation of the entire climate change. Thus we are implementing a bin scheme into an aerosol transport-climate model, SPRINTARS, which is coupled with an AORI/NIES/JAMSTEC climate model, MIROC [Takemura et al., 2000, 2002, 2005, 2009] to refine the representation of interactions between aerosol particles and cloud droplets as well as the aerosol-radiation interaction. The scheme can represent the aerosol size distribution explicitly by segregating to a finite number of bins incorporating aerosol nucleation, condensation, and coagulation processes in detail. Nucleation of sulfuric acid is parameterized using Gong et al. [2003]. Based on a single column model [Suzuki et al., 2006, 2010], the condensation of sulfuric acid on pre-existing aerosol particles and the coagulation of sulfate aerosol particles are parameterized by the methods proposed by Bott [1989] and Bott [1997], respectively. The radii of sulfate aerosols range from 0.01μm to 1.0μm and are split into 20 bins. Implementation of the bin scheme into the aerosol model resulted in characteristic aerosol size distribution and indicated possibilities of representation of microphysical and optical properties in more detail. We will report the results of comparison between the original and the improved SPRINTARS. This work is supported by the Funding Program for Next Generation World-Leading Researchers (GR079).

  3. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)


    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  4. The Two‐Column Aerosol Project: Phase I—Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Larry K; Fast, Jerome D; Barnard, James C; Burton, Sharon P; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A; Flynn, Connor J; Hair, Johnathan W; Hostetler, Chris A; Hubbe, John; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I; Kluzek, Celine D; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, Kathleen; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail; Rogers, Ray R; Russell, Philip B; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Arthur J; Segal‐Rosenheimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R; Tomlinson, Jason M; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline M; Volkamer, Rainer; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M


    The Two‐Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including...

  5. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth (United States)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; hide


    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere be tween and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2).These layer s contributed up to 60 of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. In addition, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  6. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, K.; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rogers, Ray; Russell, P.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Art; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.


    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which was conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique field study that was designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere at a number of altitudes, from near the surface to as high as 8 km, within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. TCAP included the yearlong deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) that was located at the base of the Cape Cod column, as well as summer and winter aircraft intensive observation periods of the ARM Aerial Facility. One important finding from TCAP is the relatively common occurrence (on four of six nearly cloud-free flights) of elevated aerosol layers in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed in the column. Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning aerosol and nitrate compared to the aerosol found near the surface.

  7. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    , it will be possible to develop the experiment to cover additional processes involved in the route to cloud droplet formation. The experiment will be conducted at the Danish National Space Center where a clean room facility has been provided. It comprises a 7 m3 reaction chamber across which an electric field......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...... mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start...

  8. Southern Hemisphere tropospheric aerosol microphysics (United States)

    Gras, John L.


    Aerosol particle-size distribution data have been obtained in the Southern Hemisphere from approximately 4-deg S to 44-deg S and between ground level and 5 km, in the vicinity of eastern Australia. The relative shape of the free-tropospheric size distribution for particles with radii larger than approximately 0.04 micron was found to be remarkably stable with time, altitude, and location for the autumn-winter periods considered. This was despite some large concentration changes, which were found to be typical of the southeastern Australian coastal region. The majority of free-troposphere large particles were found to have sulfuric acid or lightly ammoniated sulfate morphology. Large particles in the boundary layer almost exclusively had a sea-salt morphology.

  9. Spray-coated Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films for large-scale photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Murthy, Swathi; Mariño, Simón López


    The kesterite material, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), has in the preceding ten years been investigated and developed as a new Earth-abundant material for solar cells. The interest in this inorganic semiconductor originates in its optimal energy band gap of approx. 1.5 eV, high absorption coefficient, and the...

  10. Interface band gap narrowing behind open circuit voltage losses in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Palsgaard, Mattias Lau Nøhr; Gunst, Tue


    We present evidence that bandgap narrowing at the heterointerface may be a major cause of the large open circuit voltage deficit of Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS solar cells. Bandgap narrowing is caused by surface states that extend the Cu2ZnSnS4valence band into the forbidden gap. Those surface states...... voltage measurements on Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells can be reproduced quantitatively without necessarily assuming a cliff-like conduction band offset with the CdS buffer layer. Our first-principles calculations indicate that Zn-based alternative buffer layers are advantageous due to the ability of...... Zn to passivate those surface states. Focusing future research on Zn-based buffers is expected to significantly improve the open circuit voltage and efficiency of pure-sulfide Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells....

  11. Crystalline NiCo2S4 nanotube array coated with amorphous NiCoxSy for supercapacitor electrodes. (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Zhang, Mingyi; Yao, Yunhe; Gao, Hong


    Hierarchical NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy core/shell nanoarrays grown on carbon cloth were successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal route and following an electrodeposition process. Compared with bare NiCo2S4, the electrochemical performance of NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy nanoarrays have been apparently improved, which shows areal capacitance as high as 3.9F/cm(2) at a constant current density of 1mA/cm(2). And the composite material exhibits excellent rate capability that a high areal capacitance of 2.9F/cm(2) is still retaining as the current density increase to 50mA/cm(2). The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the reasonably designed core/shell hierarchical structure of NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy nanoarrays, which would be promising for high-performance supercapacitor materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sport for Development (S4D) as "Core University Business"? Modelling University Participation in Sport-Based Social Development (United States)

    Rosso, Edoardo G. F.; McGrath, Richard; Immink, Maarten A.; May, Esther


    Among the recognised strengths of the "Sport for Development" (S4D) framework there is the capacity of sport to contribute to positive community networks, education and community participation. However, its relevance to tertiary education institutions is often under-appreciated. In this framework, the Football United® program was…

  13. ATel 7545: Fermi LAT Detection of a GeV flare from spectrally hard FSRQ S4 1800+44 (United States)

    Buson, S.; Fermi LAT Collaboration


    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray flux and an unusually hard gamma-ray spectrum from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) S4 1800+44 (also known as 3FGL J1801.5+4403, Acero et al. ...

  14. Papers of the 14. french congress on aerosols CFA 98; Actes du 14. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1998. It was presented in four main themes: the aerosols in the environment; the bio-aerosols, filtering and purifying; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols physic and application. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in nuclear industry. Eight other ones are analyzed in ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  15. Role of hydrophobic and ionic forces in the movement of S4 of the Shaker potassium channel. (United States)

    Elliott, David J S; Neale, Edward J; Munsey, Tim S; Bannister, John P; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu


    Voltage-gated ion (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+)) channels contain a pore domain (PD) surrounded by four voltage sensing domains (VSD). Each VSD is made up of four transmembrane helices, S1-S4. S4 contains 6-7 positively charged residues (arginine/lysine) separated two hydrophobic residues, whereas S1-S3 contribute to two negatively charged clusters. These structures are conserved among all members of the voltage-gated ion channel family and play essential roles in voltage gating. The role of S4 charged residues in voltage gating is well established: During depolarization, they move out of the membrane electric field, exerting a mechanical force on channel gates, causing them to open. However, the role of the intervening hydrophobic residues in voltage sensing is unclear. Here we studied the role of these residues in the prototypical Shaker potassium channel. We have altered the physicochemical properties of both charged and hydrophobic positions of S4 and examined the effect of these modifications on the gating properties of the channel. For this, we have introduced cysteines at each of these positions, expressed the mutants in Xenopus oocytes, and examined the effect of in situ addition of charge, via Cd(2+), on channel gating by two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results reveal a face of the S4 helix (comprising residues L358, L361, R365 and R368) where introduction of charge at hydrophobic positions destabilises the closed state and removal of charges from charged positions has an opposite effect. We propose that hydrophobic residues play a crucial role in limiting gating to a physiological voltage range.

  16. Predicting Thermal Behavior of Secondary Organic Aerosols (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Volume concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are measured in 139 steady-state, single precursor hydrocarbon oxidation experiments after passing through a...

  17. Aerosol EnKF at GMAO (United States)

    Buchard, Virginie; Da Silva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo


    In the GEOS near real-time system, as well as in MERRA-2 which is the latest reanalysis produced at NASAs Global Modeling and Assimilation Office(GMAO), the assimilation of aerosol observations is performed by means of a so-called analysis splitting method. In line with the transition of the GEOS meteorological data assimilation system to a hybrid Ensemble-Variational formulation, we are updating the aerosol component of our assimilation system to an ensemble square root filter(EnSRF; Whitaker and Hamill (2002)) type of scheme.We present a summary of our preliminary results of the assimilation of column integrated aerosol observations (Aerosol Optical Depth; AOD) using an Ensemble Square Root Filters (EnSRF) scheme and the ensemble members produced routinely by the meteorological assimilation.

  18. Direct impact aerosol sampling by electrostatic precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braden, Jason D.; Harter, Andrew G.; Stinson, Brad J.; Sullivan, Nicholas M.


    The present disclosure provides apparatuses for collecting aerosol samples by ionizing an air sample at different degrees. An air flow is generated through a cavity in which at least one corona wire is disposed and electrically charged to form a corona therearound. At least one grounded sample collection plate is provided downstream of the at least one corona wire so that aerosol ions generated within the corona are deposited on the at least one grounded sample collection plate. A plurality of aerosol samples ionized to different degrees can be generated. The at least one corona wire may be perpendicular to the direction of the flow, or may be parallel to the direction of the flow. The apparatus can include a serial connection of a plurality of stages such that each stage is capable of generating at least one aerosol sample, and the air flow passes through the plurality of stages serially.

  19. Photoacoustic study of airborne and model aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebic-Juretic, A.; Zetsch, C.; Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.


    Airborne particulates of either natural or anthropogenic origin constitute a significant portion of atmospheric pollution. Environmental xenobiotics, among which are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, often adsorb to aerosols and as such are transported through the atmosphere

  20. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles (United States)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey


    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  1. Columnar aerosol characterization over Scandinavia and Svalbard (United States)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Bennouna, Y.; Berjón, A.; Torres, B.; Fuertes, D.; González, R.; de Frutos, A. M.


    An overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard was provided by Toledano et al. (2012) thanks to the collaborative effort of various research groups from different countries that maintain a number of observation sites in the European Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. The spatial coverage of this kind of data has remarkably improved in the last years, thanks, among other things, to projects carried out within the framework of the International Polar Year 2007-08. The data from a set of operational sun photometer sites belonging either to national or international measurement networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) were evaluated. The direct sun observations provided spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE), that are parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first characterization at all sites. At the AERONET sites, microphysical properties derived from inversion of sun-sky radiance data were also examined. AOD (500nm) ranged from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites whereas the aerosol load was higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (average AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols showed larger mean size than in continental areas. Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters were used to evaluate aerosol volume efficiencies. The aerosol optical depth characterization revealed that the seasonal patterns in the high Arctic (with the typical hazy spring), in the sub-Arctic region and Southern Scandinavia are all different. The clean continental, polluted continental and maritime aerosols constitute the three main aerosol types, although persistent (Asian) dust was also detected in Svalbard.

  2. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida


    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  3. Improved Gridded Aerosol Data for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueymard, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Using point data from ground sites in and around India equipped with multiwavelength sunphotometers, as well as gridded data from space measurements or from existing aerosol climatologies, an improved gridded database providing the monthly aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and Angstrom exponent (AE) over India is produced. Data from 83 sunphotometer sites are used here as ground truth tocalibrate, optimally combine, and validate monthly gridded data during the period from 2000 to 2012.

  4. Literature Survey of Marine Aerosol Research (United States)


    Part II., Tellus 12: 63-109 The author claims that different arts of impaction are the dominant factor for sea salt deposition over Scandi- navia which...calculated. Comparison with the measure- ments in fogs yielded good agreement. 3.6-1.5 Fitzgerald, J.W., and R.E. Ruskin , 1977 A marine aerosol model for...7: 195-211 A description of an integrated airborne system for the air- craft aerosol characteristics measurement is presented. The system covers the

  5. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt


    Full Text Available Aged organic aerosol (OA was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008, which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1, and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with source region, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm−3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  6. Aerosols, clouds and their climatic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A.; Korhonen, P. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics


    The increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane may drive a significant warming of the earth`s climate. However, a topic of more recent attention is the possibility that increased atmospheric concentrations of aerosol particles might drive a cooling of the planet. There are two distinct cooling mechanisms related to the enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles: the increase in the direct reflection of solar radiation (the direct effect), and the increase in cloud reflectivity caused by greater numbers of cloud condensation nuclei available (the indirect effect). Aerosols and clouds play a major role in the scattering and absorption of radiation in the Earth`s atmosphere. Locally the net effect can vary because of different kinds of surfaces. But according to measurements, the global net effect of clouds (and aerosols) on the atmosphere is net cooling and thus in opposition to the effect of greenhouse gases. The prediction of the future evolution of the climate involves substantial uncertainties. Clouds have a major effect on the radiation balance of the Earth and the prediction of amount and radiative properties of clouds is very difficult. Also the formation mechanisms and residence times of aerosol particles in the atmosphere involve large uncertainties. Thus the most serious difficulties arise in the area of the physics of clouds and aerosols

  7. Aerosol droplets: Nucleation dynamics and photokinetics (United States)

    Signorell, Ruth

    This talk addresses two fundamental aerosol processes that play a pivotal role in atmospheric processes: The formation dynamics of aerosol particles from neutral gas phase precursors and photochemical reactions in small aerosol droplets induced by ultraviolet and visible light. Nucleation is the rate determining step of aerosol particle formation. The idea behind nucleation is that supersaturation of a gas leads to the formation of a critical cluster, which quickly grows into larger aerosol particles. We discuss an experiment for studying the size and chemical composition of critical clusters at the molecular level. Much of the chemistry happening in planetary atmospheres is driven by sunlight. Photochemical reactions in small aerosol particles play a peculiar role in this context. Sunlight is strongly focused inside these particles which leads to a natural increase in the rates of photochemical reactions in small particles compared with the bulk. This ubiquitous phenomenon has been recognised but so far escaped direct observation and quantification. The development of a new experimental setup has finally made it possible to directly observe this nanofocusing effect in droplet photokinetics. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) and ETH Zurich.

  8. Poland-AOD aerosol research network (United States)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Markowicz, Krzysztof


    Poland-AOD research network ( was formed in 2011. It is a consortium of Polish institutions that are involved in studies of the atmospheric aerosol impact on the climate system. In 2016 the Poland-AOD network comprised of five stations: Radiative Transfer Laboratory, University of Warsaw (urban station), the research station of the Institute of Oceanology, in Sopot (coastal station), Radiative Transfer Station SolarAOT in Strzyzow (background station in the Carpathian mountains), Meteorology and Climatology Observatory at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (urban station), and the Research station in Rzecin at Poznan University of Life Sciences (rural station). The primary goal of the network is to carry out measurements of aerosol single scattering properties, radiation budget, simulate radiative transfer and aerosol transport, validate aerosol transport and transformation models such as NAAPS and GEM-AQ, as well as carry out instrument calibration and intercomparison. We will present observations of aerosol properties collected by the network as well as results from the GEM-AQ model simulations for selected episodes of biomass burning and urban aerosol.

  9. Preparation and absolute configuration of (1R,4R)-(+)-3-oxo-, (1S,4S)-(-)-3-oxo- and (1R,3S,4R)-(+)-3-acetyloxy-5-oxo-1 ,8-cineole. (United States)

    Loandos, María del H; Villecco, Margarita B; Burgueño-Tapia, Eleuterio; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Catalán, César A N


    Enantiomerically pure (1S,4S)-(-)-3-oxo-1,8-cineole (-)-2 and (1R,4R)-(+)-3-oxo-1,8-cineole (+)-2 were prepared for the first time and their absolute configurations assigned by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) measurements. Thus, treatment of cineole 1 with chromyl acetate gave rac-2 which after sodium borohydride reduction and acetylation provided racemic 3-endo-acetyloxy-1,8-cineole, rac-4. Enantioselective hydrolysis using porcine liver esterase (PLE) gave a mixture of 3-endo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole (-)-3 and 3-endo-acetyloxy-1,8-cineole (+)-4. After chromatographic separation, (-)-3 was oxidized to (+)-2, while (+)-4 was hydrolysed to (+)-3 and then oxidized to (-)-2. The absolute configuration of either ketone 2 was established by VCD spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/DGDZVP level of theory, from where it followed that the (+)-2 enantiomer corresponds to (1R,4R)-1,3,3-trimethyl-5-oxo-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and the (-)-2 enantiomer to the (1S,4S) molecule which is also in agreement with the absolute configuration deduced by the Mosher method for the starting chiral alcohols. Some literature inconsistencies are clarified. In addition, the enantiomerically pure monoester (1S,3S,4R,5R)-(-)-3-acetyloxy-5-hydroxy-1,8-cineole 6 and the ketoester (1R,3S,4R)-(+)-3-acetyloxy-5-oxo-1,8-cineole 7 were prepared from meso-diacetate 5 by enantioselective asymmetrization also using PLE.

  10. (μ-Piperazine-1,4-dicarbodithioato-κ4S1,S1′:S4,S4′bis[bis(triphenylphosphane-κPgold(I] chloroform disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia A. Guzei


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Au2(C6H8N2S4(C18H15P4]·2CHCl3, the digold complex resides on a crystallographic inversion center and co-crystallizes with two molecules of chloroform solvent. The piperazine-1,4-dicarbodithioate linker has an almost ideal chair conformation. The geometry about the gold atoms is severely distorted tetrahedral punctuated by a very acute S—Au—S bite angle.

  11. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over the Indian region (United States)

    Prijith, S. S.; Rao, P. V. N.; Mohan, Mannil


    Elevated aerosols assume importance as the diabatic heating due to aerosol absorption is more intense at higher altitudes where the atmosphere becomes thinner. Indian region, especially its central and northern latitudes, experiences significant loading of elevated aerosols during pre-monsoon and summer months. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over Indian region is investigated in the present study, using multi-year satellite observations from Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) along with reanalysis winds from MERRA. Central India is observed to have prominent aerosols loading at higher altitudes during pre-monsoon season, whereas it is during summer months over north-west India. Further analysis reveals that the elevated aerosols over Indian region in pre-monsoon and summer months are significantly contributed by transported mineral dust from the arid continental regions at west. In addition to the mineral dust advection, aerosols at higher altitudes over Indian region are enriched by strong convection and associated vertical transport of surface level aerosols. Vertical transport of aerosols observed over Indian region during pre-monsoon and summer months is aided by intense convergence at the surface level and divergence at the upper level. Moreover, aerosol source/sink strength estimated using aerosol flux continuity equation show significant aerosol production over central India during pre-monsoon. Strong vertical transport prevails during pre-monsoon uplifts the locally produced aerosols, with considerable anthropogenic fraction, to higher altitudes where their impacts would be more intense.

  12. Radioactive content in aerosols and rainwater; Contenido radiactivo en aerosoles y agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perestelo, N.; Lopez Perez, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Duarte, X.; Catalan, A.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. C.; Hernandez, J.


    The environmental radiological characterization of a place requires knowledge of the radioactive contents of its components, such as air (aerosol), rain, soil, etc ... Inhalation of radioactive aerosols in the air remains the main component of the total dose to the world population. This work focuses on its determination. (Author)

  13. Development, production and evaluation of aerosol climate data records from European satellite observations (Aerosol_cci)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popp, Thomas; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Bingen, Christine; Brühl, Christoph; Capelle, Virginie; Chedin, Alain; Clarisse, Lieven; Dubovik, Oleg; Grainger, Roy; Griesfeller, Jan; Heckel, Andreas; Kinne, Stefan; Klüser, Lars; Kosmale, Miriam; Kolmonen, Pekka; Lelli, Luca; Litvinov, Pavel; Mei, Linlu; North, Peter; Pinnock, Simon; Povey, Adam; Robert, Charles; Schulz, Michael; Sogacheva, Larisa; Stebel, Kerstin; Zweers, Deborah Stein; Thomas, Gareth; Tilstra, Lieuwe Gijsbert; Vandenbussche, Sophie; Veefkind, J.P.; Vountas, Marco; Xue, Yong


    Producing a global and comprehensive description of atmospheric aerosols requires integration of ground-based, airborne, satellite and model datasets. Due to its complexity, aerosol monitoring requires the use of several data records with complementary information content. This paper describes

  14. The DRAGON aerosol research facility to study aerosol behaviour for reactor safety applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckow, Detlef; Guentay, Salih [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)


    During a severe accident in a nuclear power plant fission products are expected to be released in form of aerosol particles and droplets. To study the behaviour of safety relevant reactor components under aerosol loads and prototypical severe accident conditions the multi-purpose aerosol generation facility DRAGON is used since 1994 for several projects. DRAGON can generate aerosol particles by the evaporation-condensation technique using a plasma torch system, fluidized bed and atomization of particles suspended in a liquid. Soluble, hygroscopic aerosol (i.e. CsOH) and insoluble aerosol particles (i.e. SnO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}) or mixtures of them can be used. DRAGON uses state-of-the-art thermal-hydraulic, data acquisition and aerosol measurement techniques and is mainly composed of a mixing chamber, the plasma torch system, a steam generator, nitrogen gas and compressed air delivery systems, several aerosol delivery piping, gas heaters and several auxiliary systems to provide vacuum, coolant and off-gas treatment. The facility can be operated at system pressure of 5 bars, temperatures of 300 deg. C, flow rates of non-condensable gas of 900 kg/h and steam of 270 kg/h, respectively. A test section under investigation is attached to DRAGON. The paper summarizes and demonstrates with the help of two project examples the capabilities of DRAGON for reactor safety studies. (authors)

  15. Whitecaps, sea-salt aerosols, and climate (United States)

    Anguelova, Magdalena Dimitrova

    Oceanic whitecaps are the major source of sea-salt aerosols. Because these aerosols are dominant in remote marine air, they control the radiative properties of the clean background atmosphere by scattering sunlight, changing cloud properties and lifetime, and providing media for chemical reactions. Including sea-salt effects in climate models improves predictions, but simulating their generation is first necessary. To make the sea-salt generation function currently used in climate models more relevant for aerosol investigations, this study proposes two modifications. First, the conventional relation between whitecap coverage, W, and the 10-meter wind speed, U10, used in typical generation functions is expanded to include additional factors that affect whitecaps and sea-salt aerosol formation. Second, the sea-salt generation function is extended to smaller sizes; sea-salt aerosol with initial radii from 0.4 to 20 mum can now be modeled. To achieve these goals, this thesis develops a new method for estimating whitecap coverage on a global scale using satellite measurements of the brightness temperature of the ocean surface. Whitecap coverage evaluated with this method incorporates the effects of atmospheric stability, sea-surface temperature, salinity, wind fetch, wind duration, and the amount of surface-active material. Assimilating satellite-derived values for whitecap coverage in the sea-salt generation function incorporates the effects of all environmental factors on sea-salt production and predicts realistic sea-salt aerosol loadings into the atmosphere. An extensive database of whitecap coverage and sea-salt aerosol fluxes has been compiled with the new method and is used to investigate their spatial and temporal characteristics. The composite effect of all environmental factors suggests a more uniform latitudinal distribution of whitecaps and sea-salt aerosols than that predicted from wind speed alone. The effect of sea-surface temperature, TS, is

  16. Characterization of the Vitrocell® 24/48 aerosol exposure system for its use in exposures to liquid aerosols. (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Majeed, Shoaib; Kratzer, Gilles; Vuillaume, Grégory; Hoeng, Julia; Frentzel, Stefan


    The Vitrocell® 24/48 is an advanced aerosol exposure system that has been widely used and characterized for exposure studies of cigarette smoke, but not for exposure to liquid aerosols with a low gas-vapor phase content such as the ones generated by electronic cigarettes. An experimental system characterization for this specific application was therefore performed. Glycerol model aerosols of different particle size distributions, produced by a condensation monodisperse aerosol generator, were used for exposing small volumes of phosphate-buffered saline in the Vitrocell® 24/48. Disodium fluorescein, added as a tracer in the aerosol, allowed the exact aerosol mass deposition to be quantified fluorometrically. The aerosol mass delivery efficiency within the system showed variations in the range of ±25%. Aerosol dilution was not fully reflected in aerosol delivery, the achieved aerosol delivery should therefore be determined experimentally. Quartz crystal microbalances underestimated the deposition of liquid aerosols. Unequal delivery of particles of different sizes was detectable, although this effect is unlikely to be relevant under applied experimental conditions. The Vitrocell® 24/48 aerosol exposure system can be used for exposures to liquid aerosols, such as those generated by electronic cigarettes. However, our results indicate that, compared with aerosol studies of cigarettes, a higher variability is to be expected. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. MnO2@KCu7S4 NWs hybrid compositions for high-power all-solid-state supercapacitor (United States)

    Dai, Shuge; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Yue, Xule; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Guo


    Here we present a high-power all-solid-state supercapacitor based on a novel structure of MnO2@KCu7S4 NWs. The electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with large specific capacitance of 533 F g-1 and the maximum power density 2.02 kW kg-1, still hold 85% of the capacitance over 6000 cycles. Besides, we also explored the effect of temperature on the capacitance. When compared with capacitance at different temperatures, the specific capacity at 80 °C demonstrates significantly higher. Moreover, two supercapacitors in series can power 41 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) about 4 min. These results suggest that such MnO2@KCu7S4 hybrid composite is promising for next generation high-performance supercapacitors.

  18. Cube-like Cu2MoS4 photocatalysts for visible light-driven degradation of methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang


    Full Text Available Cube-like Cu2MoS4 nanoparticles with low-index facets and high crystallinity were fabricated via a hydrothermal method. The as-obtained nanocubes with an average size of 40-60 nm are composed of stacking-Cu2MoS4 layers separated by a weak Van der Waals gap of 0.5 nm. A strong absorption at visible light region is observed in the nanocube aqueous solution, indicating its optical-band gap of 1.78 eV. The photocatalytic measurements reveal that the nanocubes can thoroughly induce the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation with good structural stability. Our finding may provide a way in design and fabrication of transition metal dichalcogenide nanostructures for practical applications.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: S4G galaxy morphologies in the CVRHS system (Buta+, 2015) (United States)

    Buta, R. J.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Knapen, J. H.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Elmegreen, D.; Ho, L. C.; Zaritsky, D.; Courtois, H.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Kim, T.; Regan, M. W.; Gadotti, D. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Comeron, S.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.; Holwerda, B.; Madore, B. F.


    Our final list has 2412 galaxies, 60 more than the extended S4images were already available. New data were collected for the ~1750 remaining sample galaxies. The CVRHS system is a modified version of the de Vaucouleurs (1959HDP....53..275D) revised Hubble-Sandage (VRHS) system that is described in the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies (dVA, Buta et al. (4 data files).

  20. Exploring the GluR2 ligand-binding core in complex with the bicyclical AMPA analogue (S)-4-AHCP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina B; Pickering, Darryl S; Greenwood, Jeremy R


    The X-ray structure of the ionotropic GluR2 ligand-binding core (GluR2-S1S2J) in complex with the bicyclical AMPA analogue (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [(S)-4-AHCP] has been determined, as well as the binding pharmacology of this construct...

  1. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.


    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  2. Synthesis and Structure of a New Quinary Sulfide Halide: LaCa(2)GeS(4)Cl(3). (United States)

    Gitzendanner, Robert L.; DiSalvo, Francis J.


    A new quinary rare earth sulfide-halide compound has been synthesized and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. LaCa(2)GeS(4)Cl(3) crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric hexagonal space group -P6(3)mc (No. 186) with Z = 2, a = 9.731(1) Å, and c = 6.337(1) Å. Lanthanum and calcium are mixed on a pseudo-trigonal prismatic site, coordinated to three sulfur atoms on one triangular face and three chlorine atoms on the other. Isolated, slightly distorted tetrahedra of GeS(4) are oriented with a tetrahedral 3-fold axis aligned along the crystallographic 3-fold rotation axis. Preliminary optical studies indicate that this material has a useful optical window extending approximately from 0.5 to 10 &mgr;m. Nonlinear optical activity of LaCa(2)GeS(4)Cl(3) is demonstrated by the generation of green light when pumped with a 1.064 &mgr;m Nd:YAG laser.

  3. Characterization of methyl parathion degradation by a Burkholderia zhejiangensis strain, CEIB S4-3, isolated from agricultural soils. (United States)

    Popoca-Ursino, Elida C; Martínez-Ocampo, Fernando; Dantán-González, Edgar; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura


    Through the use of an enrichment technique, we isolated from the agricultural soils of Morelos in central México a strain of Burkholderia zhejiangensis identified as CEIB S4-3, it's could use the pesticide methyl parathion (MP) as the only source of carbon and degrade completely p-nitrophenol (PNP). For more efficient MP and PNP degradation by the CEIB S4-3 strain, the absence of an extra carbon source, a large inoculum and an MP concentration up to 50 mg/l are required. Sequence and annotation analysis of the draft genome, showed presence of mpd functional gene, which was expressed and its activity on the MP was confirmed. Additionally, the genes coding for enzymes in the benzoquinone pathway (conducted by Gram-negative bacteria) and the benzenotriol pathway (conducted by Gram-positive bacteria) were found, which was corroborated by identification of intermediary metabolites by HPLC. Thus, we propose that B. zhejiangensis CEIB S4-3 uses both degradation pathways.

