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Sample records for schu s4 aerosols

  1. CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides protect mice from Burkholderia pseudomallei but not Francisella tularensis Schu S4 aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozak, David A; Gelhaus, Herbert C; Smith, Mark; Zadeh, Mojgan; Huzella, Louis; Waag, David; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J

    2010-02-05

    Studies have shown that CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODN) protect mice from various bacterial pathogens, including Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS), when administered before parenteral challenge. Given the potential to develop CpG ODN as a pre-treatment for multiple bacterial biological warfare agents, we examined survival, histopathology, and cytokine data from CpG ODN-treated C57BL/6 mice to determine whether previously-reported protection extended to aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b and highly virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 infections. We found that, although CpG ODN protected mice from aerosolized B. pseudomallei challenges, the immunostimulant failed to benefit the animals exposed to F. tularensis Schu S4 aerosols. Our results, which contrast with earlier F. tularensis LVS studies, highlight potential differences in Francisella species pathogenesis and underscore the need to evaluate immunotherapies against human pathogenic species.

  2. The Natural History of Pneumonic Tularemia in Female Fischer 344 Rats after Inhalational Exposure to Aerosolized Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis Strain SCHU S4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Julie A; Lovchik, Julie A; Dekonenko, Alexander; Hahn, Andrew C; Wu, Terry H

    2017-02-01

    The inbred Fischer 344 rat is being evaluated for testing novel vaccines and therapeutics against pneumonic tularemia. Although primary pneumonic tularemia in humans typically occurs by inhalation of aerosolized bacteria, the rat model has relied on intratracheal inoculation of organisms because of safety and equipment issues. We now report the natural history of pneumonic tularemia in female Fischer 344 rats after nose-only inhalational exposure to lethal doses of aerosolized Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis, strain SCHU S4. Our results are consistent with initial uptake of aerosolized SCHU S4 from the nasal cavity, lungs, and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteremia with hematogenous dissemination was first detected 2 days after exposure. Shortly thereafter, the infected rats exhibited fever, tachypnea, and hypertension that persisted for 24 to 36 hours and then rapidly decreased as animals succumbed to infection between days 5 and 8 after exposure. Tachycardia was observed briefly, but only after the core body temperature and blood pressure began to decrease as the animals were near death. Initial neutrophilic and histiocytic inflammation in affected tissues became progressively more fibrinous and necrotizing over time. At death, as many as 10 10 colony-forming units were found in the lungs, spleen, and liver. Death was attributed to sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Overall, the pathogenesis of pneumonic tularemia in the female F344 rat model appears to replicate the disease in humans. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mucosal immunization with live attenuated Francisella novicida U112ΔiglB protects against pulmonary F. tularensis SCHU S4 in the Fischer 344 rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L Signarovitz

    Full Text Available The need for an efficacious vaccine against Francisella tularensis is a consequence of its low infectious dose and high mortality rate if left untreated. This study sought to characterize a live attenuated subspecies novicida-based vaccine strain (U112ΔiglB in an established second rodent model of pulmonary tularemia, namely the Fischer 344 rat using two distinct routes of vaccination (intratracheal [i.t.] and oral. Attenuation was verified by comparing replication of U112ΔiglB with wild type parental strain U112 in F344 primary alveolar macrophages. U112ΔiglB exhibited an LD(50>10(7 CFU compared to the wild type (LD(50 = 5 × 10(6 CFU i.t.. Immunization with 10(7 CFU U112ΔiglB by i.t. and oral routes induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and potent humoral responses both systemically (IgG2a>IgG1 in serum and at the site of mucosal vaccination (respiratory/intestinal compartment. Importantly, vaccination with U112ΔiglB by either i.t. or oral routes provided equivalent levels of protection (50% survival in F344 rats against a subsequent pulmonary challenge with ~25 LD(50 (1.25 × 10(4 CFU of the highly human virulent strain SCHU S4. Collectively, these results provide further evidence on the utility of a mucosal vaccination platform with a defined subsp. novicida U112ΔiglB vaccine strain in conferring protective immunity against pulmonary tularemia.

  4. Low dose vaccination with attenuated Francisella tularensis strain SchuS4 mutants protects against tularemia independent of the route of vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeke Rockx-Brouwer

    Full Text Available Tularemia, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protect against tularemia. However, lower vaccinating inoculums did not offer similar immunity. One concern of using live vaccines is that the host may develop mild tularemia in response to infection and use of high inoculums may contribute to this issue. Thus, generation of a live vaccine that can efficiently protect against tularemia when delivered in low numbers, e.g. <100 organisms, may address this concern. Herein we describe the ability of three defined, attenuated mutants of F. tularensis SchuS4, deleted for FTT0369c, FTT1676, or FTT0369c and FTT1676, respectively, to engender protective immunity against tularemia when delivered at concentrations of approximately 50 or fewer bacteria. Attenuated strains for use as vaccines were selected by their inability to efficiently replicate in macrophages in vitro and impaired replication and dissemination in vivo. Although all strains were defective for replication in vitro within macrophages, protective efficacy of each attenuated mutant was correlated with their ability to modestly replicate and disseminate in the host. Finally, we demonstrate the parenteral vaccination with these strains offered superior protection against pneumonic tularemia than intranasal vaccination. Together our data provides proof of principle that low dose attenuated vaccines may be a viable goal in development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia.

  5. Role of pathogenicity determinant protein C (PdpC in determining the virulence of the Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis SCHU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Uda

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is highly pathogenic to humans and animals. However, the SCHU strain of F. tularensis SCHU P0 maintained by passaging in artificial media has been found to be attenuated. To better understand the molecular mechanisms behind the pathogenicity of F. tularensis SCHU, we attempted to isolate virulent bacteria by serial passages in mice. SCHU P5 obtained after 5th passages in mice remained avirulent, while SCHU P9 obtained after 9th passages was completely virulent in mice. Moreover, SCHU P9 grew more efficiently in J774.1 murine macrophages compared with that in the less pathogenic SCHU P0 and P5. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of SCHU P0, P5, and P9 revealed only 1 nucleotide difference among P0, P5 and P9 in 1 of the 2 copies of pathogenicity determinant protein C (pdpC gene. An adenine residue deletion was observed in the pdpC1 gene of SCHU P0, P5, and P9 and in the pdpC2 gene of SCHU P0, and P5, while P9 was characterized by the wild type pdpC2 gene. Thus, SCHU P0 and P5 expressed only truncated forms of PdpC protein, while SCHU P9 expressed both wild type and truncated versions. To validate the pathogenicity of PdpC, both copies of the pdpC gene in SCHU P9 have been inactivated by Targetron mutagenesis. SCHU P9 mutants with inactivated pdpC gene showed low intracellular growth in J774.1 cells and did not induce severe disease in experimentally infected mice, while virulence of the mutants was restored by complementation with expression of the intact PdpC. These results demonstrate that PdpC is crucial in determining the virulence of F. tularensis SCHU.

  6. Low Dose Vaccination with Attenuated Francisella tularensis Strain SchuS4 Mutants Protects against Tularemia Independent of the Route of Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Chong, Audrey; Wehrly, Tara D.; Child, Robert; Crane, Deborah D.

    2012-01-01

    Tularemia, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protect against tularemia. However, lower vaccinating inoculums did not offer similar immunity. One concern of using live vaccines is that the host may develop mild tularemia in response to infection and use of high inoculums may contribute to this issue. Thus, generation of a live vaccine that can efficiently protect against tularemia when delivered in low numbers, e.g. tularemia when delivered at concentrations of approximately 50 or fewer bacteria. Attenuated strains for use as vaccines were selected by their inability to efficiently replicate in macrophages in vitro and impaired replication and dissemination in vivo. Although all strains were defective for replication in vitro within macrophages, protective efficacy of each attenuated mutant was correlated with their ability to modestly replicate and disseminate in the host. Finally, we demonstrate the parenteral vaccination with these strains offered superior protection against pneumonic tularemia than intranasal vaccination. Together our data provides proof of principle that low dose attenuated vaccines may be a viable goal in development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia. PMID:22662210

  7. Diversity of Francisella tularensis Schu4 antigens recognized by T lymphocytes after natural infections in humans: identification of candidate epitopes for inclusion in a rationally designed tularemia vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, Julie A; Gregory, Stephen H; Moise, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The T lymphocyte antigens, which may have a role in protection against tularemia, were predicted by immunoinformatics analysis of Francisella tularensis Schu4. Twenty-seven class II putative promiscuous epitopes and 125 putative class I supertype epitopes were chosen for synthesis; peptides were...... responded to pools of 25 A2, A24, and B7 peptides, respectively. These data can aid in the development of novel epitope-based and subunit tularemia vaccines....

  8. Mouse models of aerosol-acquired tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis types A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, David L; England, Marilyn J; Miller, Lynda; Waag, David M

    2014-10-01

    After preliminary assessment of virulence in AKR/J, DBA/1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice, we investigated histopathologic changes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice infected with type A (strain SCHU S4) or type B (strain 425) Francisella tularensis by aerosol exposure. In mice exposed to type A infection, changes in histologic presentation were not apparent until day 3 after infection, when pyogranulomatous inflammation was detected in spleens and livers of BALB/c mice, and in lungs and spleens of C57BL/6 mice. Histopathologic changes were most severe and widespread in both mouse strains on day 5 after infection and seemed to completely resolve within 22 d of challenge. BALB/c mice were more resistant than C57BL/6 mice in lethal-dose calculations, but C57BL/6 mice cleared the infection more rapidly. Mice similarly challenged with type B F. tularensis also developed histopathologic signs of infection beginning on day 3. The most severe changes were noted on day 8 and were characterized by granulomatous or pyogranulomatous infiltrations of the lungs. Unlike type A infection, lesions due to type B did not resolve over time and remained 3 wk after infection. In type B, but not type A, infection we noted extensive inflammation of the heart muscle. Although no microorganisms were found in tissues of type A survivors beyond 9 d after infection, mice surviving strain 425 infection had a low level of residual infection at 3 wk after challenge. The histopathologic presentation of tularemia caused by F. tularensis types A and B in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice bears distinct similarities to tularemia in humans.

  9. Samsung Galaxy S4 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Explore a world of possibilities with your Samsung Galaxy S 4 smartphone Everything's more exciting when you've got the Galaxy in your hand. Let For Dummies be your guide to getting the most out of your Galaxy S 4. You'll cruise through the smartphone basics and set up process before moving on to the fun stuff like staying in touch with e-mail and texting, surfing the web, navigating with maps, shooting and sharing photos and video, watching movies, listening to music, and so much more. Whether you're entering the smartphone world for the first time or just moving up to

  10. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  11. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  12. Aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Fish, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the continuing studies of the effects of very severe reactor accidents, an effort was made to develop, test, and improve simple, effective, and inexpensive methods by which the average citizen, using only materials readily available, could protect his residence, himself, and his family from injury by toxic aerosols. The methods for protection against radioactive aerosols should be equally effective against a clandestine biological attack by terrorists. The results of the tests to date are limited to showing that spores of the harmless bacterium, bacillus globegii (BG), can be used as a simulant for the radioactive aerosols. An aerosol generator of Lauterbach type was developed which will produce an essentially monodisperse aerosol at the rate of 10 9 spores/min. Analytical techniques have been established which give reproducible results. Preliminary field tests have been conducted to check out the components of the system. Preliminary tests of protective devices, such as ordinary vacuum sweepers, have given protection factors of over 1000

  13. Stratospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Ivanov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements can provide both spatial and temporal data of sufficient resolution to be of use in climate models. Relatively recent results from a wide range of instrument techniques for measuring stratospheric aerosol parameters are described. Such techniques include impactor sampling, lidar system sensing, filter sampling, photoelectric particle counting, satellite extinction-sensing using the sun as a source, and optical depth probing, at sites mainly removed from tropospheric aerosol sources. Some of these techniques have also had correlative and intercomparison studies. The main methods for determining the vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols are outlined: lidar extinction measurements from satellites; impactor measurements from balloons and aircraft; and photoelectric particle counter measurements from balloons, aircraft, and rockets. The conversion of the lidar backscatter to stratospheric aerosol mass loading is referred to. Absolute measurements of total solar extinction from satellite orbits can be used to extract the aerosol extinction, and several examples of vertical profiles of extinction obtained with the SAGE satellite are given. Stratospheric mass loading can be inferred from extinction using approximate linear relationships but under restrictive conditions. Impactor sampling is essentially the only method in which the physical nature of the stratospheric aerosol is observed visually. Vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol number concentration using impactor data are presented. Typical profiles using a dual-size-range photoelectric dustsonde particle counter are given for volcanically disturbed and inactive periods. Some measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols are also presented. Volatility measurements are described, indicating that stratospheric aerosols are composed primarily of about 75% sulfuric acid and 25% water

  14. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  15. Antiviral and antifungal activity of some dermaseptin S4 analogues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... dermaseptin S4 (DS-S4) that presents a potent cytotoxic effect. .... causing 100% cytotoxicity (CC) after 24 h of exposure .... Nicolas, 1994), it was shown that the mere deletion of 2.

  16. Antiviral and antifungal activity of some dermaseptin S4 analogues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dermaseptins are peptides found in skin secretions of Phyllomedusinae frogs. These peptides exert lytic action on various microorganisms, and do not have a considerable haemolytic effect apart from dermaseptin S4 (DS-S4) that presents a potent cytotoxic effect. This investigation was an attempt to synthesize several ...

  17. Higher spin gauge theory on fuzzy \\boldsymbol {S^4_N}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Marcus; Steinacker, Harold C.

    2018-02-01

    We examine in detail the higher spin fields which arise on the basic fuzzy sphere S^4N in the semi-classical limit. The space of functions can be identified with functions on classical S 4 taking values in a higher spin algebra associated to \

  18. High critical magnetic field superconductor La3S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholt, K.; Bach, H.; Wendemuth, R.; Methfessel, S.

    1979-01-01

    A report is presented on electrical conductivity, specific heat and magnetization measurements on La 3 S 4 single crystals. The results show that La 3 S 4 is a strong coupling superconductor with a BCS coherence length of 132 A. This extremely low value makes La 3 S 4 an intrinsic high critical magnetic field superconductor with a Landau-Ginsburg parameter of 20. For the temperature gradient of the upper critical magnetic field at the transition temperature values are found up to 35 kG/K. (author)

  19. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; De Smet, M.; Trine, J.; Hertschap, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on the development of fibre metallic prefilters to be placed upstream of HEPA filters for the exhaust gases of nuclear process plants. Investigations at ambient and high temperature were carried out. Measurements of the filtration performance of Bekipor porous webs and sintered mats were performed in the AFLT (aerosol filtration at low temperature) unit with a throughput of 15 m 3 /h. A parametric study on the influence of particle size, fibre diameter, number of layers and superficial velocity led to the optimum choice of the working parameters. Three selected filter types were then tested with polydisperse aerosols using a candle-type filter configuration or a flat-type filter configuration. The small-diameter candle type is not well suited for a spraying nozzles regeneration system so that only the flat-type filter was retained for high-temperature tests. A high-temperature test unit (AFHT) with a throughput of 8 to 10 m 3 /h at 400 0 C was used to test the three filter types with an aerosol generated by high-temperature calcination of a simulated nitric acid waste solution traced with 134 Cs. The regeneration of the filter by spray washing and the effect of the regeneration on the filter performance was studied for the three filter types. The porous mats have a higher dust loading capacity than the sintered web which means that their regeneration frequency can be kept lower

  20. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  1. Aerosol scrubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Submerged Gravel Scrubber is an air cleaning system developed by the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Reactor Program. The Scrubber System has been patented by the Department of Energy. This technology is being transferred to industry by the DOE. Its basic principles can be adapted for individual applications and the commercialized version can be used to perform a variety of tasks. The gas to be cleaned is percolated through a continuously washed gravel bed. The passage of the gas through the gravel breaks the stream into many small bubbles rising in a turbulent body of water. These conditions allow very highly efficient removal of aerosols from the gas

  2. Syntheses, structural variants and characterization of AInM′S4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M′ = Ge, Sn) compounds; facile ion-exchange reactions of layered NaInSnS4 and KInSnS4 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-01-01

    Ten AInM′S 4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M′= Ge, Sn) compounds with diverse structure types have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and a variety of spectroscopic methods. They are wide band gap semiconductors. KInGeS 4 (1-β), RbInGeS 4 (2), CsInGeS 4 (3-β), TlInGeS 4 (4-β), RbInSnS 4 (8-β) and CsInSnS 4 (9) compounds with three-dimensional BaGa 2 S 4 structure and CsInGeS 4 (3-α) and TlInGeS 4 (4-α) compounds with a layered TlInSiS 4 structure have tetrahedral [InM′S 4 ] − frameworks. On the other hand, LiInSnS 4 (5) with spinel structure and NaInSnS 4 (6), KInSnS 4 (7), RbInSnS 4 (8-α) and TlInSnS 4 (10) compounds with layered structure have octahedral [InM′S 4 ] − frameworks. NaInSnS 4 (6) and KInSnS 4 (7) compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange, at room temperature, with various mono-, di- and tri-valent cations in aqueous medium to give rise to metastable layered phases. - Graphical abstract: NaInSnS 4 and KInSnS 4 compounds undergo, in aqueous medium at room temperature, facile topotactic ion-exchange with mono, di and trivalent cations. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ten AInM′S 4 compounds with diverse structure types were synthesized. • They are wide band gap semiconductors. • NaInSnS 4 and KInSnS 4 compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange at room temperature.

  3. CMB-S4 Technology Book, First Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abitbol, Maximilian H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); et al.

    2017-06-08

    CMB-S4 is a proposed experiment to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to nearly the cosmic variance limit for the angular scales that are accessible from the ground. The science goals and capabilities of CMB-S4 in illuminating cosmic inflation, measuring the sum of neutrino masses, searching for relativistic relics in the early universe, characterizing dark energy and dark matter, and mapping the matter distribution in the universe have been described in the CMB-S4 Science Book. This Technology Book is a companion volume to the Science Book. The ambitious science goals of the proposed "Stage-IV" CMB-S4 will require a step forward in experimental capability from the current Stage-III experiments. To guide this process, the community summarized the current state of the technology and identify R&D efforts necessary to advance it for possible use in CMB-S4. The book focused on the technical challenges in four broad areas: Telescope Design; Receiver Optics; Focal-Plane Optical Coupling; and Focal-Plane Sensor and Readout.

  4. Calibration of aerosol radiometers. Special aerosol sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Problems of calibration of artificial aerosol radiometry and information-measurement systems of radiometer radiation control, in particular, are considered. Special aerosol source is suggested, which permits to perform certification and testing of aerosol channels of the systems in situ without the dismantling

  5. Thermodynamic properties of CdCr2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Ya.A.; Shchelkotunov, V.A.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.; Kamyshova, V.K.; Gordeev, I.V.; Alferov, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The true thermal capacity of ferromagnetic chromium spinel CdCr 2 S 4 has been measured in the temperature range of 172-673 K. Coefficient of linear expansion has been measured in the temperature range of 173-677 K. A change in heat content of the compound has been found by the mixing method (298-750 K). The lattice contribution into thermal capacity, the contribution of thermal expansion, the values of isothermal compressibility factor, and the Crueneisen constants have been calculated from true and mean heat capacity of CdCr 2 S 4 in a wide temperature range. The lattice energy V has been calculated for CdCr 2 S 4 ; it amounts -4226 kcal/mol

  6. New supersymmetric AdS4 type II vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsimpis, D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the supersymmetric AdS 4 x w M 6 backgrounds of type IIA/IIB supergravity constructed in[1]. In type IIA the supersymmetry is N=2, and the six-dimensional internal space is locally an S 2 bundle over a four-dimensional Kaehler-Einstein base; in IIB the internal space is the direct product of a circle and a five-dimensional squashed Sasaki-Einstein manifold. These backgrounds do not contain any sources, all fluxes (including the Romans mass in IIA) are generally non-zero, and the dilaton and warp factor are non-constant. The IIA solutions include the massive deformations of the IIA reduction of the eleven-dimensional AdS 4 x Y p,q solutions, and had been predicted to exist on the basis of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Is NiCo2S4 really a semiconductor?

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2015-08-31

    NiCo2S4 is a technologically important electrode material that has recently achieved remarkable performance in pseu-docapacitor, catalysis, and dye-synthesized solar cell applications.[1-5] Essentially, all reports on this material have pre-sumed it to be semiconducting, like many of the chalcogenides, with a reported band-gap in the range of 1.2-1.7 eV.[6,7] In this report, we have conducted detailed experimental and theoretical studies, most of which done for the first time, which overwhelmingly show that NiCo2S4 is in fact a metal. We have also calculated the Raman spectrum of this mate-rial and experimentally verified it for the first time, hence clarifying inconsistent Raman spectra reports. Some of the key results that support our conclusions include: (1) the measured carrier density in NiCo2S4 is 3.18×1022 cm-3, (2) Ni-Co2S4 has a room temperature resistivity of around 103 µΩ cm which increases with temperature, (3) NiCo2S4 exhibits a quadratic dependence of the magnetoresistance on magnetic field, (4) thermopower measurements show an extremely low Seebeck coefficient of 5 µV K-1, (5) first principles calculations confirm that NiCo2S4 is a metal. These results sug-gest that it is time to re-think the presumed semiconducting nature of this promising material. They also suggest that the metallic conductivity is another reason (besides the known significant redox activity) behind the excellent perfor-mance reported for this material.