  4. Estimation of aerosol water and chemical composition from AERONET Sun-sky radiometer measurements at Cabauw, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beelen, A. J.; Roelofs, G. J H; Hasekamp, O. P.; Henzing, J. S.; Röckmann, T.


    Remote sensing of aerosols provides important information on atmospheric aerosol abundance. However, due to the hygroscopic nature of aerosol particles observed aerosol optical properties are influenced by atmospheric humidity, and the measurements do not unambiguously characterize the aerosol dry

  5. An Analysis of AERONET Aerosol Absorption Properties and Classifications Representative of Aerosol Source Regions (United States)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Smirnov, Alexander; Slutsker, Ilya; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Schafer, J. S.


    Partitioning of mineral dust, pollution, smoke, and mixtures using remote sensing techniques can help improve accuracy of satellite retrievals and assessments of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Spectral aerosol optical depth (tau) and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0) ) from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements are used to form absorption [i.e., omega (sub 0) and absorption Angstrom exponent (alpha(sub abs))] and size [i.e., extinction Angstrom exponent (alpha(sub ext)) and fine mode fraction of tau] relationships to infer dominant aerosol types. Using the long-term AERONET data set (1999-2010), 19 sites are grouped by aerosol type based on known source regions to: (1) determine the average omega (sub 0) and alpha(sub abs) at each site (expanding upon previous work); (2) perform a sensitivity study on alpha(sub abs) by varying the spectral omega (sub 0); and (3) test the ability of each absorption and size relationship to distinguish aerosol types. The spectral omega (sub 0) averages indicate slightly more aerosol absorption (i.e., a 0.0 < delta omega (sub 0) <= 0.02 decrease) than in previous work and optical mixtures of pollution and smoke with dust show stronger absorption than dust alone. Frequency distributions of alpha(sub abs) show significant overlap among aerosol type categories and at least 10% of the alpha(sub abs) retrievals in each category are below 1.0. Perturbing the spectral omega (sub 0) by +/- 0.03 induces significant alpha(sub abs) changes from the unperturbed value by at least approx. +/- 0.6 for Dust, approx. +/-0.2 for Mixed, and approx. +/-0.1 for Urban/Industrial and Biomass Burning. The omega (sub 0)440nm and alpha(sub ext) 440-870nm relationship shows the best separation among aerosol type clusters, providing a simple technique for determining aerosol type from surface- and future space-based instrumentation.

  6. Modeling the Relationships Between Aerosol Properties and the Direct and Indirect Effects of Aerosols on Climate (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.


    Aerosols may affect climate directly by scattering and absorbing visible and infrared energy, They may also affect climate indirectly by modifying the properties of clouds through microphysical processes, and by altering abundances of radiatively important gases through heterogeneous chemistry. Researchers understand which aerosol properties control the direct effect of aerosols on the radiation budget. Unfortunately, despite an abundance of data on certain types of aerosols, much work remains to be done to determine the values of these properties. For instance we have little idea about the global distribution, seasonal variation, or interannual variability of the aerosol optical depth. Also we do not know the visible light absorption properties of tropical aerosols which may contain much debris from slash and burn agriculture. A positive correlation between aerosol concentrations and albedos of marine stratus clouds is observed, and the causative microphysics is understood. However, models suggest that it is difficult to produce new particles in the marine boundary layer. Some modelers have suggested that the particles in the marine boundary layer may originate in the free troposphere and be transported into the boundary layer. Others argue that the aerosols are created in the marine boundary layer. There are no data linking aerosol concentration and cirrus cloud albedo, and models suggest cirrus properties may not be very sensitive to aerosol abundance. There is clear evidence of a radiatively significant change in the global lower stratospheric ozone abundance during the past few decades. These changes are caused by heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring on the surfaces of particles. The rates of these reactions depend upon the chemical composition of the particles. Although rapid advances in understanding heterogeneous chemistry have been made, much remains to be done.

  7. New satellite project Aerosol-UA: Remote sensing of aerosols in the terrestrial atmosphere (United States)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Mishchenko, M.; Rosenbush, V.; Ivanov, Yu.; Makarov, A.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Moskalov, S.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Lukenyuk, A.; Shymkiv, A.; Udodov, E.


    We discuss the development of the Ukrainian space project Aerosol-UA which has the following three main objectives: (1) to monitor the spatial distribution of key characteristics of terrestrial tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols; (2) to provide a comprehensive observational database enabling accurate quantitative estimates of the aerosol contribution to the energy budget of the climate system; and (3) quantify the contribution of anthropogenic aerosols to climate and ecological processes. The remote sensing concept of the project is based on precise orbital measurements of the intensity and polarization of sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and the surface with a scanning polarimeter accompanied by a wide-angle multispectral imager-polarimeter. Preparations have already been made for the development of the instrument suite for the Aerosol-UA project, in particular, of the multi-channel scanning polarimeter (ScanPol) designed for remote sensing studies of the global distribution of aerosol and cloud properties (such as particle size, morphology, and composition) in the terrestrial atmosphere by polarimetric and spectrophotometric measurements of the scattered sunlight in a wide range of wavelengths and viewing directions from which a scene location is observed. ScanPol is accompanied by multispectral wide-angle imager-polarimeter (MSIP) that serves to collect information on cloud conditions and Earth's surface image. Various components of the polarimeter ScanPol have been prototyped, including the opto-mechanical and electronic assemblies and the scanning mirror controller. Preliminary synthetic data simulations for the retrieval of aerosol parameters over land surfaces have been performed using the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) algorithm. Methods for the validation of satellite data using ground-based observations of aerosol properties are also discussed. We assume that designing, building, and launching into orbit a multi

  8. Coarse mode aerosols in the High Arctic (United States)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; Saha, A.; Duck, T. J.; Eloranta, E. W.


    Fine mode (submicron) aerosols in the Arctic have received a fair amount of scientific attention in terms of smoke intrusions during the polar summer and Arctic haze pollution during the polar winter. Relatively little is known about coarse mode (supermicron) aerosols, notably dust, volcanic ash and sea salt. Asian dust is a regular springtime event whose optical and radiative forcing effects have been fairly well documented at the lower latitudes over North America but rarely reported for the Arctic. Volcanic ash, whose socio-economic importance has grown dramatically since the fear of its effects on aircraft engines resulted in the virtual shutdown of European civil aviation in the spring of 2010 has rarely been reported in the Arctic in spite of the likely probability that ash from Iceland and the Aleutian Islands makes its way into the Arctic and possibly the high Arctic. Little is known about Arctic sea salt aerosols and we are not aware of any literature on the optical measurement of these aerosols. In this work we present preliminary results of the combined sunphotometry-lidar analysis at two High Arctic stations in North America: PEARL (80°N, 86°W) for 2007-2011 and Barrow (71°N,156°W) for 2011-2014. The multi-years datasets were analyzed to single out potential coarse mode incursions and study their optical characteristics. In particular, CIMEL sunphotometers provided coarse mode optical depths as well as information on particle size and refractive index. Lidar measurements from High Spectral Resolution lidars (AHSRL at PEARL and NSHSRL at Barrow) yielded vertically resolved aerosol profiles and gave an indication of particle shape and size from the depolarization ratio and color ratio profiles. Additionally, we employed supplementary analyses of HYSPLIT backtrajectories, OMI aerosol index, and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) outputs to study the spatial context of given events.

  9. Aerosol Production and Transport in Southwest Asia (United States)

    Westphal, D. L.; Liu, M.; Reid, J. S.; Walker, A. L.; Lerner, J. A.; Zhang, J.; Eager, R. E.; Raman, S.


    Aerosol production from the Southwest Asia region is investigated using numerical forecast models for weather and aerosol particles. The Navy's Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPSTM) and the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) dynamical models and the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) aerosol model are utilized to estimate the interannual and seasonal budgets of aerosol production and transport into and out of the region. We compare dust production from this region with that from the other major dust source regions. The resolution-dependence of dust production is investigated with the dynamical and aerosol models at 9-km, 27-km, 81-km and 1-degree resolution. The resolution-dependence of the accuracy of modeled wind speed is calculated using surface reports for the spring season of 2003 (during Operation Iraqi Freedom), the summer of 2004 [during the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2)] and other periods over the past eight years. Both dynamical models show better skill at 12Z (about 1600 local time) than at 00Z (about 0400 local time; probably due to difficulties in modeling the stable nocturnal boundary layer) with the 00Z wind speeds having a positive bias. The resulting friction velocity and associated dust production are also compared between the models, though no direct observations are available for validation. Generally speaking, the models perform better in spring, when strong synoptic forcing is present, than in summer. The simulations are compared with the available sun photometer data and satellite retrievals. The results will be summarized and conclusions drawn for both the climate and operational modeling communities.

  10. Aerosol Deposition and Solar Panel Performance (United States)

    Arnott, W. P.; Rollings, A.; Taylor, S. J.; Parks, J.; Barnard, J.; Holmes, H.


    Passive and active solar collector farms are often located in relatively dry desert regions where cloudiness impacts are minimized. These farms may be susceptible to reduced performance due to routine or episodic aerosol deposition on collector surfaces. Intense episodes of wind blown dust deposition may negatively impact farm performance, and trigger need to clean collector surfaces. Aerosol deposition rate depends on size, morphology, and local meteorological conditions. We have developed a system for solar panel performance testing under real world conditions. Two identical 0.74 square meter solar panels are deployed, with one kept clean while the other receives various doses of aerosol deposition or other treatments. A variable load is used with automation to record solar panel maximum output power every 10 minutes. A collocated sonic anemometer measures wind at 10 Hz, allowing for both steady and turbulent characterization to establish a link between wind patterns and particle distribution on the cells. Multispectral photoacoustic instruments measure aerosol light scattering and absorption. An MFRSR quantifies incoming solar radiation. Solar panel albedo is measured along with the transmission spectra of particles collected on the panel surface. Key questions are: At what concentration does aerosol deposition become a problem for solar panel performance? What are the meteorological conditions that most strongly favor aerosol deposition, and are these predictable from current models? Is it feasible to use the outflow from an unmanned aerial vehicle hovering over solar panels to adequately clean their surface? Does aerosol deposition from episodes of nearby forest fires impact performance? The outlook of this research is to build a model that describes environmental effects on solar panel performance. Measurements from summer and fall 2015 will be presented along with insights gleaned from them.

  11. Sentinel-5 Precursor: Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Trace Gases & Aerosols (United States)

    Nett, Herbert; McMullan, Kevin; Ingmann, Paul


    ESA's Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) Mission will form part of the Space Component under the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative. It represents a preparatory project for the GMES atmospheric missions that comprise both a geo-stationary (Sentinel-4 / part of MTG-S payload) and a polar orbiting (Sentinel-5 / MetOp Second Generation) component. In view of the planned launch date of around 2020 for the first S-4 MTG-S and MetOp-SG spacecrafts, respectively, S5P (launch: mid 2015) shall minimize gaps in the availability of global atmospheric data products as provided by its predecessor missions SCIAMACHY (Envisat) and OMI (AURA). The satellite's single payload instrument, TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument), is jointly developed by The Netherlands and ESA. Covering spectral channels located in the UV, visible, near- and short-wave infrared it will measure various key species including stratospheric ozone, as well as NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, CH2O and aerosols, specifically in the lower Troposphere. The envisaged formation flying with NASA's Suomi NPP satellite will allow use of high spatial resolution imager data for enhanced cloud clearing of the observational data specifically in the short-wave infrared range. An outline of the Sentinel-5P mission objectives will be given. The status of development activities, covering Spacecraft and the Ground Segment will be presented.

  12. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE (aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation) aerosol code validation: Test AB6 with two aerosol species. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R K; McCormack, J C; Muhlestein, L D


    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The second large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB6, was performed in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF vessel with a two-species test aerosol. The test conditions simulated the release of a fission product aerosol, NaI, in the presence of a sodium spray fire. Five organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using seven computer codes. Three of the codes (QUICKM, MAEROS and CONTAIN) were discrete, multiple species codes, while four (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3 and SOFIA) were log-normal codes which assume uniform coagglomeration of different aerosol species. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for seven key aerosol behavior parameters.

  13. Retrieving aerosol in a cloudy environment: aerosol product availability as a function of spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Remer


    Full Text Available The challenge of using satellite observations to retrieve aerosol properties in a cloudy environment is to prevent contamination of the aerosol signal from clouds, while maintaining sufficient aerosol product yield to satisfy specific applications. We investigate aerosol retrieval availability at different instrument pixel resolutions using the standard MODIS aerosol cloud mask applied to MODIS data and supplemented with a new GOES-R cloud mask applied to GOES data for a domain covering North America and surrounding oceans. Aerosol product availability is not the same as the cloud free fraction and takes into account the techniques used in the MODIS algorithm to avoid clouds, reduce noise and maintain sufficient numbers of aerosol retrievals. The inherent spatial resolution of each instrument, 0.5×0.5 km for MODIS and 1×1 km for GOES, is systematically degraded to 1×1, 2×2, 1×4, 4×4 and 8×8 km resolutions and then analyzed as to how that degradation would affect the availability of an aerosol retrieval, assuming an aerosol product resolution at 8×8 km. The analysis is repeated, separately, for near-nadir pixels and those at larger view angles to investigate the effect of pixel growth at oblique angles on aerosol retrieval availability. The results show that as nominal pixel size increases, availability decreases until at 8×8 km 70% to 85% of the retrievals available at 0.5 km, nadir, have been lost. The effect at oblique angles is to further decrease availability over land but increase availability over ocean, because sun glint is found at near-nadir view angles. Finer resolution sensors (i.e., 1×1, 2×2 or even 1×4 km will retrieve aerosols in partly cloudy scenes significantly more often than sensors with nadir views of 4×4 km or coarser. Large differences in the results of the two cloud masks designed for MODIS aerosol and GOES cloud products strongly reinforce that cloud masks must be developed with specific purposes in mind and

  14. Aerosolization and Atmospheric Transformation of Engineered Nanoparticles (United States)

    Tiwari, Andrea J.

    While research on the environmental impacts of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing, the potential for them to be chemically transformed in the atmosphere has been largely ignored. The overall objective of this work was to assess the atmospheric transformation of carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNPs). The research focuses on C60 fullerene because it is an important member of the carbonaceous nanoparticle (CNP) family and is used in a wide variety of applications. The first specific objective was to review the potential of atmospheric transformations to alter the environmental impacts of CNPs. We described atmospheric processes that were likely to physically or chemically alter aerosolized CNPs and demonstrated their relevance to CNP behavior and toxicity in the aqueous and terrestrial environment. In order to investigate the transformations of CNP aerosols under controlled conditions, we developed an aerosolization technique that produces nano-scale aerosols without using solvents, which can alter the surface chemistry of the aerosols. We demonstrated the technique with carbonaceous (C60) and metal oxide (TiO2, CeO2) nanoparticle powders. All resulting aerosols exhibited unimodal size distributions and mode particle diameters below 100 nm. We used the new aerosolization technique to investigate the reaction between aerosolized C60 and atmospherically realistic levels of ozone (O3) in terms of reaction products, reaction rate, and oxidative stress potential. We identified C60O, C60O2, and C60O3 as products of the C60-O3 reaction. We demonstrated that the oxidative stress potential of C 60 may be enhanced by exposure to O3. We found the pseudo-first order reaction rate to be 9 x 10-6 to 2 x 10 -5 s-1, which is several orders of magnitude lower than the rate for several PAH species under comparable conditions. This research has demonstrated that a thorough understanding of atmospheric chemistry of ENPs is critical for accurate prediction of their environmental

  15. Aromatic Structure in Simulates Titan Aerosol (United States)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Loeffler, M. J.; Anderson, C. M.; Hudson, R. L.; Samuelson, R. E.; Moore, M. A.


    Observations of Titan by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) between 560 and 20 per centimeter (approximately 18 to 500 micrometers) have been used to infer the vertical variations of Titan's ice abundances, as well as those of the aerosol from the surface to an altitude of 300 km [1]. The aerosol has a broad emission feature centered approximately at 140 per centimeter (71 micrometers). As seen in Figure 1, this feature cannot be reproduced using currently available optical constants from laboratory-generated Titan aerosol analogs [2]. The far-IR is uniquely qualified for investigating low-energy vibrational motions within the lattice structures of COITIDlex aerosol. The feature observed by CIRS is broad, and does not likely arise from individual molecules, but rather is representative of the skeletal movements of macromolecules. Since Cassini's arrival at Titan, benzene (C6H6) has been detected in the atmosphere at ppm levels as well as ions that may be polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [3]. We speculate that the feature may be a blended composite that can be identified with low-energy vibrations of two-dimensional lattice structures of large molecules, such as PAHs or nitrogenated aromatics. Such structures do not dominate the composition of analog materials generated from CH4 and N2 irradiation. We are performing studies forming aerosol analog via UV irradiation of aromatic precursors - specifically C6H6 - to understand how the unique chemical architecture of the products will influence the observable aerosol characteristics. The optical and chemical properties of the aromatic analog will be compared to those formed from CH4/N2 mixtures, with a focus on the as-yet unidentified far-IR absorbance feature. Preliminary results indicate that the photochemically-formed aromatic aerosol has distinct chemical composition, and may incorporate nitrogen either into the ring structure or adjoined chemical groups. These compositional differences are

  16. Modern dust aerosol availability in northwestern China. (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Cheng, Hong; Che, Huizheng; Sun, Jimin; Lu, Huayu; Qiang, Mingrui; Hua, Ting; Zhu, Bingqi; Li, Hui; Ma, Wenyong; Lang, Lili; Jiao, Linlin; Li, Danfeng


    The sources of modern dust aerosols and their emission magnitudes are fundamental for linking dust with climate and environment. Using field sample data, wind tunnel experiments and statistical analysis, we determined the contributions of wadis, gobi (stony desert), lakebeds, riverbeds, and interdunes to modern dust aerosol availability in the three important potential dust sources including the Tarim Basin, Qaidam Basin, and Ala Shan Plateau of China. The results show that riverbeds are the dominant landscape for modern dust aerosol availabilities in the Qaidam Basin, while wadis, gobi, and interdunes are the main landscapes over the Ala Shan Plateau and Tarim Basin. The Ala Shan Plateau and Tarim Basin are potential dust sources in northwestern China, while the Qaidam Basin is not a major source of the modern dust aerosols nowadays, and it is not acting in a significant way to the Loess Plateau presently. Moreover, most of modern dust aerosol emissions from China originated from aeolian processes with low intensities rather than from major dust events.

  17. Monitoring biological aerosols using UV fluorescence (United States)

    Eversole, Jay D.; Roselle, Dominick; Seaver, Mark E.


    An apparatus has been designed and constructed to continuously monitor the number density, size, and fluorescent emission of ambient aerosol particles. The application of fluorescence to biological particles suspended in the atmosphere requires laser excitation in the UV spectral region. In this study, a Nd:YAG laser is quadrupled to provide a 266 nm wavelength to excite emission from single micrometer-sized particles in air. Fluorescent emission is used to continuously identify aerosol particles of biological origin. For calibration, biological samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and vegetative cells, Esherichia coli, Bacillus thuringiensis and Erwinia herbicola vegetative cells were prepared as suspensions in water and nebulized to produce aerosols. Detection of single aerosol particles, provides elastic scattering response as well as fluorescent emission in two spectral bands simultaneously. Our efforts have focuses on empirical characterization of the emission and scattering characteristics of various bacterial samples to determine the feasibility of optical discrimination between different cell types. Preliminary spectroscopic evidence suggest that different samples can be distinguished as separate bio-aerosol groups. In addition to controlled sample results, we will also discuss the most recent result on the effectiveness of detection outdoor releases and variations in environmental backgrounds.

  18. Photochemical organonitrate formation in wet aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Lim


    Full Text Available Water is the most abundant component of atmospheric fine aerosol. However, despite rapid progress, multiphase chemistry involving wet aerosols is still poorly understood. In this work, we report results from smog chamber photooxidation of glyoxal- and OH-containing ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the presence of NOx and O3 at high and low relative humidity. Particles were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. During the 3 h irradiation, OH oxidation products of glyoxal that are also produced in dilute aqueous solutions (e.g., oxalic acids and tartaric acids were formed in both ammonium sulfate (AS aerosols and sulfuric acid (SA aerosols. However, the major products were organonitrogens (CHNO, organosulfates (CHOS, and organonitrogen sulfates (CHNOS. These were also the dominant products formed in the dark chamber, indicating non-radical formation. In the humid chamber (> 70 % relative humidity, RH, two main products for both AS and SA aerosols were organonitrates, which appeared at m ∕ z− 147 and 226. They were formed in the aqueous phase via non-radical reactions of glyoxal and nitric acid, and their formation was enhanced by photochemistry because of the photochemical formation of nitric acid via reactions of peroxy radicals, NOx and OH during the irradiation.

  19. Microphysical Characterization of Aerosol Signatures over Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshath Sharma


    Full Text Available A detailed microphysical characterization is presented for aerosol spectra over three major areas over Greece, namely- the Area West of Crete (AWC, the Greater Thessaloniki area (GTA and the Greater Athens Area (GAA based on measurements made by Varotsos (2005. Aerosol size distributions along with cloud droplet concentrations were gathered from data collected from the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-300 and Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-100X flown on a Falcon aircraft over Greece (Varotsos, 2005. However, the microphysical and dynamical characterisation of the observations were left largely unexplored (for this later paper, particularly with regard to their growth and activation into cloud condensation nuclei. A suite of models involving Large Eddy Simulations and an Adiabatic Parcel Model were used to achieve this. The UK Met Office large eddy model (LEM reveals that mild to moderate updraughts in the range of 0.5 ms-1 to 2 ms-1 were present over Athens during June 1997, over the regions containing the aerosol bands. The sophisticated parcel model was then been applied to this data to study the growth of aerosol in the updraughts present and further, to explore the possibility of rainfall. It is found that the grown droplets have radii spanning a range of 6 μm to 100 μm indicating a hundredfold increase over initial size and the region spanning height from 2700 to 3000 meters contains precipitable water.

  20. Attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Koichi; Tanaka, Toru; Nitta, Shinnosuke; Itosu, Satoshi; Sekimoto, Shun; Oki, Yuichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)


    Various characteristics such as size distribution, chemical component and radioactivity have been analyzed for radioactive aerosols released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Measured results for radioactive aerosols suggest that the potential transport medium for radioactive cesium was non-sea-salt sulfate. This result indicates that cesium isotopes would preferentially attach with sulfate compounds. In the present work the attachment behavior of fission products to aqueous solution aerosols of sodium salts has been studied using a generation system of solution aerosols and spontaneous fission source of {sup 248}Cm. Attachment ratios of fission products to the solution aerosols were compared among the aerosols generated by different solutions of sodium salt. A significant difference according as a solute of solution aerosols was found in the attachment behavior. The present results suggest the existence of chemical effects in the attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosols.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Doppler Aerosol WiNd Lidar (DAWN) Dataset was collected by the Doppler Aerosol WiNd (DAWN), a pulsed lidar, which operated aboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft...

  2. Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn


    An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

  3. Atmospheric Aerosol Analysis using Lightweight Mini GC Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The major components of manmade aerosols are created by the burning of coal and oil. These aerosols are recognized to have a significant climatic impact through...

  4. Atmospheric Aerosol Analysis using Lightweight Mini GC Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The major components of manmade aerosols are created by the burning of coal and oil. Aerosols are recognized to significantly impact the climate through their...

  5. PRN 94-2: Recycling Empty Aerosol Pesticide Containers (United States)

    This notice offers registrants use of an optional label statement permitting recycling as an alternative to instructions to dispose of aerosol pesticide containers. Registrants may add a label reference to recycling the empty aerosol pesticide container.

  6. MISR Level 3 Global Joint Aerosol monthly product V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Joint Aerosol product contains global statistical summaries of MISR Level 2 aerosol optical depth, on a 5 degree geographic grid. Within each grid...

  7. Ben Macdhui High Altitude Trace Gas and Aerosol Transport Experiment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Piketh, SJ


    Full Text Available The Ben Macdhui High Altitude Aerosol and Trace Gas Transport Experiment (BHATTEX) was started to characterize the nature and magnitude of atmospheric, aerosol and trace gas transport paths recirculation over and exiting from southern Africa...

  8. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s...

  9. The background aerosol in the lower stratosphere and the tropospheric aerosol in the Alps. Final report; Das Hintergrundaerosol der unteren Stratosphaere und das troposphaerische Aerosol der Alpen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.; Trickl, T.


    As a contribution to the German Aerosol-Lidar Network lidar backscatter measurements have been carried out at Garmisch-Partenkirchen in a wide range of the atmosphere from next to the ground to altitudes beyond 30 km. The investigations, on one hand, were devoted to establishing a climatology of the aerosol extinction coefficient for the northern Alps and to prolonging the long-term measurement series of the stratospheric aerosol. On the other hand, aerosol was used as a tracer of polluted air masses in atmospheric transport studies (orographically induced vertical transport, advection of Saharan dust, as well as aerosol advection from the North american boundary layer and from large-scale wild fire in the United States and Canada). These transport processes given the seasonal cycle of the aerosol throughout the troposphere. In the free troposphere a pronounced spring-time aerosol maximum was found. The stratospheric aerosol concentration had decayed to a background-type level during the reporting period. As a consequence, the influence of smaller aerosol contributions could be distinguished such as the eruption of the volcano Shishaldin (Alaska) and aircraft emissions. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des deutschen Aerosollidarnetzes wurden in Garmisch-Partenkirchen Lidar-Rueckstreumessungen in einem weiten Bereich der Atmosphaere von Bodennaehe bis in ueber 30 km Hoehe durchgefuehrt. Die Arbeiten dienten zum einen der Erstellung einer Klimatologie des Aerosol-Extinktionskoeffizienten fuer die Nordalpen sowie der Verlaengerung der seit 1976 erstellten Langzeitmessreihe des stratosphaerischen Aerosols. Zum anderen fanden atmosphaerische Transportstudien statt, bei denen das Aerosol als 'Tracer' fuer Luftverschmutzung verwendet wurde (orographisch induzierter Vertikaltransport, Advektion von Saharastaub und Aerosoladvektion aus der nordamerikanischen Genzschicht und von grossflaechigen Waldbraenden in den U.S.A. und Kanada). Diese Transportprozesse bestimmen den

  10. Data S4.xls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choong Yong

    Microcebus murinus), Bushbaby (Otolemur Garnettii), Mouse (Mus musculus), Rat (Rattus norvegicus), Squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus), Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Pig (Sus scrofa) ...

  11. S:4 )~W:<.. ~ ---1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ever, must be rejected as mere false propaganda because reality and experience have unmistakably proved that the Kremlin's definition of the concepts peace and peaceful co-existence is totally different to that of the West. While proclaiming peace, and propagating the principles of detente and peaceful co-existence, it ...

  12. S:4 )~W:<.. ~ ---1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    building the new society in socialist countries, and for developing ... secure world domination, not by making war but by means of ... the British geographer, Sir Halford Mackinder, at the beginning of ... to lend itself to the growth of empires and in the end to a single ... India and South Atlantic) and the surrounding lands. (India ...