  8. Aerosols and the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The lectures of the colloquium are discussed in summary form. There were 5 lectures on aerosol deposition, 5 on aerosol elimination, 7 on toxicology, and 7 on the uses of aerosols in medical therapy. In some cases aerosols with radioactive labels were used. Several lectures reviewed the kinetics and toxicology of airborne environmental pollutants. (MG) [de

  9. Electrical properties of FeGa2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niftiev, N.N.; Alidzhanov, M.A.; Tagiev, O.B.; Mamedov, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of FeGa 2 S 4 crystals have been studied. It has been shown that the current in the nonlinear range of CVCs is caused by the field effect. The activation energy of carriers and the trap concentrations have been determined

  10. Is NiCo2S4 really a semiconductor?

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Li, Peng; Gandi, Appala; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    NiCo2S4 is a technologically important electrode material that has recently achieved remarkable performance in pseu-docapacitor, catalysis, and dye-synthesized solar cell applications.[1-5] Essentially, all reports on this material have pre

  11. Family physics with S4 and Pati-Salam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Adelhart Toorop, R.

    2010-01-01

    Family symmetries and grand unified symmetries can bring more structure in the mass sector of the standard model and explain the patterns in the quarks’ and leptons’ masses and mixing. We discuss in particular a model with a Pati-Salam × S4 symmetry. This model can explain the observed neutrino

  12. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  13. New Massive Gravity and AdS4 Counterterms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-01-01

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS 4 ). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS 4 Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS 3 gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.

  14. Joint German/French S4-Analytical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miemczyk, H.

    1979-03-01

    A joint German/French program was initiated to investigate in detail the behaviour of artificially defected fuel pins in a sodium loop of the SILOE reactor at Grenoble/France. Three irradiation experiments have been conducted in SILOE on representative SNR-type fuel pins (mixed oxide, low density, stainless steel cladding, external diameter 6 mm). The first experiment, S2, had been an unirradiated pin with a large interstitial defect (machined slit of 30x1 mm). The two following pins, S4 and S3, have been pre-irradiated in RAPSODIE (365 efpd, 10.6 % burnup). The main results of the S4-experiment are described and evaluated in the present report. They concern the following important aspects: sodium-uranate/plutonate formation and its kinetics, fuel loss, fission product release and fuel behaviour

  15. CMB-S4 Science Book, First Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazajian, Kevork N. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); et al.

    2016-10-09

    This book lays out the scientific goals to be addressed by the next-generation ground-based cosmic microwave background experiment, CMB-S4, envisioned to consist of dedicated telescopes at the South Pole, the high Chilean Atacama plateau and possibly a northern hemisphere site, all equipped with new superconducting cameras. CMB-S4 will dramatically advance cosmological studies by crossing critical thresholds in the search for the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves, in the determination of the number and masses of the neutrinos, in the search for evidence of new light relics, in constraining the nature of dark energy, and in testing general relativity on large scales.

  16. SUSY S4×SU(5) revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Following the recent results from Daya Bay and RENO, which measure the lepton mixing angle θ 13 l ≈0.15, we revisit a supersymmetric (SUSY) S 4 ×SU(5) model, which predicts tri-bimaximal (TB) mixing in the neutrino sector with θ 13 l being too small in its original version. We show that introducing one additional S 4 singlet flavon into the model gives rise to a sizable θ 13 l via an operator which leads to the breaking of one of the two Z 2 symmetries preserved in the neutrino sector at leading order (LO). The results of the original model for fermion masses, quark mixing and the solar mixing angle are maintained to good precision. The atmospheric and solar mixing angle deviations from TB mixing are subject to simple sum rule bounds.

  17. Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S4) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    The Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S 4 ) reactor, developed for future space power applications and avoidance of single point failures, is presented. The S 4 reactor has a Mo-14% Re solid core, loaded with uranium nitride fuel, cooled by He-30% Xe and sized to provide 550 kWth for 7 years of equivalent full power operation. The beryllium oxide reflector of the S 4 reactor is designed to completely disassemble upon impact on water or soil. The potential of using Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) materials in different forms to ensure that the reactor remains subcritical in the worst-case submersion accident is investigated. Nine potential SSAs are considered in terms of their effect on the thickness of the radial reflector and on the combined mass of the reactor and the radiation shadow shield. The SSA materials are incorporated as a thin (0.1 mm) coating on the outside surface of the reactor core and as core additions in three possible forms: 2.0 mm diameter pins in the interstices of the core block, 0.25 mm thick sleeves around the fuel stacks and/or additions to the uranium nitride fuel. Results show that with a boron carbide coating and 0.25 mm iridium sleeves around the fuel stacks the S 4 reactor has a reflector outer diameter of 43.5 cm with a combined reactor and shadow shield mass of 935.1 kg. The S 4 reactor with 12.5 at.% gadolinium-155 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter gadolinium-155 sesquioxide interstitial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick gadolinium-155 sesquioxide coating has a slightly smaller reflector outer diameter of 43.0 cm, resulting in a smaller total reactor and shield mass of 901.7 kg. With 8.0 at.% europium-151 added to the fuel, along with europium-151 sesquioxide for the pins and coating, the reflector's outer diameter and the total reactor and shield mass are further reduced to 41.5 cm and 869.2 kg, respectively

  18. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  19. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  20. Electron hopping and optic phonons in Eu3S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentherodt, G.

    1981-01-01

    Raman scattering on single crystals of Eu 3 S 4 does not show the allowed q=o phonon modes in the cubic phase and exhibits no new modes in the distorted low temperature phase (T 2- ions. This mode does not show any anomaly near the charge order -disorder phase transition Tsub(t)=186 K. Temperature tunable spin fluctuations associated with the temperature activated Eu 2+ → Eu 3+ electron hopping are detected in the scattering intensity, superimposed on the usual thermal spin disorder. (author)

  1. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bakas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS=δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric–magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy–momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  2. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2008-03-26

    HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA) that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by changing the condom distribution policy from a pull system to a push

  3. Facility of aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G; Regnier, J

    1975-04-18

    Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. Said facility is of special interest for fast reactors where sodium fires involve the possibility of high concentrations of sodium aerosols which soon clog up conventional filters. The facility intended for continuous operation, includes at the pre-filtering stage, means for increasing the size of the aerosol particles and separating clustered particles (cyclone separator).

  4. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Large warming by elevated aerosols · AERONET – Global network (NASA) · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30 · Slide 31 · Long-term trends - Trivandrum · Enhanced warming over Himalayan-Gangetic region · Aerosol Radiative Forcing Over India _ Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment ...

  5. Charge Transfer in Collisions of S^4+ with H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, P. C.; Turner, A. R.; Cooper, D. L.; Schultz, D. R.; Rakovic, M. J.; Fritsch, W.; Zygelman, B.

    2001-05-01

    Charge transfer processes due to collisions of ground state S^4+ ions with atomic hydrogen were investigated for energies between 1 meV/u and 10 MeV/u using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC), atomic-orbital close-coupling, classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC), and continuum distorted wave methods. The MOCC calculations utilized ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial coupling matrix elements obtained with the spin-coupled valence-bond approach. A number of variants of the CTMC approach were explored, including different momentum and radial distributions for the initial state, as well as effective charge and quantum-defect models to determine the corresponding quantum state after capture into final partially-stripped S^3+ excited classical states. Hydrogen target isotope effects were explored and rate coefficients for temperatures between 100 and 10^6 K will be presented

  6. Electron capture in collisions of S4+ with atomic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, P. C.; Turner, A. R.; Cooper, D. L.; Schultz, D. R.; Rakovic, M. J.; Fritsch, W.; Zygelman, B.

    2001-06-01

    Charge transfer processes due to collisions of ground state S4+(3s2 1S) ions with atomic hydrogen are investigated for energies between 1 meV u-1 and 10 MeV u-1 using the quantum mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC), atomic-orbital close-coupling, classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) and continuum distorted wave methods. The MOCC calculations utilize ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial coupling matrix elements obtained with the spin-coupled valence-bond approach. A number of variants of the CTMC approach were explored, including different momentum and radial distributions for the initial state, as well as effective charge and quantum-defect models to determine the corresponding quantum state after capture into final partially stripped S3+ excited classical states. Hydrogen target isotope effects are explored and rate coefficients for temperatures between 100 and 106 K are also presented.

  7. Charge Transfer in Collisions of S^4+ with He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. G.; Stancil, P. C.; Turner, A. R.; Cooper, D. L.; Schultz, D. R.; Rakovic, M. J.; Fritsch, W.; Zygelman, B.

    2001-05-01

    Charge transfer processes due to collisions of ground state S^4+ ions with atomic helium were investigated for energies between 0.1 meV/u and 10 MeV/u. Total and state-selective cross sections and rate coefficients were obtained utilizing the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC), atomic-orbital close-coupling, classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC), and continuum distorted wave methods. The MOCC calculations utilized ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial coupling matrix elements obtained with the spin-coupled valence-bond approach. A number of variants of the CTMC approach were also explored. Previous data are limited to an earlier Landau-Zener calculation of the total rate coefficient for which our results are two orders of magnitude larger. An observed multichannel interference effect in the MOCC results will also be discussed.

  8. Diamagnetism in spinel compound CuIr2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagasaki, K.; Nakama, T.

    2007-01-01

    The diamagnetic susceptibility in CuIr 2 S 4 is independent of temperature up to just below metal-insulator transition temperature. If activation of electrons to higher levels occurs with breaking dimer pairs, the residual electrons at the dimer position and the activated electrons to the anti-bonding orbital make localized free spins giving a Langevin paramagnetism. Assuming no magnetic interaction between the localized free spins, the susceptibility is calculated using the energy gap obtained from the conductivity assumed to be a conventional semiconductor. The calculated results cannot explain the temperature-independent diamagnetism. The real energy gap is too large for thermal electron activation, however, conduction is induced thermally over several orders of magnitude within insulating phase. From the above results, we claimed new conduction mechanism named traveling dimer conduction: dimer shifts its position by electron hopping to neighbor position without electron activation over the energy gap

  9. CMB-S4 and the hemispherical variance anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Márcio; Copi, Craig J.; Knox, Lloyd; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) full-sky temperature data show a hemispherical asymmetry in power nearly aligned with the Ecliptic. In real space, this anomaly can be quantified by the temperature variance in the Northern and Southern Ecliptic hemispheres, with the Northern hemisphere displaying an anomalously low variance while the Southern hemisphere appears unremarkable [consistent with expectations from the best-fitting theory, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM)]. While this is a well-established result in temperature, the low signal-to-noise ratio in current polarization data prevents a similar comparison. This will change with a proposed ground-based CMB experiment, CMB-S4. With that in mind, we generate realizations of polarization maps constrained by the temperature data and predict the distribution of the hemispherical variance in polarization considering two different sky coverage scenarios possible in CMB-S4: full Ecliptic north coverage and just the portion of the North that can be observed from a ground-based telescope at the high Chilean Atacama plateau. We find that even in the set of realizations constrained by the temperature data, the low Northern hemisphere variance observed in temperature is not expected in polarization. Therefore, observing an anomalously low variance in polarization would make the hypothesis that the temperature anomaly is simply a statistical fluke more unlikely and thus increase the motivation for physical explanations. We show, within ΛCDM, how variance measurements in both sky coverage scenarios are related. We find that the variance makes for a good statistic in cases where the sky coverage is limited, however, full northern coverage is still preferable.

  10. Electron capture in collisions of S4+ with helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.G.; Stancil, P.C.; Turner, A.R.; Cooper, D.L.; Schultz, D.R.; Rakovic, M.J.; Fritsch, W.; Zygelman, B.

    2002-01-01

    Charge transfer due to collisions of ground-state S 4+ (3s 2 1 S) ions with helium is investigated for energies between 0.1 meV u -1 and 10 MeV u -1 . Total and state-selective single electron capture (SEC) cross sections and rate coefficients are obtained utilizing the quantum mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC), atomic-orbital close-coupling (AOCC), classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) and continuum distorted wave methods. The MOCC calculations utilize ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial coupling matrix elements obtained with the spin-coupled valence-bond approach. Previous data are limited to a calculation of the total SEC rate coefficient using the Landau-Zener model that is, in comparison to the results presented here, three orders of magnitude smaller. The MOCC SEC cross sections at low energy reveal a multichannel interference effect. True double capture is also investigated with the AOCC and CTMC approaches while autoionizing double capture and transfer ionization (TI) is explored with CTMC. SEC is found to be the dominant process except for E>200 keV u -1 when TI becomes the primary capture channel. Astrophysical implications are briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Electron capture in collisions of S4+ with helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. G.; Turner, A. R.; Cooper, D. L.; Schultz, D. R.; Rakovic, M. J.; Fritsch, W.; Stancil, P. C.; Zygelman, B.

    2002-07-01

    Charge transfer due to collisions of ground-state S4+(3s2 1S) ions with helium is investigated for energies between 0.1 meV u-1 and 10 MeV u-1. Total and state-selective single electron capture (SEC) cross sections and rate coefficients are obtained utilizing the quantum mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC), atomic-orbital close-coupling (AOCC), classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) and continuum distorted wave methods. The MOCC calculations utilize ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial coupling matrix elements obtained with the spin-coupled valence-bond approach. Previous data are limited to a calculation of the total SEC rate coefficient using the Landau-Zener model that is, in comparison to the results presented here, three orders of magnitude smaller. The MOCC SEC cross sections at low energy reveal a multichannel interference effect. True double capture is also investigated with the AOCC and CTMC approaches while autoionizing double capture and transfer ionization (TI) is explored with CTMC. SEC is found to be the dominant process except for E>200 keV u-1 when TI becomes the primary capture channel. Astrophysical implications are briefly discussed.

  12. Respiratory and oral vaccination improves protection conferred by the live vaccine strain against pneumonic tularemia in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Elizabeth; Smith, Le'Kneitah P; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen M; Reed, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Tularemia is a severe, zoonotic disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis We have previously shown that rabbits are a good model of human pneumonic tularemia when exposed to aerosols containing a virulent, type A strain, SCHU S4. We further demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS), an attenuated type B strain, extended time to death when given by scarification. Oral or aerosol vaccination has been previously shown in humans to offer superior protection to parenteral vaccination against respiratory tularemia challenge. Both oral and aerosol vaccination with LVS were well tolerated in the rabbit with only minimal fever and no weight loss after inoculation. Plasma antibody titers against F. tularensis were higher in rabbits that were vaccinated by either oral or aerosol routes compared to scarification. Thirty days after vaccination, all rabbits were challenged with aerosolized SCHU S4. LVS given by scarification extended time to death compared to mock-vaccinated controls. One orally vaccinated rabbit did survive aerosol challenge, however, only aerosol vaccination extended time to death significantly compared to scarification. These results further demonstrate the utility of the rabbit model of pneumonic tularemia in replicating what has been reported in humans and macaques as well as demonstrating the utility of vaccination by oral and respiratory routes against an aerosol tularemia challenge. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Antarctic aerosols - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1988-02-01

    Tropospheric aerosols with the diameter range of half a micron reside in the atmosphere for tens of days and teleconnect Antarctica with other regions by transport that reaches planetary scales of distances; thus, the aerosol on the Antarctic ice represents 'memory modules' of events that took place at regions separated from Antarctica by tens of thousands of kilometers. In terms of aerosol mass, the aerosol species include insoluble crustal products (less than 5 percent), transported sea-salt residues (highly variable but averaging about 10 percent), Ni-rich meteoric material, and anomalously enriched material with an unknown origin. Most (70-90 percent by mass) of the aerosol over the Antarctic ice shield, however, is the 'natural acid sulfate aerosol', apparently deriving from biological processes taking place in the surrounding oceans.

  14. Radioactive aerosols. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanson, G L

    1956-01-01

    Tabulations are given presenting various published data on safe atmospheric concentrations of various radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols. Methods of determination of active aerosol concentrations and dispersion as well as the technical applications of labeled aerosols are discussed. The effect of atomic explosions are analyzed considering the nominal atomic bomb based on /sup 235/U and /sup 232/Pu equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT.

  15. Aerosols CFA 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    During the thirteen congress on aerosols several papers were presented about the behaviour of radioactive aerosols and their impact on environment, or the exposure to radon and to its daughters, the measurement of the size of the particulates of the short-lived radon daughters and two papers about the behaviour of aerosols in containment during a fission products release in the primary circuit and susceptible to be released in atmosphere in the case of containment failure. (N.C.)

  16. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  17. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Scribano, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can

  18. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk

    2017-01-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during......, ammonium, black carbon, and trace metals. This PhD dissertation studies Arctic aerosols and their sources, with special focus on black carbon, attempting to increase the knowledge about aerosols’ effect on the climate in an Arctic content. The first part of the dissertation examines the diversity...... of aerosol emissions from an important anthropogenic aerosol source: residential wood combustion. The second part, characterizes the chemical and physical composition of aerosols while investigating sources of aerosols in the Arctic. The main instrument used in this research has been the state...

  19. Aerosol in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  20. DARE : Dedicated Aerosols Retrieval Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Decae, R.; Court, A.J.; Leeuw, G. de; Visser, H.

    2004-01-01

    At present there is an increasing interest in remote sensing of aerosols from space because of the large impact of aerosols on climate, earth observation and health. TNO has performed a study aimed at improving aerosol characterisation using a space based instrument and state-of-the-art aerosol

  1. Determination of diffusion coefficients for sulfide ions in solid electrolytes on the basis of BaSm2S4 and CaGd2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurlov, I.S.; Ushakova, Yu.N.; Medvedeva, O.V.; Kalinina, L.A.; Shirokova, G.I.; Ananchenko, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Coefficients of self-diffusion and coefficients of diffusion of the sulfur ion in solid electrolytes BaSm 2 S 4 and CaGd 2 S 4 are determined with recourse to methods of conductometry and potentiostatic chronoamperometry. A vacancy mechanism for the defect formation in solid solutions on the basis of barium thiosamarate and calcium thiogadolynate is proposed [ru

  2. Computational Chemistry of Modified [MFe3S4] and [M2Fe2S4] Clusters: Assessment of Trends in Electronic Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ooi, Bee Lean; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the molecular evolution of iron−sulfur clusters in terms of electronic structure and function. Metal-substituted models of biological [Fe4S4] clusters in oxidation states [MxFe4−xS4]3+/2+/1+ have been studied by density functional theory (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, ...

  3. Water content of aged aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. Engelhart; L. Hildebrandt; E. Kostenidou; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

    2010-01-01

    The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008). A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS) was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH) as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during mo...

  4. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  5. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  6. Aerosol chemical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A classification of the research fields in the chemical physics of aerosol microparticles is given. The emphasis lies on the microphysics of isolated particles and clusters and on physical transformations and thermodynamics. (LDN)

  7. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  8. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aerosols, clouds, radiation and climate. ... the solar radiation to pass through but absorb most of infrared radiation emitted .... Fine soil and sand particles become airborne due to wind. Over ..... its sampling is difficult compared to other species.

  9. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  10. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  11. Emergency protection from aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-07-01

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved

  12. MISR Aerosol Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    AeroCom is an open international initiative of scientists interested in the advancement of the understanding of global aerosol properties and aerosol impacts on climate. A central goal is to more strongly tie and constrain modeling efforts to observational data. A major element for exchanges between data and modeling groups are annual meetings. The meeting was held September 20 through October 2, 1014 and the organizers would like to post the presentations.

  13. Aerosol effects on UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, P.; Reuder, J.; Schwander, H.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of erythemally weighted UV-irradiance (given as UV index, UVI) due to aerosols is analyzed by variation of the tropospheric particles in a wide, but realistic range. Varied are amount and composition of the particles and relative humidity and thickness of the mixing layer. The reduction of UVI increases with aerosol optical depth and the UV change is around 10% for a change aerosol optical depth from 0.25 to 0.1 and 0.4 respectively. Since both aerosol absorption and scattering are of relevance, the aerosol effect depends besides total aerosol amount on relative amount of soot and on relative humidity

  14. Physical metrology of aerosols; Metrologie physique des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulaud, D.; Vendel, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    The various detection and measuring methods for aerosols are presented, and their selection is related to aerosol characteristics (size range, concentration or mass range), thermo-hydraulic conditions (carrier fluid temperature, pressure and flow rate) and to the measuring system conditions (measuring frequency, data collection speed, cost...). Methods based on aerosol dynamic properties (inertial, diffusional and electrical methods) and aerosol optical properties (localized and integral methods) are described and their performances and applications are compared

  15. The aerosols and the greenhouse effect; Aerosoler og klimaeffekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, Trond; Kirkevaag, Alf; Seland, Oeyvind; Debernard, Jens Boldingh; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Storelvmo, Trude

    2008-07-01

    The article discussed the aerosol effects on the climatic changes and points out that the climate models do not incorporate these components satisfactorily mostly due to insufficient knowledge of the aerosol pollution sources. The direct and indirect effects of aerosols are mentioned as well as the climate response (tk)

  16. Stable generator of polydisperse aerosol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, Suppl. 1 (2001), s. S823-S824 ISSN 0021-8502. [European Aerosol Conference 2001. Leipzig, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : aerosol generator * fine aerosol * polydisperse aerosol Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2001

  17. N4H9Cu7S4: a hydrazinium-based salt with a layered Cu7S4- framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B

    2007-02-05

    Crystals of a hydrazinium-based copper(I) sulfide salt, N4H9Cu7S4 (1), have been isolated by an ambient temperature solution-based process. In contrast to previously reported hydrazinium salts of main-group metal chalcogenides, which consist of isolated metal chalcogenide anions, and ACu7S4 (A = NH4+, Rb+, Tl+, K+), which contains a more three-dimensional Cu7S4- framework with partial Cu-site occupancy, the structure of 1 [P21, a = 6.8621(4) A, b = 7.9851(4) A, c = 10.0983(5) A, beta = 99.360(1) degrees , Z = 2] is composed of extended two-dimensional Cu7S4- slabs with full Cu-site occupancy. The Cu7S4- slabs are separated by a mixture of hydrazinium and hydrazine moieties. Thermal decomposition of 1 into copper(I) sulfide proceeds at a significantly lower temperature than that observed for analogous hydrazinium salts of previously considered metal chalcogenides, completing the transition at temperatures as low as 120 degrees C. Solutions of 1 may be used in the solution deposition of a range of Cu-containing chalcogenide films.

  18. Aerosols, clouds and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, S [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (USA). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1991-01-01

    Most of the so-called 'CO{sub 2} effect' is, in fact, an 'H{sub 2}O effect' brought into play by the climate modeler's assumption that planetary average temperature dictates water-vapor concentration (following Clapeyron-Clausius). That assumption ignores the removal process, which cloud physicists know to be influenced by the aerosol, since the latter primarily controls cloud droplet number and size. Droplet number and size are also influential for shortwave (solar) energy. The reflectance of many thin to moderately thick clouds changes when nuclei concentrations change and make shortwave albedo susceptible to aerosol influence.