  13. Change in global aerosol composition since preindustrial times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tsigaridis


    Full Text Available To elucidate human induced changes of aerosol load and composition in the atmosphere, a coupled aerosol and gas-phase chemistry transport model of the troposphere and lower stratosphere has been used. The present 3-D modeling study focuses on aerosol chemical composition change since preindustrial times considering the secondary organic aerosol formation together with all other main aerosol components including nitrate. In particular, we evaluate non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO4=, ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3−, black carbon (BC, sea-salt, dust, primary and secondary organics (POA and SOA with a focus on the importance of secondary organic aerosols. Our calculations show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD has increased by about 21% since preindustrial times. This enhancement of AOD is attributed to a rise in the atmospheric load of BC, nss-SO4=, NO3, POA and SOA by factors of 3.3, 2.6, 2.7, 2.3 and 1.2, respectively, whereas we assumed that the natural dust and sea-salt sources remained constant. The nowadays increase in carbonaceous aerosol loading is dampened by a 34–42% faster conversion of hydrophobic to hydrophilic carbonaceous aerosol leading to higher removal rates. These changes between the various aerosol components resulted in significant modifications of the aerosol chemical composition. The relative importance of the various aerosol components is critical for the aerosol climatic effect, since atmospheric aerosols behave differently when their chemical composition changes. According to this study, the aerosol composition changed significantly over the different continents and with height since preindustrial times. The presence of anthropogenically emitted primary particles in the atmosphere facilitates the condensation of the semi-volatile species that form SOA onto the aerosol phase, particularly in the boundary layer. The SOA burden that is dominated by the natural component has increased by 24% while its contribution to the AOD

  14. Heterometallic [AgFe(3)S (4)] ferredoxin variants: synthesis, characterization, and the first crystal structure of an engineered heterometallic iron-sulfur protein. (United States)

    Martic, Maja; Jakab-Simon, Ida Noémi; Haahr, Lærke Tvedebrink; Hagen, Wilfred Raymond; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager


    Heterometallic [AgFe(3)S(4)] iron-sulfur clusters assembled in wild-type Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin and two variants, D14C and D14H, are characterized. The crystal structure of the [AgFe(3)S(4)] D14C variant shows that the silver(I) ion is indeed part of the cluster and is coordinated to the thiolate group of residue 14. Cyclic voltammetry shows one redox pair with a reduction potential of +220 mV versus the standard hydrogen electrode which is assigned to the [AgFe(3)S(4)](2+/+) couple. The oxidized form of the [AgFe(3)S(4)] D14C variant is stable in the presence of dioxygen, whereas the oxidized forms of the [AgFe(3)S(4)] wild type and D14H variants convert to the [Fe(3)S(4)] ferredoxin form. The monovalent d (10) silver(I) ion stabilizes the [Fe(3)S(4)](+/0) cluster fragment, as opposed to divalent d (10) metal ions, resulting in more than 0.4 V difference in reduction potentials between the silver(I) and, e.g., zinc(II) heterometallic [MFe(3)S(4)] ferredoxins. The trend in reduction potentials for the variants containing the [AgFe(3)S(4)] cluster is wild type ≤ D14C potential trend for the variants containing the heterometallic [AgFe(3)S(4)] cluster and the [Fe(3)S(4)] cluster can be rationalized in terms of the electrostatic influence of the residue 14 side chains, rather than the dissociation constant of this residue, as is the case for [Fe(4)S(4)] ferredoxins. The trends in reduction potentials are in line with there being no electronic coupling between the silver(I) ion and the Fe(3)S(4) fragment.

  15. Rare Earth Chalcogels NaLnSnS4 (Ln = Y, Gd, Tb) for Selective Adsorption of Volatile Hydrocarbons and Gases

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah


    The synthesis and characterization of the rare earth chalcogenide aerogels NaYSnS4, NaGdSnS4, and NaTbSnS4 is reported. Rare earth metal ions like Y3+, Gd3+, and Tb3+ react with the chalcogenide clusters [SnS4]4– in aqueous formamide solution forming extended polymeric networks by gelation. Aerogels obtained after supercritical drying have BET surface areas of 649 m2·g–1 (NaYSnS4), 479 m2·g–1 (NaGdSnS4), and 354 m2·g–1 (NaTbSnS4). Electron microscopy and physisorption studies reveal that the new materials have pores in the macro (above 50 nm) and meso (2–50 nm) regions. These aerogels show higher adsorption of toluene vapor over cyclohexane vapor and CO2 over CH4 or H2. The notable adsorption capacity for toluene (NaYSnS4: 1108 mg·g–1; NaGdSnS4: 921 mg·g–1; and NaTbSnS4: 645 mg·g–1) and high selectivity for gases (CO2/H2: 172 and CO2/CH4: 50 for NaYSnS4, CO2/H2: 155 and CO2/CH4: 37 for NaGdSnS4, and CO2/H2: 75 and CO2/CH4: 28 for NaTbSnS4) indicate potential future use of chalcogels in adsorption-based gas or hydrocarbon separation processes.

  16. Perspective: Aerosol microphysics: From molecules to the chemical physics of aerosols (United States)

    Bzdek, Bryan R.; Reid, Jonathan P.


    Aerosols are found in a wide diversity of contexts and applications, including the atmosphere, pharmaceutics, and industry. Aerosols are dispersions of particles in a gas, and the coupling of the two phases results in highly dynamic systems where chemical and physical properties like size, composition, phase, and refractive index change rapidly in response to environmental perturbations. Aerosol particles span a wide range of sizes from 1 nm to tens of micrometres or from small molecular clusters that may more closely resemble gas phase molecules to large particles that can have similar qualities to bulk materials. However, even large particles with finite volumes exhibit distinct properties from the bulk condensed phase, due in part to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and their ability to easily access supersaturated solute states inaccessible in the bulk. Aerosols represent a major challenge for study because of the facile coupling between the particle and gas, the small amounts of sample available for analysis, and the sheer breadth of operative processes. Time scales of aerosol processes can be as short as nanoseconds or as long as years. Despite their very different impacts and applications, fundamental chemical physics processes serve as a common theme that underpins our understanding of aerosols. This perspective article discusses challenges in the study of aerosols and highlights recent chemical physics advancements that have enabled improved understanding of these complex systems.

  17. MATRIX-VBS Condensing Organic Aerosols in an Aerosol Microphysics Model (United States)

    Gao, Chloe Y.; Tsigaridis, Konstas; Bauer, Susanne E.


    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  18. A characterization of Arctic aerosols on the basis of aerosol optical depth and black carbon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Stone


    Full Text Available Abstract Aerosols, transported from distant source regions, influence the Arctic surface radiation budget. When deposited on snow and ice, carbonaceous particles can reduce the surface albedo, which accelerates melting, leading to a temperature-albedo feedback that amplifies Arctic warming. Black carbon (BC, in particular, has been implicated as a major warming agent at high latitudes. BC and co-emitted aerosols in the atmosphere, however, attenuate sunlight and radiatively cool the surface. Warming by soot deposition and cooling by atmospheric aerosols are referred to as “darkening” and “dimming” effects, respectively. In this study, climatologies of spectral aerosol optical depth AOD (2001–2011 and Equivalent BC (EBC (1989–2011 from three Arctic observatories and from a number of aircraft campaigns are used to characterize Arctic aerosols. Since the 1980s, concentrations of BC in the Arctic have decreased by more than 50% at ground stations where in situ observations are made. AOD has increased slightly during the past decade, with variations attributed to changing emission inventories and source strengths of natural aerosols, including biomass smoke and volcanic aerosol, further influenced by deposition rates and airflow patterns.

  19. Modeling Photosensitized Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Laboratory and Ambient Aerosols. (United States)

    Tsui, William G; Rao, Yi; Dai, Hai-Lung; McNeill, V Faye


    Photosensitized reactions involving imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) have been experimentally observed to contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth. However, the extent of photosensitized reactions in ambient aerosols remains poorly understood and unaccounted for in atmospheric models. Here we use GAMMA 4.0, a photochemical box model that couples gas-phase and aqueous-phase aerosol chemistry, along with recent laboratory measurements of the kinetics of IC photochemistry, to analyze IC-photosensitized SOA formation in laboratory and ambient settings. Analysis of the laboratory results of Aregahegn et al. (2013) suggests that photosensitized production of SOA from limonene, isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and toluene by 3IC* occurs at or near the surface of the aerosol particle. Reactive uptake coefficients were derived from the experimental data using GAMMA 4.0. Simulations of aqueous aerosol SOA formation at remote ambient conditions including IC photosensitizer chemistry indicate less than 0.3% contribution to SOA growth from direct reactions of 3IC* with limonene, isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and toluene, and an enhancement of less than 0.04% of SOA formation from other precursors due to the formation of radicals in the bulk aerosol aqueous phase. Other, more abundant photosensitizer species, such as humic-like substances (HULIS), may contribute more significantly to aqueous aerosol SOA production.

  20. Perspective: Aerosol microphysics: From molecules to the chemical physics of aerosols. (United States)

    Bzdek, Bryan R; Reid, Jonathan P


    Aerosols are found in a wide diversity of contexts and applications, including the atmosphere, pharmaceutics, and industry. Aerosols are dispersions of particles in a gas, and the coupling of the two phases results in highly dynamic systems where chemical and physical properties like size, composition, phase, and refractive index change rapidly in response to environmental perturbations. Aerosol particles span a wide range of sizes from 1 nm to tens of micrometres or from small molecular clusters that may more closely resemble gas phase molecules to large particles that can have similar qualities to bulk materials. However, even large particles with finite volumes exhibit distinct properties from the bulk condensed phase, due in part to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and their ability to easily access supersaturated solute states inaccessible in the bulk. Aerosols represent a major challenge for study because of the facile coupling between the particle and gas, the small amounts of sample available for analysis, and the sheer breadth of operative processes. Time scales of aerosol processes can be as short as nanoseconds or as long as years. Despite their very different impacts and applications, fundamental chemical physics processes serve as a common theme that underpins our understanding of aerosols. This perspective article discusses challenges in the study of aerosols and highlights recent chemical physics advancements that have enabled improved understanding of these complex systems.

  1. Cloud Simulation Warm Cloud Experiments: Droplet Growth and Aerosol Scavenging. (United States)


    aerosol generator (White, et al., 1987; Alofs, et al., 1979) followed by electric mobility size classification. The geometric standard deviation of the...Inversion C. Chamber flushingC. Chmefuhn program to process electric mobility classifier aerosol size distribution data. Another program is used to analyze...8217 1.The EAC (electric aerosol classifier) is an electric mobility .: device which charges the aerosol and uses mobility to select one _-Zb secon

  2. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. In the third quarter of the third year, F344 rats vaccinated with adjuvanted NLP formulations were challenged with F. tularensis SCHU S4 at Battelle. Preliminary data indicate that up to 65% of females vaccinated intranasally with an NLP-based formulation survived this challenge, compared to only 20% survival of naïve animals. In addition, NLPs were successfully formulated with Burkholderia protein antigens. IACUC approval for immunological assessments in BALB/c mice was received and we anticipate that these assessments will begin by March 2015, pending ACURO approval.

  3. Development of an aerosol decontamination factor evaluation method using an aerosol spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Taizo, E-mail:; Furuya, Masahiro, E-mail:; Arai, Takahiro, E-mail:; Nishi, Yoshihisa, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Aerosol DF of each diameter is evaluable by using optical scattering method. • Outlet aerosol concentration shows exponential decay by the submergence. • This decay constant depends on the aerosol diameter. • Aerosol DF at water scrubber is described by simple equation. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear power plant accident, the release of fission products into containment and an increase in containment pressure are assumed to be possible. When the containment is damaged by excess pressure or temperature, radioactive materials are released. Pressure suppression pools, containment spray systems and a filtered containment venting system (FCVS) reduce containment pressure and reduce the radioactive release into the environment. These devices remove radioactive materials via various mechanisms. Pressure suppression pools remove radioactive materials by pool scrubbing. Spray systems remove radioactive materials by droplet−aerosol interaction. FCVS, which is installed in the exhaust system, comprises multi-scrubbers (venturi-scrubber, pool scrubbing, static mixer, metal−fiber filter and molecular sieve). For the particulate radioactive materials, its size affects the removal performance and a number of studies have been performed on the removal effect of radioactive materials. This study has developed a new means of evaluating aerosol removal efficiency. The aerosol number density of each effective diameter (light scattering equivalent diameter) is measured using an optical method, while the decontamination factor (DF) of each effective diameter is evaluated by the inlet outlet number density ratio. While the applicable scope is limited to several conditions (geometry of test section: inner diameter 500 mm × height 8.0 m, nozzle shape and air-water ambient pressure conditions), this study has developed a numerical model which defines aerosol DF as a function of aerosol diameter (d) and submergences (x).

  4. Antiperovskite Chalco-Halides Ba3(FeS4)Cl, Ba3(FeS4)Br, and Ba3(FeSe4)Br with Spin Super-Super Exchange (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Liu, Kai; He, Jian-Qiao; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qing-Zhen; Lin, Jian-Hua; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Huang, Fu-Qiang


    Perovskite-related materials have received increasing attention for their broad applications in photovoltaic solar cells and information technology due to their unique electrical and magnetic properties. Here we report three new antiperovskite chalco-halides: Ba3(FeS4)Cl, Ba3(FeS4)Br, and Ba3(FeSe4)Br. All of them were found to be good solar light absorbers. Remarkably, although the shortest Fe-Fe distance exceeds 6 Å, an unexpected anti-ferromagnetic phase transition near 100 K was observed in their magnetic susceptibility measurement. The corresponding complex magnetic structures were resolved by neutron diffraction experiments as well as investigated by first-principles electronic structure calculations. The spin-spin coupling between two neighboring Fe atoms along the b axis, which is realized by the Fe-S···S-Fe super-super exchange mechanism, was found to be responsible for this magnetic phase transition.

  5. High crystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 semiconductor prepared from low toxicity ethanol-based precursors (United States)

    Munir, Badrul; Prastyo, Bayu Eko; Nurjaya, Dwi Marta; Muslih, Ersan Yudhapratama; Alfauzan, Sahri Karim


    At this moment, we present a new, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method of preparing a high crystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) absorber layer for thin film solar cells using ethanol-based solutions. Ethanolamine (ETA) and 2-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were studied as a stabilizer and to improve wetting ability of the precursors during the deposition process. Cu2ZnSnS4 precursors are deposited onto soda lime glass using spin coater in different molar of cations in the precursor. The effects of a precursor system, ethanol-ETA-MPA, and ethanol-MPA, on the structure, morphology, composition and optical properties of CZTS thin films have been investigated in details. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed the successful fabrication of high crystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 kesterite phase. The crystallinity of CZTS is continue increasing before reaching 2.2 molar cations of the ethanol-MPA precursors. The crystallinity of ethanol-ETA-MPA precursors remains similar in the experiment using 1.2 molar and 1.6 molars. The highest crystallinity was achieved using 2 molar cations of the ethanol-MPA precursor. Its band gap energy is found to be around 1.4 eV. The SEM micrographs of CZTS film shows the average grain size around 1.5 µm and some porosity which indicated the room of improvement. The high-crystallinity CZTS achieved in the present study brings a low-cost absorber semiconductor one step closer to practical use.

  6. Multiwavelength observations of the γ-ray flaring quasar S4 1030+61 in 2009-2014 (United States)

    Kravchenko, E. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Hovatta, T.; Ramakrishnan, V.


    We present a study of the parsec-scale multifrequency properties of the quasar S4 1030+61 during a prolonged radio and γ-ray activity. Observations were performed within Fermi γ-ray telescope, Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40-m telescope and MOJAVE Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) monitoring programmes, covering five years from 2009. The data are supplemented by four-epoch VLBA observations at 5, 8, 15, 24 and 43 GHz, which were triggered by the bright γ-ray flare, registered in the quasar in 2010. The S4 1030+61 jet exhibits an apparent superluminal velocity of (6.4 ± 0.4)c and does not show ejections of new components in the observed period, while decomposition of the radio light curve reveals nine prominent flares. The measured variability parameters of the source show values typical for Fermi-detected quasars. Combined analysis of radio and γ-ray emission implies a spatial separation between emitting regions at these bands of about 12 pc and locates the γ-ray emission within a parsec from the central engine. We detected changes in the value and direction of the linear polarization and the Faraday rotation measure. The value of the intrinsic brightness temperature of the core is above the equipartition state, while its value as a function of distance from the core is well approximated by the power law. Altogether these results show that the radio flaring activity of the quasar is accompanied by injection of relativistic particles and energy losses at the jet base, while S4 1030+61 has a stable, straight jet well described by standard conical jet theories.

  7. CADS:Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Harry K.


    This manual describes a library for aerosol kinetics and transport, called CADS (Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator), which employs a section-based approach for describing the particle size distributions. CADS is based upon Cantera, a set of C++ libraries and applications that handles gas phase species transport and reactions. The method uses a discontinuous Galerkin formulation to represent the particle distributions within each section and to solve for changes to the aerosol particle distributions due to condensation, coagulation, and nucleation processes. CADS conserves particles, elements, and total enthalpy up to numerical round-off error, in all of its formulations. Both 0-D time dependent and 1-D steady state applications (an opposing-flow flame application) have been developed with CADS, with the initial emphasis on developing fundamental mechanisms for soot formation within fires. This report also describes the 0-D application, TDcads, which models a time-dependent perfectly stirred reactor.

  8. Photophoretic levitation of engineered aerosols for geoengineering (United States)

    Keith, David W.


    Aerosols could be injected into the upper atmosphere to engineer the climate by scattering incident sunlight so as to produce a cooling tendency that may mitigate the risks posed by the accumulation of greenhouse gases. Analysis of climate engineering has focused on sulfate aerosols. Here I examine the possibility that engineered nanoparticles could exploit photophoretic forces, enabling more control over particle distribution and lifetime than is possible with sulfates, perhaps allowing climate engineering to be accomplished with fewer side effects. The use of electrostatic or magnetic materials enables a class of photophoretic forces not found in nature. Photophoretic levitation could loft particles above the stratosphere, reducing their capacity to interfere with ozone chemistry; and, by increasing particle lifetimes, it would reduce the need for continual replenishment of the aerosol. Moreover, particles might be engineered to drift poleward enabling albedo modification to be tailored to counter polar warming while minimizing the impact on equatorial climates. PMID:20823254

  9. Aerosol can puncture device test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.


    This test report documents the evaluation of an aerosol can puncture device to replace a system currently identified for use in the WRAP-1 facility. The new system is based upon a commercially available puncture device, as recommended by WHC Fire Protection. With modifications found necessary through the testing program, the Aerosol Can Puncture Device was found able to puncture and drain aerosol cans without incident. Modifications include the addition of a secondary collection bottle and the modification of the can puncture needle. In the course of testing, a variety of absorbents were tested to determine their performance in immobilizing drained fluids. The visibility of the puncture with Non-Destructive Examination techniques were also reviewed.

  10. Multi-compartment Aerosol Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Santarpia, Joshua; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Omana, Michael Alexis; Rivera, Danielle; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony


    A simple aerosol transport model was developed for a multi-compartmented cleanroom. Each compartment was treated as a well-mixed volume with ventilating supply and return air. Gravitational settling, intercompartment transport, and leakage of exterior air into the system were included in the model. A set of first order, coupled, ordinary differential equations was derived from the conservation equations of aerosol mass and air mass. The system of ODEs was then solved in MATLAB using pre-existing numerical methods. The model was verified against cases of (1) constant inlet-duct concentration, and (2) exponentially decaying inlet-duct concentration. Numerical methods resulted in normalized error of less than 10 -9 when model solutions were compared to analytical solutions. The model was validated against experimental measurements from a single field test and showed good agreement in the shape and magnitude of the aerosol concentration profile with time.

  11. Monitoring spatial-temporal variability of aerosol over Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validation of MODIS AOD using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) indicated that MODIS overestimated the aerosol loading over the study region. Space time variability of MODIS AOD measurements over Kenya showed a decreasing trend in aerosol loading with a long term mean of between 0.02 and 0.56.

  12. Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo. (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Ghan, Steven; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai


    Much of the uncertainty in estimates of the anthropogenic forcing of climate change comes from uncertainties in the instantaneous effect of aerosols on cloud albedo, known as the Twomey effect or the radiative forcing from aerosol-cloud interactions (RFaci), a component of the total or effective radiative forcing. Because aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei can have a strong influence on the cloud droplet number concentration (Nd ), previous studies have used the sensitivity of the Nd to aerosol properties as a constraint on the strength of the RFaci. However, recent studies have suggested that relationships between aerosol and cloud properties in the present-day climate may not be suitable for determining the sensitivity of the Nd to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations. Using an ensemble of global aerosol-climate models, this study demonstrates how joint histograms between Nd and aerosol properties can account for many of the issues raised by previous studies. It shows that if the anthropogenic contribution to the aerosol is known, the RFaci can be diagnosed to within 20% of its actual value. The accuracy of different aerosol proxies for diagnosing the RFaci is investigated, confirming that using the aerosol optical depth significantly underestimates the strength of the aerosol-cloud interactions in satellite data.

  13. Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Ghan, Steven; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G.; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai


    Much of the uncertainty in estimates of the anthropogenic forcing of climate change comes from uncertainties in the instantaneous effect of aerosols on cloud albedo, known as the Twomey effect or the radiative forcing from aerosol-cloud interactions (RFaci), a component of the total or effective radiative forcing. Because aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei can have a strong influence on the cloud droplet number concentration (Nd), previous studies have used the sensitivity of the Nd to aerosol properties as a constraint on the strength of the RFaci. However, recent studies have suggested that relationships between aerosol and cloud properties in the present-day climate may not be suitable for determining the sensitivity of the Nd to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations. Using an ensemble of global aerosol-climate models, this study demonstrates how joint histograms between Nd and aerosol properties can account for many of the issues raised by previous studies. It shows that if the anthropogenic contribution to the aerosol is known, the RFaci can be diagnosed to within 20% of its actual value. The accuracy of different aerosol proxies for diagnosing the RFaci is investigated, confirming that using the aerosol optical depth significantly underestimates the strength of the aerosol-cloud interactions in satellite data.

  14. Determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Leeuw, G. de


    Mostly, aerosol properties are poorly understood because the aerosol properties are very sparse. The first workshop on the determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements is convened in Bremen, Germany. In this workshop, the topics of discussions included a

  15. The Generation And Properties Of Solid Monodisperse Aerosols Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A monodisperse aerosol generator (MAGE) was used to generate calibration or monodisperse aerosols containing stearic acid and carnauba wax. Some of the factors affecting the size of aerosol particles generated with the MAGE were determined. The factors include: temperature of operation of the MAGE, type and purity ...

  16. Aerosol transport in the coastal environment and effects on extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignati, E.; Leeuw, G. de; Berkowicz, R.


    The aerosol in the coastal environment consists of a complicated mixture of anthropogenic and rural aerosol generated over land, and sea spray aerosol. Also, particles are generate dover sea by physical and chemical processes and the chemical composition may change due to condensation/evaporation of

  17. Change in global aerosol composition since preindustrial times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Krol, M.C.; Dentener, F.; Balkanski, Y.; Lathiere, J.; Metzger, S.; Hauglustaine, D.; Kanakidou, M.


    To elucidate human induced changes of aerosol load and composition in the atmosphere, a coupled aerosol and gas-phase chemistry transport model of the troposphere and lower stratosphere has been used. The present 3-D modeling study focuses on aerosol chemical composition change since preindustrial

  18. Variations of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom parameters at a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar irradiance is attenuated spectrally when passing through the earth's atmosphere and it is strongly dependent on sky conditions, cleanliness of the atmosphere, composition of aerosols and gaseous con- stituents. In this paper, aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent (α) and ...

  19. Organic aerosol formation during the atmospheric degradation of toluene. (United States)

    Hurley, M D; Sokolov, O; Wallington, T J; Takekawa, H; Karasawa, M; Klotz, B; Barnes, I; Becker, K H


    Organic aerosol formation during the atmospheric oxidation of toluene was investigated using smog chamber systems. Toluene oxidation was initiated by the UV irradiation of either toluene/air/NOx or toluene/air/CH3ONO/NO mixtures. Aerosol formation was monitored using scanning mobility particle sizers and toluene loss was monitored by in-situ FTIR spectroscopy or GC-FID techniques. The experimental results show that the reaction of OH radicals, NO3 radicals and/or ozone with the first generation products of toluene oxidation are sources of organic aerosol during the atmospheric oxidation of toluene. The aerosol results fall into two groups, aerosol formed in the absence and presence of ozone. An analytical expression for aerosol formation is developed and values are obtained for the yield of the aerosol species. In the absence of ozone the aerosol yield, defined as aerosol formed per unit toluene consumed once a threshold for aerosol formation has been exceeded, is 0.075 +/- 0.004. In the presence of ozone the aerosol yield is 0.108 +/- 0.004. This work provides experimental evidence and a simple theory confirming the formation of aerosol from secondary reactions.

  20. A sea spray aerosol flux parameterization encapsulating wave state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Manders, A.; De Leeuw, G.; Ceburnis, D.; Monahan, C.; Partanen, A.I.; Korhonen, H.; O'Dowd, C.D.


    A new sea spray source function (SSSF), termed Oceanflux Sea Spray Aerosol or OSSA, was derived based on in-situ sea spray aerosol measurements along with meteorological/physical parameters. Submicron sea spray aerosol fluxes derived from particle number concentration measurements at the Mace Head

  1. Sodium distribution in solar-grade Cu2ZnSnS4 layers using atom-probe tomographic technique (United States)

    Tajima, Shin; Asahi, Ryoji; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Ohishi, Kei-ichiro


    To investigate the effect of alkali doping on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) photovoltaic cells, we studied compositional distributions in CZTS layers using three-dimensional atom-probe tomography. The segregation of Na at a concentration of approximately 1 at. % was observed predominantly at CZTS grain boundaries. The concentration of Na in the interior of the CZTS grains was below the detection limit (approximately 40 ppm). Na ions may exist as sulfide compounds at CZTS grain boundaries, independent of the presence of oxygen.

  2. Top-mass effects in differential Higgs production through gluon fusion at order \\alpha_s^4

    CERN Document Server

    Harlander, Robert V; Ozeren, Kemal J; Wiesemann, Marius


    Effects from a finite top quark mass on differential distributions in the Higgs+jet production cross section through gluon fusion are studied at next-to-leading order in the strong coupling, i.e. $O(\\alpha_s^4)$. Terms formally subleading in $1/m_t$ are calculated, and their influence on the transverse momentum and rapidity distribution of the Higgs boson are evaluated. We find that, for the differential K-factor, the heavy-top limit is valid at the 2-3% level as long as the transverse momentum of the Higgs remains below about 150 GeV.

  3. Solution synthesis and reactivity of colloidal Fe2GeS4: a potential candidate for earth abundant, nanostructured photovoltaics. (United States)

    Fredrick, Sarah J; Prieto, Amy L


    Iron chalcogenides, in particular iron pyrite, have great potential to be useful materials for cost-effective thin film photovoltaics. However, the performance of pyrite as an absorber material in photovoltaic devices has fallen far short of the theoretical efficiency. A potential cause of this may be the instability of the pyrite phase. An alternate class of iron chalcogenides, Fe2MS4 (M = Ge, Si) has been proposed as a possible alternative to pyrite, yet has only been studied for interesting magnetic properties. Herein, we report the first solution synthesis of colloidal Fe2GeS4 and report the optical properties, reactivity, and potential for use as a photovoltaic material.

  4. Low temperature magnetic susceptibility behavior of the Neuschwanstein EL6 meteorite and mineral daubreelite (FeCr2S4) (United States)

    Kohout, T.; Kletetschka, G.; Lehtinen, M.; Pesonen, L. J.; Wasilewski, P. J.


    Neuschwanstein meteorite (enstatite chondrite EL-6) fall occurred on April 6, 2002 close to Neuschwanstein castle in Bavaria, Germany. Total three meteorite bodies were found on the fall site. Two fragments coming from a 1750g body found on July 14, 2002 were obtained to the Division of Geophysics, University of Helsinki. The low temperature magnetic properties were investigated using KLY-3 and KLY-4 kappabridges equipped with low temperature control unit. During the low-temperature susceptibility measurements an unknown kink feature was observed at ~150 K on all measured samples. The closest known magnetic transition is the curie temperature Tc ~170 K of synthetic FeCr2S4 mentioned in Müller et al., 2006. FeCr2S4 is naturally present in enstatite chondrites and iron meteorites in the form of mineral daubreelite and was reported to be present in the Neuschwanstein meteorite in Zipfel and Dreibus, 2003. The extensive study of magnetic susceptibility of Neuschwanstein meteorite and daubreelite extract form Coahuila iron meteorite (hexahedrite, II A) was conducted in order to investigate the low temperature magnetic susceptibility of those materials and its field and frequency dependence. The results indicate Tc of natural daubreelite extract from Coahuila meteorite to be ~160 K what is slightly lower than the Tc of synthetic FeCr2S4 reported in Müller et al., 2006. The magnetic susceptibility of natural daubreelite from Coahuila meteorite and of ~150 K feature in Neuschwanstein meteorite show no field dependence of magnetic susceptibility. Due to the similarity in the low temperature magnetic susceptibility behaviour of Neuschwanstein meteorite and daubreelite extract from Coahuila meteorite we link the Neuschwanstein ~150 K feature to the Tc of daubreelite present in this meteorite. The 10 K difference of the Tc of daubreelite in Neuschwanstein and Coahuila meteorites can be attributed to the presence of impurities or structural deformations in the daubreelite

  5. Spray-coated Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films for large-scale photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Murthy, Swathi; Mariño, Simón López

    The kesterite material, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), has in the preceding ten years been investigated and developed as a new Earth-abundant material for solar cells. The interest in this inorganic semiconductor originates in its optimal energy band gap of approx. 1.5 eV, high absorption coefficient...... the “cousin”-material, CuInGaSe2 (CIGS), which is currently one of the main thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies on the market. In this work, CZTS thin films have been fabricated by solution-processing, which allows relatively fast and inexpensive deposition when compared to vacuum-processed films...