  19. A stratospheric aerosol increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J. M.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Large disturbances were noted in the stratospheric aerosol content in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere commencing about 7 months after the eruption of La Soufriere and less than 1 month after the eruption of Sierra Negra. The aerosol was characterized by a very steep size distribution in the 0.15 to 0.25 micron radius range and contained a volatile component. Measurements near the equator and at the South Pole indicate that the disturbance was widespread. These observations were made before the May 18 eruption of Mt. St. Helens.

  20. Radon dose and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Vukovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium factor value (F) was measured in the NRPB radon chamber and the corresponding track density ratio (r = D/D 0 ) of bare (D) and diffusion (D 0 ) LR-115 nuclear track detectors was determined, as well as the regression equation F(r). Experiments with LR-115 nuclear track detectors and aerosol sources (burning candle and cigarette) were carried out in the Osijek University radon chamber and afterwards an empirical relationship between the equilibrium factor and aerosol concentration was derived. For the purpose of radon dose equivalent assessment, procedures for determining the unattached fraction of radon progeny were introduced using two nuclear track detectors. (author)

  1. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  2. Atmospheric aerosol system: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospero, J.M.; Charlson, R.J.; Mohnen, V.; Jaenicke, R.; Delany, A.C.; Moyers, J.; Zoller, W.; Rahn, K.

    1983-01-01

    Aerosols could play a critical role in many processes which impact on our lives either indirectly (e.g., climate) or directly (e.g., health). However, our ability to assess these possible impacts is constrained by our limited knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, both anthropogenic and natural. This deficiency is attributable in part to the fact that aerosols are the end product of a vast array of chemical and physical processes. Consequently, the properties of the aerosol can exhibit a great deal of variability in both time and space. Furthermore, most aerosol studies have focused on measurements of a single aerosol characteristic such as composition or size distribution. Such information is generally not useful for the assessment of impacts because the degree of impact may depend on the integral properties of the aerosol, for example, the aerosol composition as a function of particle size. In this overview we discuss recent work on atmospheric aerosols that illustrates the complex nature of the aerosol chemical and physical system, and we suggest strategies for future research. A major conclusion is that man has had a great impact on the global budgets of certain species, especially sulfur and nitrogen, that play a dominant role in the atmospheric aerosol system. These changes could conceivably affect climate. Large-scale impacts are implied because it has recently been demonstrated that natural and pollutant aerosol episodes can be propagated over great distances. However, at present there is no evidence linking anthropogenic activities with a persistent increase in aerosol concentrations on a global scale. A major problem in assessing man's impact on the atmospheric aerosol system and on global budgets is the absence of aerosol measurements in remote marine and continental areas

  3. GRIP LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT (LARGE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size...

  4. Light-cone gauge formulation for AdS4 x CP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    We review the Type IIA superstring on the AdS 4 x CP 3 background in the k-symmetry light-cone gauge characterized by the choice of the lightlike directions from the D = 3 Minkowski boundary of AdS 4 both in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations

  5. Different proportions of C/KCu7S4 hybrid structure for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuge; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Yue, Xule; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Guo

    2014-10-01

    KCu7S4 has the channel structure and minor resistance. Its double larger channels ensure that the ions can well exchange with other's, at the same time, can shorten the ionic diffusion path and improve the ionic and electronic transport. So KCu7S4 shows good electrochemical property. The paper reports a novel and high performance supercapacitor based on hybrid carbon particles and KCu7S4 (C/KCu7S4) electrode. For the hybrid structure with different proportions of C and KCu7S4, the C/KCu7S4 (1:10) hybrid supercapacitor shows preferable electrochemical performance and large specific capacitance (469 mF cm-2) at high charge-discharge rate (2 mA), still retaining ∼95% of the capacitance over 5000 cycles by charge-discharge process at a fixed current of 10 mA. Three supercapacitor units in series can light 50 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for 2.5 min, 10 LEDs for 4 min, one LED for 5.5 min. The much-increased capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability may be attributed to the superionic conductive KCu7S4 nanowires and C/KCu7S4 hybrid structure, which improve ionic and electronic transport, enhance the kinetics of redox reactions through the electrode system.

  6. The prohibition order according to paragraph 5 S. 4 EnWG; Die Untersagungsverfuegung nach paragraph 5 S. 4 EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Karsten [WSW Netz GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-02-10

    The introduction of prosecutorial investigation on suspicion of delaying the insolvency proceedings published in the autumn 2010 results to a general question of whether and to what extent a concomitant intervention of the regulatory authorities is indicated. Central to this are the basis for authorization given in paragraph 5 S. 4 Energy Economy Law and the related prohibition authority.

  7. Probing α-3(10) transitions in a voltage-sensing S4 helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tomoya; Lacroix, Jérôme J; Bezanilla, Francisco; Correa, Ana M

    2014-09-02

    The S4 helix of voltage sensor domains (VSDs) transfers its gating charges across the membrane electrical field in response to changes of the membrane potential. Recent studies suggest that this process may occur via the helical conversion of the entire S4 between α and 310 conformations. Here, using LRET and FRET, we tested this hypothesis by measuring dynamic changes in the transmembrane length of S4 from engineered VSDs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results suggest that the native S4 from the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensitive phosphatase (Ci-VSP) does not exhibit extended and long-lived 310 conformations and remains mostly α-helical. Although the S4 of NavAb displays a fully extended 310 conformation in x-ray structures, its transplantation in the Ci-VSP VSD scaffold yielded similar results as the native Ci-VSP S4. Taken together, our study does not support the presence of long-lived extended α-to-310 helical conversions of the S4 in Ci-VSP associated with voltage activation. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MAu2GeS4-Chalcogel (M = Co, Ni): Heterogeneous Intra- and Intermolecular Hydroamination Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar

    2017-08-08

    High surface area macroporous chalcogenide aerogels (chalcogels) MAu2GeS4 (M = Co, Ni) were prepared from K2Au2GeS4 precursor and Co(OAc)2 or NiCl2 by one-pot sol-gel metathesis reactions in aqueous media. The MAu2GeS4-chalcogels were screened for catalytic intramolecular hydroamination of 4-pentyn-1-amine substrate at different temperatures. 87% and 58% conversion was achieved at 100 °C, using CoAu2GeS4- and NiAu2GeS4-chalcogels respectively, and the reaction kinetics follows the first order. It was established that the catalytic performance of the aerogels is associated with the M(2+) centers present in the structure. Intermolecular hydroamination of aniline with 1-R-4-ethynylbenzene (R = -H, -OCH3, -Br, -F) was carried out at 100 °C using CoAu2GeS4-chalcogel catalyst, due to its promising catalytic performance. The CoAu2GeS4-chalcogel regioselectively converted the pair of substrates to respective Markovnikov products, (E)-1-(4-R-phenyl)-N-phenylethan-1-imine, with 38% to 60% conversion.

  9. MAu2GeS4-Chalcogel (M = Co, Ni): Heterogeneous Intra- and Intermolecular Hydroamination Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    High surface area macroporous chalcogenide aerogels (chalcogels) MAu2GeS4 (M = Co, Ni) were prepared from K2Au2GeS4 precursor and Co(OAc)2 or NiCl2 by one-pot sol-gel metathesis reactions in aqueous media. The MAu2GeS4-chalcogels were screened for catalytic intramolecular hydroamination of 4-pentyn-1-amine substrate at different temperatures. 87% and 58% conversion was achieved at 100 °C, using CoAu2GeS4- and NiAu2GeS4-chalcogels respectively, and the reaction kinetics follows the first order. It was established that the catalytic performance of the aerogels is associated with the M(2+) centers present in the structure. Intermolecular hydroamination of aniline with 1-R-4-ethynylbenzene (R = -H, -OCH3, -Br, -F) was carried out at 100 °C using CoAu2GeS4-chalcogel catalyst, due to its promising catalytic performance. The CoAu2GeS4-chalcogel regioselectively converted the pair of substrates to respective Markovnikov products, (E)-1-(4-R-phenyl)-N-phenylethan-1-imine, with 38% to 60% conversion.

  10. American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Fourteenth annual meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research was held October 9-13, 1995 at Westin William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. This volume contains the abstracts of the papers and poster sessions presented at this meeting, grouped by the session in which they were presented as follows: Radiation Effects; Aerosol Deposition; Collision Simulations and Microphysical Behavior; Filtration Theory and Measurements; Materials Synthesis; Radioactive and Nuclear Aerosols; Aerosol Formation, Thermodynamic Properties, and Behavior; Particle Contamination Issues in the Computer Industry; Pharmaceutical Aerosol Technology; Modeling Global/Regional Aerosols; Visibility; Respiratory Deposition; Biomass and Biogenic Aerosols; Aerosol Dynamics; Atmospheric Aerosols.

  11. Development of a Tetrathioether (S4) Bifunctional Chelate System for Rh-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    olt s...500 0 500 1000 1500 mV olt s -500 0 500 1000 1500 (B) Free Rhodium Chloride Minutes 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 mV olt s 0 2000 4000 mV olt s 0 2000 4000 (C) Rh-S4...Diol prepared in water Minutes 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 mV olts 0 2000 4000 mV olts 0 2000 4000 (D) 105 Rh-S4Diol with cold [Rh-S4(OH)2-Diol] +

  12. Hyperpolarization moves S4 sensors inward to open MVP, a methanococcal voltage-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti, Federico; Rajan, Sindhu; Gonzalez-Colaso, Rosana; Nikolaeva, Natalia; Goldstein, Steve A N

    2003-04-01

    MVP, a Methanococcus jannaschii voltage-gated potassium channel, was cloned and shown to operate in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Like pacemaker channels, MVP opens on hyperpolarization using S4 voltage sensors like those in classical channels activated by depolarization. The MVP S4 span resembles classical sensors in sequence, charge, topology and movement, traveling inward on hyperpolarization and outward on depolarization (via canaliculi in the protein that bring the extracellular and internal solutions into proximity across a short barrier). Thus, MVP opens with sensors inward indicating a reversal of S4 position and pore state compared to classical channels. Homologous channels in mammals and plants are expected to function similarly.

  13. Currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn2S4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagiev, B.G.; Tagiev, O.B.; Dzhabbarov, R.B.; Musaeva, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    The results of investigation into currents of thermally stimulated depolarization in CaIn 2 S 4 monocrystals are presented for the first time. Spectra of thermally stimulated depolarization for In-CaIn S4 -In structures are measured under T=99 K at various rates of heat, times of polarization and times of expectation following switching off of electrical field up to beginning of measurements of shorting. The main parameters of capture cross section, partial factor, concentration of traps, are determined. It is determined that one may observed a biomolecular mechanism with a strong secondary capture in CaIn 2 S 4 monocrystals. 9 refs.; 4 figs

  14. Factorized tree-level scattering in AdS4 x CP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousios, Chrysostomos; Vergu, C.; Volovich, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    AdS 4 /CFT 3 duality relating IIA string theory on AdS 4 x CP 3 to N = 6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory provides an arena for studying aspects of integrability in a new potentially exactly solvable system. In this paper we explore the tree-level worldsheet scattering for strings on AdS 4 x CP 3 . We compute all bosonic four-, five- and six-point amplitudes in the gauge-fixed action and demonstrate the absence of particle production.

  15. Structural and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film absorbers from ZnS and Cu3SnS4 nanoparticle precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Xianzhong; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Kornhuber, Kai; Levcenko, Sergiu; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Ennaoui, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) has been considered as an alternative absorber layer to Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 due to its earth abundant and environmentally friendly constituents, optimal direct band gap of 1.4–1.6 eV and high absorption coefficient in the visible range. In this work, we propose a solution-based chemical route for the preparation of CZTS thin film absorbers by spin coating of the precursor inks composed of Cu 3 SnS 4 and ZnS NPs and annealing in Ar/H 2 S atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural properties. The chemical composition was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical properties of the CZTS thin film absorbers were studied by transmission, reflection and photoluminescence spectroscopy

  16. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author)

  17. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E. (Union Research Institute of Instrumentation, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author).

  18. Mexico City aerosol study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, Y.I.; Ramirez, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    A major task in the field of air pollution monitoring is the development of devices for determining the mass and composition of airborne particulate matter as a function of size - and time. The sample collection device must be designed giving consideration to the nature of the aerosol and to the effects of the aerosol on human health. It has been established that particles smaller than 3.5 μm in diameter can penetrate deeply into the human respiratory system, and that larger particles are trapped in the upper respiratory passages. For these reasons, it is desirable to use a dichotomous sampler to collect particles in two size ranges, rather than to collect total particulates on a single filter. The authors discuss a study in Mexico City using a dichotomous sampler

  19. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  20. Hyperfine structure in 5s4d 3D-5snf transitions of 87Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushaw, B.A.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Schwalbach, R.; Stenner, J.; Stevens, H.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K.

    1993-01-01

    The hyperfine spectra of the 5s4d 3 D 1 -5s20f, 5s4d 3 D 2 -5s23f, and 5s4d 3 D 3 -5s32f transitions of 87 Sr (I=9/2) have been measured by collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy. The structure in the upper configurations is highly perturbed by fine structure splitting that is of comparable size to the hyperfine interaction energy. These perturbations can be adequately treated with conventional matrix diagonalization methods, using the 5s-electron magnetic dipole interaction term a 5s and the unperturbed fine structure splittings as input parameters. Additionally, hyperfine constants for the lower 5s4d 3 D configurations, including the A- and B-factors and a separation of the individual s- and d-electron contributions to these factors, are derived. (orig.)

  1. Simplifying superstring and D-brane actions in AdS4 x CP3 superbackground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Sorokin, Dmitri; Wulff, Linus

    2009-01-01

    By making an appropriate choice for gauge fixing kappa-symmetry we obtain a relatively simple form of the actions for a D = 11 superparticle in AdS 4 x S 7 /Z k , and for a D0-brane, fundamental string and D2-branes in the AdS 4 x CP 3 superbackground. They can be used to study various problems of string theory and the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence, especially in regions of the theory which are not reachable by the OSp(6|4)/U(3) x SO(1,3) supercoset sigma-model. In particular, we present a simple form of the gauge-fixed superstring action in AdS 4 x CP 3 and briefly discuss issues of its T-dualization.

  2. Intelligence and Information-Sharing Elements of S.4 and H.R. 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masse, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Title I of S.4 and Title VII of H.R. 1 include corresponding measures related to enhancing information and intelligence sharing, both horizontally within the Federal Government and vertically between the Federal Government and state...

  3. Aerosol characterization during project POLINAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, D.E.; Hopkins, A.R.; Paladino, J.D.; Whitefield, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-East, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of the aerosol/particulate characterization measurements of project POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor) are: to search for aerosol/particulate signatures of air traffic emissions in the region of the North Atlantic Flight Corridor; to search for the aerosol/particulate component of large scale enhancement (`corridor effects`) of air traffic related species in the North Atlantic region; to determine the effective emission indices for the aerosol/particulate component of engine exhaust in both the near and far field of aircraft exhaust plumes; to measure the dispersion and transformation of the aerosol/particulate component of aircraft emissions as a function of ambient condition; to characterize background levels of aerosol/particulate concentrations in the North Atlantic Region; and to determine effective emission indices for engine exhaust particulates for regimes beyond the jet phase of plume expansion. (author) 10 refs.

  4. Aerosol characterization during project POLINAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, D E; Hopkins, A R; Paladino, J D; Whitefield, P D [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H V [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-East, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the aerosol/particulate characterization measurements of project POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor) are: to search for aerosol/particulate signatures of air traffic emissions in the region of the North Atlantic Flight Corridor; to search for the aerosol/particulate component of large scale enhancement (`corridor effects`) of air traffic related species in the North Atlantic region; to determine the effective emission indices for the aerosol/particulate component of engine exhaust in both the near and far field of aircraft exhaust plumes; to measure the dispersion and transformation of the aerosol/particulate component of aircraft emissions as a function of ambient condition; to characterize background levels of aerosol/particulate concentrations in the North Atlantic Region; and to determine effective emission indices for engine exhaust particulates for regimes beyond the jet phase of plume expansion. (author) 10 refs.

  5. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  6. Photothermal spectroscopy of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Lin, H.B.

    1981-04-01

    In situ aerosol absorption spectroscopy was performed using two novel photothermal detection schemes. The first, based on a photorefractive effect and coherent detection, called phase fluctuation optical heterodyne (PFLOH) spectroscopy, could, depending on the geometry employed, yield particle specific or particle and gas absorption data. Single particles of graphite as small as 1 μm were detected in the particle specific mode. In another geometrical configuration, the total absorption (both gas and particle) of submicron sized aerosols of ammonium sulfate particles in equilibrium with gaseous ammonia and water vapor were measured at varying CO 2 laser frequencies. The specific absorption coefficient for the sulfate ion was measured to be 0.5 m 2 /g at 1087 cm -1 . The absorption coefficient sensitivity of this scheme was less than or equal to 10 -8 cm -1 . The second scheme is a hybrid visible Mie scattering scheme incorporating photothermal modulation. Particle specific data on ammonium sulfate droplets were obtained. For chemically identical species, the relative absorption spectrum versus laser frequency can be obtained for polydisperse aerosol distributions directly from the data without the need for complex inverse scattering calculations

  7. Facile synthesis of hybrid CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Delong; Gong, Youning; Pan, Chunxu

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors was prepared via a simple chemical bath deposition combined with a post-anion exchange reaction. The morphologies and phase structures of the composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low-temperature sorption of nitrogen (BET). The electro-chemical tests revealed that the CNT/NiCo2S4 composite exhibited high electrochemical performance, because the CNTs were used as a conductive network for the NiCo2S4 hexagonal nanoplates. Compared with pure NiCo2S4 and the mechanically mixed CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite, the CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite electrode material exhibited excellent supercapacitive performance, such as a high specific capacitance up to 1537 F/g (discharge current density of 1 A/g) and an outstanding rate capability of 78.1% retention as the discharge current density increased to 100 A/g. It is therefore expected to be a promising alternative material in the area of energy storage.

  8. Structural and elemental characterization of high efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejia; Shin, Byungha; Reuter, Kathleen B.; Todorov, Teodor; Mitzi, David B.; Guha, Supratik

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out detailed microstructural studies of phase separation and grain boundary composition in Cu2ZnSnS4 based solar cells. The absorber layer was fabricated by thermal evaporation followed by post high temperature annealing on hot plate. We show that inter-reactions between the bottom molybdenum and the Cu2ZnSnS4, besides triggering the formation of interfacial MoSx, results in the out-diffusion of Cu from the Cu2ZnSnS4 layer. Phase separation of Cu2ZnSnS4 into ZnS and a Cu-Sn-S compound is observed at the molybdenum-Cu2ZnSnS4 interface, perhaps as a result of the compositional out-diffusion. Additionally, grain boundaries within the thermally evaporated absorber layer are found to be either Cu-rich or at the expected bulk composition. Such interfacial compound formation and grain boundary chemistry likely contributes to the lower than expected open circuit voltages observed for the Cu2ZnSnS4 devices.

  9. Facile synthesis of hybrid CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Delong; Gong, Youning; Pan, Chunxu

    2016-07-11

    In this work, a novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors was prepared via a simple chemical bath deposition combined with a post-anion exchange reaction. The morphologies and phase structures of the composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low-temperature sorption of nitrogen (BET). The electro-chemical tests revealed that the CNT/NiCo2S4 composite exhibited high electrochemical performance, because the CNTs were used as a conductive network for the NiCo2S4 hexagonal nanoplates. Compared with pure NiCo2S4 and the mechanically mixed CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite, the CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite electrode material exhibited excellent supercapacitive performance, such as a high specific capacitance up to 1537 F/g (discharge current density of 1 A/g) and an outstanding rate capability of 78.1% retention as the discharge current density increased to 100 A/g. It is therefore expected to be a promising alternative material in the area of energy storage.

  10. Water content of aged aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Engelhart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008. A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during most of the measurement campaign, which likely contributed to the water uptake at low RH. The water content observations were compared to the thermodynamic model E-AIM, neglecting any contribution of the organics to aerosol water content. There was good agreement between the water measurements and the model predictions. Adding the small amount of water associated with the organic aerosol based on monoterpene water absorption did not change the quality of the agreement. These results strongly suggest that the water uptake by aged organic aerosol is relatively small (a few percent of the total water for the conditions during FAME-08 and generally consistent with what has been observed in laboratory experiments. The water concentration measured by a Q-AMS was well correlated with the DAASS measurements and in good agreement with the predicted values for the RH of the Q-AMS inlet. This suggests that, at least for the conditions of the study, the Q-AMS can provide valuable information about the aerosol water concentrations if the sample is not dried.