  6. Aerosol filtration - performance of filter media; Filtration des aerosols - performances des medias filtrants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, D.; Regnier, R. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite (INRS), Dept. Ingenierie des Procedes, 75 - Paris (France); Calle, S.; Thomas, D.; Simon, X.; Appert-Collin, J.Ch. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)


    Set up in 2000, the Laboratoire de Filtration des Aerosols in Nancy (LFA), associating research teams from INRS (Institut National de Recherche et de Securite and LSGC (Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique - CNRS), has been commissioned to provide expertise in the aerosol filtration field to both CRAM (Caisse Regionale de l'Assurance Maladie) prevention specialists and industrialists. Following a theoretical review of fibre medium filtration, this paper summarises the different actions undertaken by the LFA: filter performance during clogging with liquid and solid aerosols, modelling, pneumatic unclogging of baghouse dust collectors, influence of micro-leaks, etc. (authors)

  7. Importance of Raman Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements for Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zaw


    Full Text Available Using a UV Raman Lidar for aerosol extinction, and combining Microwave Radiometer derived Liquid Water Path (LWP with Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer derived Cloud Optical depth, to get cloud effective radius (Reff, we observe under certain specialized conditions, clear signatures of the Twomey Aerosol Indirect effect on cloud droplet properties which are consistent with the theoretical bounds. We also show that the measurement is very sensitive to how far the aerosol layer is from the cloud base and demonstrate that surface PM25 is far less useful. Measurements from both the DOE ARM site and new results at CCNY are presented.

  8. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics


    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  9. Photochemical Formation of Sulfur-Containing Aerosols (United States)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica


    In order to understand planetary climate systems, modeling the properties of atmospheric aerosols is vital. Aerosol formation plays an important role in planetary climates and is tied to feedback loops that can either warm or cool a planet. Sulfur compounds are known to play an important role in new particle aerosol formation and have been observed in a number of planetary atmospheres throughout our solar system. Our current understanding of sulfur chemistry explains much of what we observe in Earth's atmosphere; however, several discrepancies arise when comparing observations of the Venusian atmosphere with model predictions. This suggests that there are still problems in our fundamental understanding of sulfur chemistry. This is concerning given recent renewed interest in sulfate injections in the stratosphere for solar radiation management geo-engineering schemes. We investigate the role of sunlight as a potential driver of the formation of sulfur-containing aerosols. I will present recent work investigating the generation of large quantities of aerosol from the irradiation of mixtures of SO_2 with water and organic species, using a solar simulator that mimics the light that is available in the Earth's troposphere and the Venusian middle atmosphere. I will present on recent work done in our lab suggesting the formation of sulfurous acid, H_2SO_3, and describe experimental work that supports this proposed mechanism. Additionally I will present on new work showing the highly reactive nature of electronically excited SO_2 with saturated alkane species. The implications of this photochemically induced sulfur aerosol formation in the atmosphere of Earth and other planetary atmospheres will be discussed.

  10. Ionic Surface Active Compounds in Atmospheric Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariya Sukhapan


    Full Text Available Surfactants in the atmosphere have several potential roles in atmospheric chemistry. They can form films on aqueous surfaces, which lowers the surface tension and possibly delays water evaporation and gaseous transportation across the aqueous interface. They can also increase the solubility of organic compounds in the aqueous phase. Recently, the decrease of surface tension in cloud growing droplets has been suggested as relevant to increases in the number of droplets of smaller size, potentially enhancing cloud albedo. Natural surfactants in the lung aid gas transfer and influence the dissolution rate of aerosol particles, so surfactants in atmospheric aerosols, once inhaled, may interact with pulmonary surfactants. Ambient aerosols were collected from the edge of Norwich, a small city in a largely agricultural region of England, and analysed for surfactants. Methylene blue, a conventional dye for detecting anionic surfactants, has been used as a colorimetric agent. The concentration of surfactants expressed as methylene blue active substances (MBAS is in the range of 6–170 pmol m-3(air. A negative correlation with chloride aerosol indicates that these surfactants are probably not the well-known surfactants derived from marine spray. A more positive correlation with aerosol nitrate and gaseous NOx supports an association with more polluted inland air masses. The surfactants found in aerosols seem to be relatively strong acids, compared with weaker acids such as the long-chain carboxylic acids previously proposed as atmospheric surfactants. Surfactants from the oxidation of organic materials (perhaps vegetation- or soil-derived seem a likely source of these substances in the atmosphere.

  11. Aerosol indirect effects in a multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang


    Full Text Available Much of the large uncertainty in estimates of anthropogenic aerosol effects on climate arises from the multi-scale nature of the interactions between aerosols, clouds and dynamics, which are difficult to represent in conventional general circulation models (GCMs. In this study, we use a multi-scale aerosol-climate model that treats aerosols and clouds across multiple scales to study aerosol indirect effects. This multi-scale aerosol-climate model is an extension of a multi-scale modeling framework (MMF model that embeds a cloud-resolving model (CRM within each vertical column of a GCM grid. The extension allows a more physically-based treatment of aerosol-cloud interactions in both stratiform and convective clouds on the global scale in a computationally feasible way. Simulated model fields, including liquid water path (LWP, ice water path, cloud fraction, shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, precipitation, water vapor, and cloud droplet number concentration are in reasonable agreement with observations. The new model performs quantitatively similar to the previous version of the MMF model in terms of simulated cloud fraction and precipitation. The simulated change in shortwave cloud forcing from anthropogenic aerosols is −0.77 W m−2, which is less than half of that (−1.79 W m−2 calculated by the host GCM (NCAR CAM5 with traditional cloud parameterizations and is also at the low end of the estimates of other conventional global aerosol-climate models. The smaller forcing in the MMF model is attributed to a smaller (3.9 % increase in LWP from preindustrial conditions (PI to present day (PD compared with 15.6 % increase in LWP in stratiform clouds in CAM5. The difference is caused by a much smaller response in LWP to a given perturbation in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations from PI to PD in the MMF (about one-third of that in CAM5, and, to a lesser extent, by a smaller relative increase in CCN

  12. TEM Study of SAFARI-2000 Aerosols (United States)

    Buseck, Peter R.


    The aim of our research was to obtain data on the chemical and physical properties of individual aerosol particles from biomass smoke plume s in southern Africa and from air masses in the region that are affec ted by the smoke. We used analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM), including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and ele ctron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and field-emission electron microscopy (FESEM) to study aerosol particles from several smoke and haz e samples and from a set of cloud samples.

  13. Aerosol delivery of synthetic lung surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Walther


    Full Text Available Background. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP is a widely accepted technique of non-invasive respiratory support in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome due to lack of lung surfactant. If this approach fails, the next step is often intubation, mechanical ventilation (MV and intratracheal instillation of clinical lung surfactant.Objective. To investigate whether aerosol delivery of advanced synthetic lung surfactant, consisting of peptide mimics of surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and SP-C and synthetic lipids, during nCPAP improves lung function in surfactant-deficient rabbits.Methods. Experimental synthetic lung surfactants were produced by formulating 3% Super Mini-B peptide (SMB surfactant, a highly surface active SP-B mimic, and a combination of 1.5% SMB and 1.5% of the SP-C mimic SP-Css ion-lock 1 (BC surfactant, with a synthetic lipid mixture. After testing aerosol generation using a vibrating membrane nebulizer and aerosol conditioning (particle size, surfactant composition and surface activity, we investigated the effects of aerosol delivery of synthetic SMB and BC surfactant preparations on oxygenation and lung compliance in saline-lavaged, surfactant-deficient rabbits, supported with either nCPAP or MV.Results. Particle size distribution of the surfactant aerosols was within the 1–3 µm distribution range and surfactant activity was not affected by aerosolization. At a dose equivalent to clinical surfactant therapy in premature infants (100 mg/kg, aerosol delivery of both synthetic surfactant preparations led to a quick and clinically relevant improvement in oxygenation and lung compliance in the rabbits. Lung function recovered to a greater extent in rabbits supported with MV than with nCPAP. BC surfactant outperformed SMB surfactant in improving lung function and was associated with higher phospholipid values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; these findings were irrespective of the type of ventilatory

  14. Instantaneous aerosol dynamics in a turbulent flow

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun


    Dibutyl phthalate aerosol particles evolution dynamics in a turbulent mixing layer is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation for the flow field and the direct quadrature method of moments for the aerosol evolution. Most par-ticles are nucleated in a thin layer region corresponding to a specific narrow temperature range near the cool stream side. However, particles undergo high growth rate on the hot stream side due to condensation. Coagulation decreases the total particle number density at a rate which is highly correlated to the in-stantaneous number density.

  15. Delivery of aerosolized drugs encapsulated in liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Lyons, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, M.H.


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an infectious disease that resides in the human lung. Due to the difficulty in completely killing off the disease in infected individuals, Mtb has developed drug-resistant forms and is on the rise in the human population. Therefore, ITRI and the University of New Mexico are collaborating to explore the treatment of Mtb by an aerosolized drug delivered directly to the lungs. In conclusion, it is feasible to obtain an appropriate size and concentration of the liposomes before and after aerosolization.

  16. Future options for aerosol delivery to children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H


    , allowing less compliant children enough time to obtain a full dose. Eliminating the electrostatic charge can change the lung dose by several times; hence, nonelectrostatic materials should be used in future spacer devices. Compliance is the biggest problem in drug delivery to children. The inhaler design......There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reliable aerosol delivery, with emphasis on the dose delivered to the lungs, optimal clinical control, cost-effectiveness, and safety in children. Dose prescription should relate to the expected lung dose rather than the factory-dispensed dose....... Such features should improve our ability to treat young children with inhaled drug aerosols....

  17. BCG strain S4-Jena: An early BCG strain is capable to reduce the proliferation of bladder cancer cells by induction of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Inge-Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravesical immunotherapy with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin has been established as the most effective adjuvant treatment for high risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. We investigated the differences between the S4-Jena BCG strain and commercially available BCG strains. We tested the genotypic varieties between S4-Jena and other BCG strains and analysed the effect of the BCG strains TICE and S4-Jena on two bladder cancer cell lines. Results In contrast to commercially available BCG strains the S4-Jena strain shows genotypic differences. Spoligotyping verifies the S4-Jena strain as a BCG strain. Infection with viable S4-Jena or TICE decreased proliferation in the T24 cell line. Additionally, hallmarks of apoptosis were detectable. In contrast, Cal29 cells showed only a slightly decreased proliferation with TICE. Cal29 cells infected with S4-Jena, though, showed a significantly decreased proliferation in contrast to TICE. Concordantly with these results, infection with TICE had no effect on the morphology and hallmarks of apoptosis of Cal29 cells. However, S4-Jena strain led to clearly visible morphological changes and caspases 3/7 activation and PS flip. Conclusions S4-Jena strain has a direct influence on bladder cancer cell lines as shown by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. The data implicate that the T24 cells are responder for S4-Jena and TICE BCG. However, the Cal29 cells are only responder for S4-Jena and they are non-responder for TICE BCG. S4-Jena strain may represent an effective therapeutic agent for NMIBC.

  18. Lattice-matched Cu2ZnSnS4/CeO2 solar cell with open circuit voltage boost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Yan, Chang; Iandolo, Beniamino


    We report a reproducible enhancement of the open circuit voltage in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells by introduction of a very thin CeO2 interlayer between the Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber and the conventional CdS buffer. CeO2, a non-toxic earth-abundant compound, has a nearly optimal band alignment with Cu2ZnSnS4...

  19. Functional extension of amino acid triads from the fourth transmembrane segment (S4) into its external linker in Shaker K(+) channels. (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Lin, Shin; Chang, Po-Chun; Lin, Hsiao-Chun; Kuo, Chung-Chin


    The highly conserved fourth transmembrane segment (S4) is the primary voltage sensor of the voltage-dependent channel and would move outward upon membrane depolarization. S4 comprises repetitive amino acid triads, each containing one basic (presumably charged and voltage-sensing) followed by two hydrophobic residues. We showed that the triad organization is functionally extended into the S3-4 linker right external to S4 in Shaker K(+) channels. The arginine (and lysine) substitutes for the third and the sixth residues (Ala-359 and Met-356, respectively) external to the outmost basic residue (Arg-362) in S4 dramatically and additively stabilize S4 in the resting conformation. Also, Leu-361 and Leu-358 play a very similar role in stabilization of S4 in the resting position, presumably by their hydrophobic side chains. Moreover, the double mutation A359R/E283A leads to a partially extruded position of S4 and consequently prominent closed-state inactivation, suggesting that Glu-283 in S2 may coordinate with the arginines in the extruded S4 upon depolarization. We conclude that the triad organization extends into the S3-4 linker for about six amino acids in terms of their microenvironment. These approximately six residues should retain the same helical structure as S4, and their microenvironment serves as part of the "gating canal" accommodating the extruding S4. Upon depolarization, S4 most likely moves initially as a sliding helix and follows the path that is set by the approximately six residues in the S3-4 linker in the resting state, whereas further S4 translocation could be more like, for example, a paddle, without orderly coordination from the contiguous surroundings.

  20. Fabrication of water-soluble polymer-encapsulated As4S4 to increase oral bioavailability and chemotherapeutic efficacy in AML mice (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Wang, Chuan; Li, Xiaojin; Guo, Hua; Meng, Jie; Liu, Jian; Xu, Haiyan


    Realgar (As4S4) has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); it has the advantages of no drug resistance and oral administration. Nevertheless, its poor solubility has been an obstacle to its bioavailability, requiring high-dose administration over a long period. We investigated whether crushing realgar crystals to the nanoscale and encapsulating the particles in a water-soluble polymer in one step using hot-melt extrusion would increase the bioavailability of As4S4. Raw As4S4 (r-As4S4) and water-soluble polymer were processed via co-rotating twin screw extrusion. The resulting product (e-As4S4) was characterized by SEM, XRD, and DLS. The cytotoxicity and therapeutic effects of e-As4S4 were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. The results show that e-As4S4 dissolved rapidly in water, forming a stable colloid solution. The average size of e-As4S4 particles was 680 nm, which was reduced by more than 40-fold compared with that of r-As4S4. The bioavailability of e-As4S4 was up to 12.6-fold higher than that of r-As4S4, and it inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells much more effectively than did r-As4S4, inducing apoptosis and significantly reducing the infiltration of HL-60 cells into the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. This in turn prolonged the survival of AML mice. PMID:27383126

  1. Unveiling aerosol-cloud interactions - Part 1: Cloud contamination in satellite products enhances the aerosol indirect forcing estimate (United States)

    Christensen, Matthew W.; Neubauer, David; Poulsen, Caroline A.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McGarragh, Gregory R.; Povey, Adam C.; Proud, Simon R.; Grainger, Roy G.


    Increased concentrations of aerosol can enhance the albedo of warm low-level cloud. Accurately quantifying this relationship from space is challenging due in part to contamination of aerosol statistics near clouds. Aerosol retrievals near clouds can be influenced by stray cloud particles in areas assumed to be cloud-free, particle swelling by humidification, shadows and enhanced scattering into the aerosol field from (3-D radiative transfer) clouds. To screen for this contamination we have developed a new cloud-aerosol pairing algorithm (CAPA) to link cloud observations to the nearest aerosol retrieval within the satellite image. The distance between each aerosol retrieval and nearest cloud is also computed in CAPA. Results from two independent satellite imagers, the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), show a marked reduction in the strength of the intrinsic aerosol indirect radiative forcing when selecting aerosol pairs that are located farther away from the clouds (-0.28±0.26 W m-2) compared to those including pairs that are within 15 km of the nearest cloud (-0.49±0.18 W m-2). The larger aerosol optical depths in closer proximity to cloud artificially enhance the relationship between aerosol-loading, cloud albedo, and cloud fraction. These results suggest that previous satellite-based radiative forcing estimates represented in key climate reports may be exaggerated due to the inclusion of retrieval artefacts in the aerosol located near clouds.

  2. Facile synthesis of CoNi2S4/Co9S8 composites as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors (United States)

    Zhao, Fenglin; Huang, Wanxia; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Dengmei


    In this paper, a facile chemical bath deposition method was utilized to synthesize three-dimensional nanostructured CoNi2S4/Co9S8 (CNSCS) composites as advanced electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors. CNSCS composites showed remarkable electrochemical performance owing to the high porosity, appropriate pore size distribution, novel architecture and synergistic effect of Ni/Co ions. The electrochemical tests revealed that CNSCS composites exhibited high specific capacitance (1183.3 Fg-1 at the current density of 2 Ag-1), excellent rate performance (74.9% retention with tenfold current density increase) and outstanding cycle life stability. Moreover, the effect of temperature on electrochemical performance of CNSCS composites was investigated and the results indicated the specific capacitance of CoNi2S4/Co9S8 can keep relatively stable in a wide temperature from 0 °C to 50 °C. These results indicated that the synthesized CNSCS composites can be a promising electrode materials candidate for supercapacitors and chemical bath deposition is a promising processing route for CNSCS composites production.

  3. Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nano-crystalline powder by mechano-chemical method (United States)

    Alirezazadeh, Farzaneh; Sheibani, Saeed; Rashchi, Fereshteh


    Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, CZTS) is one of the most promising ceramic materials as an absorber layer in solar cells due to its suitable band gap, high absorption coefficient and non-toxic and environmental friendly constituent elements. In this work, nano-crystalline CZTS powder was synthesized by mechanical milling. Elemental powders of Cu, Zn, Sn and were mixed in atomic ratio of 2:1:1:4 according to the stoichiometry of Cu2ZnSnS4 and then milled in a planetary high energy ball mill under argon atmosphere. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). XRD results confirm the formation of single-phase CZTS with kesterite structure after 20 h of milling. Also, the mean crystallite size was about 35 nm. SEM results show that after 20 h of milling, the product has a relatively uniform particle size distribution. Optical properties of the product indicate that the band gap of prepared CZTS is 1.6 eV which is near to the optimum value for photovoltaic solar cells showing as a light absorber material in solar energy applications.

  4. Well-Dispersed Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystals Synthesized from Alcohols and Their Applications for Polymer Photovoltaics (United States)

    Cheng, Jiang; Dai, Zhongjun; Chen, Bing; Ji, Ran; Yang, Xin; Hu, Rong; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Lu


    In this work, we report on a simple non-injection synthesis routine for the preparation of well-dispersed monocrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles (NPs). The nanocrystal morphology was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and its phase composition was studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman analyses. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles prepared using ethanolamine and diethanolamine as chemical stabilizers showed a high purity and a suitable size for polymer solar cell applications. The fabricated CZTS NPs are shown to be easily dispersed in a polymer/fullerene aromatic solution as well as the hybrid photovoltaic active layer. Thanks to the increment in the light absorption and electrical conductivity of the active layer, solar cells with a small amount of CZTS nanoparticles resulted in a clear enhancement of the photovoltaic performance. The short-circuit current density is increased from 9.90 up to 10.67 mA/cm2, corresponding to an improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.30 to 3.65%.

  5. Aerosol Remote Sensing in Polar Regions (United States)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Wehrli, Christoph


    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness tau(lambda) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent alpha were calculated. Analyzing these data, the monthly mean values of tau(0.50 micrometers) and alpha and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter-spring and summer-autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of alpha versus tau(0.50 micrometers) showed: (i) a considerable increase in tau(0.50 micrometers) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter-spring, without marked changes in alpha; and (ii) a marked increase in tau(0.50 micrometer) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas alpha decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of tau(lambda) and alpha at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterize vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of tau(lambda) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were

  6. Global Aerosol Effect Retrieval From Passive Hyperspectral Measurements (United States)

    de Graaf, M.; Tilstra, L. G.; Stammes, P.


    Absorbing aerosols can have a significant local direct radiative effect (DRE), while the global average aerosol DRE remains highly uncertain. Modelling studies have shown that the magnitude and sign of the aerosol DRE at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) depend on the scene, especially on the albedo of the scene under the aerosol layer. It changes with cloud fraction, from large positive for overcast conditions when aerosols are present above the cloud, to large negative for clear sky ocean scenes. Observational studies, which are necessary to constrain the model studies, have been scarce. The results of modelling studies depend strongly on the assumed aerosol properties. Observational studies also need to assume aerosol type and geophysical properties to derive aerosol optical properties from radiation measurements. This introduces large uncertainties in the retrieved aerosol DRE. Furthermore, the retrieval of aerosols over clouds from passive instruments is difficult, due to the large optical thickness of clouds. Therefore, observational studies of aerosol direct and indirect effects from passive satellite instruments are invariably restricted to aerosol studies close to the cloud edges. We have developed a method to derive the aerosol DRE for smoke over clouds directly from passive satellite hyperspectral reflectance measurements, independent of aerosol micro- physical property assumptions. This allows us to assess the local aerosol DRE from passive imagery directly on a pixel to pixel basis, even over clouds. The solar radiative absorption by smoke layers is quantified using the TOA reflectance spectrum from the ultraviolet (UV) to the shortwave infrared (SWIR). UV- absorbing aerosols have a strong signature that can be detected using UV reflectance measurements. Since the aerosol extinction optical thickness decreases rapidly with increasing wavelength for smoke, the properties of the scene below the aerosol layer can be retrieved in the SWIR, where aerosol

  7. Influence of water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficients of the Central European aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Zieger


    Full Text Available The influence of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering was examined at the regional continental research site Melpitz, Germany. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH, defined as the aerosol particle scattering coefficient at a certain relative humidity (RH divided by its dry value, was measured using a humidified nephelometer. The chemical composition and other microphysical properties were measured in parallel. f(RH showed a strong variation, e.g. with values between 1.2 and 3.6 at RH=85% and λ=550 nm. The chemical composition was found to be the main factor determining the magnitude of f(RH, since the magnitude of f(RH clearly correlated with the inorganic mass fraction measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. Hysteresis within the recorded humidograms was observed and explained by long-range transported sea salt. A closure study using Mie theory showed the consistency of the measured parameters.

  8. Size-selective performance evaluation of candidate aerosol inlets using polydisperse aerosols (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Presented are detailed techniques for the generation, collection, and analysis of polydisperse calibration aerosols for wind tunnel evaluation of size-selective...

  9. ARM-Led Improvements Aerosols in Climate and Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Penner, Joyce E.


    The DOE ARM program has played a foundational role in efforts to quantify aerosol effects on climate, beginning with the early back-of-the-envelope estimates of direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate and biomass burning aerosol (Penner et al., 1994). In this chapter we review the role that ARM has played in subsequent detailed estimates based on physically-based representations of aerosols in climate models. The focus is on quantifying the direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosol on the planetary energy balance. Only recently have other DOE programs applied the aerosol modeling capability to simulate the climate response to the radiative forcing.

  10. (2S,4S)-4-Fluoro-1-{[(2-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]acetyl}-pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile monobenzenesulfonate (TS-021) is a selective and reversible dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor. (United States)

    Tajima, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Koji; Kozakai, Akinori; Okumura-Kitajima, Lisa; Mita, Yasuo; Kitano, Kiyokazu; Jingu, Shigeji; Nakaike, Shiro


    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has significant roles in the regulation of postprandial glucose metabolism, and the active form of GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV. Therefore, DPP-IV inhibition is a promising approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the character of a DPP-IV inhibitor, TS-021, (2S, 4S)-4-fluoro-1-{[(2-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]acetyl}-pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile monobenzenesulfonate both in vitro and in vivo. TS-021 inhibits DPP-IV activity in human plasma with an IC(50) value of 5.34nM. In kinetics experiments, TS-021 had a relatively higher dissociation rate constant, with a k(off) value of 1.09×10(-3)s, despite exhibiting a potent human plasma DPP-IV inhibition activity with a K(i) value of 4.96nM. TS-021 exhibited significant inhibition selectivity against DPP-8 (>600 fold), DPP-9 (>1200 fold) and other peptidases examined (>15,000 fold). In normal rats, dogs and monkeys, a single oral dose of TS-021 exhibited favorable pharmacokinetic profiles. In Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats, a rat model of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance, the oral administration of TS-021 resulted in the suppression of plasma DPP-IV activity and an increase in the active form of GLP-1. Furthermore, TS-021 exhibited a significant improvement in glucose tolerance by increasing the plasma insulin level during oral glucose tolerance tests at doses of 0.02-0.5mg/kg. These results suggest that TS-021 is a selective and reversible dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor and has excellent characteristics as an oral anti-diabetic agent for postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerosol Indices Derived from MODIS Data for Indicating Aerosol-Induced Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junliang He


    Full Text Available Aerosol optical depth (AOD is a critical variable in estimating aerosol concentration in the atmosphere, evaluating severity of atmospheric pollution, and studying their impact on climate. With the assistance of the 6S radiative transfer model, we simulated apparent reflectancein relation to AOD in each Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS waveband in this study. The closeness of the relationship was used to identify the most and least sensitive MODIS wavebands. These two bands were then used to construct three aerosol indices (difference, ratio, and normalized difference for estimating AOD quickly and effectively. The three indices were correlated, respectively, with in situ measured AOD at the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET Lake Taihu, Beijing, and Xianghe stations. It is found that apparent reflectance of the blue waveband (band 3 is the most sensitive to AOD while the mid-infrared wavelength (band 7 is the least sensitive. The difference aerosol index is the most accurate in indicating aerosol-induced atmospheric pollution with a correlation coefficient of 0.585, 0.860, 0.685, and 0.333 at the Lake Taihu station, 0.721, 0.839, 0.795, and 0.629 at the Beijing station, and 0.778, 0.782, 0.837, and 0.643 at the Xianghe station in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. It is concluded that the newly proposed difference aerosol index can be used effectively to study the level of aerosol-induced air pollution from MODIS satellite imagery with relative ease.

  12. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Bond, Tami; Tsigaridis, Kostas


    Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a likely short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, cloud-indirect and semi-direct forcing effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and its climate interactions. Black carbon is directly released as particle into the atmosphere, but then interacts with other gases and particles through condensation and coagulation processes leading to further aerosol growth, aging and internal mixing. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the global GISS modelE includes the above processes that determine the lifecycle and climate impact of aerosols. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative forcing. Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing change is -0.56 W/m{sup 2} between 1750 and 2000. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are very sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative forcing change can vary between -0.32 to -0.75 W/m{sup 2} depending on these carbonaceous particle properties. Assuming that sulfates, nitrates and secondary organics form a coating shell around a black carbon core, rather than forming a uniformly mixed particles, changes the overall net radiative forcing from a negative to a positive number. Black carbon mitigation scenarios showed generally a benefit when mainly black carbon sources such as diesel emissions are reduced, reducing organic and black carbon sources such as bio-fuels, does not lead to reduced warming.

  13. A Monte-Carlo Analysis of Organic Aerosol Volatility with Aerosol Microphysics (United States)

    Gao, C. Y.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S. E.


    A newly developed box model scheme, MATRIX-VBS, includes the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework in an aerosol microphysical scheme MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state), which resolves aerosol mass and number concentrations and aerosol mixing state. The new scheme advanced the representation of organic aerosols in Earth system models by improving the traditional and simplistic treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile and with a fixed size distribution. Further development includes adding the condensation of organics on coarse mode aerosols - dust and sea salt, thus making all organics in the system semi-volatile. To test and simplify the model, a Monte-Carlo analysis is performed to pin point which processes affect organics the most under which chemical and meteorological conditions. Since the model's parameterizations have the ability to capture a very wide range of conditions, from very clean to very polluted and for a wide range of meteorological conditions, all possible scenarios on Earth across the whole parameter space, including temperature, location, emissions and oxidant levels, are examined. The Monte-Carlo simulations provide quantitative information on the sensitivity of the newly developed model and help us understand how organics are affecting the size distribution, mixing state and volatility distribution at varying levels of meteorological conditions and pollution levels. In addition, these simulations give information on which parameters play a critical role in the aerosol distribution and evolution in the atmosphere and which do not, that will facilitate the simplification of the box model, an important step in its implementation in the global model.

  14. Measuring Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD and Aerosol Profiles Simultaneously with a Camera Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes John


    Full Text Available CLidar or camera lidar is a simple, inexpensive technique to measure nighttime tropospheric aerosol profiles. Stars in the raw data images used in the CLidar analysis can also be used to calculate aerosol optical depth simultaneously. A single star can be used with the Langley method or multiple star pairs can be used to reduce the error. The estimated error from data taken under clear sky conditions at Mauna Loa Observatory is approximately +/- 0.01.

  15. Aerosol sun photometry throughout five years in Japan (United States)

    Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Holben, B.