  11. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  12. Structural interactions between lipids, water and S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Gawrisch, Klaus; Swartz, Kenton J

    2012-11-02

    Membrane proteins serve crucial signaling and transport functions, yet relatively little is known about their structures in membrane environments or how lipids interact with these proteins. For voltage-activated ion channels, X-ray structures suggest that the mobile voltage-sensing S4 helix would be exposed to the membrane, and functional studies reveal that lipid modification can profoundly alter channel activity. Here, we use solid-state NMR to investigate structural interactions of lipids and water with S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains and to explore whether lipids influence the structure of the protein. Our results demonstrate that S1-S4 domains exhibit extensive interactions with lipids and that these domains are heavily hydrated when embedded in a membrane. We also find evidence for preferential interactions of anionic lipids with S1-S4 domains and that these interactions have lifetimes on the timescale of ≤ 10(-3)s. Arg residues within S1-S4 domains are well hydrated and are positioned in close proximity to lipids, exhibiting local interactions with both lipid headgroups and acyl chains. Comparative studies with a positively charged lipid lacking a phosphodiester group reveal that this lipid modification has only modest effects on the structure and hydration of S1-S4 domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Arg residues in S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains reside in close proximity to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane yet are well hydrated, a requirement for carrying charge and driving protein motions in response to changes in membrane voltage. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Aerosol sampler for analysis of fine and ultrafine aerosols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel; Čapka, Lukáš; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1020 (2018), s. 123-133 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25558S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : atmospheric aerosols * aerosol collection * chemical composition Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  14. Aerosol effects in radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binenko, V.I.; Harshvardhan, H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative properties and effects of aerosols are assessed for the following aerosol sources: relatively clean background aerosol, dust storms and dust outbreaks, anthropogenic pollution, and polluted cloud layers. Studies show it is the submicron aerosol fraction that plays a dominant radiative role in the atmosphere. The radiative effect of the aerosol depends not only on its loading but also on the underlying surface albedo and on solar zenith angle. It is only with highly reflecting surfaces such as Arctic ice that aerosols have a warming effect. Radiometric, microphysical, mineral composition, and refractive index measurements are presented for dust and in particular for the Saharan aerosol layer (SAL). Short-wave radiative heating of the atmosphere is caused by the SAL and is due mainly to absorption. However, the SAL does not contribute significantly to the long-wave thermal radiation budget. Field program studies of the radiative effects of aerosols are described. Anthropogenic aerosols deplete the incoming solar radiation. A case field study for a regional Ukrainian center is discussed. The urban aerosol causes a cooling of metropolitan centers, compared with outlying areas, during the day, which is followed by a warming trend at night. In another study, an increase in turbidity by a factor of 3 due to increased industrialization for Mexico City is noted, together with a drop in atmospheric transmission by 10% over a 50-year period. Numerous studies are cited that demonstrate that anthropogenic aerosols affect both the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds, which in turn affect regional climate. Particles acting as cloud nuclei are considered to have the greatest indirect effect on cloud absorptivity of short-wave radiation. Satellite observations show that low-level stratus clouds contaminated by ship exhaust at sea lead to an increase in cloud albedo

  15. Invariant differential operators and characters of the AdS4 algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V K

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply systematically to AdS 4 some modern tools in the representation theory of Lie algebras which are easily generalized to the supersymmetric and quantum group settings and necessary for applications to string theory and integrable models. Here we introduce the necessary representations of the AdS 4 algebra and group. We give explicitly all singular (null) vectors of the reducible AdS 4 Verma modules. These are used to obtain the AdS 4 invariant differential operators. Using this we display a new structure-a diagram involving four partially equivalent reducible representations one of which contains all finite-dimensional irreps of the AdS 4 algebra. We study in more detail the cases involving UIRs, in particular, the Di and the Rac singletons, and the massless UIRs. In the massless case, we discover the structure of sets of 2s 0 - 1 conserved currents for each spin s 0 UIR, s 0 = 1, 3/2,.... All massless cases are contained in a one-parameter subfamily of the quartet diagrams mentioned above, the parameter being the spin s 0 . Further we give the classification of the so(5,C) irreps presented in a diagrammatic way which makes easy the derivation of all character formulae. The paper concludes with a speculation on the possible applications of the character formulae to integrable models

  16. Sodium aerosols and vapour trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien-Dolias, M.; Pradel, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of the parameters influencing aerosols behaviour in argon cover gas, production and evolution. A comparison is given between experimental results obtained on large pools and theoretical calculations obtained with the code ''Aerosols A2'' in the field of separation in a pipe and deposit on cold surfaces

  17. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  18. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Hayes, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples show that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  19. AEROSOL VARIABILITY OBSERVED WITH RPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Altstädter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To observe the origin, vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of aerosol particles, and especially ultrafine particles recently formed, we plan to employ the remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS Carolo-P360 "ALADINA" of TU Braunschweig. The goal of the presented project is to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution, transport and small-scale variability of aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer using RPAS. Two additional RPAS of type MASC of Tübingen University equipped with turbulence instrumentation add the opportunity to study the interaction of the aerosol concentration with turbulent transport and exchange processes of the surface and the atmosphere. The combination of different flight patterns of the three RPAS allows new insights in atmospheric boundary layer processes. Currently, the different aerosol sensors are miniaturized at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig and together with the TU Braunschweig adapted to fit into the RPAS. Moreover, an additional meteorological payload for measuring temperature, humidity and turbulence properties is constructed by Tübingen University. Two condensation particle counters determine the total aerosol number with a different lower detection threshold in order to investigate the horizontal and vertical aerosol variability and new particle formation (aerosol particles of some nm diameter. Further the aerosol size distribution in the range from about 0.300 to ~5 μm is given by an optical particle counter.

  20. Aerosol science: theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold. First, it is intended to give a thorough treatment of the fundamentals of aerosol behavior with rigorous proofs and detailed derivations of the basic equations and removal mechanisms. Second, it is intended to provide practical examples with special attention to radioactive particles and their distribution in size following a radioactive release arising from an accident with a nuclear system. We start with a brief introduction to the applications of aerosol science and the characteristics of aerosols in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we devote considerable attention to single and two particle motion with respect to both translation and rotation. Chapter 3 contains extensive discussion of the aerosol general dynamical equation and the dependences of aerosol distributions on size, shape, space, composition, radioactivity, and charge. Important particle rate processes of coagulation, condensation, and deposition/resuspension are discussed in the chapters 4, 6 and 7, respectively. In Chapter 5, we provide a thorough treatment of the analytical and numerical methods used in solving the various forms of the aerosol dynamical equation. We discuss the importance and applications of aerosol science to nuclear technology and, in particular, the nuclear source term in Chapter 8. Our focus in this chapter is on discussions of nuclear accidents that can potentially release large amount of radioactivity to environment. We also discuss the progress that has been made in understanding the natural and engineered aerosol processes that limit or affect such releases. (author)

  1. Optical diagnostics of lead and PbGa2S4 layered crystal laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuaibov, A.K.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the optic diagnostics of plasma of laser flames formed from lead surface and PbGa 2 S 4 laminar crystal using a neodymium laser. It is shown that the most intensive lines in the lead laser plasma are as follows: 405.7, 368.3, 364.0 nm PbI and 220.4 nm PbII while for the laminar crystal base plasma - the combination of the most intensive lines of PbI and GaI emission. One determined the narrow point of recombination fluxes for the ion and the atomic components of laser plasma of lead and of PbGa 2 S 4 crystal. One conducted comparison study of emission dynamics of PbI and GaI lines in laser plasma of the respective metals and of PbGa 2 S 4 crystal [ru

  2. Relaxation of magnetization in spinel CuCrZrS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masakazu; Furuta, Tatsuya; Terada, Norio; Ebisu, Shuji; Nagata, Shoichi

    2012-01-01

    We studied time t dependence of magnetization M(t) of thiospinel CuCrZrS 4 which has a spin-glass freezing. The relaxation of M is observed below T f ≃6K and shows a logarithmic time dependence. This means that a relaxation time τ of CuCrZrS 4 is distributed in a wide time range. Randomness of an arrangement of the Cr and Zr ions in CuCrZrS 4 probably gives rise to a distribution of τ. Temperature T dependence of magnetic viscosity β(T) is understood by a conventional after-effect model with a box-type distribution function of τ.

  3. Aerosol-foam interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, M.H.E.; Luscombe, C.DeM.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1990-03-01

    Foam treatment offers the potential to clean gas streams containing radioactive particles. A large decontamination factor has been claimed for the removal of airborne plutonium dust when spraying a commercially available foam on the walls and horizontal surfaces of an alpha-active room. Experiments have been designed and undertaken to reproduce these conditions with a non-radioactive simulant aerosol. Careful measurements of aerosol concentrations with and without foam treatment failed to provide convincing evidence to support the earlier observation. The foam may not have been as well mixed with the aerosol in the present studies. Further work is required to explore more efficient mixing methods, including systems in which the aerosol steam is passed through the foam, rather than merely spraying foam into the path of the aerosol. (author)

  4. Proceedings of the 1998 Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coverstone, Amy

    1999-01-01

    ...: Aerosol Particle Generation and Dynamics, Aerosol Characterization Methods-Aerosol Samplers and Collectors, Preparing, Aerosolizing and Characterizing Erwinia Herbicola, and Optical Properties of Aerosols...

  5. Exact Results for 't Hooft Loops in Gauge Theories on S^4

    CERN Document Server

    Gomis, Jaume; Pestun, Vasily

    2012-01-01

    The path integral of a general N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory on S^4 is exactly evaluated in the presence of a supersymmetric 't Hooft loop operator. The result we find - obtained using localization techniques - captures all perturbative quantum corrections as well as non-perturbative effects due to instantons and monopoles, which are supported at the north pole, south pole and equator of S^4. As a by-product, our gauge theory calculations successfully confirm the predictions made for 't Hooft loops obtained from the calculation of topological defect correlators in Liouville/Toda conformal field theory.

  6. Pressure-induced metal-insulator transition in spinel compound CuV2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, H.; Koyama, K.; Hedo, M.; Uwatoko, Y.; Watanabe, K.

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the pressure effect on electrical properties of CuV 2 S 4 , we performed the electrical resistivity measurements under high pressures up to 8 GPa for a high-quality polycrystalline sample. The charge density wave (CDW) transition temperatures increase with increasing pressure. The residual resistivity rapidly increases with increasing pressure over 4 GPa, and the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity at 8 GPa exhibits a semiconducting behavior below about 150 K, indicating that a pressure-induced metal-insulator transition occurs in CuV 2 S 4 at 8 GPa

  7. NiCo2S4 nanorod embedded rGO sheets as electrodes for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Aatreyee; Bera, Supriya; Chakraborty, Amit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    We report the synthesis of a hybrid nanostructure based on NiCo2S4 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) following a facile hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microscopy (FESEM and HRTEM) analyses showed rod-like NiCo2S4 nanostructures embedded in rGO sheets. The electrochemical analysis of the synthesized nanohybrid using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD) revealed specific capacitance of 410 F/gm indicating its suitability as a good electrode material for supercapacitor.

  8. The space of harmonic maps of S2 into S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.

    1989-05-01

    Every branched superminimal surface of area 4πd in S 4 is shown to arise from a pair of meromorphic functions (f 1 ,f 2 ) of bidegree (d,d) such that f 1 and f 2 have the same ramification divisor. Conditions under which branched superminimal surfaces can be generated from such pairs of functions are derived. For each d ≥ 1 the space of harmonic maps (i.e branched superminimal immersions) of S 2 into S 4 of harmonic degree d is shown to be a connected space of complex dimension 2d+4. (author). 18 refs

  9. Flavor S4xZ2 symmetry and neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang He

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of the lepton masses and flavor mixing based on the discrete group S 4 xZ 2 . In this model, all the charged leptons and neutrinos are assigned to the 3 - b arα representation of S 4 in the Yamanouchi bases. The charged lepton and neutrino masses are mainly determined by the vacuum expectation value structures of the Higgs fields. A nearly tri-bimaximal lepton flavor mixing pattern, which is in agreement with the current experimental results, can be accommodated in our model. The neutrino mass spectrum takes the nearly degenerate pattern, and thus can be well tested in the future precise experiments

  10. Ultra-thin Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Crovetto, Andrea; Yan, Chang

    2017-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a 5.2% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) featuring an ultra-thin absorber layer (less than 450 nm). Solutions to the issues of reproducibility and micro-particulate ejection often encountered with PLD are proposed. At the ......We report on the fabrication of a 5.2% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) featuring an ultra-thin absorber layer (less than 450 nm). Solutions to the issues of reproducibility and micro-particulate ejection often encountered with PLD are proposed...

  11. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2014-09-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  12. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, V. Faye; Ariya, Parisa A.; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC

    2014-01-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  13. DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya

    The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.

  14. The Cynomolgus Macaque Natural History Model of Pneumonic Tularemia for Predicting Clinical Efficacy Under the Animal Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Tina; Lanning, Lynda L.; Omland, Kristian S.; Williams, Mark S.; Wolfraim, Larry A.; Heyse, Stephen P.; Houchens, Christopher R.; Sanz, Patrick; Hewitt, Judith A.

    2018-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative bacterium that is the etiologic agent of tularemia in animals and humans and a Tier 1 select agent. The natural incidence of pneumonic tularemia worldwide is very low; therefore, it is not feasible to conduct clinical efficacy testing of tularemia medical countermeasures (MCM) in human populations. Development and licensure of tularemia therapeutics and vaccines need to occur under the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule under which efficacy studies are conducted in well-characterized animal models that reflect the pathophysiology of human disease. The Tularemia Animal Model Qualification (AMQ) Working Group is seeking qualification of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of pneumonic tularemia under Drug Development Tools Qualification Programs with the FDA based upon the results of studies described in this manuscript. Analysis of data on survival, average time to death, average time to fever onset, average interval between fever and death, and bacteremia; together with summaries of clinical signs, necropsy findings, and histopathology from the animals exposed to aerosolized F. tularensis Schu S4 in five natural history studies and one antibiotic efficacy study form the basis for the proposed cynomolgus macaque model. Results support the conclusion that signs of pneumonic tularemia in cynomolgus macaques exposed to 300–3,000 colony forming units (cfu) aerosolized F. tularensis Schu S4, under the conditions described herein, and human pneumonic tularemia cases are highly similar. Animal age, weight, and sex of animals challenged with 300–3,000 cfu Schu S4 did not impact fever onset in studies described herein. This study summarizes critical parameters and endpoints of a well-characterized cynomolgus macaque model of pneumonic tularemia and demonstrates this model is appropriate for qualification, and for testing efficacy of tularemia therapeutics under Animal Rule. PMID

  15. Arachidonic acid production by the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kikukawa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4 is capable of accumulating a large amount of triacylglycerol containing C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Indeed, triacylglycerol production by M. alpina 1S-4 can reach 20 g/L of culture broth, and the critical cellular signaling and structural PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA comprises 30%–70% of the total fatty acid. The demonstrated health benefits of functional PUFAs have in turn encouraged the search for rich sources of these compounds, including fungal strains showing enhanced production of specific PUFAs. Screening for mutants and targeted gene manipulation of M. alpina 1S-4 have elucidated the functions of various enzymes involved in PUFA biosynthesis and established lines with improved PUFA productivity. In some cases, these strains have been used for indistrial-scale production of PUFAs, including ARA. In this review, we described practical ARA production through mutant breeding, functional analyses of genes encoding enzymes involved in PUFA biosynthesis, and recent advances in the production of specific PUFAs through molecular breeding of M. alpina 1S-4. Keywords: Arachidonic acid, Mortierella alpina, Molecular breeding, Fatty acid desaturase

  16. High-Purity Fe3S4 Greigite Microcrystals for Magnetic and Electrochemical Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Guowei; Zhang, Baomin; Yu, Feng; Novakova, Alla A.; Krivenkov, Maxim S.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Y.; Chang, Liao; Rao, Jiancun; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Blake, Graeme R.; de Groot, Robert A.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2014-01-01

    High-purity Fe3S4 (greigite) microcrystals with octahedral shape were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method using a surfactant. The as-prepared samples have the inverse spinel structure with high crystallinity. The saturation magnetization (M-s) reaches 3.74 mu(B) at 5 K and 3.51 mu(B) at

  17. Integrable systems from membranes on AdS4 x S7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhilov, P.

    2008-01-01

    We describe how Neumann and Neumann-Rosochatius type integrable systems, as well as the continuous limit of the SU(2) integrable spin chain, can be obtained from membranes on AdS 4 x S 7 background, in the framework of AdS/CFT correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Superstrings on AdS4xCP3 from supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, Riccardo; Trigiante, Mario; Fre, Pietro; Grassi, Pietro Antonio

    2009-01-01

    We derive from a general formulation of pure spinor string theory on type IIA backgrounds the specific form of the action for the AdS 4 xCP 3 background. We provide a complete geometrical characterization of the structure of the superfields involved in the action.

  19. Hydrogen Evolution on Supported Incomplete Cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaramillo, Thomas; Bonde, Jacob Lindner; Zhang, Jingdong

    2008-01-01

    Electrocatalytic properties of biomimetic supported incomplete cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) clusters are investigated. The activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is evaluated on both a high surface area gas diffusion electrode in a membrane electrode assembly and on highly orientated...

  20. Computational studies of modified [Fe3S4] clusters: Why iron is optimal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2008-01-01

    , compared to earlier used standard procedures. The error for average Fe–S bonds decreased from 0.038 Å to 0.016 Å with this procedure. Four density functionals were compared, B3LYP, BP86, TPSS, and TPSSh. B3LYP and to a lesser extent TPSSh energies were inconsistent with experiment for the oxidized [Fe3S4...

  1. Magnetic charges in the AdS(4) superalgebra osp(4 vertical bar 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibitetto, Giuseppe; Klemm, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the issue of how to include magnetic charges in the AdS(4) superalgebra osp(4 vertical bar 2). It is shown that the usual way of introducing a pseudoscalar central charge on the right hand side of the basic anticommutator does not work, because this breaks SO(2, 3) covariance. We propose

  2. Investigating the role of (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline in elastin model peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochicchio, Brigida; Laurita, Alessandro; Heinz, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications play a key role in defining the biological functions of proteins. Among them, the hydroxylation of proline producing the (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) is one of the most frequent modifications observed in vertebrates, being particularly abundant in the proteins o...

  3. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  4. Research on aerosol formation, aerosol behaviour, aerosol filtration, aerosol measurement techniques and sodium fires at the Laboratory for Aerosol Physics and Filter Technology at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S; Schikarski, W; Schoeck, W [Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1977-01-01

    The behaviour of aerosols in LMFBR plant systems is of great importance for a number of problems, both normal operational and accident kind. This paper covers the following: aerosol modelling for LMFBR containment systems; aerosol size spectrometry by laser light scattering; experimental facilities and experimental results concerned with aerosol release under accident conditions; filtration of sodium oxide aerosols by multilayer sand bed filters.

  5. Research on aerosol formation, aerosol behaviour, aerosol filtration, aerosol measurement techniques and sodium fires at the Laboratory for Aerosol Physics and Filter Technology at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.; Schikarski, W.; Schoeck, W.

    1977-01-01

    The behaviour of aerosols in LMFBR plant systems is of great importance for a number of problems, both normal operational and accident kind. This paper covers the following: aerosol modelling for LMFBR containment systems; aerosol size spectrometry by laser light scattering; experimental facilities and experimental results concerned with aerosol release under accident conditions; filtration of sodium oxide aerosols by multilayer sand bed filters

  6. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Young, S.E.; Becker, C.H.; Coggiola, M.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  7. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z; Young, S E; Becker, C H; Coggiola, M J [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured Fe3S4, an isostructural compound of half-metallic Fe3O4

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng; Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Qiang; Guo, Zaibing; Cui, Wenyao; Bai, Haili; Alshareef, Husam N.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2015-01-01

    High-purity, well-crystallized spinel Fe3S4 nanoplatelets were synthesized by the hydrothermal method, and the saturation magnetic moment of Fe3S4 was measured at 1.83 μB/f.u. The temperature-dependent resistivity of Fe3S4 was metallic

  9. Aerosol Climate Time Series Evaluation In ESA Aerosol_cci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Pinnock, S.

    2015-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. By the end of 2015 full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which are also validated. The paper will summarize and discuss the results of major reprocessing and validation conducted in 2015. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family will be described and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products

  10. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  11. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robock, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming

  12. Aerosol Size Distributions In Auckland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coulson, G.; Olivares, G.; Talbot, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 23-28 E-ISSN 1836-5876 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosol size distribution * particle number concentration * roadside Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Aerosol Inlet Characterization Experiment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Robert L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kuang, Chongai [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Uin, Janek [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observation System inlet stack was characterized for particle penetration efficiency from 10 nm to 20 μm in diameter using duplicate scanning mobility particle sizers (10 nm-450 nm), ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometers (60 nm-μm), and aerodynamic particle sizers (0.5 μm-20 μm). Results show good model-measurement agreement and unit transmission efficiency of aerosols from 10 nm to 4 μm in diameter. Large uncertainties in the measured transmission efficiency exist above 4 μm due to low ambient aerosol signal in that size range.

  14. Acoustic anisotropy of acoustooptic TI(3)AsS(4) crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynyuk-Lototska, Iryna; Kushnirevych, Marian; Zapeka, Bohdan; Krupych, Oleh; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Pogodin, Artem; Peresh, Eugen; Mys, Oksana; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2015-02-20

    We present comprehensive experimental measurements and analysis of anisotropy of the acoustic wave velocities for TI(3)AsS(4) crystals, including the obliquity and nonorthogonality of the acoustic waves, and the deviations from purely longitudinal and transverse polarization types. We have found that the crystals under analysis are characterized by rather low transverse wave velocities v(23) and v(32), which are both equal to 630 m/s. It is shown that the efficiency of acoustooptic (AO) interactions in TI(3)AsS(4) can be notably increased when providing anisotropic interaction with the slowest transverse acoustic wave. Under the previously mentioned conditions, the AO figure-of-merit can be estimated to be extremely high, i.e., approximately 3×10(-12) s(3)/kg.

  15. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of Cu2ZnSnS4 bulk poly-crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levcenko, S.; Hajdeu-Chicarosh, E.; Garcia-Llamas, E.; Caballero, R.; Serna, R.; Bodnar, I. V.; Victorov, I. A.; Guc, M.; Merino, J. M.; Pérez-Rodriguez, A.; Arushanov, E.; León, M.

    2018-04-01

    The linear optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 bulk poly-crystals have been investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range of 1.2-4.6 eV at room temperature. The characteristic features identified in the optical spectra are explained by using the Adachi analytical model for the interband transitions at the corresponding critical points in the Brillouin zone. The experimental data have been modeled over the entire spectral range taking into account the lowest E0 transition near the fundamental absorption edge and E1A and E1B higher energy interband transitions. In addition, the spectral dependences of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and normal-incidence reflectivity values have been accurately determined and are provided since they are essential data for the design of Cu2ZnSnS4 based optoelectronic devices.

  16. Supersymmetric black holes in AdS4 from very special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnecchi, Alessandra; Halmagyi, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes in AdS spacetime are inherently interesting for the AdS/CFT correspondence. Within a four dimensional gauged supergravity theory coupled to vector multiplets, the only analytic solutions for regular, supersymmetric, static black holes in AdS 4 are those in the STU-model due to Cacciatori and Klemm. We study a class of U(1)-gauged supergravity theories coupled to vector multiplets which have a cubic prepotential, the scalar manifold is then a very special Kähler manifold. When the resulting very special Kähler manifold is a homogeneous space, we find analytic solutions for static, supersymmetric AdS 4 black holes with vanishing axions. The horizon geometries of our solutions are constant curvature Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus

  17. New antiferromagnetic semiconductor CuCr1.5Sb0.5S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Ya.A.; Koroleva, L.I.; Mikheev, M.G.; Odintsov, A.G.; Filimonov, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    New halcogenide compound with spinel-antiferromagnetic semiconductor CuCr 1.5 Sb 0.5 S 4 are obtained and studied for the first time. Magnetic properties of this compound, namely, magnetization linear dependence, maximum on PHI(T) curve in the low-temperature area and realization of the Curie-Weis law for paramagnetic susceptibility with negative paramagnetic temperature testiby to the fact that this compound is antiferromagnetic

  18. Copper interactions in TlCu7S4 and TlCu7Se4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noren, L.; Delaplane, R.G.; Berger, R.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The copper chalcogenides ACu 7 S 4 (A=NH 4 + , Tl + , Rb + ) are quasi-one-dimensional metals at ambient and higher temperatures which is due to the high mobility of copper in these structures. TlCu 7 S 4 and TlCu 7 Se 4 are isostructural compounds, space group I4/m, which can be described on the basis of a TlX 8 cube with two different Cu sites, Cu(1) and Cu(2). Cu(2)-Cu(2) zigzag chains run along the c axis with only 3/4 occupation of the Cu(2) sites. However, these two compounds differ in behaviour on cooling. The sulphide shows a polymorphic first-order transition to the CsAg 7 S 4 type (P4/n) owing to ordering of the vacancies in the Cu(2)-Cu(2) chains. In order to study the nature of the Cu(2) order/disorder in the two title compounds, a series of neutron diffraction measurements (both Bragg and diffuse scattering) were made at several temperatures from 40 to 713 K on the instrument SLAD at Studsvik. The structure at each temperature was modelled using RMC techniques. The resulting configuration show that as the temperature increases, there is a marked increase in the mobility of the Cu atoms in the Cu(2)-Cu(2) chains for TlCu 7 S 4 but not for TlCu 7 Se 4 . This is due to the initial difference in the Cu(2)-Cu(2) distances, only 2.2A for the thiocuprate, but 2.7A in the selenocuprate which explains the relative ease for Cu(2) ordering in the latter case. (author)

  19. Exact microstate counting for dyonic black holes in AdS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Francesco; Hristov, Kiril; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    We present a counting of microstates of a class of dyonic BPS black holes in AdS4 which precisely reproduces their Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. The counting is performed in the dual boundary description, that provides a non-perturbative definition of quantum gravity, in terms of a twisted and mass-deformed ABJM theory. We evaluate its twisted index and propose an extremization principle to extract the entropy, which reproduces the attractor mechanism in gauged supergravity.

  20. Exact microstate counting for dyonic black holes in AdS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Benini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a counting of microstates of a class of dyonic BPS black holes in AdS4 which precisely reproduces their Bekenstein–Hawking entropy. The counting is performed in the dual boundary description, that provides a non-perturbative definition of quantum gravity, in terms of a twisted and mass-deformed ABJM theory. We evaluate its twisted index and propose an extremization principle to extract the entropy, which reproduces the attractor mechanism in gauged supergravity.

  1. 211At-Rh(16-S4-diol) complex as a precursor for astatine radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruszynski, M.; Bilewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    211 At is one of the most promising radionuclides in α-radioimmunotherapy (α-RIT). Unfortunately, biomolecules labeled by direct electrophilic astatination are unstable due to the rapid loss of 211 At under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The present paper describes the results of our studies on attaching At - to the rhodium(III) complex with thioether ligand: 1,5,9,13-etrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16-S4-diol). Rh 3+ was chosen as a moderately soft metal cation which should form very strong bonds with soft At - anions, but first of all because of the kinetic inertness of low spin rhodium(III) d 6 complexes. The 16-S4-diol ligand was selected due to formation of stable complexes with Rh 3+ . The experiments related to optimization of the reaction conditions were performed with the 131 I, basing on a chemical similarity of I - to At - . The experiments with 211 At were then carried out under the conditions found optimal for I - . The preliminary results are promising, and indicate a possibility for astatination of biomolecules by using the 211 At-Rh(16-S4-diol) complex

  2. Optical diagnostics of lead and PbGa2S4 layered crystal laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuaibov, A.K.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Laser plasmas produced at the surfaces of lead and a PbGa 2 S 4 layered crystal irradiated by a neodymium laser with λ = 1.06 μm, pulse duration τ = 20 ns, and intensity W = (1-2) x 10 9 W/cm 2 are studied using optical diagnostics. It is shown that, in a lead plasma, the most intense (characteristic) lines are the PbI 405.7-nm, PbI 368.3-nm, PbI 364-nm, and PbII 220.4-nm lines. In a layered crystal plasma, the emission spectrum is an aggregation of the most intense PbI and GaI lines, whereas sulfur lines are absent. The bottlenecks of the recombination of the ionic and atomic components of the lead and PbGa 2 S 4 crystal plasmas are determined. The average propagation velocity of the lead laser plume is 18-20 km/s. A comparative analysis of the emission dynamics of PbI and GaI lines in the laser plasmas of these metals and in the plasma of a PbGa 2 S 4 crystal is carried out. The results obtained are important for the optical diagnostics of the plasmas of lead- and gallium-containing crystals and for the optimization of laser deposition of the thin films of these substances

  3. Unraveling the electrolyte properties of Na3SbS4 through computation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Larry E.; Hood, Zachary D.; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Solid-state sodium electrolytes are expected to improve next-generation batteries on the basis of favorable energy density and reduced cost. Na3SbS4 represents a new solid-state ion conductor with high ionic conductivities in the mS/cm range. Here, we explore the tetragonal phase of Na3SbS4 and its interface with metallic sodium anode using a combination of experiments and first-principles calculations. The computed Na-ion vacancy migration energies of 0.1 eV are smaller than the value inferred from experiment, suggesting that grain boundaries or other factors dominate the experimental systems. Analysis of symmetric cells of the electrolyte—Na/Na 3SbS4/Na —show that a conductive solid electrolyte interphase forms. Computer simulations infer that the interface is likely to be related to Na3SbS3 , involving the conversion of the tetrahedral SbS43 - ions of the bulk electrolyte into trigonal pyramidal SbS33 - ions at the interface.

  4. Deviation from bimaximal mixing and leptonic CP phases in S4 family symmetry and generalized CP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The lepton flavor mixing matrix having one row or one column in common with the bimaximal mixing up to permutations is still compatible with the present neutrino oscillation data. We provide a thorough exploration of generating such a mixing matrix from S 4 family symmetry and generalized CP symmetry H CP . Supposing that S 4 ⋊H CP is broken down to Z 2 ST 2 SU ×H CP ν in the neutrino sector and Z 4 TST 2 U ⋊H CP l in the charged lepton sector, one column of the PMNS matrix would be of the form (1/2,1/√2,1/2) T up to permutations, both Dirac CP phase and Majorana CP phases are trivial to accommodate the observed lepton mixing angles. The phenomenological implications of the remnant symmetry K 4 (TST 2 ,T 2 U) ×H CP ν in the neutrino sector and Z 2 SU ×H CP l in the charged lepton sector are studied. One row of PMNS matrix is determined to be (1/2,1/2,−i/√2), and all the three leptonic CP phases can only be trivial to fit the measured values of the mixing angles. Two models based on S 4 family symmetry and generalized CP are constructed to implement these model independent predictions enforced by remnant symmetry. The correct mass hierarchy among the charged leptons is achieved. The vacuum alignment and higher order corrections are discussed.

  5. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlson, R J; Schwartz, S E; Hales, J M; Cess, R D; Coakley, Jr, J A; Hansen, J E; Hofmann, D J [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA). Inst. for Environmental Studies, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square metre, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes. 73 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  7. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, R J; Schwartz, S E; Hales, J M; Cess, R D; Coakley, J A; Hansen, J E; Hofmann, D J

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of shortwavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  8. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  9. Aerosol generation and delivery in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, P.S.; Raghunath, B.

    1998-01-01

    It is well established that radioaerosol lung technique by inhalation is a very versatile technique in the evaluation of health effects and medical diagnostic applications, especially to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, their defence mechanism permeability and many others. Most important part of aerosol technology is to generate reproducibly stable diagnostic radioaerosols of known characteristics. Many compressed air atomisers are commercially available for generating aerosols but they have limited utility in aerosol inhalation, either because of large droplet size, low aerosol output or high airflow rates. There is clearly a need for a versatile and economical aerosol generation/inhalation system that can produce dry labelled aerosol particles with high deep lung delivery efficiency suitable for clinical studies. BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) has developed a dry aerosol generation/delivery system which operates on compressed air and generates dry polydisperse aerosols. This system is described along with an assessment of the aerosol characteristics and efficiency for diagnosis of various respiratory disorders

  10. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2016-03-03

    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can be precisely controlled. The stagnation interface can be generated, for example, by the opposed flow of the hot stream and the cold stream. The aerosol generator and the aerosol generation methods are capable of producing aerosols with precise particle sizes and a narrow size distribution. The properties of the aerosol can be controlled by controlling one or more of the stream temperatures, the saturation level of the hot stream, and the flow times of the streams.

  11. Electronic, Magnetic, and Redox Properties of [MFe(3)S(4)] Clusters (M = Cd, Cu, Cr) in Pyrococcus furiosus Ferredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Christopher R.; Dhawan, Ish K.; Finnegan, Michael G.; Dwinell, Derek A.; Zhou, Zhi Hao; Huang, Heshu; Verhagen, Marc F. J. M.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Johnson, Michael K.

    1997-12-03

    The ground- and excited-state properties of heterometallic [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), and [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) cubane clusters assembled in Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin have been investigated by the combination of EPR and variable-temperature/variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies. The results indicate Cd(2+) incorporation into [Fe(3)S(4)](0,-) cluster fragments to yield S = 2 [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+) and S = (5)/(2) [CdFe(3)S(4)](+) clusters and Cu(+) incorporation into [Fe(3)S(4)](+,0) cluster fragments to yield S = (1)/(2) [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+) and S = 2 [CuFe(3)S(4)](+) clusters. This is the first report of the preparation of cubane type [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) clusters, and the combination of EPR and MCD results indicates S = 0 and S = (3)/(2) ground states for the oxidized and reduced forms, respectively. Midpoint potentials for the [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), and [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) couples, E(m) = -470 +/- 15, -440 +/- 10, and +190 +/- 10 mV (vs NHE), respectively, were determined by EPR-monitored redox titrations or direct electrochemistry at a glassy carbon electrode. The trends in redox potential, ground-state spin, and electron delocalization of [MFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) clusters in P. furiosus ferredoxin are discussed as a function of heterometal (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Tl).

  12. Seasonal Drought Forecasting for Latin America Using the ECMWF S4 Forecast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Carrão

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Meaningful seasonal prediction of drought conditions is key information for end-users and water managers, particularly in Latin America where crop and livestock production are key for many regional economies. However, there are still not many studies of the feasibility of such a forecasts at continental level in the region. In this study, precipitation predictions from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather (ECMWF seasonal forecast system S4 are combined with observed precipitation data to generate forecasts of the standardized precipitation index (SPI for Latin America, and their skill is evaluated over the hindcast period 1981–2010. The value-added utility in using the ensemble S4 forecast to predict the SPI is identified by comparing the skill of its forecasts with a baseline skill based solely on their climatological characteristics. As expected, skill of the S4-generated SPI forecasts depends on the season, location, and the specific aggregation period considered (the 3- and 6-month SPI were evaluated. Added skill from the S4 for lead times equaling the SPI accumulation periods is primarily present in regions with high intra-annual precipitation variability, and is found mostly for the months at the end of the dry seasons for 3-month SPI, and half-yearly periods for 6-month SPI. The ECMWF forecast system behaves better than the climatology for clustered grid points in the North of South America, the Northeast of Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil and Mexico. The skillful regions are similar for the SPI3 and -6, but become reduced in extent for the severest SPI categories. Forecasting different magnitudes of meteorological drought intensity on a seasonal time scale still remains a challenge. However, the ECMWF S4 forecasting system does capture the occurrence of drought events for the aforementioned regions and seasons reasonably well. In the near term, the largest advances in the prediction of meteorological drought for Latin

  13. How important is organic aerosol hygroscopicity to aerosol indirect forcing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohong; Wang Jian

    2010-01-01

    Organics are among the most abundant aerosol components in the atmosphere. However, there are still large uncertainties with emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (precursor gases of secondary organic aerosol, SOA), formation of SOA, and chemical and physical properties (e.g., hygroscopicity) of POA and SOA. All these may have significant impacts on aerosol direct and indirect forcing estimated from global models. In this study a modal aerosol module (MAM) in the NCAR community atmospheric model (CAM) is used to examine sensitivities of aerosol indirect forcing to hygroscopicity (represented by a single parameter 'κ' ) of POA and SOA. Our model simulation indicates that in the present-day (PD) condition changing the 'κ' value of POA from 0 to 0.1 increases the number concentration of cloud condensational nuclei (CCN) at supersaturation S = 0.1% by 40-80% over the POA source regions, while changing the 'κ' value of SOA by ± 50% (from 0.14 to 0.07 and 0.21) changes the CCN concentration within 40%. There are disproportionally larger changes in CCN concentration in the pre-industrial (PI) condition. Due to the stronger impact of organics hygroscopicity on CCN and cloud droplet number concentration at PI condition, global annual mean anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) between PD and PI conditions reduces with the increase of the hygroscopicity of organics. Global annual mean AIF varies by 0.4 W m -2 in the sensitivity runs with the control run of - 1.3 W m -2 , highlighting the need for improved understanding of organics hygroscopicity and its representation in global models.

  14. S1 constrains S4 in the voltage sensor domain of Kv7.1 K+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Haitin

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated K(+ channels comprise a central pore enclosed by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs. While movement of the S4 helix is known to couple to channel gate opening and closing, the nature of S4 motion is unclear. Here, we substituted S4 residues of Kv7.1 channels by cysteine and recorded whole-cell mutant channel currents in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. In the closed state, disulfide and metal bridges constrain residue S225 (S4 nearby C136 (S1 within the same VSD. In the open state, two neighboring I227 (S4 are constrained at proximity while residue R228 (S4 is confined close to C136 (S1 of an adjacent VSD. Structural modeling predicts that in the closed to open transition, an axial rotation (approximately 190 degrees and outward translation of S4 (approximately 12 A is accompanied by VSD rocking. This large sensor motion changes the intra-VSD S1-S4 interaction to an inter-VSD S1-S4 interaction. These constraints provide a ground for cooperative subunit interactions and suggest a key role of the S1 segment in steering S4 motion during Kv7.1 gating.

  15. Aerosol processing for nanomanufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girshick, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in nanoparticle synthesis are opening new opportunities for a broad variety of technologies that exploit the special properties of matter at the nanoscale. To realize this potential will require the development of new technologies for processing nanoparticles, so as to utilize them in a manufacturing context. Two important classes of such processing technologies include the controlled deposition of nanoparticles onto surfaces, and the application of chemically specific coatings onto individual nanoparticles, so as to either passivate or functionalize their surfaces. This paper provides an overview of three technologies related to these objectives, with an emphasis on aerosol-based methods: first, the deposition of nanoparticles by hypersonic impaction, so as so spray-coat large areas with nanoparticles; second, the use of aerodynamic lenses to produce focused beams of nanoparticles, with beam widths of a few tens of microns, so as to integrate nanoparticle-based structures into microelectromechanical systems; and third, the coating of individual nanoparticles by means of photoinduced chemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD), driven by excimer lamps. We also discuss the combination of these technologies, so that nanoparticle synthesis, together with multiple processing steps, can be accomplished in a single flow stream.

  16. Global simulations of aerosol processing in clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoose

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An explicit and detailed representation of in-droplet and in-crystal aerosol particles in stratiform clouds has been introduced in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The new scheme allows an evaluation of the cloud cycling of aerosols and an estimation of the relative contributions of nucleation and collision scavenging, as opposed to evaporation of hydrometeors in the global aerosol processing by clouds. On average an aerosol particle is cycled through stratiform clouds 0.5 times. The new scheme leads to important changes in the simulated fraction of aerosol scavenged in clouds, and consequently in the aerosol wet deposition. In general, less aerosol is scavenged into clouds with the new prognostic treatment than what is prescribed in standard ECHAM5-HAM. Aerosol concentrations, size distributions, scavenged fractions and cloud droplet concentrations are evaluated and compared to different observations. While the scavenged fraction and the aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer are well represented in the new model, aerosol optical thickness, cloud droplet number concentrations in the marine boundary layer and the aerosol volume in the accumulation and coarse modes over the oceans are overestimated. Sensitivity studies suggest that a better representation of below-cloud scavenging, higher in-cloud collision coefficients, or a reduced water uptake by seasalt aerosols could reduce these biases.

  17. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA

  18. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the UK. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA observed in

  19. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. McMeeking

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2 measurements of refractory BC (rBC mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM. We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA. We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA did change for

  20. 99mTc-O2S4: a new generation hepatobiliary imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babbar, A.K.; Mathur, R.; Katiyar, N.; Dutta, M.; Flora; Mishra, A.K.; Yadav, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Hepatobiliary imaging radionuclide - 99m Tc-Mebrofenin is indicated as a hepatobiliary imaging agent for the evaluation of hepatobiliary tract patency to differentiate jaundice resulting from hepatocellular causes from jaundice resulting from partial or complete biliary obstruction; to differentiate extrahepatic biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis; to detect cystic duct obstruction associated with acute cholecystitis; and to detect bile leaks. Also, 99m Tc-Mebrofenin may be useful to detect intrahepatic cholestasis and to distinguish it from other hepatobiliary diseases, which involve hepatocyte damage. However, the Mebrofenin kit has to be obtained at an exorbitant cost and there was need to develop an indigenous kit that was readily available and could give similar results. For the first time in India, a derivative of DMSA developed by DRDE, Gwalior and modified at INMAS, Delhi to adopt early transition metals, was successfully labelled with 99m Tc (LE>99%). The reaction conditions were optimized after studying the effects of amount of SnCl 2 , pH of the reaction and effect of incubation time. The labelled product 99m Tc-O 2 S 4 , was characterized by ITLC-SG using acetone and saline. The complex was found to be fairly stable at room temperature and showed>95% plasma protein binding. The biodistribution studies showed that after intravenous administration, there was immediate accumulation of radioactivity in liver, the activity kept on increasing in gall bladder with time and thereafter the radioactivity moved to common bile duct (CBD) and small intestines. No significant radioactivity was found in kidneys and blood. Clear visualization of the gallbladder and intestines, within 15 to 45 minutes of administration of 99m Tc-O 2 S 4 in normal rabbit, demonstrates hepatobiliary tract patency of the newly developed radiotracer. The dynamic and static images showed that the newly developed radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-O 2 S 4 has full potential in studying

  1. Structure and transport properties of the electronically correlated thiospinel CuV2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horny, R.

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with the single crystal growth and the characterization of crystallographic, magnetic and mainly electronic transport properties of the metallic thiospinel CuV 2 S 4 , which is isostructural and isoelectronic to the heavy fermion system LiV 2 O 4 . Former reports of an enhanced Sommerfeld-coefficient of the specific heat indicated that electronic correlations are present in CuV 2 S 4 as well. Additionally CuV 2 S 4 shows a phase transition at 90 K, which has been associated with the formation of a charge density wave (CDW), whose propagation vector changes its length at two additional phase transitions close to 75 K and 55 K. The formation of a CDW is a typical low dimensional order phenomenon and very unusual for a three dimensional system with a cubic crystal symmetry in the high temperature phase. An additional motivation for the efforts to grow single crystals of this compound was a sample dependency which seemed to correlate with the type of transport agent (iodine or chlorine) used in the chemical transport reaction as the preferred preparation procedure for the single crystal growth. Due to the direct comparison of single crystals grown by both types of transport agents it could be shown that a very low concentration of chlorine is the origin for the almost complete suppression of the phase transitions in the corresponding type of single crystals. The strong sensitivity of the CDW-formation to disorder is also reflected by the huge increase of the residual resistivity ratio of more than one order of magnitude which could only be achieved by annealing procedures in the case of single crystals grown with iodine as transport agent. The high quality of the samples allowed for the first time to detect all three phase transition signatures in resistivity measurements. Their almost identical temperature dependence as a function of external hydrostatic pressure emphasizes their common physical origin. The coefficient of the T 2 behavior of the

  2. Precision holography for N={2}^{\\ast } on S 4 from type IIB supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobev, Nikolay; Gautason, Friðrik Freyr; van Muiden, Jesse

    2018-04-01

    We find a new supersymmetric solution of type IIB supergravity which is holographically dual to the planar limit of the four-dimensional N={2}^{\\ast } supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on S 4. We study a probe fundamental string in this background which is dual to a supersymmetric Wilson loop in the N={2}^{\\ast } theory. Using holography we calculate the expectation value of this line operator to leading order in the 't Hooft coupling. The result is a non-trivial function of the mass parameter of the N={2}^{\\ast } theory that precisely matches the result from supersymmetric localization.

  3. Future aerosols of the southwest - Implications for fundamental aerosol research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that substantial increases in the use of coal in the U.S. will lead to substantial increases in emissions of particulate matter, SO/sub x/, and NO/sub x/ in the part of the U.S. west of the Mississippi. A shift in the primary particulate emissions from coarse to submicron particles is predicted. Attention is given to the nature of the submicron aerosol in the southwest, the distribution of sulfur with respect to particle size, the formation of new particles in the atmosphere, and the ammonium nitrate equilibrium. It is concluded that increased coal use will result in a 50% increase in SO/sub x/ emissions and a doubling of NO/sub x/ emissions in the western U.S. by the year 2000, that ambient levels of aerosol sulfates and nitrates will increase, and that a large increase in submicron aerosol mass is likely

  4. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  5. Study of uranium mine aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzic, J.-Y.