    Japan locates in an interesting region for aerosol study Most of natural and anthropogenic aerosols can be measured Some of natural aerosols are the oceanic type aerosols provided from the ocean e g West Pacific Ocean Sea of Japan and East China Sea and the other is Asian dust what one calls Yellow sand coming from Gobi and Taklamakan desert area in China It should be enhanced that most of these natural aerosols especially dust aerosols are mixed with the anthropogenic e g nitrate and sulfate aerosols during long distance transportation Two automatic sun sky radiometers have been set for the worldwide aerosol sun photometer network AERONET One is facing to Pacific Ocean Shirahama for taking continuous measurements of background aerosols of Japan and the other is set at megalopolis city Osaka This work intends to show the temporary and or spatially change of aerosol properties e g aerosol optical thickness at 0 44 0 67 and 0 87 microns size distribution and single scattering albedo For instance the regional difference between city and remote area is examined and time variation involves long time change over five years and also seasonal change

  16. Outstanding laser damage threshold in Li2MnGeS4 and tunable optical nonlinearity in diamond-like semiconductors. (United States)

    Brant, Jacilynn A; Clark, Daniel J; Kim, Yong Soo; Jang, Joon I; Weiland, Ashley; Aitken, Jennifer A


    The new Li2MnGeS4 and Li2CoSnS4 compounds result from employing a rational and simple design strategy that guides the discovery of diamond-like semiconductors (DLSs) with wide regions of optical transparency, high laser damage threshold, and efficient second-order optical nonlinearity. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction was used to solve and refine the crystal structures of Li2MnGeS4 and Li2CoSnS4, which crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric space groups Pna21 and Pn, respectively. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXRPD) was used to assess the phase purity, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy was used to estimate the bandgaps of Li2MnGeS4 (Eg = 3.069(3) eV) and Li2CoSnS4 (Eg = 2.421(3) eV). In comparison with Li2FeGeS4, Li2FeSnS4, and Li2CoSnS4 DLSs, Li2MnGeS4 exhibits the widest region of optical transparency (0.60-25 μm) and phase matchability (≥1.6 μm). All four of the DLSs exhibit second-harmonic generation and are compared with the benchmark NLO material, AgGaSe2. Most remarkably, Li2MnGeS4 does not undergo two- or three-photon absorption upon exposure to a fundamental Nd:YAG beam (λ = 1.064 μm) and exhibits a laser damage threshold > 16 GW/cm(2).

  17. Aerosol indirect effect on biogeochemical cycles and climate. (United States)

    Mahowald, Natalie


    The net effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is usually considered the sum of the direct radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols, plus the indirect effect of these aerosols through aerosol-cloud interactions. However, an additional impact of aerosols on a longer time scale is their indirect effect on climate through biogeochemical feedbacks, largely due to changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO(2). Aerosols can affect land and ocean biogeochemical cycles by physical forcing or by adding nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems. The net biogeochemical effect of aerosols is estimated to be equivalent to a radiative forcing of -0.5 ± 0.4 watts per square meter, which suggests that reaching lower carbon targets will be even costlier than previously estimated.

  18. Climate Impacts From a Removal of Anthropogenic Aerosol Emissions (United States)

    Samset, B. H.; Sand, M.; Smith, C. J.; Bauer, S. E.; Forster, P. M.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Osprey, S.; Schleussner, C.-F.


    Limiting global warming to 1.5 or 2.0°C requires strong mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Concurrently, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols will decline, due to coemission with GHG, and measures to improve air quality. However, the combined climate effect of GHG and aerosol emissions over the industrial era is poorly constrained. Here we show the climate impacts from removing present-day anthropogenic aerosol emissions and compare them to the impacts from moderate GHG-dominated global warming. Removing aerosols induces a global mean surface heating of 0.5-1.1°C, and precipitation increase of 2.0-4.6%. Extreme weather indices also increase. We find a higher sensitivity of extreme events to aerosol reductions, per degree of surface warming, in particular over the major aerosol emission regions. Under near-term warming, we find that regional climate change will depend strongly on the balance between aerosol and GHG forcing.

  19. Ensemble-Based Assimilation of Aerosol Observations in GEOS-5 (United States)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A.


    MERRA-2 is the latest Aerosol Reanalysis produced at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO) from 1979 to present. This reanalysis is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model radiatively coupled to GOCART aerosols and includes assimilation of bias corrected Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from AVHRR over ocean, MODIS sensors on both Terra and Aqua satellites, MISR over bright surfaces and AERONET data. In order to assimilate lidar profiles of aerosols, we are updating the aerosol component of our assimilation system to an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) type of scheme using ensembles generated routinely by the meteorological assimilation. Following the work performed with the first NASA's aerosol reanalysis (MERRAero), we first validate the vertical structure of MERRA-2 aerosol assimilated fields using CALIOP data over regions of particular interest during 2008.

  20. Generation and characterization of indoor fungal aerosols for inhalation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Larsen, Søren T.; Koponen, Ismo K.


    containing107 CFU of fungi/m3 air were generated repeatedly from fungus-infested gypsum boards in a mouse exposure chamber. Aerosols contained Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ustus, Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium globosum, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium brevicompactum...... was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. Indoor airborne fungi were sampled and cultivated on gypsum boards. Aerosols were characterized and compared with aerosols in homes. Aerosols...... in the homes areassociated with water damage. Most fungi were present as single spores, but chains and clusters of different species and fragments were also present. The variation in exposure level during the 60 min of aerosol generation was similar to the variation measured in homes. Through aerosolization...

  1. A machine learning approach for predicting atmospheric aerosol size distributions (United States)

    Rudiger, Joshua J.; Book, Kevin; deGrassie, John Stephen; Hammel, Stephen; Baker, Brooke


    An accurate model and parameterization of aerosol concentration is needed to predict the performance of electro-optical imaging systems. Current models have been shown to vary widely in their ability to accurately predict aerosol size distributions and subsequent scattering properties of the atmosphere. One of the more prevalent methods for modeling particle size spectra consists of fitting a modified gamma function to measurement data, however this limits the distribution to a single mode. Machine learning models have been shown to predict complex multimodal aerosol particle size spectra. Here we establish an empirical model for predicting aerosol size spectra using machine learning techniques. This is accomplished through measurements of aerosols size distributions over the course of eight months. The machine learning models are shown to extend the functionality of Advanced Navy Aerosol Model (ANAM), developed to model the size distribution of aerosols in the maritime environment.

  2. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.


    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  3. Aerosol Optical Properties and Determination of Aerosol Size Distribution in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong


    Full Text Available Columnar aerosol volume size distributions from March 2012 to February 2013 in Wuhan, China, were investigated with a focus on monthly and seasonal variations in the aerosol optical depths (AODs and Ångström exponents. AOD is wavelength dependent, and for AOD at, for example, 500 nm, the seasonal averaged AOD value decreased in the order of winter (~0.84, spring (~0.83, summer (~0.76 and autumn (~0.55. The Ångström exponent suggested that the aerosol sizes in summer (~1.22, winter (~1.14, autumn (~1.06 and spring (~0.99 varied from fine to coarse particles. The Ångström exponent and AOD could provide a qualitative evaluation of ASD. Moreover, aerosol size distribution (ASD was larger in winter than the other three seasons, especially from 1.0 µm to 15 µm due to heavy anthropogenic aerosol and damp climate. The ASD spectral shape showed a bimodal distribution in autumn, winter, and spring, with one peak (<0.1 in the fine mode range and the other (>0.14 in the coarse mode range. However, there appeared to be a trimodal distribution during summer, with two peaks in the coarse mode, which might be due to the hygroscopic growth of the local particles and the generation of aerosol precursor resulting from the extreme-high temperature and relative humidity.

  4. A Cough Aerosol Simulator for the Study of Disease Transmission by Human Cough-Generated Aerosols. (United States)

    Lindsley, William G; Reynolds, Jeffrey S; Szalajda, Jonathan V; Noti, John D; Beezhold, Donald H

    Aerosol particles expelled during human coughs are a potential pathway for infectious disease transmission. However, the importance of airborne transmission is unclear for many diseases. To better understand the role of cough aerosol particles in the spread of disease and the efficacy of different types of protective measures, we constructed a cough aerosol simulator that produces a humanlike cough in a controlled environment. The simulated cough has a 4.2 l volume and is based on coughs recorded from influenza patients. In one configuration, the simulator produces a cough aerosol containing particles from 0.1 to 100 µm in diameter with a volume median diameter (VMD) of 8.5 µm and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.9. In a second configuration, the cough aerosol has a size range of 0.1-30 µm, a VMD of 3.4 µm, and a GSD of 2.3. The total aerosol volume expelled during each cough is 68 µl. By generating a controlled and reproducible artificial cough, the simulator allows us to test different ventilation, disinfection, and personal protection scenarios. The system can be used with live pathogens, including influenza virus, which allows isolation precautions used in the healthcare field to be tested without risk of exposure for workers or patients. The information gained from tests with the simulator will help to better understand the transmission of infectious diseases, develop improved techniques for infection control, and improve safety for healthcare workers and patients.

  5. pH of Aerosols in a Polluted Atmosphere: Source Contributions to Highly Acidic Aerosol. (United States)

    Shi, Guoliang; Xu, Jiao; Peng, Xing; Xiao, Zhimei; Chen, Kui; Tian, Yingze; Guan, Xinbei; Feng, Yinchang; Yu, Haofei; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G


    Acidity (pH) plays a key role in the physical and chemical behavior of PM2.5. However, understanding of how specific PM sources impact aerosol pH is rarely considered. Performing source apportionment of PM2.5 allows a unique link of sources pH of aerosol from the polluted city. Hourly water-soluble (WS) ions of PM2.5 were measured online from December 25th, 2014 to June 19th, 2015 in a northern city in China. Five sources were resolved including secondary nitrate (41%), secondary sulfate (26%), coal combustion (14%), mineral dust (11%), and vehicle exhaust (9%). The influence of source contributions to pH was estimated by ISORROPIA-II. The lowest aerosol pH levels were found at low WS-ion levels and then increased with increasing total ion levels, until high ion levels occur, at which point the aerosol becomes more acidic as both sulfate and nitrate increase. Ammonium levels increased nearly linearly with sulfate and nitrate until approximately 20 μg m-3, supporting that the ammonium in the aerosol was more limited by thermodynamics than source limitations, and aerosol pH responded more to the contributions of sources such as dust than levels of sulfate. Commonly used pH indicator ratios were not indicative of the pH estimated using the thermodynamic model.

  6. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger (United States)

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P. Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael


    Purpose Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Methods Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (i.e. albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1–5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. Results At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~ 0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1 % w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. Conclusions The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs. PMID:25823649

  7. Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols in Gaborone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aerosols are mixture of solid and liquid particles and have considerable variation in terms of their chemical composition and size. In this ... The elemental analysis was done by environmental scanning electron microscope .... the various conditions in order to identify similarities and characteristic differences in their shapes.

  8. Aerosols and anti-infectious agents. (United States)

    Diot, P; Dequin, P F; Rivoire, B; Gagnadoux, F; Faurisson, F; Diot, E; Boissinot, E; Le Pape, A; Palmer, L; Lemarié, E


    Anti-infectious agents such as pentamidine, antibiotics (mainly colistine and aminoglycosides), and amphotericin B can be administered by aerosol. Apart from pentamidine and Tobi, this route of administration is not officially approved and it constitutes an empirical approach, which has benefited from recent research summarized hereafter. The most fundamental question is related to the potentially deleterious effects of nebulization processes, especially ultrasound, on the anti-infectious properties of the drugs. Colimycin, which was chosen as a reference because its polypeptide structure makes it unstable a priori, proved to be resistant to high frequency ultrasound, which is encouraging for other molecules such as aminoglycosides or betalactamins. The nebulizer characteristics also have to be taken into account. An aerosol can be produced from an amphotericin B suspension and from colistine using both an ultrasonic nebulizer and a jet nebulizer. Differentiating between good and bad nebulizers is not dependent upon the physical process involved to nebulize the drug, but on the intrinsic characteristics of the device and its performance with a known drug. The inhaled mass of an aerosol in the respirable range must be high and dosimetric nebulizers represent significant progress. Finally, administration of anti-infectious aerosols requires a new pharmacological approach to monitor treatment, and urinary assays are promising for this purpose.

  9. Aerosol sensing technologies in the mining industry (United States)

    Janisko, Samuel J.; Noll, James D.; Cauda, Emanuele E.


    Recent health, safety and environmental regulations are causing an increased demand for monitoring of aerosols in the mining industry. Of particular concern are airborne concentrations of combustible and toxic rock dusts as well as particulate matter generated from diesel engines in underground mines. In response, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been evaluating a number of real time sensing technologies for potential use in underground mines. In particular, extensive evaluation has been done on filter-based light extinction using elemental carbon (EC) as a surrogate measurement of total diesel particulate matter (DPM) mass concentration as well as mechanical tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) technology for measurement of both DPM and rock dust mass concentrations. Although these technologies are promising in their ability to accurately measure mine aerosols for their respective applications, there are opportunities for design improvements or alternative technologies that may significantly enhance the monitoring of mine aerosols. Such alterations can lead to increases in sensitivity or a reduction in the size and cost of these devices. This paper provides a brief overview of current practices and presents results of NIOSH research in this area. It concludes with a short discussion of future directions in mine aerosol sensing research.

  10. Aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract (United States)

    Winchester, John W.; Jones, Donald L.; Mu-tian, Bi


    Rising sulfur dioxide emissions from increased coal combustion present risks, not only of acid rain, but also to health by inhalation of the SO 2 and acid to the lung. We are investigating human inhalation of ppm SO 2 concentrations mixed with aerosol of submicrometer aqueous salt droplets to determine the effects on lung function and body chemistry. Unlike some investigators, we emphasize ammonium sulfate and trace element aerosol composition which simulates ambient air; aerosol pH, relative humidity, and temperature control to reveal gas-particle reaction mechanisms; and dose estimates from length of exposure, SO 2 concentration, and a direct measurement of respiratory deposition of aerosol as a function of particle size by cascade impactor sampling and elemental analysis by PIXE. Exposures, at rest or during exercise, are in a walk-in chamber at body temperature and high humidity to simulate Florida's summer climate. Lung function measurement by spirometry is carried out immediately after exposure. The results are significant in relating air quality to athletic performance and to public health in the southeastern United States.

  11. Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from Satellite Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Roblez Gonzalez, C.; Decae, R.; Leeuw, G. de


    Algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and over sea have been developed by the TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory (TNO-FEL) for several instruments, such as AVHRR (Veefkind et al., 1998a), GOME, ATSR-2 (Veelkind et al. 1998a, b; 1999) and OMI (Torres et al. 2002). OMI will

  12. Field Studies Measuring the aerosolization of Endotoxin ... (United States)

    Endotoxin is a component of the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria and is known to be present in biosolids. Endotoxins have been shown to be a potent stimulator of the innate immune response causing airway irritation and shortness of breath. Class B biosolids are routinely applied to agricultural lands in the US to enhance soil properties and can be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. This study investigated the aerosolized endotoxin produced during the land application of Class B biosolids from various wastewater treatment plants on agricultural land and a concrete surface at two sites in Colorado, USA. Aerosolized endotoxin was captured using HiVol sampler fitted with glass fiber filter, polycarbonate filter cassette (both open and closed), and BioSampler impinger air samplers. Endotoxins were also measured in the bulk biosolids to allow for correlating bulk biosolids concentrations with aerosol emission rates. Endotoxin concentrations in biosolids, impinger solutions, and filter extracts were determined using the kinetic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Aerosolized endotoxin concentration was detected from all sites with levels ranging from 0.5 to 642 EU/m3. The four types of sampling apparatus were compared and the HiVol and open-faced cassette samplers used produced higher TWA measurements (EU/m3) than the impinger and closed cassette samplers. Ambient wind speed at the sites was found to be the variable best describing the results wit

  13. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.


    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...

  14. Radiological/biological/aerosol removal system (United States)

    Haslam, Jeffery J


    An air filter replacement system for existing buildings, vehicles, arenas, and other enclosed airspaces includes a replacement air filter for replacing a standard air filter. The replacement air filter has dimensions and air flow specifications that allow it to replace the standard air filter. The replacement air filter includes a filter material that removes radiological or biological or aerosol particles.

  15. Heterogeneous formation of HONO on carbonaceous aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.; Kalberer, M.; Tabor, K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others


    Based on an on-line and in situ experimental approach, for the first time heterogeneous production of nitrous acid (HONO) on carbon aerosol at ambient pressure and low NO{sub 2} concentration has been quantified by use of a {sup 13}N tracer technique. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  16. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 12. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols. J Srinivasan. General Article Volume 13 Issue 12 December 2008 pp 1146-1155. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Electrostatics of Pharmaceutical Aerosols for Pulmonary Delivery. (United States)

    Lip Kwok, Philip Chi


    This paper provides a review on key research findings in the rapidly developing area of pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics. Solids and liquids can become charged without electric fields, the former by contact or friction and the latter by flowing or spraying. Therefore, charged particles and droplets carrying net charges are produced from pharmaceutical inhalers (e.g. dry powder inhalers, metered dose inhalers, and nebulisers) due to the mechanical processes involved in aerosolisation. The charging depends on many physicochemical factors, such as formulation composition, solid state properties, inhaler material and design, and relative humidity. In silico, in vitro, and limited in vivo studies have shown that electrostatic charges may potentially influence particle deposition in the airways. However, the evidence is not yet conclusive. Furthermore, there are currently no regulatory requirements on the characterisation and control of the electrostatic properties of inhaled formulations. Besides the need for further investigations on the relationship between physicochemical factors and charging characteristics of the aerosols, controlled and detailed in vivo studies are also required to confirm whether charges can affect particle deposition in the airways. Since pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics is a relatively new research area, much remains to be explored. Thus there is certainly potential for development. New findings in the future may contribute to the advancement of pharmaceutical aerosol formulations and respiratory drug delivery.

  18. A framework for cloud - Aerosol interaction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarna, K.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.


    Aerosols can indirectly influence climate either by cloud albedo or lifetime effect. In order to have better understanding of these processes it is crucial to measure detailed vertical profiles of the radiative transfer and the microphysical evolution of clouds. Best results can be achieved by using

  19. Detection of the arylpropionamide-derived selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S-4 (Andarine) in a black-market product. (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Kamber, Matthias; Schänzer, Wilhelm


    Non-steroidal and tissue-selective anabolic agents such as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent a promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases such as sarcopenia or cancer cachexia. Advanced compounds of SARMs are based on an arylpropionamide-derived structure and leading drug candidates have successfully completed phase-II-clinical trials. Although none of these therapeutics have been approved, their performance-enhancing qualities and the black-market availability of these products makes them a viable target for misuse in the athletic community. In 2008, SARMs were added to the Prohibited List established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). That SARMs are the subject of misuse even without clinical approval was proved for the first time by the detection of the drug candidate Andarine (also referred to as S-4, S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide), advertised, sold and supplied via the Internet. The oily liquids, declared as green tea extracts and face moisturizer, were assayed using state-of-the-art analytical procedures and S-4 was found at concentrations of approximately 150 mg/mL. The authenticity of the product was demonstrated in comparison to reference material by liquid chromatography, high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry using positive and negative electrospray ionization, and comparison to reference material. Moreover, an impurity resulting from poor product purification was detected, accounting for approximately 10% of S-4. This consisted of 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenylamino)-propionamide. The ease of purchasing non-approved drug candidates that could potentially increase athletic performance demonstrates the need to operate proactively in the continued fight against doping. The early inclusion of emerging drugs into routine sports drug testing procedures is a key

  20. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars


    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  1. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use


    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  2. Improvements of synergetic aerosol retrieval for ENVISAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holzer-Popp


    Full Text Available The synergetic aerosol retrieval method SYNAER (Holzer-Popp et al., 2002a has been extended to the use of ENVISAT measurements. It exploits the complementary information of a radiometer and a spectrometer onboard one satellite platform to extract aerosol optical depth (AOD and speciation (as a choice from a representative set of pre-defined mixtures of water-soluble, soot, mineral dust, and sea salt components. SYNAER consists of two retrieval steps. In the first step the radiometer is used for accurate cloud screening, and subsequently to quantify the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm and spectral surface brightness through a dark field technique for different pre-defined aerosol mixtures. In the second step the spectrometer is applied to choose the most plausible aerosol mixture through a least square fit of the measured spectrum with simulated spectra using the mixture-dependent values of AOD and surface brightness retrieved in the first step. This method was developed and a first case study evaluation against few (15 multi-spectral ground-based AERONET sun photometer observations was conducted with a sensor pair (ATSR-2 and GOME onboard ERS-2. Due to instrumental limitations the coverage of SYNAER/ERS-2 is very sparse. Therefore, SYNAER was transferred to similar sensors AATSR and SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT. While transferring to the new sensor pair significant improvements in the methodology were made based on a thorough evaluation of the methodology: (1 an update of the aerosol model, (2 improved cloud detection in the tropics and sub tropics, and (3 an enhanced dark field albedo characterization. This paper describes these improvements in detail and assesses their combined impact on the results. After a brief assessment of atmospheric noise impact on comparisons of pixel and station measurements a validation against ground-based measurements establishes error bars for the SYNAER/ENVISAT method version 2.0. A theoretical analysis of the

  3. SPEX: a highly accurate spectropolarimeter for atmospheric aerosol characterization (United States)

    Rietjens, J. H. H.; Smit, J. M.; di Noia, A.; Hasekamp, O. P.; van Harten, G.; Snik, F.; Keller, C. U.


    Global characterization of atmospheric aerosol in terms of the microphysical properties of the particles is essential for understanding the role aerosols in Earth climate [1]. For more accurate predictions of future climate the uncertainties of the net radiative forcing of aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere must be reduced [2]. Essential parameters that are needed as input in climate models are not only the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), but also particle specific properties such as the aerosol mean size, the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the complex refractive index. The latter can be used to discriminate between absorbing and non-absorbing aerosol types, and between natural and anthropogenic aerosol. Classification of aerosol types is also very important for air-quality and health-related issues [3]. Remote sensing from an orbiting satellite platform is the only way to globally characterize atmospheric aerosol at a relevant timescale of 1 day [4]. One of the few methods that can be employed for measuring the microphysical properties of aerosols is to observe both radiance and degree of linear polarization of sunlight scattered in the Earth atmosphere under different viewing directions [5][6][7]. The requirement on the absolute accuracy of the degree of linear polarization PL is very stringent: the absolute error in PL must be smaller then 0.001+0.005.PL in order to retrieve aerosol parameters with sufficient accuracy to advance climate modelling and to enable discrimination of aerosol types based on their refractive index for air-quality studies [6][7]. In this paper we present the SPEX instrument, which is a multi-angle spectropolarimeter that can comply with the polarimetric accuracy needed for characterizing aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere. We describe the implementation of spectral polarization modulation in a prototype instrument of SPEX and show results of ground based measurements from which aerosol microphysical properties are retrieved.

  4. Microphysical processing of aerosol particles in orographic clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pousse-Nottelmann


    aerosol cycling in clouds has been implemented into COSMO-Model, the regional weather forecast and climate model of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO. The effects of aerosol scavenging, cloud microphysical processing and regeneration upon cloud evaporation on the aerosol population and on subsequent cloud formation are investigated. For this, two-dimensional idealized simulations of moist flow over two bell-shaped mountains were carried out varying the treatment of aerosol scavenging and regeneration processes for a warm-phase and a mixed-phase orographic cloud. The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen (WBF process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol number and mass and additionally alter the shape of the aerosol size distributions by enhancing the internally mixed/soluble Aitken and accumulation mode and generating coarse-mode particles. Concerning subsequent cloud formation at the second mountain, accounting for aerosol processing and regeneration increases the cloud droplet number concentration with possible implications for the ice crystal number

  5. Climatology of Aerosol Optical Properties in Southern Africa (United States)

    Queface, Antonio J.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Tsay, Si-Chee


    A thorough regionally dependent understanding of optical properties of aerosols and their spatial and temporal distribution is required before we can accurately evaluate aerosol effects in the climate system. Long term measurements of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent and retrieved single scattering albedo and size distribution, were analyzed and compiled into an aerosol optical properties climatology for southern Africa. Monitoring of aerosol parameters have been made by the AERONET program since the middle of the last decade in southern Africa. This valuable information provided an opportunity for understanding how aerosols of different types influence the regional radiation budget. Two long term sites, Mongu in Zambia and Skukuza in South Africa formed the core sources of data in this study. Results show that seasonal variation of aerosol optical thicknesses at 500 nm in southern Africa are characterized by low seasonal multi-month mean values (0.11 to 0.17) from December to May, medium values (0.20 to 0.27) between June and August, and high to very high values (0.30 to 0.46) during September to November. The spatial distribution of aerosol loadings shows that the north has high magnitudes than the south in the biomass burning season and the opposite in none biomass burning season. From the present aerosol data, no long term discernable trends are observable in aerosol concentrations in this region. This study also reveals that biomass burning aerosols contribute the bulk of the aerosol loading in August-October. Therefore if biomass burning could be controlled, southern Africa will experience a significant reduction in total atmospheric aerosol loading. In addition to that, aerosol volume size distribution is characterized by low concentrations in the non biomass burning period and well balanced particle size contributions of both coarse and fine modes. In contrast high concentrations are characteristic of biomass burning period, combined with

  6. Sources of Size Segregated Sulfate Aerosols in the Arctic Summer (United States)

    Ghahremaninezhadgharelar, R.; Norman, A. L.; Abbatt, J.; Levasseur, M.


    Aerosols drive significant radiative forcing and affect Arctic climate. Despite the importance of these particles in Arctic climate change, there are some key uncertainties in the estimation of their effects and sources. Aerosols in six size fractions between CCGS) Amundsen in the Arctic, during July 2014. A cascade impactor fitted to a high volume sampler was used for this study and was modified to permit collection of SO2 after aerosols were removed from the gas stream. The isotopic composition of sulfate aerosols and SO2 was measured and apportionment calculations have been performed to quantify the contribution of biogenic as well as anthropogenic sources to the growth of different aerosol size fractions in the atmosphere. The presence of sea salt sulfate aerosols was especially high in coarse mode aerosols as expected. The contribution of biogenic sulfate concentration in this study was higher than anthropogenic sulfate. Around 70% of fine aerosols (CCGS) Amundsen in the Arctic, during July 2014. A cascade impactor fitted to a high volume sampler was used for this study and was modified to permit collection of SO2 after aerosols were removed from the gas stream. The isotopic composition of sulfate aerosols and SO2 was measured and apportionment calculations have been performed to quantify the contribution of biogenic as well as anthropogenic sources to the growth of different aerosol size fractions in the atmosphere. The presence of sea salt sulfate aerosols was especially high in coarse mode aerosols as expected. The contribution of biogenic sulfate concentration in this study was higher than anthropogenic sulfate. Around 70% of fine aerosols (<0.49 μm) and 86% of SO2 were from biogenic sources. Concentrations of biogenic sulfate for fine aerosols, ranging from 18 to 625 ng/m3, were five times higher than total biogenic sulfate concentrations measured during Fall in the same region (Rempillo et al., 2011). A comparison of the isotope ratio for SO2 and fine

  7. Thoracic fraction of inhaled fiber aerosol. (United States)

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Su, Wei-Chung


    Size-selective sampling is a health-related method to collect airborne particles based on penetration of inhaled particles into different regions of the human respiratory tract; thus, it is the most relevant sampling method to correlate health risks with occupational exposure. The current practice of sampling asbestos and other fibers is not a size-selective method. The thoracic size fraction, defined as the portion of inhaled particles that can penetrate through the larynx, has been suggested as the most relevant size-selective sampling method for fiber aerosol. The thoracic fraction is based on 1-deposition of inhaled spherical particles in the human extrathoracic airways for mouth breathing and corrected for the particle inhalability. There is no comparable information for fiber aerosols; therefore, there is no technical basis to ascertain whether the current thoracic fraction definition is suitable for fiber aerosols. No human data are available from controlled experiments of inhaled fiber aerosols for the obvious reason that most fiber materials are potentially hazardous when inhaled. Our approach was to measure penetration of fiber aerosol in realistic human oropharyngeal airway replicas and to compare that with data from spherical particles. We showed that realistic human oral airway replicas (including the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx regions) provided useful spherical and fiber particle deposition in the human head airway. These data could be used to test the thoracic fraction curves. The spherical penetration is in agreement with human in vivo data used to establish the thoracic fraction curve. Fiber penetrations through the larynx of two human oral airway replicas were higher than those for spherical particles for the same aerodynamic diameter using the same replicas. The thoracic curve as defined for spherical particles, therefore, may not include some fibers that could penetrate to the thoracic region.

  8. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.G.; Newland, M.S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom)


    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350{sup o}C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs.