    1976-05-01

    With a view to radiation protection of uranium-miners a study was made of the behaviour of radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere of an experimental mine where temperature, pressure, relative himidity and ventilation are kept constant and in the air of a working area where the nature of the aerosol is dependent on the stage of work. Measurements of radon and daughter products carried out in various points of working areas showed that the gas was quickly diluted, equilibrium between radon and its daughter products (RaA, RaB, RaC) was never reached and the radon-aerosol contact was of short duration (a few minutes). Using a seven-stage Andersen impactor particle size distribution of the mine aerosol (particle diameter >0.3μm) was studied. The characteristic diameters were determined for each stage of the Andersen impactor and statistical analysis verified that aerosol distributions on the lower stages of the impactor were log-normal in most cases. Finally, determination of size distribution of α-radioactivity showed it was retained on fine particles. The percentage of free α-activity was evaluated using a diffusion battery [fr

  6. Optical characterization of metallic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenbo; Lin Bing

    2006-01-01

    Airborne metallic particulates from industry and urban sources are highly conducting aerosols. The characterization of these pollutant particles is important for environment monitoring and protection. Because these metallic particulates are highly reflective, their effect on local weather or regional radiation budget may also need to be studied. In this work, light scattering characteristics of these metallic aerosols are studied using exact solutions on perfectly conducting spherical and cylindrical particles. It is found that for perfectly conducting spheres and cylinders, when scattering angle is larger than ∼90 o the linear polarization degree of the scattered light is very close to zero. This light scattering characteristics of perfectly conducting particles is significantly different from that of other aerosols. When these perfectly conducting particles are immersed in an absorbing medium, this light scattering characteristics does not show significant change. Therefore, measuring the linear polarization of scattered lights at backward scattering angles can detect and distinguish metallic particulates from other aerosols. This result provides a great potential of metallic aerosol detection and monitoring for environmental protection

  7. The Effect of Aerosol Hygroscopicity and Volatility on Aerosol Optical Properties During Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, A.; Grieshop, A. P.; Saha, P.; Subramanian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic sources can influence optical properties of ambient aerosol by altering its hygroscopicity and contributing to light absorption directly via formation of brown carbon and indirectly by enhancing light absorption by black carbon ("lensing effect"). The magnitude of these effects remains highly uncertain. A set of state-of-the-art instruments was deployed at the SEARCH site near Centerville, AL during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in summer 2013 to measure the effect of relative humidity and temperature on aerosol size distribution, composition and optical properties. Light scattering and absorption by temperature- and humidity-conditioned aerosols was measured using three photo-acoustic extinctiometers (PAX) at three wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 870 nm). The sample-conditioning system provided measurements at ambient RH, 10%RH ("dry"), 85%RH ("wet"), and 200 C ("TD"). In parallel to these measurements, a long residence time temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) and a variable residence time constant temperature TD in combination with three SMPS systems and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were used to assess aerosol volatility and kinetics of aerosol evaporation. We will present results of the on-going analysis of the collected data set. We will show that both temperature and relative humidity have a strong effect on aerosol optical properties. SOA appears to increase aerosol light absorption by about 10%. TD measurements suggest that aerosol equilibrated fairly quickly, within 2 s. Evaporation varied substantially with ambient aerosol loading and composition and meteorology.

  8. Instantaneous aerosol dynamics in a turbulent flow

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate aerosol particles evolution dynamics in a turbulent mixing layer is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation for the flow field and the direct quadrature method of moments for the aerosol evolution. Most par

  9. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  10. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measures particle mass loading and chemical composition in real time for non-refractory sub-micron aerosol particles. The ACSM is designed for long-term unattended deployment and routine monitoring applications.

  11. Aerosol Climate Time Series in ESA Aerosol_cci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. Meanwhile, full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer, but also from ATSR instruments and the POLDER sensor), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which were also validated and improved in the reprocessing. For the three ATSR algorithms the use of an ensemble method was tested. The paper will summarize and discuss the status of dataset reprocessing and validation. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension

  12. Meteorological support for aerosol radiometers: special aerosol sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1988-07-01

    A new method is described for transfer of the measure of unit volume activity of radioactive aerosols from the state special standard to the working instruments in the stage of regular operation. The differences from existing methods are examined. The principal distinction of the new method is the possibility of direct (rather than through the conversion factor) determination and subsequent testing of the fundamental meteorological characteristics of the instrument by means of special aerosol sources, which fosters a significant reduction in individual components of the indicated errors.

  13. Breeding potential of S4 maize lines in topcrosses for agronomic and forage traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Martins Marcondes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the performance of 46 maize lines (S4 obtained from crosses between the commercial hybrids Penta x P30F53 in topcrosses with the commercial simple cross hybrid Dow8460 (tester and checks (hybrids Penta, P30F53, Dow8460 and Status. The grain yield was evaluated in two environments in Guarapuava, Paraná State, and the effects of genotype, environment and genotype x environment interaction were significant. The grain yield of the topcross hybrids ranged from 8,416 to 13,428 kg ha-1. The agronomic characteristics of the forage and the bromatological characteristics of the silage were evaluated in environment 1. The green mass yield of the forage ranged from 48,767 to 87,714 kg ha-1 and the dry mass yield ranged from 14,749 to 26,130 kg ha-1. The neutral detergent fiber content ranged from 44.85 to 58.45% and the acid detergent fiber content ranged from 28.28 to 37.06%. The relative feed value of the silage ranged between 100.5 and 138.5. The tester, hybrid Dow8460, was efficient to discriminate the relative performance of the S4 lines in the topcrosses.

  14. The crystal structure of kudriavite, (Cd,Pb)Bi2S4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Makovicky, Emil

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of kudriavite, (Cd,Pb)Bi2S4, a new mineral species, was solved from single-crystal X-ray-diffraction data and refi ned to R = 4.9% (4.3% for a model with split mixed-cation sites). Lattice parameters are a 13.095(1), b 4.0032(3), c 14.711(1) Å, 115.59(1)°, V 695.6(1) Å3....... The structure is equivalent to that of synthetic CdBi2S4, space group C2/m, Z = 4, and represents a pavonite homologue, N = 3. It is built of three-octahedron-thick columns of (311)PbS-like slabs combined by "unitcell twinning" in a quasi-mirror-glide succession. The slabs, which are intrinsically of the same...... topology, differ in the coordination state of bordering cations because of the relative positions of the adjacent layers. In the slabs of type I (the "non-accreting" slab common to all pavonite homologues), the central columns of octahedra are fl anked by half-octahedral (square-pyramidal) coordinations...

  15. Two design of the S4.BEN01 magnet for the CBETA splitter/merger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The splitter/merger section of the CBETA project [1] consists of 4 beam lines as shown in Fig. 1. Two of the functions of the splitter’s/merger’s lines is to match the beam parameters at the exit of the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) to the beam parameters at the entrance of the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) arc, and also place the reference particles of the beam bunches at the entrance of the FFAG arc on specified trajectories according to their energies. In this technical note we are presenting results from the 2D and 3D electromagnetic analysis of the S4.BEN01 magnet which is one of the dipole magnets of the 150 MeV line of the splitter/merger. In particular we present results from two designs of the S4.BEN01 magnet, one based on iron dominated current-excited magnet, and the other design based on Halbach-type permanent magnet. An evaluation of the two designs will be given in the section under “conclusion”.

  16. The role of extended Fe4S4 cluster ligands in mediating sulfite reductase hemoprotein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Marisa R; McGarry, Lauren; Pennington, Joseph M; Krzystek, J; Elizabeth Stroupe, M

    2018-05-28

    The siroheme-containing subunit from the multimeric hemoflavoprotein NADPH-dependent sulfite reductase (SiR/SiRHP) catalyzes the six electron-reduction of SO 3 2- to S 2- . Siroheme is an iron-containing isobacteriochlorin that is found in sulfite and homologous siroheme-containing nitrite reductases. Siroheme does not work alone but is covalently coupled to a Fe 4 S 4 cluster through one of the cluster's ligands. One long-standing hypothesis predicted from this observation is that the environment of one iron-containing cofactor influences the properties of the other. We tested this hypothesis by identifying three amino acids (F437, M444, and T477) that interact with the Fe 4 S 4 cluster and probing the effect of altering them to alanine on the function and structure of the resulting enzymes by use of activity assays, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and EPR spectroscopy. We showed that F437 and M444 gate access for electron transfer to the siroheme-cluster assembly and the direct hydrogen bond between T477 and one of the cluster sulfides is important for determining the geometry of the siroheme active site. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Two-dimensional magnetism in the triangular antiferromagnet NiGa2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    At sufficiently low temperatures, electron spins in normal magnets generally order into some fashion, for instance, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic. Geometrical frustration and/or reduced dimensionality can suppress such conventional orders, and occasionally induce unknown states of matter. This is the case for the two-dimensional (2D) triangular antiferromagnet Ni(Ga 2 S 4 , in which S=1 nickel spins do not order, instead show an exotic magnetism. We found (1) a resonant critical slowing down toward T*=8.5 K followed by a viscous spin liquid behavior, and (2) a spin-size dependent ground state. To elucidate (1), spin dynamics ranging from 10 -13 to 10 0 seconds were quantitatively explored through the experimental techniques such as inelastic neutron scattering, backscattering, neutron spin echo, ac and nonlinear susceptibilities. The finding of (2) is evidenced by impurity effects. Integer spins substituted systems such as zinc and iron ions retain a quadratic temperature dependence of the magnetic specific heat as for the parent compound. However, substitutions of half-odd integer spins, cobalt and manganese ions, eventually induce a distinct behavior, indicating an importance of integer size of spins to stabilize the 2D magnetism realized in NiGa 2 S 4 . The article gives our experimental findings and as well as some relevant theoretical scenarios. (author)

  18. Structural, optical and electrical studies on pulse electrodeposited CdIn2S4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokate, A.V.; Asabe, M.R.; Shelake, S.B.; Hankare, P.P.; Chougule, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    CdIn 2 S 4 thin films were prepared by pulse electrodeposition technique over F:SnO 2 glass and stainless steel substrates in galvanostatic mode from an aqueous acidic bath containing CdSO 4 , InCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 . The growth kinetics of the film has been studied and the deposition parameters such as electrolyte bath concentration, bath temperature, time of deposition, deposition current and pH of the bath are optimized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the as deposited and annealed films shows polycrystalline nature. Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) confirms nearly stoichiometric CdIn 2 S 4 nature of the film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that, the deposited films are well adherent and grains are uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. The optical transmission spectra show a direct band gap of 2.16 eV. Conductivity measurements have been carried out at different temperatures and electrical parameters such as activation energy, trapped energy state and barrier heights etc. have been determined

  19. Properties of pulsed electrodeposited CdIn2S4 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankare, P.P.; Kokate, A.V.; Asabe, M.R.; Delekar, S.D.; Chougule, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    CdIn 2 S 4 thin films are prepared by pulsed electrodeposition technique over F:SnO 2 glass and stainless steel substrates in galvanostatic mode from an aqueous acidic bath containing CdSO 4 , InCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 . The growth kinetics of the film was studied and the deposition parameters such as electrolyte bath concentration, bath temperature, time of deposition, deposition current, and pH of the electrolyte bath are optimized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the as deposited and annealed films showed the presence of polycrystalline nature. Energy dispersive analysis (EDAX) spectrum of the surface composition confirms the nearly stoichiometric CdIn 2 S 4 nature of the film. Surface morphology studies by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that, the deposited films are well adherent and grains are uniformly distributed over the surface of substrate. The optical transmission spectra show a direct band gap value of 2.16 eV

  20. Precision spectroscopy of the 2S-4P transition in atomic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisenbacher, Lothar; Beyer, Axel; Matveev, Arthur; Grinin, Alexey; Pohl, Randolf; Khabarova, Ksenia; Kolachevsky, Nikolai; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Udem, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Precision measurements of atomic hydrogen have long been successfully used to extract fundamental constants and to test bound-state QED. However, both these applications are limited by measurements of hydrogen lines other than the very precisely known 1S-2S transition. Moreover, the proton r.m.s.charge radius rp extracted from electronic hydrogen measurements currently disagrees by 4 σ with the much more precise value extracted from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. We have measured the 2S-4P transition in atomic hydrogen using a cryogenic beam of hydrogen atoms optically excited to the initial 2S state. The first order Doppler shift of the one-photon 2S-4P transition is suppressed by actively stabilized counter-propagating laser beams and time-of-flight resolved detection. Quantum interference between excitation paths can lead to significant line distortions in our system. We use an experimentally verified, simple line shape model to take these distortions into account. With this, we can extract a new value for rp and the Rydberg constant R∞ with comparable accuracy as the combined previous H world data.

  1. Spray-coated ligand-free Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Murthy, Swathi; Kofod, Guggi

    We have fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films from spray-coating ligand-free nanoparticle inks. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [1], which allows the use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that user- and environ......We have fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films from spray-coating ligand-free nanoparticle inks. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [1], which allows the use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that user......- and environmentally-friendly alkali metal chloride salts can be directly dissolved in controllable amounts. The homogeneous distribution of alkali metals in the ink allows uniform grain growth within the deposited absorber layer as a result of liquid phase assisted sintering. We find that particularly beneficial...... as an unquantifiable amount of ZnS. A Sono-tek spray-coating system is used which utilizes ultrasonic atomization. We investigate the effect of different binders, ink concentration, and spray-coating conditions, i.e. spray power, flow rate from syringe pump, distance between spray nozzle and the substrate, and time...

  2. Fermion masses and flavor mixings in a model with S4 flavor symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guijun

    2010-01-01

    We present a supersymmetric model of quark and lepton based on S 4 xZ 3 xZ 4 flavor symmetry. The S 4 symmetry is broken down to Klein four and Z 3 subgroups in the neutrino and the charged lepton sectors, respectively. Tri-Bimaximal mixing and the charged lepton mass hierarchies are reproduced simultaneously at leading order. Moreover, a realistic pattern of quark masses and mixing angles is generated with the exception of the mixing angle between the first two generations, which requires a small accidental enhancement. It is remarkable that the mass hierarchies are controlled by the spontaneous breaking of flavor symmetry in our model. The next to leading order contributions are studied, all the fermion masses and mixing angles receive corrections of relative order λ c 2 with respect to the leading order results. The phenomenological consequences of the model are analyzed, the neutrino mass spectrum can be normal hierarchy or inverted hierarchy, and the combined measurement of the 0ν2β decay effective mass m ββ and the lightest neutrino mass can distinguish the normal hierarchy from the inverted hierarchy.

  3. Lidar investigations of atmospheric aerosols over Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreischuh, T.; Deleva, A.; Peshev, Z.; Grigorov, I.; Kolarov, G.; Stoyanov, D.

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of the laser remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and related processes over the Sofia area performed in the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, during the last three years. Results from lidar investigations of the optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols obtained in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, as well as from the lidar mapping of near-surface aerosol fields for remote monitoring of atmospheric pollutants are presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. Origins of atmospheric aerosols. Basic concepts on aerosol main physical properties; L`aerosol atmospherique: ses origines quelques notions sur les principales proprietes physiques des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, A. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France). Laboratoire de Physique des aerosols et de transferts des contaminations

    1996-12-31

    Natural and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric aerosols are reviewed and indications of their concentrations and granulometry are given. Calculation of the lifetime of an atmospheric aerosol of a certain size is presented and the various modes of aerosol granulometry and their relations with photochemical and physico-chemical processes in the atmosphere are discussed. The main physical, electrical and optical properties of aerosols are also presented: diffusion coefficient, dynamic mobility and relaxation time, Stokes number, limit rate of fall, electrical mobility, optical diffraction

  5. Aerosol filtration with metallic fibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The filtration efficiency of stainless steel fibrous filters (BEKIPOR porous mats and sintered webs) is determined using submicronic monodisperse polystyrene aerosols. Lasers spectrometers are used for the aerosol measurements. The parameters varied are the fiber diameter, the number of layers, the aerosol diameter and the superficial velocity. Two selected types of filters are tested with polydisperse methylene blue aerosols to determine the effect of bed loading on the filter performance and to test washing techniques for the regeneration of the filter

  6. Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holzer-Popp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI project Aerosol_cci (2010–2013, algorithms for the production of long-term total column aerosol optical depth (AOD datasets from European Earth Observation sensors are developed. Starting with eight existing pre-cursor algorithms three analysis steps are conducted to improve and qualify the algorithms: (1 a series of experiments applied to one month of global data to understand several major sensitivities to assumptions needed due to the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem, (2 a round robin exercise of "best" versions of each of these algorithms (defined using the step 1 outcome applied to four months of global data to identify mature algorithms, and (3 a comprehensive validation exercise applied to one complete year of global data produced by the algorithms selected as mature based on the round robin exercise. The algorithms tested included four using AATSR, three using MERIS and one using PARASOL. This paper summarizes the first step. Three experiments were conducted to assess the potential impact of major assumptions in the various aerosol retrieval algorithms. In the first experiment a common set of four aerosol components was used to provide all algorithms with the same assumptions. The second experiment introduced an aerosol property climatology, derived from a combination of model and sun photometer observations, as a priori information in the retrievals on the occurrence of the common aerosol components. The third experiment assessed the impact of using a common nadir cloud mask for AATSR and MERIS algorithms in order to characterize the sensitivity to remaining cloud contamination in the retrievals against the baseline dataset versions. The impact of the algorithm changes was assessed for one month (September 2008 of data: qualitatively by inspection of monthly mean AOD maps and quantitatively by comparing daily gridded satellite data against daily averaged AERONET sun

  7. Air ions and aerosol science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4 endash 1.8 nm. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. The intercomparison of aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Gauvain, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols in a reactor containment vessel following a severe accident could be an important determinant of the accident source term to the environment. Various processes result in the deposition of the aerosol onto surfaces within the containment, from where they are much less likely to be released. Some of these processes are very sensitive to particle size, so it is important to model the aerosol growth processes: agglomeration and condensation. A number of computer codes have been written to model growth and deposition processes. They have been tested against each other in a series of code comparison exercises. These exercises have investigated sensitivities to physical and numerical assumptions and have also proved a useful means of quality control for the codes. Various exercises in which code predictions are compared with experimental results are now under way

  9. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  10. Aerosols and fission product transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaw, W.J.

    1987-12-01

    A survey is presented of current knowledge of the possible role of aerosols in the consequences of in- and out-of-core LOCAs and of end fitting failures in CANDU reactors. An extensive literature search has been made of research on the behaviour of aerosols in possible accidents in water moderated and cooled reactors and the results of various studies compared. It is recommended that further work should be undertaken on the formation of aerosols during these possible accidents and to study their subsequent behaviour. It is also recommended that the fission products behaviour computer code FISSCON II should be re-examined to determine whether it reflects the advances incorporated in other codes developed for light water reactors which have been extensively compared. 47 refs

  11. Aerosol processes relevant for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (or aerosols) are particles suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosols are believed to be the most important pollutant associated with increased human mortality and morbidity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the relationship between sources of aerosols (such as industry)

  12. DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Court, A.J.; Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Visser, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Decae, R.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of aerosols is a largely unresolved problem. A dedicated instrument aimed at aerosols would be able to reduce the large uncertainties connected to this kind of remote sensing. TNO is performing a study of a space based instrument for aerosol measurements, together with the

  13. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  14. Aerosols, cloud physics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of climate physics are discussed with special attention given to cases where cloud physics is relevant for the phase and microstructure of clouds and, therefore, in the optical properties of the planet. It is argued that aerosol particles, through their strong effect on cloud microphysics, influence the shortwave energy input to earth, and that cloud microphysics strongly influence rain formation. Therefore, through their influence on microphysics, the aerosols play a central role in the atmospheric water cycle and, thus, on the planet's outgoing radiation. 20 refs

  15. Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Cu2FeSnS4 Nanocrystals with a Novel Zincblende Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu2FeSnS4 nanocrystals with a novel zincblende structure have been successfully synthesized by a hot-injection approach. Cu+, Fe2+, and Sn4+ ions occupy the same position in the zincblende unit cell, and their occupancy possibilities are 1/2, 1/4, and 1/4, respectively. The nanocrystals were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The nanocrystals have an average size of 7.5 nm and a band gap of 1.1 eV and show a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature.

  16. Loss mechanisms in hydrazine-processed Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Oki; Todorov, Teodor K.; Mitzi, David B.

    2010-12-01

    We present a device characterization study for hydrazine-processed kesterite Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells with a focus on pinpointing the main loss mechanisms limiting device efficiency. Temperature-dependent study and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy on these cells, in comparison to analogous studies on a reference Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) cell, reveal strong recombination loss at the CZTSSe/CdS interface, very low minority-carrier lifetimes, and high series resistance that diverges at low temperature. These findings help identify the key areas for improvement of these CZTSSe cells in the quest for a high-performance indium- and tellurium-free solar cell.

  17. A universal counting of black hole microstates in AdS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzurli, Francesco; Bobev, Nikolay; Crichigno, P. Marcos; Min, Vincent S.; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Many three-dimensional N=2 SCFTs admit a universal partial topological twist when placed on hyperbolic Riemann surfaces. We exploit this fact to derive a universal formula which relates the planar limit of the topologically twisted index of these SCFTs and their three-sphere partition function. We then utilize this to account for the entropy of a large class of supersymmetric asymptotically AdS4 magnetically charged black holes in M-theory and massive type IIA string theory. In this context we also discuss novel AdS2 solutions of eleven-dimensional supergravity which describe the near horizon region of large new families of supersymmetric black holes arising from M2-branes wrapping Riemann surfaces.

  18. Optimization study for the experimental configuration of CMB-S4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Darcy; Chinone, Yuji; Kusaka, Akito; Borril, Julian; Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen; Ferraro, Simone; Keskitalo, Reijo; Lee, Adrian T.; Roe, Natalie A.; Sherwin, Blake D.; Suzuki, Aritoki

    2018-02-01

    The CMB Stage 4 (CMB-S4) experiment is a next-generation, ground-based experiment that will measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization to unprecedented accuracy, probing the signature of inflation, the nature of cosmic neutrinos, relativistic thermal relics in the early universe, and the evolution of the universe. CMB-S4 will consist of O(500,000) photon-noise-limited detectors that cover a wide range of angular scales in order to probe the cosmological signatures from both the early and late universe. It will measure a wide range of microwave frequencies to cleanly separate the CMB signals from galactic and extra-galactic foregrounds. To advance the progress towards designing the instrument for CMB-S4, we have established a framework to optimize the instrumental configuration to maximize its scientific output. The framework combines cost and instrumental models with a cosmology forecasting tool, and evaluates the scientific sensitivity as a function of various instrumental parameters. The cost model also allows us to perform the analysis under a fixed-cost constraint, optimizing for the scientific output of the experiment given finite resources. In this paper, we report our first results from this framework, using simplified instrumental and cost models. We have primarily studied two classes of instrumental configurations: arrays of large-aperture telescopes with diameters ranging from 2–10 m, and hybrid arrays that combine small-aperture telescopes (0.5-m diameter) with large-aperture telescopes. We explore performance as a function of telescope aperture size, distribution of the detectors into different microwave frequencies, survey strategy and survey area, low-frequency noise performance, and balance between small and large aperture telescopes for hybrid configurations. Both types of configurations must cover both large (~ degree) and small (~ arcmin) angular scales, and the performance depends on assumptions for performance vs. angular scale

  19. I/asterisk/ /6s 4P/ collisional quenching - Application to the IF 491-nm laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, S. B.; Verdeyen, J. T.; Eden, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the rate constants for quenching of the excited I (6s 4P) states by Ar, Xe, CF39I, UF6, and NF3 are described. Each rate constant is determined by recording the exponential time decay of the excited IF or excited I2 (342 nm) fluorescence in the afterglow of the e-beam-excited plasmas containing Ar, CF3I, NF3, and the desired quenching gas. In addition, further experimental evidence in support of neutral channel formation of excited IF in e-beam-pumped Ar/CF3I/NF3 mixtures is presented. Details of the experimental apparatus and gas handling procedures are given, and the kinetics model developed to interpret the experimental data is described.

  20. In vitro and in vivo characteristics of [iodine-125] 3-(R)-quinuclidinyl (S)-4-iodobenzilate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.E.; Schneidau, T.A.; Cohen, V.I.; Sood, V.; Ruch, J.; Melograna, J.; Eckelman, W.C.; Reba, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    The radioiodinated muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, [ 125 I] 3-quinuclidinyl 4-iodobenzilate, has two high affinity diastereomeric forms, the (R,R) and (R,S)-isomers. The (R,S)-diastereomer is only threefold lower in affinity than the (R,R)-isomer, but the kinetic properties are considerably different--the dissociation rate constant is 13-fold faster for the (R,S)-isomer and the association rate constant is two to threefold faster. The calculated affinity is therefore only fourfold lower. In vivo, the clearance of (R,S)-4IQNB from receptor-rich tissue is also more rapid than that of the (R,R)-isomer, that is a reflection of the more rapid in vitro kinetic properties since the physicochemical properties and the metabolic clearance of the diastereomers is the same

  1. Electrical effects associated with the ordering process in CdInGaS4 crystals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolikas, C.; Anagnostopoulos, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The structure and the domain structure of the ordered phase in the quaternary compound CdInGaS 4 are examined by using electron microscopy and the electron diffraction methods. It is found that a long-period APBs superstructure is formed after a long time of annealing at about 450 0 C and its origin is discussed on the basis of the assumption that mixing of Cd and Ga cations occurs within the layers of tetrahedral interstices. Heating of the former superstructure leads to disordering. Initially the periodic arrangement of the APBs is disordered; the ordering of the cations is conserved however. At even higher temperature the disordering is extended over the cations themselves as well. (author)

  2. The Interplay Between GUT and Flavour Symmetries in a Pati-Salam x S4 Model

    CERN Document Server

    de Adelhart Toorop, Reinier; Merlo, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Both Grand Unified symmetries and discrete flavour symmetries are appealing ways to describe apparent structures in the gauge and flavour sectors of the Standard Model. Both symmetries put constraints on the high energy behaviour of the theory. This can give rise to unexpected interplay when building models that possess both symmetries. We investigate on the possibility to combine a Pati-Salam model with the discrete flavour symmetry $S_4$ that gives rise to quark-lepton complementarity. Under appropriate assumptions at the GUT scale, the model reproduces fermion masses and mixings both in the quark and in the lepton sectors. We show that in particular the Higgs sector and the running Yukawa couplings are strongly affected by the combined constraints of the Grand Unified and family symmetries. This in turn reduces the phenomenologically viable parameter space, with high energy mass scales confined to a small region and some parameters in the neutrino sector slightly unnatural. In the allowed regions, we can r...

  3. Investigation of photoelectronic processes in CdIn2S4 by photoinduced current transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Photoelectronic processes in CdIn 2 S 4 are investigated by four-gate photoinduced current transient spectroscopy. In general the photocurrent decay transients are non-exponential because of a nonlinear multichannel recombination mechanism. Nevertheless suitable extrinsic excitation allows to open one recombination channel only and so to evidence a purely exponential relaxation. The detailed analysis of this process leads to the interpretation that the defects associated with the energy levels continuously distributed below the conduction band act as relay centres for radiative recombination of photoelectrons rather than as thermal emitting traps. An electron trapping level located at about 0.6 eV from the bottom of the conduction band is also evidenced. (author)

  4. Trimaximal TM1 neutrino mixing in S4 with spontaneous CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhn, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the reactor angle by the Daya Bay and RENO experiments in 2012 has ruled out the tri-bimaximal paradigm. Adopting an S 4 family symmetry, we propose direct models of the trimaximal type TM 1 in which the tri-bimaximal Klein symmetry of the neutrino sector is broken to a residual Z 2 symmetry. In such a scenario, the solar mixing angle is decreased compared to its tri-bimaximal value by about 1°, thus bringing it in excellent agreement with experimental observation. The atmospheric mixing angle, on the other hand, depends on the CP violating Dirac phase δ. Imposing CP conservation in the family symmetry limit, we show how to break the CP symmetry via flavon VEVs with well-defined complex phases, so that sizable deviations of the atmospheric angle from maximal mixing, consistent with the latest global fits, are produced

  5. In situ growth of NiCo(2)S(4) nanosheets on graphene for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengjie; Li, Linlin; Li, Chengchao; Tan, Huiteng; Cai, Ren; Yu, Hong; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Yan, Qingyu

    2013-10-03

    We demonstrate a facile hydrothermal method for growth of ultrathin NiCo2S4 nanosheets on reduced graphene oxide (RGO), which exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with higher capacitance and longer cycle life than the bare NiCo2S4 hollow spheres (HSs).

  6. 26 CFR 1.6050S-4 - Information reporting for payments of interest on qualified education loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on qualified education loans. 1.6050S-4 Section 1.6050S-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Information reporting for payments of interest on qualified education loans. (a) Electronic furnishing of... payments of interest on qualified education loans (furnisher) to the individual to whom it is required to...

  7. Facile preparation and visible light photocatalytic activity of CdIn2S4 monodispersed spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Jin; Wei Qinglian; Yao Pingping; Zhao Xueling; Kang Shizhao; Li Xiangqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CdIn 2 S 4 monodispersed spherical particles were prepared by a soft solution method. ► Mercaptoacetic acid was used as capping agent to hinder the fast crystal growth. ► Thioacetamide as sulfur source resulted in the slow growth of particles. ► CdIn 2 S 4 spheres showed high visible light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: We developed a facile method to prepare CdIn 2 S 4 monodispersed spherical particles by using mercaptoacetic acid as capping agent and thioacetamide as sulfur source. The results indicated that the size and morphology of CdIn 2 S 4 particles were related to reaction time. The CdIn 2 S 4 spherical particles with an average size of about 236 nm and a narrow size distribution were formed after reacting for 7 h. The photocatalytic activity of as-synthesized CdIn 2 S 4 spherical particles was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under visible light illumination. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity increased with prolonging reaction time in the preparation of CdIn 2 S 4 spherical particles. The CdIn 2 S 4 spherical particles prepared after reacting for 7 h exhibited a 98% degradation efficiency of methyl orange after 15 min visible light irradiation.

  8. Synchronous separation, seaming, sealing and sterilization (S4) using brazing for sample containerization and planetary protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lindsey, Cameron; Kutzer, Thomas; Salazar, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    The return of samples back to Earth in future missions would require protection of our planet from the risk of bringing uncontrolled biological materials back with the samples. This protection would require "breaking the chain of contact (BTC)", where any returned material reaching Earth for further analysis would have to be sealed inside a container with extremely high confidence. Therefore, the acquired samples would need to be contained while destroying any potential biological materials that may contaminate the external surface of the container. A novel process that could be used to contain returning samples has been developed and demonstrated in a quarter scale size. The process consists of brazing using non-contact induction heating that synchronously separates, seams, seals and sterilizes (S4) the container. The use of brazing involves melting at temperatures higher than 500°C and this level of heating assures sterilization of the exposed areas since all carbon bonds (namely, organic materials) are broken at this temperature. The mechanism consists of a double wall container with inner and outer shells having Earth-clean interior surfaces. The process consists of two-steps, Step-1: the double wall container halves are fabricated and brazed (equivalent to production on Earth); and Step-2 is the S4 process and it is the equivalent to the execution on-orbit around Mars. In a potential future mission, the double wall container would be split into two halves and prepared on Earth. The potential on-orbit execution would consist of inserting the orbiting sample (OS) container into one of the halves and then mated to the other half and brazed. The latest results of this effort will be described and discussed in this manuscript.

  9. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London...

  10. Direct measurement of aerosol shape factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1983-12-01

    The dynamic shape factor whereas the coagulation shape factor is an average over the total examined size range. The experiments have shown that the results of experiments with a certain aerosol system cannot be transferred to other aerosol systems without further consideration. The outer shape of particles of a certain size depends on the specific properties of the material as well as on the experimental conditions during the aerosol generation. For both aerosol systems examined the mean dynamic shape factor, averaged over the total examined size range, agrees roughly with the coagulation shape factor. (Description of aerosol centrifuge and of differential mobility analyzer). (orig./HP) [de

  11. Aerosol metrology: aerodynamic and electrostatic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodi, V.

    1988-01-01

    Aerosols play an ever increasing role in science, engineering and especially in industrial and environmental hygiene. They are being studied since a long time, but only recently the progress in aerosol instrumentation has made it possible to pose of aerosol metrology, especially the problem of absolute measurements, as based directly on measurements of fundamental quantities. On the basis of absolute measurements, the hierarchy of standards can be prepared and adequately disseminated. In the aerosol field, the quantities to be measured are mainly size, charge, density, and shape. In this paper a possible standardisation framework for aerosols is proposed, for the main physical quantities

  12. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured Fe3S4, an isostructural compound of half-metallic Fe3O4

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2015-06-10

    High-purity, well-crystallized spinel Fe3S4 nanoplatelets were synthesized by the hydrothermal method, and the saturation magnetic moment of Fe3S4 was measured at 1.83 μB/f.u. The temperature-dependent resistivity of Fe3S4 was metallic-like for T < 180 K: room-temperature resistivity was measured at 7.711 × 103  μΩ cm. The anomalous Hall conductivity of Fe3S4 decreased with increasing longitudinal conductivity, in sharp contrast with the accepted theory of the anomalous Hall effect in a dirty-metal regime. Furthermore, negligible spin-dependent magnetoresistance was observed. Band structure calculations confirmed our experimental observations that Fe3S4 is a metal and not a half metal as expected.

  13. Visible light responsive Cu2MoS4 nanosheets incorporated reduced graphene oxide for efficient degradation of organic pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshbabu, R.; Vinoth, R.; Navaneethan, M.; Harish, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Neppolian, B.

    2017-10-01

    Visible light active copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets were successfully anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using facile hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal reaction, reduction of graphene oxide into rGO and the formation of Cu2MoS4 nanosheets were successfully obtained. The charge transfer interaction between the rGO sheets and Cu2MoS4 nanosheets extended the absorption to visible region in comparison with bare Cu2MoS4 nanosheets i.e without rGO sheets. Furthermore, the notable photoluminescence quenching observed for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite revealed the effective role of rGO towards the significant inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination. The photocatalytic efficiencies of bare Cu2MoS4 and Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methyl orange dye under visible irradiation (λ > 420 nm). A maximum photodegradation efficiency of 99% was achieved for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite, while only 64% photodegradation was noted for bare Cu2MoS4. The enhanced optical absorption in visible region, high surface area, and low charge carrier recombination in the presence of rGO sheets were the main reasons for the enhancement in photodegardation of MO dye. In addition, the resultant Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was found to be reusable for five successive cycles without significant loss in its photocatalytic performance.

  14. Nanostructurization effects in PVP-stabilized tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide As_4S_4 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Bujňáková, Z.; Baláž, P.; Ingram, A.; Demchenko, P.; Kovalskiy, A.; Vlcek, M.; Shpotyuk, Ya.; Cebulski, J.; Dziedzic, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructurization in three types of tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide As_4S_4 polymorphs composed by (1) preferential β-As_4S_4, (2) realgar α-As_4S_4 and (3) admixture of As_4S_4 in the form of β-realgar, pararealgar and intermediate χ-phase subjected to mechanochemical ball milling in a water solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are characterized with multiexperimental structure-sensitive probes. Void structure of pelletized As_4S_4-PVP nanocomposites is probed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy complemented with atomic-sensitive techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Appearance of arsenolite As_2O_3 crystallites is character for all As_4S_4 polymorphs affected by wet milling. Positron annihilation lifetime data considered in terms of substitution positron-positronium trapping confirm complicated nature of nanocomposites. Modified x3-x2-coupling decomposition algorithm developed in addition to unconstrained x3-term fitting procedure is applied to parameterize annihilation channels in these nanocomposites. Interfacial free-volume voids between neighboring nanoparticles in PVP environment are defined as most favorable trapping sites, they being rather loosely composed by As_4S_4 crystallites in full respect to variety of crystallographic polymorphs used for milling. Detected annihilation channels are ascribed preferentially to intrinsic free-volume voids insensitive to trapping states at the surface of oxidized nanocomposites. - Highlights: • PVP-stabilized tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide nanocomposites prepared by wet milling. • As_4S_4-PVP composites by complementary atomic-specific and deficient structure probes. • Surface oxidation due to crystalline arsenolite As_2O_3 under wet milling. • Free-volume structure of PVP-stabilized As_4S_4 nanocomposites by PAL spectroscopy. • x3-x2-coupling decomposition algorithm to treat PAL data for As_4S_4

  15. Effects of indium contents on photocatalytic performance of ZnIn_2S_4 for hydrogen evolution under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kelin; Zhu, Rongshu; Tian, Fei; Cao, Gang; Ouyang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A series of ZnIn_xS_4_+_y (x=1.6, 2.0, 2.3, 2.6, 2.9, 3.1) photocatalysts were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and characterized by various analytical techniques, such as XRD, EDS, UV–vis DRS, SEM, TEM, BET and PL. The ZnIn_xS_4_+_y photocatalysts had a similar crystal structure. With the increase of indium content, the absorption edges of ZnIn_xS_4_+_y photocatalysts shifted to longer wavelength, their crystal sizes decreased firstly and then increased and the variation of the specific surface area and total pore volume was exactly opposite. Especially, when x=2.3, ZnIn_2_._3S_4_+_y catalyst had smallest crystal size, largest specific surface area and total pore volume. Additionally, the morphology of ZnIn_xS_4_+_y greatly depended on the contents of indium. The photocatalytic activity of ZnIn_xS_4_+_y was evaluated by photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible light. The ZnIn_2_._3S_4_+_y sample had the highest photocatalytic activity among these ZnIn_xS_4_+_y photocatalysts and its hydrogen production rate was 363 μmol/g h. - Graphical abstract: First, a series of catalysts were synthesized. And then those were characterized by various analytical techniques (such as SEM). finally, The photocatalytic activity of catalyst was evaluated by photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible light. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic property was studied upon visible-light irradiation. • ZnIn_xS_4_+_y photocatalysts show superior photocatalytic activity. • The catalyst of grain size, morphology and BET are related to indium content. • ZnIn_xS_4_+_y photocatalysts were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method.

  16. Near UV Aerosol Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar

    2013-01-01

    2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  17. Stratospheric aerosols and precursor gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the aerosol size, height and geographical distribution, their composition and optical properties, and their temporal variation with season and following large volcanic eruptions. Sulfur-bearing gases were measured in situ in the stratosphere, and studied of the chemical and physical processes which control gas-to-particle conversion were carried out in the laboratory.

  18. Climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, T. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Anthropogenic production of aerosols is mainly connected with combustion of fossil fuel. Measured by particulate mass, the anthropogenic sulphate production is the dominating source of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. Particles emitted in mechanical processes, fly ash etc. are less important because of their shorter atmospheric residence time. Possible climatological effects of anthropogenic aerosols are usually classified in two groups: direct and indirect. Direct effects are alterations of the radiative heating budget due to the aerosol particles in clear air. Indirect effects involve the interaction between particles and cloud processes. A simplified one-layer radiation model gave cooling in the most polluted mid-latitude areas and heating due to soot absorption in the Arctic. This differential trend in heating rates may have significant effects on atmospheric meridional circulations, which is important for the atmosphere as a thermodynamic system. Recently the description of sulphur chemistry in the hemispheric scale dispersion model has been improved and will be used in a model for Mie scattering and absorption

  19. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  20. NASA's Aerosol Sampling Experiment Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2016-01-01

    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  1. The effects of aerosols on climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, O.

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols (fine particles suspended in the atmosphere) can play two roles in the Earth’s radiation budget. In cloud-free air, aerosols scatter sunlight, some of which is reflected back to space (direct effect). Aerosols also determine the microphysical and optical properties of clouds (indirect effect). Whereas changes in natural aerosols are probably small during the last 100 years, there has been a large increase in the concentration of anthropogenic aerosols. The magnitude of their radiative effects is still very uncertain but seems to be sufficient to mask part of the global warming expected to stem from anthropogenic greenhouse gases. This paper presents the physical mechanisms of aerosol influence on climate. We then estimate the anthropogenic aerosol radiative effects and assess the climate response to these perturbations. (author) [fr

  2. Aerosol behaviour modeling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieseke, J A; Reed, L D [Batelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Aerosol behavior within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) containments is of critical importance since most of the radioactive species are expected to be associated with particulate forms and the mass of radiologically significant material leaked to the ambient atmosphere is directly related to the aerosol concentration airborne within the containment. Mathematical models describing the behavior of aerosols in closed environments, besides providing a direct means of assessing the importance of specific assumptions regarding accident sequences, will also serve as the basic tool with which to predict the consequences of various postulated accident situations. Consequently, considerable efforts have been recently directed toward the development of accurate and physically realistic theoretical aerosol behavior models. These models have accounted for various mechanisms affecting agglomeration rates of airborne particulate matter as well as particle removal rates from closed systems. In all cases, spatial variations within containments have been neglected and a well-mixed control volume has been assumed. Examples of existing computer codes formulated from the mathematical aerosol behavior models are the Brookhaven National Laboratory TRAP code, the PARDISEKO-II and PARDISEKO-III codes developed at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, and the HAA-2, HAA-3, and HAA-3B codes developed by Atomics International. Because of their attractive short computation times, the HAA-3 and HAA-3B codes have been used extensively for safety analyses and are attractive candidates with which to demonstrate order of magnitude estimates of the effects of various physical assumptions. Therefore, the HAA-3B code was used as the nucleus upon which changes have been made to account for various physical mechanisms which are expected to be present in postulated accident situations and the latest of the resulting codes has been termed the HAARM-2 code. It is the primary purpose of the HAARM

  3. Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia: AEROSOL AND MONSOON CLIMATE INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanqing [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Lau, W. K. -M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Ramanathan, V. [Department of Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, University of California, San Diego California USA; Wu, G. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Ding, Y. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Manoj, M. G. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Liu, J. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Qian, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Li, J. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhou, T. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Rosenfeld, D. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem Israel; Ming, Y. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton New Jersey USA; Wang, Y. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Huang, J. [College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou China; Wang, B. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Hawaii USA; School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Xu, X. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Lee, S. -S. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Cribb, M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Zhang, F. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Yang, X. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhao, C. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Takemura, T. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Japan; Wang, K. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Xia, X. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Yin, Y. [School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Zhang, H. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Guo, J. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhai, P. M. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Sugimoto, N. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba Japan; Babu, S. S. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Brasseur, G. P. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg Germany

    2016-11-15

    Asian monsoons and aerosols have been studied extensively which are intertwined in influencing the climate of Asia. This paper provides a comprehensive review of ample studies on Asian aerosol, monsoon and their interactions. The region is the primary source of aerosol emissions of varies species, influenced by distinct weather and climatic regimes. On continental scale, aerosols reduce surface insolation and weaken the land-ocean thermal contrast, thus inhibiting the development of monsoons. Locally, aerosol radiative effects alter the thermodynamic stability and convective potential of the lower atmosphere leading to reduced temperatures, increased atmospheric stability, and weakened wind and atmospheric circulation. The atmospheric thermodynamic state may also be altered by the aerosol serving as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. Many mechanisms have been put forth regarding how aerosols modulate the amplitude, frequency, intensity, and phase of numerous monsoon climate variables. A wide range of theoretical, observational, and modeling findings on the Asian monsoon, aerosols, and their interactions are synthesized. A new paradigm is proposed on investigating aerosol-monsoon interactions, in which natural aerosols such as desert dust, black carbon from biomass burning, and biogenic aerosols from vegetation are considered integral components of an intrinsic aerosol-monsoon climate system, subject to external forcings of global warming, anthropogenic aerosols, and land use and change. Future research on aerosol-monsoon interactions calls for an integrated approach and international collaborations based on long-term sustained observations, process measurements, and improved models, as well as using observations to constrain model simulations and projections.