  9. Stratospheric Aerosol Injection for Geoengineering Purposes (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.


    A number of studies have focused on the large-scale aspects of massive stratospheric aerosol injections for the purpose of modifying global climate to counterbalance current and future greenhouse warming effects. However, no descriptions of actual injection schemes have been presented at any level of detail; it is generally assumed that the procedure would be straightforward. Approaches mentioned include direct injection of dispersed microparticles of sulfates or other mineral particles, or the emission of precursor vapors, such as sulfur dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, that lead to particle formation. Using earlier aircraft plume research as a guide, we investigate the fate of injected aerosols/precursors from a stratospheric platform in terms of the chemical and microphysical evolution occurring in a mixing plume. We utilize an advanced microphysics model that treats nucleation, coagulation, condensation and other processes relevant to the injection of particulates at high altitudes, as well as the influence of plume dilution. The requirements of particle size and concentration for producing the desired engineered radiative forcing place significant constraints on the injection system. Here, we focus on the effects of early microphysical processing on the formation of a suitable aerosol layer, and consider strategies to overcome potential hurdles. Among the problems explicitly addressed are: the propensity for emitted particles to coagulate to sizes that are optically inefficient at solar wavelengths, accelerated scavenging by an enhanced background aerosol layer, the evolution of size dispersion leading to significant infrared effects, and total mass injection rates implied by stratospheric residence times. We also investigate variability in aerosol properties owing to uncertain nucleation rates in evolving plumes. In the context of the microphysical simulations, we discuss infrastructure requirements in terms of the scale of the intervention and, hence, the

  10. Indoor aerosol size distributions in a gymnasium. (United States)

    Castro, Amaya; Calvo, Ana I; Alves, Célia; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Coz, Esther; Marques, Liliana; Nunes, Teresa; Fernández-Guisuraga, Jose Manuel; Fraile, Roberto


    In this study, an indoor/outdoor monitoring program was carried out in a gymnasium at the University of Leon, Spain. The main goal was a characterization of aerosol size distributions in a university gymnasium under different conditions and sports activities (with and without magnesia alba) and the study of the mass fraction deposited in each of the parts of the respiratory tract. The aerosol particles were measured in 31 discrete channels (size ranges) using a laser spectrometer probe. Aerosol size distributions were studied under different conditions: i) before sports activities, ii) activities without using magnesia alba, iii) activities using magnesia alba, iv) cleaning procedures, and v) outdoors. The aerosol refractive index and density indoors were estimated from the aerosol composition: 1.577-0.003i and 2.055 g cm(-3), respectively. Using the estimated density, the mass concentration was calculated, and the evolution of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 for different activities was assessed. The quality of the air in the gymnasium was strongly influenced by the use of magnesia alba (MgCO3) and the number of gymnasts who were training. Due to the climbing chalk and the constant process of resuspension, average PM10 concentrations of over 440 μg m(-3) were reached. The maximum daily concentrations ranged from 500 to 900 μg m(-3). Particle size determines the place in the respiratory tract where the deposition occurs. For this reason, the inhalable, thoracic, tracheobronchial and respirable fractions were assessed for healthy adults and high risk people, according to international standards. The estimations show that, for healthy adults, up to 300 μg m(-3) can be retained by the trachea and bronchi, and 130 μg m(-3) may reach the alveolar region. The different physical activities and the attendance rates in the sports facility have a significant influence on the concentration and size distributions observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerosol radiative effects over BIMSTEC regions (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Kar, S. C.; Mupparthy, Raghavendra S.

    Aerosols can have variety of shapes, composition, sizes and other properties that influence their optical characteristics and thus the radiative impact. The visible impact of aerosol is the formation of haze, a layer of particles from vehicular, industrial emissions and biomass burning. The characterization of these fine particles is important for regulators and researchers because of their potential impact on human health, their ability to travel thousands of kilometers crossing international borders, and their influence on climate forcing and global warming. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) with Member Countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand has emerged as an important regional group for technical and economic Cooperation. Continuing the quest for a deeper understanding of BIMSTEC countries weather and climate, in this paper we focused on aerosols and their direct radiative effects. Because of various contrasts like geophysical, agricultural practices, heterogeneous land/ocean surface, population etc these regions present an excellent natural laboratory for studying aerosol-meteorology interactions in tropical to sub-tropical environments. We exploited data available on multiple platforms (such as MISR, MODIS etc) and models (OPAC, SBDART etc) to compute the results. Ten regions were selected with different surface characteristics, also having considerable differences in the long-term trends and seasonal distribution of aerosols. In a preliminary analysis pertaining to pre-monsoon (March-April-May) of 2013, AOD _{555nm} is found to be maximum over Bangladesh (>0.52) and minimum over Bhutan (0.22), whereas other regions have intermediate values. Concurrent to these variability of AOD we found a strong reduction in incoming flux at surface of all the regions (> -25 Wm (-2) ), except Bhutan and Sri Lanka (< -18Wm (-2) ). The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing values are

  12. Propagation of respiratory aerosols by the vuvuzela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Man Lai

    Full Text Available Vuvuzelas, the plastic blowing horns used by sports fans, recently achieved international recognition during the FIFA World Cup soccer tournament in South Africa. We hypothesised that vuvuzelas might facilitate the generation and dissemination of respiratory aerosols. To investigate the quantity and size of aerosols emitted when the instrument is played, eight healthy volunteers were asked to blow a vuvuzela. For each individual the concentration of particles in expelled air was measured using a six channel laser particle counter and the duration of blowing and velocity of air leaving the vuvuzela were recorded. To allow comparison with other activities undertaken at sports events each individual was also asked to shout and the measurements were repeated while using a paper cone to confine the exhaled air. Triplicate measurements were taken for each individual. The mean peak particle counts were 658 × 10(3 per litre for the vuvuzela and 3.7 × 10(3 per litre for shouting, representing a mean log(10 difference of 2.20 (95% CI: 2.03,2.36; p 97% of particles captured from either the vuvuzela or shouting were between 0.5 and 5 microns in diameter. Mean peak airflows recorded for the vuvuzela and shouting were 6.1 and 1.8 litres per second respectively. We conclude that plastic blowing horns (vuvuzelas have the capacity to propel extremely large numbers of aerosols into the atmosphere of a size able to penetrate the lower lung. Some respiratory pathogens are spread via contaminated aerosols emitted by infected persons. Further investigation is required to assess the potential of the vuvuzela to contribute to the transmission of aerosol borne diseases. We recommend, as a precautionary measure, that people with respiratory infections should be advised not to blow their vuvuzela in enclosed spaces and where there is a risk of infecting others.

  13. An intense reddish-orange emitting Eu2SiS4:Er3+ for light emitting diodes (United States)

    Zhang, Gongguo; Lu, Xifeng; Hu, Ang


    An intense reddish-orange phosphor, Eu2SiS4:Er3+, was developed. The photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, the lifetime, and the concentration effect are investigated. The results show that an efficient energy transfer occurs from Eu2+ to Er3+, and its efficiency is about 81.0%. The phosphors exhibit an efficient broad absorption band and give reddish-orange emitting light with higher color purity. These results demonstrate that Er3+ ion with low 4f - 4f absorption efficiency can play a role of activator in narrow reddish-orange emitting phosphor, potentially useful in n-UV/blue GaN-based LED through efficient energy feeding by a strong excitation band of Eu2+.

  14. Investigation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles for thin-film solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Agersted, Karsten; Crovetto, Andrea


    We study the effect of the annealing atmosphere on grain growth of ligand-free and ligand-coated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticle-based thin films by thermal analysis. We use thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to simultaneously monitor mass changes and evolved gases...... of both nanoparticle powders and inks. The investigation focuses on annealing in air, nitrogen and forming gas (5% H2 in Ar), i.e., oxidizing, inert, and reducing atmospheres. We find that the oleylamine capping ligands thermally decompose into smaller organic fragments starting below its boiling point......, with a slightly higher decomposition rate in reducing atmosphere. With nanoparticle inks, very modest grain growth is observed, with no differences between the atmospheres. Conversely, with nanoparticle powders, micron-sized grains appear all over for the ligand-free sample and some micron-sized grains are seen...

  15. Automated synthesis of [(18)F](2S,4R)-4-fluoroglutamine on a GE TRACERlab™ FX-N Pro module. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Basuli, Falguni; Shi, Zhen-Dan; Xu, Biying; Blackman, Burchelle; Choyke, Peter L; Swenson, Rolf E


    Glutamine (Gln) and its analogues may serve as imaging agents for tumor diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET), especially for tumors with negative [(18)F]FDG scan. We report the first automated synthesis of [(18)F](2S,4R)-4-fluoroglutamine ([(18)F]FGln) on a GE TRACERlab™ FX-N Pro module. [(18)F]FGln was obtained in 80±3min with a radiochemical yield of 21±3% (n=5, uncorrected). The radiochemical purity was >98%, and optical purity 90±5%. The synthesis is highly reproducible with good chemical purity, radiochemical yield, and is suitable for translation to cGMP production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: S4G pipeline 4: multi-component decompositions (Salo+, 2015) (United States)

    Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.; Laine, J.; Comeron, S.; Gadotti, D. A.; Buta, R.; Sheth, K.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L.; Knapen, J.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Laine, S.; Cisternas, M.; Kim, T.; Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Regan, M.; Hinz, J. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Mizusawa, T.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Meidt, S. E.; Querejeta, M.


    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G, Sheth et al. 2010, J/PASP/122/1397) is a survey of 2352 galaxies observed in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) at 3.6 and 4.5um, wavelengths that are largely unaffected by internal extinction. The data have been processed through Pipeline 1 (Munoz-Mateos et al. 2015ApJS..219....3M; MM15) which makes mosaics of the observed individual frames, Pipeline 2 (MM15) which makes masks of the foreground stars and image defects, and Pipeline 3 (MM15) which measures the basic photometric parameters like the galaxy magnitudes and concentration indices. In Pipeline 4 (P4), described in this study, we decompose the two-dimensional flux distributions of the images into several structural components using GALFIT (Peng et al. 2010AJ....139.2097P). (3 data files).

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of features in the S4G (Herrera-Endoqui+, 2015) (United States)

    Herrera-Endoqui, M.; Diaz-Garcia, S.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.


    Table 2 contains the properties of bars, ring- and lens-structures in the S4G. Data for bars contains the visual estimated barlength, the maximum ellipticity in the bar region, the visual estimated position angle, and the barlength obtained from the ellipticity maximum. They are given in both the sky plane and the disk plane, the conversion is made using P4 orientation parameters (Salo et al., 2015ApJS..219....4S; Table 1). For bars the disk plane values are given only when a reliable ellipticity maximum was found and the galaxy inclination iweb page). The type of spiral arms are taken from Buta et al. (2015ApJS..217...32B, Cat. J/ApJS/217/32): G for grand design, M for multiple, and F for flocculent spiral arms. Our estimation of the quality of the fit is also given (1.0 = good; 2.0 = acceptable). (2 data files).

  18. (1S,3S,4S-tert-Butyl N-[1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-4-(picolinamidopentyl]carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Zheng


    Full Text Available The title compound, C29H35N3O4, was obtained by the reaction of (2S,4S,5S-tert-butyl N-(4-amino-1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-5-phenylpentylcarbamate and picolinic acid using oxalyl chloride as a chlorinating reagent to activate the carboxyl group. In the crystal structure there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit, which are aligned edge-to-face. In one molecule, the pyridyl ring forms a dihedral angle of 22.0 (1° with the phenyl ring of the terminal benzyl group and 14.3 (1° with the other phenyl ring; in the other molecule, the corresponding angles are 12.1 (1 and 10.6 (1°, respectively. The packing is stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions.

  19. UV-IR color profiles of the outer regions of 2K nearby S4G galaxies (United States)

    Bouquin, Alexandre Y. K.; Gil de Paz, Armando


    We present our new, spatially-resolved, photometry in FUV and NUV from images obtained by GALEX, and IRAC1 (3.6 μm) photometry obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. We analyzed the surface brightness profiles μFUV, μNUV, μ[3.6], as well as the radial evolution of the (FUV-NUV), (FUV - [3.6]), and (NUV - [3.6]) colors in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structures in Galaxies (S4G) galaxies (d stay constant for GRS galaxies, a large fraction ( > 50%) of intermediary GALEX Green Valley (GGV) galaxies' outer disks are becoming redder. An outside-in quenching mechanism such as environmentally-related mechanisms such as starvation or ram-pressure-stripping could explain our results.

  20. Steric hindrance between S4 and S5 of the KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel hampers pore opening. (United States)

    Nakajo, Koichi; Kubo, Yoshihiro


    In voltage-gated K(+) channels, membrane depolarization induces an upward movement of the voltage-sensing domains (VSD) that triggers pore opening. KCNQ1 is a voltage-gated K(+) channel and its gating behaviour is substantially modulated by auxiliary subunit KCNE proteins. KCNE1, for example, markedly shifts the voltage dependence of KCNQ1 towards the positive direction and slows down the activation kinetics. Here we identify two phenylalanine residues on KCNQ1, Phe232 on S4 (VSD) and Phe279 on S5 (pore domain) to be responsible for the gating modulation by KCNE1. Phe232 collides with Phe279 during the course of the VSD movement and hinders KCNQ1 channel from opening in the presence of KCNE1. This steric hindrance caused by the bulky amino-acid residues destabilizes the open state and thus shifts the voltage dependence of KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel.

  1. Sensitivity test of GOCI dust aerosol index with aerosol absorptivity by using radiative transfer simulation and comparison with AERONET aerosol optical properties (United States)

    Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Park, Y. J.


    For the monitoring of aerosol properties in East Asia using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), the GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm was developed and has been improved continuously since 2011. GOCI YAER algorithm contains several aerosol models consisted of various optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine-mode fraction (FMF), and single scattering albedo (SSA) for assuming every possible aerosol status. Then, AOD at 550 nm is retrieved from selected aerosol models which show least difference between observed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and simulated TOA reflectance in terms of spectral AODs. Current inversion method is optimized for spectral AODs, especially AOD at 550 nm. Therefore, GOCI YAER AOD, FMF, and Angstrom exponent show reliable accuracy with ground-based AERONET and satellite-based MODIS and VIIRS products. However, SSA shows least accuracy (R = 0.2) with AERONET SSA, which is different from AOD, FMF, and AE. To improve accuracy of SSA retrieval, the inversion method should reflect a characteristic of aerosol absorptivity well, not only in the aerosol model construction as forward modeling. UV aerosol index from TOMS and OMI measurements, calculated by using 354 and 388 nm, provides the extent of aerosol absorptivity, which can be used for the improvement of aerosol model quality between absorbing and non-absorbing aerosol model. Instead of UV index, a dust aerosol index (DAI) can be calculated using two visible channels such as 412 and 443 (or 490) nm. Heavy dust plume, which is coarse and absorbing aerosol, in 47 April 2012 show DAI of 5, but heavy haze plume, which is fine and non-absorbing aerosol, in 6 May 2012 shows DAI close to 0. To find relationship between DAI and aerosol absorptivity properties, sensitivity is tested by using radiative transfer model (RTM), and retrieved GOCI DAI from observed TOA reflectance is compared with ground-based AERONET SSA and other optical properties. Both of

  2. Spinel FeCo2S4 nanoflower arrays grown on Ni foam as novel binder-free electrodes for long-cycle-life supercapacitors (United States)

    Deng, Cuifen; Yang, Lishan; Yang, Chunming; Shen, Ping; Zhao, Liping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Junhua; Qian, Dong


    Spinel FeCo2S4 nanoflower arrays grown on Ni foam (FeCo2S4@Ni) have been successfully fabricated via a facile hydrothermal sulfurization of the corresponding FeCo2O4 precursor. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations affirm that partial Co2+/Co3+ ions in Co3S4 have been substituted by Fe2+/Fe3+ ions to form FeCo2S4. The obtained FeCo2S4@Ni exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance (1644.07 mF cm-2 at 50 mA cm-2) and a supreme cycling stability (∼100% after 10,000 cycles at 50 mA cm-2) as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The cycling stability of the fabricated product is the highest among the documented ternary metallic sulfides so far. The excellent supercapacitive performance of FeCo2S4@Ni emanates from the unique architectures of Fe2Co2S4 nanoflower arrays constituted by ultrathin nanoflakes, three-dimensional porous and conductive Ni foam, and solid skeleton of Ni foam for robust connections to the Fe2Co2S4.

  3. Cu2ZnSnS4-Au heterostructures: Toward green photocatalytic materials active under visible light (United States)

    Dilsaver, Patrick Steven

    Solar energy is a potentially limitless source of clean power, but needs an effective means of conversion and storage to be feasible. Semiconductor-metal heterostructures have been studied as potential photocatalysts for use in solar-to-chemical energy conversion as a way of converting solar energy. This thesis examines pathways towards the synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS 4-Au, a novel semiconductor-metal heterostructure. Cu2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) is attractive for use in this area because it has a narrow bandgap (1.5 eV) and is made of relatively earth-abundant and non-toxic elements. There are four methods studied in this thesis for the fabrication of CZTS-Au, two use AuCl3 as a precursor and two utilize pre-formed Au nanoparticles. Both precursors were studied under thermal and photochemical deposition conditions. The resulting products were characterized to determine the most effective pathway to fabricate these heterostructures. AuCl 3 under thermal deposition conditions proved to be the best pathway due to the well-defined monodisperse product. We also studied whether Au metal islands could be effectively removed while leaving the CZTS nanocrystals intact. The results of this experiment were mixed. It does seem that smaller Au nanoparticles are removed, but larger amalgams remain attached to the CZTS nanorods and remain inseparable despite numerous efforts. Finally, CZTS-Au was tested for photocatalytic activity using the model system of methylene blue reduction. CZTS-Au was found to convert methylene blue to leucomethylene blue at a much higher rate than bare CZTS. These results open up a new area of CZTS-metal heterostructures for the purpose of finding greener photocatalysts for solar-to-chemical energy conversion.

  4. The Chemical Composition and Mixing State of Sea Spray Aerosol and Organic Aerosol in the Winter-Spring Arctic (United States)

    Kirpes, R.; Bondy, A. L.; Bonanno, D.; Moffet, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Ault, A. P.; Pratt, K.


    The Arctic region is undergoing rapid transformations and loss of sea ice due to climate change. With increased sea ice fracturing resulting in greater open ocean surface, winter emissions of sea spray aerosol (SSA) are expected to be increasing. Additionally, during the winter-spring transition, Arctic haze contributes to the Arctic aerosol budget. The magnitude of aerosol climate effects depends on the aerosol composition and mixing state (distribution of chemical species within and between particles). However, few studies of aerosol chemistry have been conducted in the winter Arctic, despite it being a time when aerosol impacts on clouds are expected to be significant. To study aerosol composition and mixing state in the winter Arctic, atmospheric particles were collected near Barrow, Alaska in January and February 2014 for off-line individual particle chemical analysis. SSA was the most prevalent particle type observed. Sulfate and nitrate were observed to be internally mixed with SSA and organic aerosol. Greater than 98% of observed SSA particles contained organic content, with 15-35% organic volume fraction on average for individual particles. The SSA organic compounds consisted of carbohydrates, lipids, and fatty acids found in the seawater surface microlayer. SSA was determined to be emitted from open leads, while transported sulfate and nitrate contributed to aging of SSA and organic aerosol. Determining the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the winter Arctic will further the understanding of how individual aerosol particles impact climate through radiative effects and cloud formation.

  5. Development the EarthCARE aerosol classification scheme (United States)

    Wandinger, Ulla; Baars, Holger; Hünerbein, Anja; Donovan, Dave; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Fischer, Jürgen; von Bismarck, Jonas; Eisinger, Michael; Lajas, Dulce; Wehr, Tobias


    The Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission is a joint ESA/JAXA mission planned to be launched in 2018. The multi-sensor platform carries a cloud-profiling radar (CPR), a high-spectral-resolution cloud/aerosol lidar (ATLID), a cloud/aerosol multi-spectral imager (MSI), and a three-view broad-band radiometer (BBR). Three out of the four instruments (ATLID, MSI, and BBR) will be able to sense the global aerosol distribution and contribute to the overarching EarthCARE goals of sensor synergy and radiation closure with respect to aerosols. The high-spectral-resolution lidar ATLID obtains profiles of particle extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio, and linear depolarization ratio as well as the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 355 nm. MSI provides AOT at 670 nm (over land and ocean) and 865 nm (over ocean). Next to these primary observables the aerosol type is one of the required products to be derived from both lidar stand-alone and ATLID-MSI synergistic retrievals. ATLID measurements of the aerosol intensive properties (lidar ratio, depolarization ratio) and ATLID-MSI observations of the spectral AOT will provide the basic input for aerosol-type determination. Aerosol typing is needed for the quantification of anthropogenic versus natural aerosol loadings of the atmosphere, the investigation of aerosol-cloud interaction, assimilation purposes, and the validation of atmospheric transport models which carry components like dust, sea salt, smoke and pollution. Furthermore, aerosol classification is a prerequisite for the estimation of direct aerosol radiative forcing and radiative closure studies. With an appropriate underlying microphysical particle description, the categorization of aerosol observations into predefined aerosol types allows us to infer information needed for the calculation of shortwave radiative effects, such as mean particle size, single-scattering albedo, and spectral conversion factors. In order to ensure

  6. Interactions of Francisella tularensis with Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells and the Murine Respiratory Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Faron

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is classified as a Tier 1 select agent by the CDC due to its low infectious dose and the possibility that the organism can be used as a bioweapon. The low dose of infection suggests that Francisella is unusually efficient at evading host defenses. Although ~50 cfu are necessary to cause human respiratory infection, the early interactions of virulent Francisella with the lung environment are not well understood. To provide additional insights into these interactions during early Francisella infection of mice, we performed TEM analysis on mouse lungs infected with F. tularensis strains Schu S4, LVS and the O-antigen mutant Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn. For all three strains, the majority of the bacteria that we could detect were observed within alveolar type II epithelial cells at 16 hours post infection. Although there were no detectable differences in the amount of bacteria within an infected cell between the three strains, there was a significant increase in the amount of cellular debris observed in the air spaces of the lungs in the Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant compared to either the Schu S4 or LVS strain. We also studied the interactions of Francisella strains with human AT-II cells in vitro by characterizing the ability of these three strains to invade and replicate within these cells. Gentamicin assay and confocal microscopy both confirmed that F. tularensis Schu S4 replicated robustly within these cells while F. tularensis LVS displayed significantly lower levels of growth over 24 hours, although the strain was able to enter these cells at about the same level as Schu S4 (1 organism per cell, as determined by confocal imaging. The Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant that we have previously described as attenuated for growth in macrophages and mouse virulence displayed interesting properties as well. This mutant induced significant airway inflammation (cell debris and had an attenuated growth phenotype in the human AT-II cells. These

  7. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic decomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid over ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 photocatalyst. (United States)

    Qiu, Pengxiang; Yao, Jinhua; Chen, Huan; Jiang, Fang; Xie, Xianchuan


    ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst was successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method and applied to visible-light photocatalytic decomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from aqueous phase. The flower-like ZnIn2S4 particles were dispersed on the surface of g-C3N4 nanosheets in the ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 composite. The composite showed higher separation rate of electron-hole pairs as compared to ZnIn2S4 and g-C3N4. Consequently, the ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 composite exhibited enhanced visible light photocatalytic decomposition efficiency of 2,4-D, within 20% ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 composite owning the highest photocatalytic efficiency and initial rate. The initial rates of 2,4-D degradation on g-C3N4, ZnIn2S4, and 20% ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 were 1.23, 0.57 and 3.69mmol/(gcath), respectively. The h(+) and O2(-) were found to be the dominant active species for 2,4-D decomposition. The photocatalytic degradation pathways of 2,4-D by ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation were explored. The ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 composite displayed high photostability in recycling tests, reflecting its promising potential as an effective visible light photocatalyst for 2,4-D treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerosol climate change effects on land ecosystem services. (United States)

    Unger, N; Yue, X; Harper, K L


    A coupled global aerosol-carbon-climate model is applied to assess the impacts of aerosol physical climate change on the land ecosystem services gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in the 1996-2005 period. Aerosol impacts are quantified on an annual mean basis relative to the hypothetical aerosol-free world in 1996-2005, the global climate state in the absence of the historical rise in aerosol pollution. We examine the separate and combined roles of fast feedbacks associated with the land and slow feedbacks associated with the ocean. We consider all fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning aerosol emission sources as anthropogenic. The effective radiative forcing for aerosol-radiation interactions is -0.44 W m(-2) and aerosol-cloud interactions is -1.64 W m(-2). Aerosols cool and dry the global climate system by -0.8 °C and -0.08 mm per day relative to the aerosol-free world. Without aerosol pollution, human-induced global warming since the preindustrial would have already exceeded the 1.5 °C aspirational limit set in the Paris Agreement by the 1996-2005 decade. Aerosol climate impacts on the global average land ecosystem services are small due to large opposite sign effects in the tropical and boreal biomes. Aerosol slow feedbacks associated with the ocean strongly dominate impacts in the Amazon and North American Boreal. Aerosol cooling of the Amazon by -1.2 °C drives NPP increases of 8% or +0.76 ± 0.61 PgC per year, a 5-10 times larger impact than estimates of diffuse radiation fertilization by biomass burning aerosol in this region. The North American Boreal suffers GPP and NPP decreases of 35% due to aerosol-induced cooling and drying (-1.6 °C, -0.14 mm per day). Aerosol-land feedbacks play a larger role in the eastern US and Central Africa. Our study identifies an eco-climate teleconnection in the polluted earth system: the rise of the northern hemisphere mid-latitude reflective aerosol pollution layer causes long range

  9. Ultrafine atmospheric aerosols, clouds and climate (United States)

    Pierce, Jeffrey Robert

    Changes in atmospheric aerosol due to anthropogenic emissions are the most uncertain factors that have contributed to recent climate change. Much of this uncertainty is from the effect that particles have on cloud radiative properties, the aerosol indirect effect. Particles on which cloud droplets form are called cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Particles larger than about 80--100 nm dry diameter typically act as CCN in stratus clouds. In order to predict how cloud radiative properties have changed since pre-industrial times, the CCN concentrations in both present-day and pre-industrial times must be known. Much of the uncertainty in CCN predictions is from uncertainty in the sources of ultrafine particles (particles with diameter smaller than 100 nm) as well as the processes that grow these particles to CCN sizes. This thesis explores various aspects of the how uncertainties in ultrafine particles affect predictions of CCN. First, we explore the uncertainty in CCN due to uncertain sea-salt emissions and also the affect of recently quantified ultrafine sea-salt on CCN. In the Southern Ocean, uncertainty in sea-salt emissions contributed to uncertainties in CCN(0.2%) by a factor of 2. Ultrafine sea-salt aerosol increased CCN(0.2%) in remote marine regions by more than 20%. Next, we look at how primary carbonaceous particles affect CCN as well as how uncertainties in their chemical properties affect CCN. The addition of primary carbonaceous aerosol increased CCN(0.2%) concentrations by 65--90% in the globally averaged surface layer. A sensitivity study showed that approximately half of this increase occurs even if all carbonaceous aerosols are completely insoluble. To study the growth of ultrafine particles to CCN sizes, we develop the Probability of Ultrafine Growth (PUG) model. It was found in most cases that condensation is the dominant growth mechanism and coagulation with larger particles is the dominant sink mechanism for ultrafine particles. We found that the

  10. Aerosol Optical Properties over Northwestern European Seas (United States)

    Avgousta Floutsi, Athina; Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Matsoukas, Christos; Riva, Riccardo; Biskos, George


    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. In order to quantify these effects it is necessary to determine the aerosol load. An effective way to do this is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). Besides AOD, the Fine mode Fraction (AOD of particles smaller than 1 μm / total AOD, FF) is a useful parameter for the characterization of the aerosol and provides a good proxy for particle size. In this study, we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD and FF over the Western and Northwestern European Seas (43° N - 67° N, 10° W - 31° E), where significant sources of both natural and anthropogenic particles are located. Anthropogenic particles (mostly fine mode) originate from ship activity, or from urban-industrial and biomass-burning processes in the European countries. The natural, coarse mode particles are primarily sea salt. The study is performed using Collection 006 Level-3 mean daily aerosol data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board Aqua satellite, available in 1° × 1° resolution (ca. 100 km × 100 km) over the period 2002- 2014. Our results indicate significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The highest AOD values (up to 0.32 on annual level) are observed over the English Channel and the coasts of the Netherlands and Germany. In these regions the highest FF values are also observed (up to 0.77), indicating a relatively large contribution of anthropogenic particles to the aerosol load. Offshore, both AOD and FF are lower compared to coastal regions, indicating the predominance of maritime aerosols (sea salt). The data also show a clear seasonal cycle, with larger aerosol load during spring and summer (AOD up to 0.60), and lower during autumn and winter (AOD up to 0.30). A similar

  11. Sensitivity of aerosol optical thickness and aerosol direct radiative effect to relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bian


    Full Text Available We present a sensitivity study of the effects of spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric relative humidity (RH on calculated aerosol optical thickness (AOT and the aerosol direct radiative effects (DRE in a global model. We carry out different modeling experiments using the same aerosol fields simulated in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI model at a resolution of 2° latitude by 2.5° longitude, using time-averaged fields archived every three hours by the Goddard Earth Observation System Version 4 (GEOS-4, but we change the horizontal and temporal resolution of the relative humidity fields. We find that, on a global average, the AOT calculated using RH at a 1°×1.25° horizontal resolution is 11% higher than that using RH at a 2°×2.5° resolution, and the corresponding DRE at the top of the atmosphere is 8–9% and 15% more negative (i.e., more cooling for total aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol alone, respectively, in the finer spatial resolution case. The difference is largest over surface escarpment regions (e.g. >200% over the Andes Mountains where RH varies substantially with surface terrain. The largest zonal mean AOT difference occurs at 50–60° N (16–21%, where AOT is also relatively larger. A similar impact is also found when the time resolution of RH is increased. This increase of AOT and aerosol cooling with the increase of model resolution is due to the highly non-linear relationship between RH and the aerosol mass extinction efficiency (MEE at high RH (>80%. Our study is a specific example of the uncertainty in model results highlighted by multi-model comparisons such as AeroCom, and points out one of the many inter-model differences that can contribute to the overall spread among models.

  12. The continuous field measurements of soluble aerosol compositions at the Taipei Aerosol Supersite, Taiwan (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Yu; Lee, Chung-Te; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Liu, Shaw-Chen; Wen, Tian-Xue

    The characteristics of ambient aerosols, affected by solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and gas-aerosol interaction, changed rapidly at different spatial and temporal scales. In Taipei Basin, dense traffic emissions and sufficient solar radiation for typical summer days favored the formation of secondary aerosols. In winter, the air quality in Taipei Basin was usually affected by the Asian continental outflows due to the long-range transport of pollutants carried by the winter monsoon. The conventional filter-based method needs a long time for collecting aerosols and analyzing compositions, which cannot provide high time-resolution data to investigate aerosol sources, atmospheric transformation processes, and health effects. In this work, the in situ ion chromatograph (IC) system was developed to provide 15-min time-resolution data of nine soluble inorganic species (Cl -, NO 2-, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+). Over 89% of all particles larger than approximately 0.056 μm were collected by the in situ IC system. The in situ IC system is estimated to have a limit of detection lower than 0.3 μg m -3 for the various ambient ionic components. Depending on the hourly measurements, the pollutant events with high aerosol concentrations in Taipei Basin were associated with the local traffic emission in rush hour, the accumulation of pollutants in the stagnant atmosphere, the emission of industrial pollutants from the nearby factories, the photochemical secondary aerosol formation, and the long-range transport of pollutants from Asian outflows.

  13. The color of carbonaceous aerosols in the ambient atmosphere (United States)

    Liu, C.; Chung, C.; Zhang, F.; Yin, Y.; Zhao, D.


    Biomass burning aerosols, i.e. carbonaceous aerosols, mainly consist of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OAs). Most OAs are non-absorptive, whereas some, e.g. brown carbon (BrC), can also significantly absorb solar radiation. However, the BC and BrC show quite different spectral habits on the absorption, and, thus, different colors. This presentation reveals the colors of carbonaceous aerosols in the ambient atmosphere. A combination of the particle scattering simulations, radiative transfer and RGB color model is used to display the color of an aerosol layer in the atmosphere, and BrC, BC and their mixture with scattering OAs are considered. Numerical results indicate that the color of the aerosol layer is substantially influenced by their absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE), not the species. Both the BCs and tar balls (TBs, a class of BrC) appear brownish at small particle sizes and becomes blackish at large sizes. At realistic size distributions, BCs look more blackish than TBs, but still exhibit some brown color. Meanwhile, if the aerosol layer absorbs over approximately 80% of the incident light (at green), all biomass burning aerosols become black in the atmosphere. The colors for mixture of purely scattering and absorptive carbonaceous aerosol layers in the atmosphere are also investigated. This study suggests that the brownishness of biomass burning aerosols indicates the amount of BC/BrC as well as the ratio of BC to BrC.

  14. Characterization of Spectral Absorption Properties of Aerosols Using Satellite Observations (United States)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ahn, C.


    The wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) is generally represented in terms of the Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE), a parameter that describes the dependence of AAOD with wavelength. The AAE parameter is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellitebased method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses high spectral resolution measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols lie above clouds as indicated by the UV Aerosol Index. For those conditions, the satellite measured reflectance (rho lambda) is approximately given by Beer's law rho lambda = rho (sub 0 lambda) e (exp -mtau (sub abs lambda)) where rho(sub 0 lambda) is the cloud reflectance, m is the geometric slant path and tau (sub abs lambda) is the spectral AAOD. The rho (sub 0 lambda) term is determined by means of radiative transfer calculations using as input the cloud optical depth derived as described in Torres et al. [JAS, 2012] that accounts for the effects of aerosol absorption. In the second step, corrections for molecular and aerosol scattering effects are applied to the cloud reflectance term, and the spectral AAOD is then derived by inverting the equation above. The proposed technique will be discussed in detail and application results will be presented. The technique can be easily applied to hyper-spectral satellite measurements that include UV such as OMI, GOME and SCIAMACHY, or to multi-spectral visible measurements by other sensors provided that the aerosol-above-cloud events are easily identified.

  15. Effect of aerosols on evapo-transpiration (United States)

    Murthy, B. S.; Latha, R.; Manoj, Kumar; Mahanti, N. C.


    Aerosol direct radiative forcing (ARF) at surface is estimated from instantaneous, simultaneous observations of global radiation and aerosol optical depth (AOD) during winter, pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons over a tropical Indian station at the south-eastern end of Indo Gangetic basin. A comparison of observed and model derived ARFs is made and possible reasons for mismatch are discussed. Aerosol-induced reduction in solar visible (0.4-0.7 μm) spectrum energy (SWvis), contributing 44% to total broad band (0.3-3.0 μm) energy (SW), and its effect on surface energy fluxes are discussed in this study. Aerosols on an average reduce SWvis at surface by ˜27%. SWvis reduces by 14.5 W m-2 for a 0.1 increase in AOD when single scattering albedo (SSA) is 0.979 where as it reduces by 67.5 W m-2 when SSA is 0.867 indicating the significant effect of absorbing aerosols. Effect of ARF on net radiation, Rn, sensible heat flux, H and latent heat flux/evapo-transpiration, LE are estimated using the observed ratios of Rn/SW, H/Rn and LE/Rn, having reasonably good correlation. Observed Rn/SW varies between 0.59 and 0.75 with a correlation of 0.99 between them. LE, calculated by energy balance method, varies from 56% to 74% of Rn but with a lesser correlation, the possible reasons are discussed. For a given ARF, LE decreases by ˜14% and Rn by ˜15% with respect to observed LE and Rn respectively. The reduction in LE increases from 37% to 54% of ARF when LE increases from 220 W m-2 to 440 W m-2, suggesting that wet soil induces relatively larger reduction in evaporation. The results agree with earlier model sensitivity studies that Rn reduces more with increase in aerosol absorption which is compensated by proportionate reductions in H and LE depending on soil and atmospheric conditions.

  16. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea (United States)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas


    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 matter origin in submicron marine aerosol by 13 C and 14 C isotope analysis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 8593-8606, 2011. Ceburnis, D., Masalaite, A., Ovadnevaite, J., Garbaras, A., Remeikis, V., Maenhaut, W., Claeys, M., Sciare, J., Baisnée, D., and O'Dowd, C. D.: Stable isotopes measurements reveal dual carbon pools contributing to organic matter enrichment in marine aerosol, Scientific Reports, 6, 2016. Masalaite, A., Remeikis, V., Garbaras, A., Dudoitis, V., Ulevicius, V., and Ceburnis, D.: Elucidating carbonaceous aerosol sources by the stable carbon δ13C TC ratio in size

  17. Near-infrared laser desorption/ionization aerosol mass spectrometry for measuring organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant aerosol mass loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Geddes


    Full Text Available A new method, near-infrared laser desorption/ionization aerosol mass spectrometry (NIR-LDI-AMS, is described for the real time analysis of organic aerosols at atmospherically relevant total mass loadings. Particles are sampled with an aerodynamic lens onto an aluminum probe. A moderate energy NIR laser pulse at 1064 nm is directed onto the probe to vaporize and ionize particle components. Delayed pulse extraction is then used to sample the ions into a reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer for chemical analysis. The soft ionization afforded by the NIR photons results in minimal fragmentation (loss of a hydrogen atom producing intact pseudo-molecular anions at [M-H]. The limit of detection measured for pure oleic acid particles (geometric mean diameter and standard deviation of 180 nm and 1.3, respectively was 140 fg (or 1.7 ng m−3 per minute sampling time. As an example of the utility of NIR-LDI-AMS to measurements of atmospheric importance, the method was applied to laboratory chamber measurements of the secondary organic aerosol formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene. High quality mass spectra were recorded with a 2-min time resolution for total aerosol mass loadings ranging from 1.5 to 8.7 μg m−3. These results demonstrate the potential of NIR-LDI-AMS to allow for more accurate measurements of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate at realistic mass loadings. Measurements at ambient-levels of SOA mass loading are important to improve parameterizations of chamber-based SOA formation for modeling regional and global SOA fluxes and to aid in remediating the discrepancy between modeled and observed atmospheric total SOA production rates and concentrations.

  18. Graphite carbon nitride/ZnIn2S4 heterojunction photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic performance for degradation of tetracycline under visible light irradiation (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Cai, Yi; Guan, Weisheng; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang


    It is a widespread concern to address the antibiotics in water with low-cost and eco-friendly photocatalysts that could efficiently harvest solar light. Herein, we designed an efficient photocatalyst by integrating the lamellar g-C3N4 into Znln2S4 microflowers through a one-step hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized g-C3N4/Znln2S4 heterojunction photocatalysts exhibited evidently enhancement on the photocatalytic activities for the degradation of tetracycline (100 mL, 20 mg/L) compared with pristine g-C3N4 and Znln2S4. Significantly, g-C3N4/Znln2S4 composite with loading 50 wt.% g-C3N4 showed the highest photocatalytic performance (almost 100% degradation within 120 min), which was around 40 and 22.8 times higher than that of g-C3N4 and Znln2S4, respectively. This enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4/Znln2S4 is mainly attributed to the formation of heterostructure that can efficiently promote the transfer of photoinduced electrons and holes between g-C3N4 and ZnIn2S4, restricting the recombination of electron-hole pairs. In addition, a possible mechanism was also proposed.

  19. Construction of a Hierarchical NiCo2S4@PPy Core-Shell Heterostructure Nanotube Array on Ni Foam for a High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor. (United States)

    Yan, Minglei; Yao, Yadong; Wen, Jiqiu; Long, Lu; Kong, Menglai; Zhang, Guanggao; Liao, Xiaoming; Yin, Guangfu; Huang, Zhongbing


    In this paper, a hierarchical NiCo2S4@polypyrrole core-shell heterostructure nanotube array on Ni foam (NiCo2S4@PPy/NF) was successfully developed as a bind-free electrode for supercapacitors. NiCo2S4@PPy-50/NF obtained under 50 s PPy electrodeposition shows a low charge-transfer resistance (0.31 Ω) and a high area specific capacitance of 9.781 F/cm(2) at a current density of 5 mA/cm(2), which is two times higher than that of pristine NiCo2S4/NF (4.255 F/cm(2)). Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor was assembled using NiCo2S4@PPy-50/NF as positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as negative electrode. The resulting NiCo2S4@PPy-50/NF//AC device exhibits a high energy density of 34.62 Wh/kg at a power density of 120.19 W/kg with good cycling performance (80.64% of the initial capacitance retention at 50 mA/cm(2) over 2500 cycles). The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the combined contribution of both component and unique core-shell heterostructure. The results demonstrate that the NiCo2S4@PPy-50 core-shell heterostructure nanotube array is promising as electrode material for supercapacitors in energy storage.

  20. Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy


    Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the

  1. Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global aerosol models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Myhre


    Full Text Available We have used the MODIS satellite data and two global aerosol models to investigate the relationships between aerosol optical depth (AOD and cloud parameters that may be affected by the aerosol concentration. The relationships that are studied are mainly between AOD, on the one hand, and cloud cover, cloud liquid water path, and water vapour, on the other. Additionally, cloud droplet effective radius, cloud optical depth, cloud top pressure and aerosol Ångström exponent, have been analysed in a few cases. In the MODIS data we found, as in earlier studies, an enhancement in the cloud cover with increasing AOD. We find it likely that most of the strong increase in cloud cover with AOD, at least for AOD<0.2, is a result of aerosol-cloud interactions and a prolonged cloud lifetime. Large and mesoscale weather systems seem not to be a cause for the increase in cloud cover with AOD in this range. Sensitivity simulations show that when water uptake of the aerosols is not taken into account in the models the modelled cloud cover mostly decreases with AOD. Part of the relationship found in the MODIS data for AOD>0.2 can be explained by larger water uptake close to the clouds since relative humidity is higher in regions with higher cloud cover. The efficiency of the hygroscopic growth depends on aerosol type, the hygroscopic nature of the aerosol, the relative humidity, and to some extent the cloud screening. By analysing the Ångström exponent we find that the hygroscopic growth of the aerosol is not likely to be a main contributor to the cloud cover increase with AOD. Since the largest increase in cloud cover with AOD is for low AOD (~0.2 and thus also for low cloud cover, we argue that cloud contamination is not likely to play a large role. However, interpretation of the complex relationships between AOD and cloud parameters should be made with great care and further work is clearly needed.

  2. Investigation of aerosol optical properties for remote sensing through DRAGON (distributed regional aerosol gridded observation networks) campaign in Korea (United States)

    Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Park, Jin-Soo; Hong, You-Deok; Han, Jin-Seok; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Sang-Woo


    Aerosols in the atmosphere, including dust and pollutants, scatters/absorbs solar radiation and change the microphysics of clouds, thus influencing the Earth's energy budget, climate, air quality, visibility, agriculture and water circulation. Pollutants have also been reported to threaten the human health. The present research collaborated with the U.S. NASA and the U.S. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is to study the aerosol characteristics in East Asia and improve the long-distance transportation monitoring technology by analyzing the observations of aerosol characteristics in East Asia during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March 2012-May 2012). The sun photometers that measure the aerosol optical characteristics were placed evenly throughout the Korean Peninsula and concentrated in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Observation data are obtained from the DRAGON campaign and the first year (2012) observation data (aerosol optical depth and aerosol spatial distribution) are analyzed. Sun photometer observations, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), are utilized to validate satellite observations from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Additional analysis is performed associated with the Northeast Asia, the Korean Peninsula in particular, to determine the spatial distribution of the aerosol.

  3. Attribution of aerosol light absorption to black carbon and volatile aerosols. (United States)

    Shrestha, Rijana; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Kim, Ji-Hyoung


    We investigated the contribution of volatile aerosols in light-absorption measurement by three filter-based optical instruments [aethalometer, continuous light-absorption photometer (CLAP), and continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS)] at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO) from February to June 2012. The aerosol absorption coefficient (σ abs) and the equivalent black carbon (BC) mass concentration (M BC) measured by the aethalometer and CLAP showed good agreement with a difference of 9 %, which is likely due to the instrumental uncertainty. However, σ abs and M BC measured by the COSMOS with a heated inlet were found to be approximately 44 and 49 % lower than those measured by the aethalometer and CLAP under ambient conditions, respectively. This difference can be attributed to the light absorption by the volatile aerosols coexisting with the BC. Even considering inherent observational uncertainty, it suggests that approximately 35-40 % difference in the σ abs and M BC can be contributed by volatile aerosols. Increase in the difference of M BC measured by the aethalometer and COSMOS with the increasing thermal organic carbon (OC) measured by Sunset OC/EC analyzer further suggests that the filter-based optical instruments without the use of a heater are likely to enhance the value of σ abs and M BC, because this sample air may contain both BC and volatile aerosols.

  4. The Hohenpeissenberg aerosol characterization experiment (HAZE2002): Aerosol composition derived from mass spectrometry (United States)

    Hock, N.; Berresheim, H.; Borrmann, S.; Poeschl, U.; Roempp, A.; Schneider, J.


    The HAZE Experiment was conducted between 17.05.2002 and 31.05.2002, at the meteorological observatory of the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD) at Hohenpeissenberg (47^o48'N,11^o02'E, 985m). The objective was to make essential progress in understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the atmospheric aerosol, in particular relating to the Gas-To-Particle-Conversion and the interaction with meteorological processes. The measurements included online mass spectrometric analysis using the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), filter samples with GC analyses of organic compounds, particle size distribution (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), SMPS, OPC), as well as the total particle concentration (CPC). Additionally, several gas-phase substances were measured (e.g. Benzene, Acetone). The measurements obtained with the AMS show a strong variability of the aerosol composition. The non-refractory aerosol composition was dominated by nitrate, sulphate, and organics, whereas ammonium was surprisingly low. High number concentration of up to 14000 particles/cm^3 were observed. These particles mostly had diameters between 200 nm and 400 nm and were mainly composed of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. Various meteorological conditions allowed to study their influence on the aerosol. For example, on rainy days the concentrations of ammonium sulphate particles decreased, whereas the concentrations of ammonium nitrate particles increased.

  5. A case study on biomass burning aerosols: effects on aerosol optical properties and surface radiation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arola


    Full Text Available In spring 2006, biomass burning aerosols from eastern Europe were transported extensively to Finland, and to other parts of northern Europe. They were observed as far as in the European Arctic. In the first part of this paper, temporal and spatial evolution and transport of these biomass burning aerosols are monitored with MODIS retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD imagery at visible wavelengths (0.55 μm. Comparison of MODIS and AERONET AOD is conducted at Tõravere, Estonia. Then trajectory analyses, as well as MODIS Fire Mapper products are used to better understand the type and origin of the air masses. During the studied four-week period AOD values ranged from near zero up to 1.2 at 0.55 μm and the linear correlation between MODIS and AERONET was very high (~0.97. Temporal variability observed within this four-week period was also rather well explained by the trajectory analysis in conjunction with the fire detections produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System. In the second part of our study, the surface measurements of global and UV radiation at Jokioinen, Finland are used to study the effect of this haze episode on the levels of surface radiation. We found reductions up to 35% in noon-time surface UV irradiance (at 340 nm as compared to typical aerosol conditions. For global (total solar radiation, the reduction was always smaller, in line with the expected wavelength dependence of the aerosol effect.

  6. Assessment of the global impact of aerosols on tropospheric oxidants (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Madronich, Sasha; Walters, Stacy; Edwards, David P.; Ginoux, Paul; Mahowald, Natalie; Zhang, Renyi; Lou, Chao; Brasseur, Guy


    We present here a fully coupled global aerosol and chemistry model for the troposphere. The model is used to assess the interactions between aerosols and chemical oxidants in the troposphere, including (1) the conversion from gas-phase oxidants into the condensed phase during the formation of aerosols, (2) the heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of aerosols, and (3) the effect of aerosols on ultraviolet radiation and photolysis rates. The present study uses the global three-dimensional chemical/transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), in which aerosols are coupled with the model. The model accounts for the presence of sulfate, soot, primary organic carbon, ammonium nitrate, secondary organic carbon, sea salt, and mineral dust particles. The simulated global distributions of the aerosols are analyzed and evaluated using satellite measurements (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) and surface measurements. The results suggest that in northern continental regions the tropospheric aerosol loading is highest in Europe, North America, and east Asia. Sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, and ammonium nitrate are major contributions for the high aerosol loading in these regions. Aerosol loading is also high in the Amazon and in Africa. In these areas the aerosols consist primarily of organic carbon and black carbon. Over the southern high-latitude ocean (around 60°S), high concentrations of sea-salt aerosol are predicted. The concentration of mineral dust is highest over the Sahara and, as a result of transport, spread out into adjacent regions. The model and MODIS show similar geographical distributions of aerosol particles. However, the model overestimates the sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol in the eastern United States, Europe, and east Asia. In the region where aerosol loading is high, aerosols have important impacts on tropospheric ozone and other oxidants. The model suggests that

  7. A new source of oxygenated organic aerosol and oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liggio


    Full Text Available A large oxygenated organic uptake to aerosols was observed when exposing ambient urban air to inorganic acidic and non-acidic sulfate seed aerosol. For non-acidic seed aerosol the uptake was attributed to the direct dissolution of primary vehicle exhaust gases into the aqueous aerosol fraction, and was correlated to the initial seed sulphate mass. The uptake of primary oxygenated organic gases to aerosols in this study represents a significant amount of organic aerosol (OA that may be considered primary when compared to that reported for primary organic aerosol (POA, but is considerably more oxygenated (O : C ~ 0.3 than traditional POA. Consequently, a fraction of measured ambient oxygenated OA, which correlates with secondary sulphate, may in fact be of a primary, rather than secondary source. These results represent a new source of oxygenated OA on neutral aerosol and imply that the uptake of primary organic gases will occur in the ambient atmosphere, under dilute conditions, and in the presence of pre-existing SO4 aerosols which contain water. Conversely, under acidic seed aerosol conditions, oligomer formation was observed with the uptake of organics being enhanced by a factor of three or more compared to neutral aerosols, and in less than 2 min, representing an additional source of SOA to the atmosphere. This resulted in a trajectory in Van Krevelen space towards higher O : C (slope ~ −1.5, despite a lack of continual gas-phase oxidation in this closed system. The results demonstrate that high molecular weight species will form on acidic aerosols at the ambient level and mixture of organic gases, but are otherwise unaffected by subsequent aerosol neutralization, and that aerosol acidity will affect the organic O : C via aerosol-phase reactions. These two processes, forming oxygenated POA under neutral conditions and SOA under acidic conditions can contribute to the total ambient OA mass and the evolution of ambient aerosol O : C ratios

  8. Optical closure study on light-absorbing aerosols (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Bundke, Ulrich; Freedman, Andrew; Onasch, Timothy B.; Massoli, Paola; Andrews, Elizabeth; Hallar, Anna G.


    The in situ measurement of atmospheric aerosol optical properties is an important component of quantifying climate change. In particular, the in-situ measurement of the aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA), which is the ratio of aerosol scattering to aerosol extinction, is identified as a key challenge in atmospheric sciences and climate change research. Ideally, the complete set of aerosol optical properties is measured through optical closure studies which simultaneous measure aerosol extinction, scattering and absorption coefficients. The recent development of new optical instruments have made real-time in situ optical closure studies attainable, however, many of these instruments are state-of-the-art but not practical for routine monitoring. In our studies we deployed a suit of well-established and recently developed instruments including the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) method for aerosol light extinction, multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) for aerosol light absorption, and an integrating nephelometer (NEPH) for aerosol light scattering measurements. From these directly measured optical properties we calculated light absorption from extinction minus scattering (difference method), light extinction from scattering plus absorption, and aerosol single-scattering albedo from combinations CAPS + MAAP, NEPH + PSAP, NEPH + MAAP, CAPS + NEPH. Closure studies were conducted for laboratory-generated aerosols composed of various mixtures of black carbon (Regal 400R pigment black, Cabot Corp.) and ammonium sulphate, urban aerosol (Billerica, MA), and background aerosol (Storm Peak Lab.). Key questions addressed in our closure studies are: (1) how well can we measure aerosol light absorption by various methods, and (2) how well can we measure the aerosol single-scattering albedo by various instrument combinations? In particular we investigated (3) whether the combination of a CAPS and NEPH provides a reasonable

  9. Evaluations of tropospheric aerosol properties simulated by the community earth system model with a sectional aerosol microphysics scheme (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.; Bardeen, Charles G.; Mills, Michael J.; Fan, Tianyi; English, Jason M.; Neely, Ryan R.


    Abstract A sectional aerosol model (CARMA) has been developed and coupled with the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Aerosol microphysics, radiative properties, and interactions with clouds are simulated in the size‐resolving model. The model described here uses 20 particle size bins for each aerosol component including freshly nucleated sulfate particles, as well as mixed particles containing sulfate, primary organics, black carbon, dust, and sea salt. The model also includes five types of bulk secondary organic aerosols with four volatility bins. The overall cost of CESM1‐CARMA is approximately ∼2.6 times as much computer time as the standard three‐mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1‐MAM3) and twice as much computer time as the seven‐mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1‐MAM7) using similar gas phase chemistry codes. Aerosol spatial‐temporal distributions are simulated and compared with a large set of observations from satellites, ground‐based measurements, and airborne field campaigns. Simulated annual average aerosol optical depths are lower than MODIS/MISR satellite observations and AERONET observations by ∼32%. This difference is within the uncertainty of the satellite observations. CESM1/CARMA reproduces sulfate aerosol mass within 8%, organic aerosol mass within 20%, and black carbon aerosol mass within 50% compared with a multiyear average of the IMPROVE/EPA data over United States, but differences vary considerably at individual locations. Other data sets show similar levels of comparison with model simulations. The model suggests that in addition to sulfate, organic aerosols also significantly contribute to aerosol mass in the tropical UTLS, which is consistent with limited data. PMID:27668039

  10. Detection of Absorbing Aerosol Using Single Near-UV Radiance Measurements from a Cloud and Aerosol Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujung Go


    Full Text Available The Ultra-Violet Aerosol Index (UVAI is a practical parameter for detecting aerosols that absorb UV radiation, especially where other aerosol retrievals fail, such as over bright surfaces (e.g., deserts and clouds. However, typical UVAI retrieval requires at least two UV channels, while several satellite instruments, such as the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI instrument onboard a Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, provide single channel UV radiances. In this study, a new UVAI retrieval method was developed which uses a single UV channel. A single channel aerosol index (SAI is defined to measure the extent to which an absorbing aerosol state differs from its state with minimized absorption by aerosol. The SAI qualitatively represents absorbing aerosols by considering a 30-day minimum composite and the variability in aerosol absorption. This study examines the feasibility of detecting absorbing aerosols using a UV-constrained satellite, focusing on those which have a single UV channel. The Vector LInearized pseudo-spherical Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (VLIDORT was used to test the sensitivity of the SAI and UVAI to aerosol optical properties. The theoretical calculations showed that highly absorbing aerosols have a meaningful correlation with SAI. The retrieved SAI from OMI and operational OMI UVAI were also in good agreement when UVAI values were greater than 0.7 (the absorption criteria of UVAI. The retrieved SAI from the TANSO-CAI data was compared with operational OMI UVAI data, demonstrating a reasonable agreement and low rate of false detection for cases of absorbing aerosols in East Asia. The SAI retrieved from TANSO-CAI was in better agreement with OMI UVAI, particularly for the values greater than the absorbing threshold value of 0.7.

  11. Generation and characterization of large-particle aerosols using a center flow tangential aerosol generator with a non-human-primate, head-only aerosol chamber. (United States)

    Bohannon, J Kyle; Lackemeyer, Matthew G; Kuhn, Jens H; Wada, Jiro; Bollinger, Laura; Jahrling, Peter B; Johnson, Reed F


    Aerosol droplets or particles produced from infected respiratory secretions have the potential to infect another host through inhalation. These respiratory particles can be polydisperse and range from 0.05 to 500 µm in diameter. Animal models of infection are generally established to facilitate the potential licensure of candidate prophylactics and/or therapeutics. Consequently, aerosol-based animal infection models are needed to properly study and counter airborne infections. Ideally, experimental aerosol exposure should reliably result in animal disease that faithfully reproduces the modeled human disease. Few studies have been performed to explore the relationship between exposure particle size and induced disease course for infectious aerosol particles. The center flow tangential aerosol generator (CenTAG™) produces large-particle aerosols capable of safely delivering a variety of infectious aerosols to non-human primates (NHPs) within a Class III Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC) for establishment or refinement of NHP infectious disease models. Here, we report the adaptation of this technology to the Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL-4) environment for the future study of high-consequence viral pathogens and the characterization of CenTAG™-created sham (no animal, no virus) aerosols using a variety of viral growth media and media supplements.

  12. Generation and characterization of large-particle aerosols using a center flow tangential aerosol generator with a nonhuman-primate, head-only aerosol chamber (United States)

    Bohannon, J. Kyle; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Wada, Jiro; Bollinger, Laura; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Reed F.


    Aerosol droplets or particles produced from infected respiratory secretions have the potential to infect another host through inhalation. These respiratory particles can be polydisperse and range from 0.05–500 μm in diameter. Animal models of infection are generally established to facilitate the potential licensure of candidate prophylactics and/or therapeutics. Consequently, aerosol-based animal infection models are needed to properly study and counter airborne infections. Ideally, experimental aerosol exposure should reliably result in animal disease that faithfully reproduces the modelled human disease. Few studies have been performed to explore the relationship between exposure particle size and induced disease course for infectious aerosol particles. The center flow tangential aerosol generator (CenTAG™) produces large-particle aerosols capable of safely delivering a variety of infectious aerosols to nonhuman primates within a Class III Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC) for establishment or refinement of nonhuman primate infectious disease models. Here we report the adaptation of this technology to the Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL-4) environment for the future study of high-consequence viral pathogens and the characterization of CenTAG™-created sham (no animal, no virus) aerosols using a variety of viral growth media and media supplements. PMID:25970823

  13. Black carbon aerosol size in snow. (United States)

    Schwarz, J P; Gao, R S; Perring, A E; Spackman, J R; Fahey, D W


    The effect of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) aerosol on snow is of enduring interest due to its consequences for climate forcing. Until now, too little attention has been focused on BC's size in snow, an important parameter affecting BC light absorption in snow. Here we present first observations of this parameter, revealing that BC can be shifted to larger sizes in snow than are typically seen in the atmosphere, in part due to the processes associated with BC removal from the atmosphere. Mie theory analysis indicates a corresponding reduction in BC absorption in snow of 40%, making BC size in snow the dominant source of uncertainty in BC's absorption properties for calculations of BC's snow albedo climate forcing. The shift reduces estimated BC global mean snow forcing by 30%, and has scientific implications for our understanding of snow albedo and the processing of atmospheric BC aerosol in snowfall.

  14. Optical closure experiments for biomass smoke aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Mack


    Full Text Available A series of laboratory experiments at the Fire Laboratory at Missoula (FLAME investigated chemical, physical, and optical properties of fresh smoke samples from combustion of wildland fuels that are burned annually in the western and southeastern US The burns were conducted in the combustion chamber of the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. Here we discuss retrieval of optical properties for a variety of fuels burned in FLAME 2, using nephelometer-measured scattering coefficients, photoacoustically-measured aerosol absorption coefficients, and size distribution measurements. Uncertainties are estimated from various instrument characteristics and instrument calibration studies. Our estimates of single scattering albedo for different dry smoke samples varied from 0.428 to 0.990, indicative of observed wide variations in smoke aerosol chemical composition. In selected case studies, we retrieved the complex refractive index from measurements but show that these are highly sensitive to uncertainties in measured size distributions.

  15. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Chen, Da-Ren


    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  16. Aerosol charge state characterisation using an ELPI (United States)

    Matthews, J. C.; Wright, M. D.; Biddiscombe, M. F.; Usmani, O. S.; Henshaw, D. L.


    A new technique has been developed to measure the size distribution and charge state of highly charged aerosols using an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The internal charger was switched alternately on and off and the time between stable charge states found to be ~ 10 s. The size distribution of aerosols was found when the charger was on, from which the charge distribution can be estimated when the charger is off using the current at each impactor stage. This method was tested in background conditions, when a candle was burning and when a negative air ioniser was used. The ELPI electrometers were not sensitive enough to accurately measure the charge state on background and candle air, but gave a value for air charged by an ioniser. Comparing results from the ELPI with other techniques showed inaccuracies in this method that need to be addressed before further use of this technique.

  17. Aerosol charge state characterisation using an ELPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, J C; Wright, M D; Henshaw, D L [University of Bristol (United Kingdom); Biddiscombe, M F; Usmani, O S, E-mail: [NHLI, Imperial College London and Royal Brompton Hospital (United Kingdom)


    A new technique has been developed to measure the size distribution and charge state of highly charged aerosols using an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The internal charger was switched alternately on and off and the time between stable charge states found to be {approx} 10 s. The size distribution of aerosols was found when the charger was on, from which the charge distribution can be estimated when the charger is off using the current at each impactor stage. This method was tested in background conditions, when a candle was burning and when a negative air ioniser was used. The ELPI electrometers were not sensitive enough to accurately measure the charge state on background and candle air, but gave a value for air charged by an ioniser. Comparing results from the ELPI with other techniques showed inaccuracies in this method that need to be addressed before further use of this technique.

  18. Gas and aerosol mixing in the acinus. (United States)

    Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S; Butler, James P


    This review is concerned with mixing and transport in the human pulmonary acinus. We first examine the current understanding of the anatomy of the acinus and introduce elements of fluid mechanics used to characterize the transport of momentum, gas and aerosol particles. We then review gas transport in more detail and highlight some areas of current research. Next we turn our attention to aerosol transport and in particular to mixing within the alveoli. We examine the factors influencing the level of mixing, review the concept of chaotic convective mixing, and make some brief comments on how mixing affects particle deposition. We end with a few comments on some issues unique to the neonatal and developing lung.

  19. Effects of CdS Buffer Layers on Photoluminescence Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cells

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    A. Le Donne


    Full Text Available Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS absorber layers grown by sputtering were investigated by photoluminescence before and after the chemical bath deposition of CdS in order to evaluate the possible passivation of point defects by Cd atoms at the absorber/buffer layer interface. According to the literature, a broad emission around 1.21 eV was observed at low temperature under above bandgap excitation of the as-grown CZTS samples. Broad bands at 1.075 eV and 0.85 eV were detected for the first time under below bandgap excitation of the as-grown CZTS samples at low temperature, which were explained in terms of radiative transitions involving point defect-related levels determined in the literature by first-principles calculations. The emissions observed in the as-grown samples were monitored by both above and below bandgap excitations also in standard CZTS solar cells produced on the same layers. The obtained results suggest that, as in the case of Cu(In, GaSe2, Cd atoms passivate point defects at the absorber/buffer layer interface also in CZTS.

  20. Metal Disorder in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) Solar Cells from Multi-Scale Simulations (United States)

    Wallace, Suzanne; Frost, Jarvist; Walsh, Aron

    Kesterite-structured Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant and non-toxic material for the active layer of thin-film solar cells due to its high optical absorption coefficient of >104 cm-1 and sunlight matched band gap of 1.5 eV. Device efficiencies are hampered by low open circuit voltage (VOC) compared to the optical band gap. One possible origin of this is disorder amongst the Cu and Zn ions. Such disorder could lead to sub band-gap recombination centres due to fluctuations in electrostatic potential from the presence of charged defects. Understanding the origin of these sub-gap states, and the resulting impediment on device performance, is essential to discover design and processing rules for high efficiency kesterite, and other multi-component semiconductor, devices. We investigate this by writing custom Monte-Carlo codes to simulate the on-lattice disorder. A generalised Ising Hamiltonian is parameterised with hybrid density functional theory (DFT) total-energy calculations on defect pairs. The resulting disorder is simulated as a function of temperature, and the order-disorder behaviour and resulting local and long-range electrostatic potential variation due to Cu-Zn disorder is quantified.

  1. Overexpression of S4D mutant of Leishmania donovani ADF/cofilin impairs flagellum assembly by affecting actin dynamics. (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Srivastava, Rashmi; Mitra, Kalyan; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Gupta, Chhitar M


    Leishmania, like other eukaryotes, contains large amounts of actin and a number of actin-related and actin binding proteins. Our earlier studies have shown that deletion of the gene corresponding to Leishmania actin-depolymerizing protein (ADF/cofilin) adversely affects flagellum assembly, intracellular trafficking, and cell division. To further analyze this, we have now created ADF/cofilin site-specific point mutants and then examined (i) the actin-depolymerizing, G-actin binding, and actin-bound nucleotide exchange activities of the mutant proteins and (ii) the effect of overexpression of these proteins in wild-type cells. Here we show that S4D mutant protein failed to depolymerize F-actin but weakly bound G-actin and inhibited the exchange of G-actin-bound nucleotide. We further observed that overexpression of this protein impaired flagellum assembly and consequently cell motility by severely impairing the assembly of the paraflagellar rod, without significantly affecting vesicular trafficking or cell growth. Taken together, these results indicate that dynamic actin is essentially required in assembly of the eukaryotic flagellum.

  2. Oxygen-Induced Ordering in Bulk Polycrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 by Sn Removal. (United States)

    Pogue, Elizabeth A; Sutrisno, Andre; Johnson, Nicole E; Shoemaker, Daniel P; Rockett, Angus A


    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy were used to show that Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) bulk solids grown in the presence of oxygen had improved cation ordering compared to bulk solids grown without oxygen. Oxygen was shown to have negligible solubility in the CZTS phase. The addition of oxygen resulted in the formation of SnO2, leading to Sn-deficient CZTS. At the highest oxygen levels, other phases such as Cu9S5 and ZnS were observed. Beneficial ordering was only observed in samples produced with more than 2 at. % oxygen in the precursor materials but did not occur in samples designed with excess Sn and O. Thus, it is the removal of Sn and formation of Sn-deficient CZTS that improves ordering rather than the presence of SnO2 or O alone. These results indicate that using oxygen or air annealing to tailor the Sn content of CZTS followed by an etching step to remove SnO2 may significantly improve the properties of CZTS.

  3. A simple structure of Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS solar cells prepared by sputtering (United States)

    Li, Zhishan; Wang, Shurong; Ma, Xun; Yang, Min; Jiang, Zhi; Liu, Tao; Lu, Yilei; Liu, Sijia


    In this work, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were grown on Mo-coated Soda-lime-glass (SLG) substrates by annealing of sputtered ZnS/Sn/CuS precursors at 580 ℃ for 15 min. As a try, the CZTS solar cells were fabricated using simple structure of Mo-coated SLG/CZTS/CdS/Al and traditional structure of Mo-coated SLG/CZTS/CdS/i-ZnO/In2O3:SnO2 (ITO)/Al, respectively. The results show that the CZTS device with simple structure can achieve same level of the open circuit voltage (Voc) compared with that of traditional structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of 2.95% and 3.59% were obtained with simple structure and traditional structure, respectively. The CZTS solar cell with simple structure provides a promising way and an easy process to prepare high-performance CZTS thin film solar cells which is available to large-scale industrial production in the future.

  4. Stellar mass distribution of S4G disk galaxies and signatures of bar-induced secular evolution (United States)

    Díaz-García, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.


    Context. Models of galaxy formation in a cosmological framework need to be tested against observational constraints, such as the average stellar density profiles (and their dispersion) as a function of fundamental galaxy properties (e.g. the total stellar mass). Simulation models predict that the torques produced by stellar bars efficiently redistribute the stellar and gaseous material inside the disk, pushing it outwards or inwards depending on whether it is beyond or inside the bar corotation resonance radius. Bars themselves are expected to evolve, getting longer and narrower as they trap particles from the disk and slow down their rotation speed. Aims: We use 3.6 μm photometry from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) to trace the stellar distribution in nearby disk galaxies (z ≈ 0) with total stellar masses 108.5 ≲ M∗/M⊙ ≲ 1011 and mid-IR Hubble types - 3 ≤ T ≤ 10. We characterize the stellar density profiles (Σ∗), the stellar contribution to the rotation curves (V3.6 μm), and the m = 2 Fourier amplitudes (A2) as a function of M∗ and T. We also describe the typical shapes and strengths of stellar bars in the S4G sample and link their properties to the total stellar mass and morphology of their host galaxy. Methods: For 1154 S4G galaxies with disk inclinations lower than 65°, we perform a Fourier decomposition and rescale their images to a common frame determined by the size in physical units, by their disk scalelength, and for 748 barred galaxies by both the length and orientation of their bars. We stack the resized density profiles and images to obtain statistically representative average stellar disks and bars in bins of M∗ and T. Based on the radial force profiles of individual galaxies we calculate the mean stellar contribution to the circular velocity. We also calculate average A2 profiles, where the radius is normalized to R25.5. Furthermore, we infer the gravitational potentials from the synthetic bars to

  5. Postdeposition Annealing Effect on Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films Grown at Different Substrate Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Ahmed Nadi


    Full Text Available Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS thin films were deposited on top of Molybdenum (Mo coated soda lime glass (SLG substrates using a single target rf magnetron sputtering technique. The sputtering parameters such as base pressure, working pressure, rf power, argon (Ar gas flow rate, and deposition time were kept consistent throughout the experiment. The effect of different substrate temperatures, for example, room temperature (RT, 300°C, 350°C, 370°C, 400°C, and 450°C, was analyzed by studying their structural, electrical, and optical properties. As-sputtered films were then annealed at 460°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurement revealed the structure to be kesterite with peak of (112 plane in both annealed and as-sputtered CZTS thin films. The crystallinity of the films improved with the increasing substrate temperature until 370°C. Secondary phases of MoS2, CuxMoSx, CuxSnSx, CuxS, and Cu6MoSnS8 (hemusite were also observed in the annealed CZTS films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM shows crystallite size of deposited CZTS thin film to be proportionally related to deposition temperature. The highest surface roughness of 67.318 nm is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The conductivity type of the films was found to be p-type by Hall effect measurement system.

  6. Opto-Electronic Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films Grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (United States)

    Deepa, K. G.; Sajeesh, T. H.; Jampana, Nagaraju


    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films are deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique for photovoltaic applications. The optoelectronic properties are studied by varying Zn and Sn compositions in the film. Films showed a tetragonal kesterite structure with preferential orientation along the (112) plane. The sample with the highest Cu concentration showed the lowest band gap of 1.46 eV. The grain size of the films is greater than 1 μm. Temperature-dependent conductivity studies revealed the presence of defects such as VCu, VS, VSn, CuZn, ZnCu, ZnSn and SnZn in the films. The sample with a Cu/(Zn + Sn) ratio of 0.75 showed Cu-poor and Zn-rich composition and better opto-electronic properties. The sample has p-type conductivity with a resistivity of 12 Ω cm. A [VCu-ZnCu] defect complex is identified in this sample along with a ZnSn acceptor level which is favorable for solar cells.

  7. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of (2S,4R)-Ketoconazole sulfonamide analogs as potential treatments for Metabolic Syndrome. (United States)

    Blass, Benjamin E; Iyer, Pravin; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Childers, Wayne E; Gordon, John C; Ramanjulu, Mercy; Morton, George; Arumugam, Premkumar; Boruwa, Joshodeep; Ellingboe, John; Mitra, Sayan; Nimmareddy, Rajashekar Reddy; Paliwal, Shalini; Rajasekhar, Jamallamudi; Shivakumar, Savithiri; Srivastava, Pratima; Tangirala, Raghuram S; Venkataramanaiah, Konda; Yanamandra, Mahesh


    Metabolic Syndrome, also referred to as 'Syndrome X' or 'Insulin Resistance Syndrome,' remains a major, unmet medical need despite over 30years of intense effort. Recent research suggests that there may be a causal link between this condition and abnormal glucocorticoid processing. Specifically, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis leads to increased systemic cortisol concentrations. Cushing' syndrome, a disorder that is also typified by a marked elevation in levels of cortisol, produces clinical symptomology that is similar to those observed in MetS, and they can be alleviated by decreasing circulating cortisol concentrations. As a result, it has been suggested that decreasing systemic cortisol concentration might have a positive impact on the progression of MetS. This could be accomplished through inhibition of enzymes in the cortisol synthetic pathway, 11β-hydroxylase (Cyp11B1), 17α-hydroxylase-C17,20-lyase (Cyp17), and 21-hydroxylase (Cyp21). We have identified a series of novel sulfonamide analogs of (2S,4R)-Ketoconazole that are potent inhibitors of these enzymes. In addition, selected members of this class of compounds have pharmacokinetic properties consistent with orally delivered drugs, making them well suited to further investigation as potential therapies for MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of glycosylated (2S,4R)-hydroxyproline on the stability and assembly of collagen triple helices. (United States)

    Huang, Pei-Wen; Chang, Juyn-Ming; Horng, Jia-Cherng


    Functionalized collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) have been widely used in the preparation of collagen-related biomaterials. Among the reported results, the induced noncovalent interactions between the implanted functional groups or moieties were frequently the key elements to promote the self-assembly of small CMPs. In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of glycosylated CMPs in which 4-O-[β-D-galactopyranosyl]-(2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (Hyp(Gal)) was incorporated to explore the effects of glycosylation on the stability and assembly of collagen triple helices. Circular dichroism measurements showed that glycosylation of hydroxyproline slightly destabilized the collagen triple helices, but did not reduce their refolding rate. Compared to non-glycosylated CMPs, the incorporation of Hyp(Gal) speeded up the assembly of CMPs, indicating that this modification could assist the self-assembly of CMPs into higher-order structures, such as fibrils. O-Galactosylation of hydroxyproline imposes contrary effects on the triple helix stability and the self-assembly rate of collagen triple helices, exhibiting a piece of important and useful information for designing collagen-related biomaterials. Our finding also suggests that instead of stabilizing the triple helical conformation of CMPs, installing additional forces between CMPs could be a crucial factor to promote the assembly of CMPs into large-scale constructs.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3.6um S4G Galactic bars characterization (Diaz-Garcia+, 2016) (United States)

    Diaz-Garcia, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.; Herrera-Endoqui, M.

    Here, we provide the bar strength measurements of a sample of ~600 barred galaxies drawn from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (Sheth et al., 2010, Cat. J/PASP/122/1397). Bars were identified based on the morphological classifications by Buta et al. (2015, Cat. J/ApJS/217/32). Besides, we provide a parameterization of the stellar contribution to the rotation curve and an estimate to the stellar-to-halo mass ratio within the optical radius for a sample of 1345 non-highly inclined galaxies (iSalo et al., 2015, Cat. J/ApJS/219/4). The evaluation of the gravitational torques and m=2 Fourier amplitude at the bar radius is also listed in both tables. In the directory "rfp" we provide the gravitational torque radial profiles, with and without spiral arms and halo correction, even Fourier amplitudes and m=2 phase of 1345 non-highly inclined disk S4G galaxies ('radialforce_profiles.dat'). Likewise, for the same sample, in the directory "rcdm" we tabulate the rotation curve decomposition model ('rotationcurve_decomposition.dat'), with the stellar component inferred from the 3.6~um imaging and the halo component estimated using the universal rotation curve models). (5 data files).

  10. Enhancement of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate production at high substrate concentration by in situ resin adsorption. (United States)

    Chen, Li-Feng; Fan, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Wei, Wei; Lin, Jin-Ping; Wei, Dong-Zhi; Wang, Hua-Lei


    Asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutyrate (COBE) by carbonyl reductases presents an efficient way to produce Ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ((S)-CHBE), an important chiral intermediate for the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors such as Lipitor®. In this study, an NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase (SrCR) from Synechocystis sp. was characterized to demonstrate a broad substrate spectrum, and the highest activity (53.1U/mg protein) with COBE. To regenerate the cofactor NADPH, Bacillus subtilis glucose dehydrogenase was successfully coexpressed with SrCR. Owing to the product inhibition, no more than 400mM of COBE could be completely reduced to (S)-CHBE using the recombinant Escherichia coli/pET-SrCR-GDH. The macroporous adsorption resin HZ 814 was applied to adsorb (S)-CHBE in situ to alleviate the product inhibitio. Consequently, 3000mM (494g/L) of COBE was bioconverted within 8h, resulting in a (S)-CHBE yield of 98.2%, with 99.4% ee and total turnover number of 15,000, revealed great industrial potential of (S)-CHBE production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Opto-Electronic Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films Grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (United States)

    Deepa, K. G.; Sajeesh, T. H.; Jampana, Nagaraju


    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films are deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique for photovoltaic applications. The optoelectronic properties are studied by varying Zn and Sn compositions in the film. Films showed a tetragonal kesterite structure with preferential orientation along the (112) plane. The sample with the highest Cu concentration showed the lowest band gap of 1.46 eV. The grain size of the films is greater than 1 μm. Temperature-dependent conductivity studies revealed the presence of defects such as VCu, VS, VSn, CuZn, ZnCu, ZnSn and SnZn in the films. The sample with a Cu/(Zn + Sn) ratio of 0.75 showed Cu-poor and Zn-rich composition and better opto-electronic properties. The sample has p-type conductivity with a resistivity of 12 Ω cm. A [VCu-ZnCu] defect complex is identified in this sample along with a ZnSn acceptor level which is favorable for solar cells.

  12. Impedance spectroscopy in photovoltaic materials of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and use of the KK transform (United States)

    Patarroyo, M.; Vera, E.; Pineda, Y.; Gómez, J.; Soracá, G.; Sánchez, D.


    The article presents some details about the synthesis and evaluation of photovoltaic materials related with the Cu2ZnSnS4 system (abbreviated CZTS), using a hydrothermal route that provide the optimal way to synthesize the proposed materials. The ceramic was obtained starting from corresponding metal nitrates and thiourea as sulphur source in stoichiometric amounts. Corresponding reagents were dossed in a steel Teflon lined vessel and treated at different temperatures to evaluate the effect of external variables in synthesis process. The structure was evaluated by means scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The electrical characteristics were evaluated by solid state spectroscopy using a statistical analysis coupled with a simple model fitted to the data of electrical conductivity of the material as function of synthesis temperature, for this, the mathematical formulation of the impedance was analyzed, with the use of the Kramers-Kronig transform (KK), (mathematical equations that describe the relationship between the real and imaginary parts of certain complex functions analytic) as well as documentation and research related with the subject of this article. The results show a good behavior of the material, showing that the higher synthesis temperatures promotes a corresponding increase in the electrical conductivity in accordance with previous works [1].

  13. Comparing the demands of destination entry using Google Glass and the Samsung Galaxy S4 during simulated driving. (United States)

    Beckers, Niek; Schreiner, Sam; Bertrand, Pierre; Mehler, Bruce; Reimer, Bryan


    The relative impact of using a Google Glass based voice interface to enter a destination address compared to voice and touch-entry methods using a handheld Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphone was assessed in a driving simulator. Voice entry (Google Glass and Samsung) had lower subjective workload ratings, lower standard deviation of lateral lane position, shorter task durations, faster remote Detection Response Task (DRT) reaction times, lower DRT miss rates, and resulted in less time glancing off-road than the primary visual-manual interaction with the Samsung Touch interface. Comparing voice entry methods, using Google Glass took less time, while glance metrics and reaction time to DRT events responded to were similar. In contrast, DRT miss rate was higher for Google Glass, suggesting that drivers may be under increased distraction levels but for a shorter period of time; whether one or the other equates to an overall safer driving experience is an open question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Establishment of an overall transformation system for an oil-producing filamentous fungus, Mortierella alpina 1S-4. (United States)

    Takeno, Seiki; Sakuradani, Eiji; Murata, Shoichi; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Ashikari, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu


    Oil-producing fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4 is an industrial strain. To determine its physiological properties and to clarify the biosynthetic pathways for polyunsaturated fatty acids, a transformation system for this fungus was established using a derivative of it, i.e., a ura5- mutant lacking orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRTase, EC. activity. Transformation with a vector containing the homologous ura5 gene as a marker was successfully performed using microprojectile bombardment, other methods frequently used for transformation, such as the protoplasting, lithium acetate, or electroporation methods, not giving satisfactory results. As a result, two types of transformants were obtained: a few stable transformants overexpressing the ura5 gene, and many unstable transformants showing OPRTase activity comparable to that of the wild-type strain. The results of quantitative PCR indicated that the stable transformants could retain the ura5 genes originating from the transformation vector regardless of the culture conditions. On the other hand, unstable transformants easily lost the marker gene under uracil-containing conditions, as expected. In this paper, we report that an overall transformation system for this fungus was successfully established, and propose how to select useful transformants as experimental and industrial strains.

  15. Spray pyrolysed Cu2ZnSnS4 absorbing layer: A potential candidate for photovoltaic applications (United States)

    Majeed Khan, M. A.; Kumar, Sushil; Alhoshan, Mansour; Al Dwayyan, A. S.


    Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films have been successfully deposited onto ultra clean glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. The characterizations of these films regarding structure, morphology, optical absorption and electrical transport were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, Optical absorption spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. XRD, TEM and HRTEM showed that the samples have a tetragonal structure and a polycrystalline nature with an average crystallite size of ˜3.4 nm. SEM analysis reveals a compact surface morphology with slightly rough surface. Optical measurements showed a direct band gap of 1.56 eV and absorption coefficient >104 cm-1, which are optimal for low cost solar cells. The weak absorption below the band gap edge was observed and described by Urbach band tail rule. Dc electrical resistivity of films, in temperature range 10-300 K, was found to arise due to variable range hopping conduction mechanism. Using the percolation theory and the diffusion model, the density of states near the Fermi level was calculated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit the presence of broad emission band at 1.33 eV.

  16. Efficient hybrid solar cell with P3HT:PCBM and Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals (United States)

    Jang, Se-Jung; Thuy Ho, Nhu; Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Yong Soo


    Recently, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) with band gap about 1.50 eV is predicted to become an ideal light absorption material due to the abundant component elements in the crust being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. However, CZTS solar cells made by high temperature and vacuum-processed are at a perceived cost disadvantage in compared with solution-processed systems such as organic and hybrid solar cells. In this study, we propose a hybrid solar configurations with solution-processed CZTS nanocrystals and P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction. The forming double heterojunction, as charge can be separated at both the P3HT:PCBM and CZTS:PCBM interface is attributed to enhance the light harvesting efficiency. As a result, organic solar cells with CZTS nanocrystals show the higher efficiency 3.32 % compare to 2.65 % of reference organic solar cells. A 25 % improvement of power conversion efficiency is obtained by the increasing in short-circuit current and fill factor.

  17. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of In2.77S4 nanosheets with efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-feng; Li, Hui; Sun, Yang; Wang, Yi-jin; Zhang, Chen-xu; Gong, Xiao-dong; Wang, Yu-duan; Liu, Yu; Yang, Xin-yue


    In2.77S4 nanosheets with the band gap energy of 1.75 eV were fast prepared via a hydrothermal process. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. Rhodamine B, methyl orange and potassium dichromate solution were used to evaluate the degradation efficiency of the as-prepared samples under the visible light, respectively. Experimental results showed that the molar ratio of thioacetamide to indium nitrate hydrate significantly influenced the structure and properties of the as-prepared products. With increasing the molar ratio, the degradation efficiency of rhodamine B solution was firstly increased and then decreased. When the molar ratio was 4:1, the degradation efficiency of the as-prepared sample reached to 96% in 3 min and 100% in 9 min. Moreover, this semiconductor could degrade 88% of methyl orange solution in 30 min and 87% of potassium dichromate solution in 60 min, respectively.

  18. Synthesis of non-hydrazine solution processed Cu2(ZnSn)S4 thin films for solar cells applications (United States)

    Gupta, Indu; Gupta, Preeti; Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra


    Solution processing provides a versatile and inexpensive means to prepare Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films for photovoltaic applications. Differently with the reported growth of CZTS films from hydrazine based toxic solutions, we demonstrate a simple non-toxic ethanol based solution approach to synthesize the films. Using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method, the CZTS thin films were grown from metal salts (copper chloride, zinc chloride, and tin chloride) in ethanol and monoethanol amine (MEA) and thioacetamide in ethanol as sulfur source in a single dip followed by sulfurization. The structure, composition, morphology and optical properties of the CZTS film were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results revealed that a post-deposition sulfurization is necessary to the phase formation and among all, sulfurization at 450°C for 60 min yielded phase pure CZTS films having kesterite structure, relatively compact morphology and an optical band gap of ˜1.52 eV indicating its suitability for solar cell applications. The results clearly validate the CBD method as a potential scalable route of preparation of CZTS thin films.

  19. Synthesis, macroscopic and local probe characterization of AgCrO$_2$ and CdCr$_2$S$_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Gonçalo; Araujo, J P

    The search of new materials with new and/or enhanced physical properties has, nowadays, a strict relation with the evolution of technology. The hunt for systems exhibiting simultaneous (anti)ferroelectric and (anti)ferromagnetic orders has re-started in the last years, and remains as one of the hot topics for Physic, Chemistry and Materials Science scientific communities. This is triggered by the possibility to apply these materials into, ${e.g.}$, new multiferroic memories that could be written electrically and read magnetically (or vice-versa). This thesis presents an experimental study on two of these so-called multiferroic materials, the AgCrO$_2$ delafossite and CdCr$_2$S$_4$ spinel type compounds. Different methods have been tested for the synthesis of delafossite silver chromium oxide AgCrO$_2$ namely, solid state reaction (ssr) and sol-gel combustion. The processes were optimized regarding complexing/combusting agents, temperature and duration of the heat treatments, as well as the processing atmosphe...

  20. Ultra-robust high-field magnetization plateau and supersolidity in bond-frustrated MnCr2S4 (United States)

    Tsurkan, Vladimir; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Prodan, Lilian; Felea, Viorel; Cong, Pham Thanh; Skourski, Yurii; Wang, Zhe; Deisenhofer, Joachim; von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht Krug; Wosnitza, Joahim; Loidl, Alois


    Frustrated magnets provide a promising avenue for realizing exotic quantum states of matter, such as spin liquids and spin ice or complex spin molecules. Under an external magnetic field, frustrated magnets can exhibit fractional magnetization plateaus related to definite spin patterns stabilized by field-induced lattice distortions. Magnetization and ultrasound experiments in MnCr2S4 up to 60 T reveal two fascinating features: (i) an extremely robust magnetization plateau with an unusual spin structure and (ii) two intermediate phases, indicating possible realizations of supersolid phases. The magnetization plateau characterizes fully polarized chromium moments, without any contributions from manganese spins. At 40 T, the middle of the plateau, a regime evolves, where sound waves propagate almost without dissipation. The external magnetic field exactly compensates the Cr–Mn exchange field and decouples Mn and Cr sublattices. In analogy to predictions of quantum lattice-gas models, the changes of the spin order of the manganese ions at the phase boundaries of the magnetization plateau are interpreted as transitions to supersolid phases. PMID:28345038