  4. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  5. Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontané, X.; Izquierdo-Roca, V.; Saucedo, E.; Schorr, S.; Yukhymchuk, V.O.; Valakh, M.Ya.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Morante, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analysis of main and weaker Raman peaks from Cu 2 FeZnS 4 and Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 compounds. ► Identification of a cation disorder induced Raman peak in Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 . ► Analysis of spectral features of main Raman peaks from Cu 2 (Fe,Zn)SnS 4 . - Abstract: This work reports the analysis of the vibrational properties of stannite–kesterite Cu 2 (Fe,Zn)SnS 4 compounds that has been performed by Raman scattering measurements. The detailed analysis of the experimental spectra has allowed determining the frequency and symmetry assignment of the main and weaker peaks from both stannite Cu 2 FeSnS 4 (CFTS) and kesterite Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) phases. The measurements performed in the kesterite CZTS samples have also revealed the presence of local inhomogeneities that are characterised by an additional peak in the spectra at about 331 cm −1 . This peak has been related to the presence in these local regions of a high degree of disorder in the cation sublattice, in agreement with previous neutron diffraction analysis in similar samples. Finally, the spectra from the solid solution alloys show a one-mode behaviour of the main A/A 1 peak with the chemical composition.

  6. Tumor microenvironmental changes induced by the sulfamate carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitor S4 in a laryngeal tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineke W H Meijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX plays a pivotal role in pH homeostasis, which is essential for tumor cell survival. We examined the effect of the CAIX inhibitor 4-(3'(3",5"-dimethylphenyl-ureidophenyl sulfamate (S4 on the tumor microenvironment in a laryngeal tumor model by analyzing proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, hypoxia, metabolism and CAIX ectodomain shedding. METHODS: SCCNij202 tumor bearing-mice were treated with S4 for 1, 3 or 5 days. CAIX ectodomain shedding was measured in the serum after therapy. Effects on tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, hypoxia (pimonidazole and CAIX were investigated with quantitative immunohistochemistry. Metabolic transporters and enzymes were quantified with qPCR. RESULTS: CAIX ectodomain shedding decreased after treatment with S4 (p<0.01. S4 therapy did neither influence tumor cell proliferation nor the amount of apoptosis and necrosis. Hypoxia (pimonidazole and CAIX expression were also not affected by S4. CHOP and MMP9 mRNA as a reference of intracellular pH did not change upon treatment with S4. Compensatory mechanisms of pH homeostasis at the mRNA level were not observed. CONCLUSION: As the clinical and biological meaning of the decrease in CAIX ectodomain shedding after S4 therapy is not clear, studies are required to elucidate whether the CAIX ectodomain has a paracrine or autocrine signaling function in cancer biology. S4 did not influence the amount of proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis and hypoxia. Therefore, it is unlikely that S4 can be used as single agent to influence tumor cell kill and proliferation, and to target primary tumor growth.

  7. Simple, Scalable, Script-based, Science Processor for Measurements - Data Mining Edition (S4PM-DME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, L. B.; Eng, E. K.; Lynnes, C. S.; Berrick, S. W.; Vollmer, B. E.

    2005-12-01

    The S4PM-DME is the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center's (GES DAAC) web-based data mining environment. The S4PM-DME replaces the Near-line Archive Data Mining (NADM) system with a better web environment and a richer set of production rules. S4PM-DME enables registered users to submit and execute custom data mining algorithms. The S4PM-DME system uses the GES DAAC developed Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) to automate tasks and perform the actual data processing. A web interface allows the user to access the S4PM-DME system. The user first develops personalized data mining algorithm on his/her home platform and then uploads them to the S4PM-DME system. Algorithms in C and FORTRAN languages are currently supported. The user developed algorithm is automatically audited for any potential security problems before it is installed within the S4PM-DME system and made available to the user. Once the algorithm has been installed the user can promote the algorithm to the "operational" environment. From here the user can search and order the data available in the GES DAAC archive for his/her science algorithm. The user can also set up a processing subscription. The subscription will automatically process new data as it becomes available in the GES DAAC archive. The generated mined data products are then made available for FTP pickup. The benefits of using S4PM-DME are 1) to decrease the downloading time it typically takes a user to transfer the GES DAAC data to his/her system thus off-load the heavy network traffic, 2) to free-up the load on their system, and last 3) to utilize the rich and abundance ocean, atmosphere data from the MODIS and AIRS instruments available from the GES DAAC.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of the Cu2ZnSnS4 system for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pinzón, D. L.; Soracá Perez, G. Y.; Gómez Cuaspud, J. A.; López, E. Vera

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the synthesis and characterization of a ceramic material based on the Cu2ZnSnS4 system, through the implementation of a hydrothermal route. For this purpose, we started from nitrate dissolutions in a 1.0mol L-1 concentration, which were mixed and treated in a teflon lined vessel steel at 280°C for 48h. The Physicochemical characterization of the solid was evaluated by means of ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM-TEM) and solid state impedance spectroscopy (IS). The initial characterization through UV measurements confirms a Band-gap around 1.46eV obtained by the Kubelka-Munk method, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the synthesis method in the obtaining of a semiconductor material. The XRD results confirm the obtaining of a crystalline material of pure phase with tetragonal geometry and I-42m space group. The preferential crystalline orientation was achieved along (2 2 0) facet, with crystallite sizes of nanometric order (6.0nm). The morphological aspects evaluated by means electron microscopy, confirmed the homogeneity of the material, showing specifically a series of textural and surface properties of relevant importance. Finally, the electrical characterizations allow to validate the semiconductor behaviour of CZTS system for development of photovoltaic technologies.

  9. Progress in Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Cu2ZnSnS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research in thin film solar cells has been dominated by light absorber materials based on CdTe and Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS in the last several decades. The concerns of environment impact of cadmium and the limited availability of indium in those materials have driven the research towards developing new substitute light absorbers made from earth abundant, environment benign materials. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS semiconductor material has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for this aim and has attracted considerable interest recently. Significant progress in this relatively new research area has been achieved in the last three years. Over 130 papers on CZTS have been published since 2007, and the majority of them are on the preparation of CZTS thin films by different methods. This paper, will review the wide range of techniques that have been used to deposit CZTS semiconductor thin films. The performance of the thin film solar cells using the CZTS material will also be discussed.

  10. Null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS4 from perturbed W minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji

    2012-11-01

    We study the null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS 4 , which correspond to the gluon scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The area of the minimal surfaces with n cusps is characterized by the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) integral equations or the Y-system of the homogeneous sine-Gordon model, which is regarded as the SU(n-4) 4 /U(1) n-5 generalized parafermion theory perturbed by the weight-zero adjoint operators. Based on the relation to the TBA systems of the perturbed W minimal models, we solve the TBA equations by using the conformal perturbation theory, and obtain the analytic expansion of the remainder function around the UV/regular-polygonal limit for n = 6 and 7. We compare the rescaled remainder function for n=6 with the two-loop one, to observe that they are close to each other similarly to the AdS 3 case.

  11. DPRK's 4{sup th} Nuclear Test and its Tritium Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Joon; Chang, Sun Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    On January 6, 2016 at 10:30am, the artificial earthquake in the DPRK was detected by multiple international seismic organizations. After 2 hours, the DPRK announced on state TV that 'The first H-bomb test was successfully conducted in the DPRK at 10:00 am on Wednesday, Juche 105(2016), pursuant to the strategic determination of the ruling communist party.' There has been a doubt about the real nature of the DPRK's 4th nuclear test, since 2 months have been passed after its nuclear test. To analyze the nature of the DPRK's nuclear test, it is necessary to check possible options for production of essential materials. The pathways to produce nuclear fusion material (tritium) and to have a relatively high possibility for the DPRK are described in this article. Tritium is key material for H-bomb. And there are two options for the DPRK which are 1) production and 2) illicit trafficking. And this study is focused on production possibility of DPRK. Determination of the nature of DPRK's nuclear test is very hard issue.

  12. Comet LINEAR C/1999 S4 - an absolutely well-behaved comet before breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, S. B.; Lisse, C. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Ressler, M.; Stickel, M.; Kaminski, C.; Golish, B.

    2000-10-01

    We present results from infrared imaging of comet LINEAR C/1999 S4 on June 17 - 19, 2000 (pre-breakup), using the near-IR camera NSFCAM and the mid-IR camera MIRLIN at the 3m NASA/IRTF. Images and multi-wavelength spectroscopy were obtained in the zJHK'L'MNQ bands, and were used to create a 1.0 - 25 μ m SED of the comet's dust and nucleus. The coma's contribution at each wavelength was modeled using spatial fitting (Fernandez 1999, PhD thesis; Lisse et al. 1999, Icarus 140, 189). The resulting comatic and nuclear SEDs were then modeled using modified Mie theory (Lisse et al. 1998, ApJ 496, 971) and the standard nuclear thermal models (Lebofsky and Spencer 1989, Asteroids II, 128), respectively. We report the resulting dust PSD, mass loss rate, and albedo, as well as the nuclear radius, and we compare these results to those obtained by others from optical data both before and after the comet's breakup in late July 2000.

  13. Influence of sintering temperature on screen printed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Huang Yanhua; Lee, Alex Y.S.; Wang Chiou Fu; Gong Hao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The influences of sintering temperature on structure and properties of screen printed Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) were investigated. ► It was found that the direct optical band gap increased with increasing the sintering temperature. ► The screen printed CZTS film after sintering at 450 °C had a high photosensitivity (G i − G d )/G d of 14%. ► The hexagonal CuS phase aggregated after sintering at 500 °C and higher temperature. - Abstract: Screen printing is a useful and simple method for coating layers of several solar materials, but care must be taken in preparing stoichiometric CZTS film due to its instability at a high processing temperature and a small chemical potential domain. This paper reports screen printing prepared CZTS films and the influence of sintering temperature on CZTS properties. The thermostability, structural, electronic and optical properties are studied. The direct optical band gap energies of the films vary from 1.39 to 1.60 eV, while the resistivities change from 830 to 6 Ω cm after sintering at different temperatures up to 550 °C. A high photosensitivity of 14% is achieved for the sample sintered at 450 °C. The phenomena observed are also discussed.

  14. Interference of birefractive waves in CdGa2S4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrbu, N.N.; Tiron, A.V.; Parvan, V.I.; Zalamai, V.V.; Tiginyanu, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    In CdGa 2 S 4 crystals the Fabry–Perot and birefringence interference spectra were investigated. Spectral dependences of refraction indexes for ordinary (n o ) and extraordinary (n e ) light waves are defined. The spectral dependence Δn=n e −n o from the short and long-wavelength parts of isotropic wavelength λ 0 =485.7 nm (300 K) is determined. It is established that at λ>λ 0 Δn is positive and at λ<λ 0 Δn is negative. Wavelength λ 0 =485.7 nm shifts with decreasing temperature to short-wavelengths. The phase difference of ordinary and extraordinary light waves for λ>λ 0 and λ<λ 0 was determined. The band in reflection spectra observed at the isotropic wavelength has a small halfwidth (∽3–5 Å). Another isotropic wavelength was found in the short-wavelength region (433 nm) for crystals obtained by iodine transport method

  15. Exploring the spectrum of planar AdS4 /CFT3 at finite coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardelli, Diego; Cavaglià, Andrea; Conti, Riccardo; Tateo, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    The Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) equations for planar N=6 super-conformal Chern-Simons (SCS) are solved numerically at finite values of the coupling constant for states in the sl(2\\Big|1) sector. New weak coupling results for conformal dimensions of operators outside the sl(2) -like sector are obtained by adapting a recently proposed algorithm for the QSC perturbative solution. Besides being interesting in their own right, these perturbative results are necessary initial inputs for the numerical algorithm to converge on the correct solution. The non-perturbative numerical outcomes nicely interpolate between the weak coupling and the known semiclassical expansions, and novel strong coupling exact results are deduced from the numerics. Finally, the existence of contour crossing singularities in the TBA equations for the operator 20 is ruled out by our analysis. The results of this paper are an important test of the QSC formalism for this model, open the way to new quantitative studies and provide further evidence in favour of the conjectured weak/strong coupling duality between N=6 SCS and type IIA superstring theory on AdS4 × CP 3. Attached to the arXiv submission, a Mathematica implementation of the numerical method and ancillary files containing the numerical results are provided.

  16. Moving Communities Toward Policy Change: APPEAL’s 4-Prong Policy Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K.; Lew, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Policy change is recognized for underlying much of the success of tobacco control. However, there is little evidence and attention on how Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) communities may engage in policy change. Challenges for AA and NHPI communities include the racial/ethnic and geographic diversity, and tobacco data accurately representing the communities. Over the past decade, the Asian Pacific Partners for Empowerment, Advocacy and Leadership (APPEAL) has worked to develop and implement policy change for AA and NHPI communities. This article describes APPEAL’s 4-prong policy change model, in the context of its overall strategic framework for policy change with communities that accounts for varying levels of readiness and leadership capacity, and targets four different levels of policy change (community, mainstream institution, legislative, and corporate). The health promotion implication of this framework for tobacco control policy engagement is for improving understanding of effective pathways to policy change, promoting innovative methods for policy analysis, and translating them into effective implementation and sustainability of policy initiatives. The APPEAL strategic framework can transcend into other communities and health topics that ultimately may contribute to the elimination of health disparities. PMID:23707962

  17. The magnetic structure and palaeomagnetic recording fidelity of sub-micron greigite (Fe3S4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Grijalva, Miguel A.; Nagy, Lesleis; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of a finite-element micromagnetic model of 30nm to 300nm greigite (Fe3S4) grains with a variety of equant morphologies. This grain size range covers the magnetic single-domain (SD) to pseudo single-domain (PSD) transition, and possibly also the PSD to multi-domain (MD) transition. The SD-PSD threshold d0 is determined to be 50nm ≤d0 ≤ 56nm depending on grain shape. The nudged elastic-band method was used to determine the room temperature energy barriers between stable states and thus the blocking volumes. It is found that, in the absence of interparticle magnetostatic interactions, the magnetisation of equant SD greigite is not stable on a geological scale and only PSD grains ≥ 70nm can be expected to carry a stable magnetisation over billion-year timescales, i.e., all non-interacting SD particles are essentially superparamagnetic. We further identify a mechanism for the PSD to multi-domain (MD) transition, which is of a continuous nature from PSD nucleation up to 300nm, when structures typical of MD behaviour like closure domains begin to form.

  18. Superconformal Chern-Simons theories and AdS4/CFT3 correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, Marcus; Klebanov, Igor; Klose, Thomas; Smedbaeck, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the N = 2 superspace formulation of the N = 8 superconformal Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson theory, and of the N = 6 superconformal Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena U(N) x U(N) Chern-Simons theory. In particular, we prove the full SU(4) R-symmetry of the ABJM theory. We then consider orbifold projections of this theory that give non-chiral and chiral (U(N) x U(N)) n superconformal quiver gauge theories. We argue that these theories are dual to certain AdS 4 x S 7 /(Z n x Z k -tilde) backgrounds of M-theory. We also study a SU(3) invariant mass term in the superpotential that makes the N = 8 theory flow to a N = 2 superconformal gauge theory with a sextic superpotential. We conjecture that this gauge theory is dual to the U(1) R x SU(3) invariant extremum of the N = 8 gauged supergravity, which was discovered by N. Warner 25 years ago and whose uplifting to 11 dimensions was found more recently.

  19. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  20. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pedernera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new process is presented by which water soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg, homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures, Thom, and ice melting temperatures, Tm, of various aqueous inorganic, organic and multi-component solutions are investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter. The investigated solutes are: various polyols, glucose, raffinose, levoglucosan, an aromatic compound, sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate and mixtures of dicarboxylic acids (M5, of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate (M5AS, of two polyols, of glucose and ammonium nitrate, and of raffinose and M5AS. The results indicate that aqueous solutions of the investigated inorganic solutes show Tg values that are too low to be of atmospheric importance. In contrast, aqueous organic and multi-component solutions readily form glasses at low but atmospherically relevant temperatures (≤230 K. To apply the laboratory data to the atmospheric situation, the measured phase transition temperatures were transformed from a concentration to a water activity scale by extrapolating water activities determined between 252 K and 313 K to lower temperatures. The obtained state diagrams reveal that the higher the molar mass of the aqueous organic or multi-component solutes, the higher Tg of their respective solutions at a given water activity. To a lesser extent, Tg also depends on the hydrophilicity of the organic solutes. Therefore, aerosol particles containing larger (≳150 g mol−1 and

  1. On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data presented in the figures of the paper "On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass"...

  2. The ion–aerosol interactions from the ion mobility and aerosol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-02-18

    aerosol interactions from the ion mobility and aerosol particle size distribution measurements on January 17 and February 18, 2005 at Maitri, Antarctica – A case study. Devendraa Siingh Vimlesh Pant A K Kamra. Volume 120 Issue 4 August ...

  3. Beschrijving van een verdampings-condensatie aerosol generator voor de produktie van submicron aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijt; A.*; Meulen; A.van der

    1985-01-01

    Dit rapport is een handleiding voor een bedrijfszeker, routinematig gebruik van een zgn. Evaporation-Condensation aerosol Conditioner. Met deze aerosol generatie apparatuur kunnen op stabiele, reproduceerbare manier zeer hoge concentraties (tot 1 miljoen deeltjes per cc) monodispers submicron

  4. Indented Cu2MoS4 nanosheets with enhanced electrocatalytic and photocatalytic activities realized through edge engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Bao; Ma, De-Kun; Ke, Qing-Ping; Chen, Wei; Huang, Shao-Ming

    2016-03-07

    Edges often play a role as active centers for catalytic reactions in some nanomaterials. Therefore it is highly desirable to enhance catalytic activity of a material through modulating the microstructure of the edges. However, the study associated with edge engineering is less investigated and still at its preliminary stage. Here we report that Cu2MoS4 nanosheets with indented edges can be fabricated through a simple chemical etching route at room temperature, using Cu2MoS4 nanosheets with flat ones as sacrifice templates. Taking the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and conversion of benzyl alcohol as examples, the catalytic activity of Cu2MoS4 indented nanosheets (INSs) obtained through edge engineering was comparatively studied with those of Cu2MoS4 flat nanosheets (FNSs) without any modification. The photocatalytic tests revealed that the catalytic active sites of Cu2MoS4 nanosheets were associated with their edges rather than basal planes. Cu2MoS4 INSs were endowed with larger electrochemically active surface area (ECSA), more active edges and better hydrophilicity through the edge engineering. As a result, the as-fabricated Cu2MoS4 INSs exhibited an excellent HER activity with a small Tafel slope of 77 mV dec(-1), which is among the best records for Cu2MoS4 catalysts. The present work demonstrated the validity of adjusting catalytic activity of the material through edge engineering and provided a new strategy for designing and developing highly efficient catalysts.

  5. Aerosol emission during human speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Sima; Wexler, Anthony S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Bouvier, Nicole M.; Barreda-Castanon, Santiago; Ristenpart, William D.

    2017-11-01

    We show that the rate of aerosol particle emission during healthy human speech is strongly correlated with the loudness (amplitude) of vocalization. Emission rates range from approximately 1 to 50 particles per second for quiet to loud amplitudes, regardless of language spoken (English, Spanish, Mandarin, or Arabic). Intriguingly, a small fraction of individuals behave as ``super emitters,'' consistently emitting an order of magnitude more aerosol particles than their peers. We interpret the results in terms of the eggressive flowrate during vocalization, which is known to vary significantly for different types of vocalization and for different individuals. The results suggest that individual speech patterns could affect the probability of airborne disease transmission. The results also provide a possible explanation for the existence of ``super spreaders'' who transmit pathogens much more readily than average and who play a key role in the spread of epidemics.

  6. Electrodeposition mechanism of quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4: Effect of the additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Aiyue; Li, Zhilin; Wang, Feng; Dou, Meiling; Liu, Jingjun; Ji, Jing; Song, Ye

    2018-01-01

    The electrodeposition mechanism of pure phase Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film with subsequent annealing was investigated in detail. An electrolyte design principle of quaternary compounds was proposed. The complex ions of Cu(H2C6H5O7)+, Cu2(C6H5O7)+, Zn(C4H5O6)+, Sn(H2C6H5O7)+ and Sn2(C6H5O7)+, which influenced the reduction process and played important roles in co-deposition, were identified by UV spectra. Electrochemical studies indicated that trisodium citrate and tartaric acid could narrow the co-deposition potential range of the four elements to -0.8 V to -1.2 V (vs. SCE). The cause was the synergetic effect that trisodium citrate inhibited the reduction of Cu2+ and Sn2+ and tartaric acid promoted the reduction of Zn2+. The reduction of S2O32- was mainly attributed to the induction effect of the metallic ions, and the H+ dissociated from tartaric acid could also promote the cathode process of S2O32-. The reaction mechanism could be summarized as the following steps: (I) Cu(H2C6H5O7)+, Cu2(C6H5O7)+ → Cu, Sn(H2C6H5O7)+, Sn2(C6H5O7)+ → Sn, Zn(C4H5O6)+ → Zn; (II) the desorption of (H2C6H5O7)- and (C6H5O7)-, and the reduction of S2O32- induced by metallic ions and H+. The mechanism studies provided a path of electrolyte design for multicomponent compounds.

  7. Two step growth mechanism of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Narayana; Venkata Subbaiah, Y. P.; Prathap, P.; Reddy, Y. B. K.; Hema Chandra, G.

    2014-09-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductor is rapidly emerging as the best absorber layer for next generation solar photovoltaics. Its cost effectiveness, environment-friendly nature, wide presence of chemical constituents in nature and high absorption coefficient with suitable energy band gap for effective utilization of solar spectrum makes it a viable alternative. The present work summarizes the preparation of CZTS films through a two-step process consisting of co-sputtered metallic precursors on glass substrates kept at 230 °C followed by sulfurization for 2 h in the ambience of elemental sulfur vapor at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 550 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman analysis make it explicit that the sulfurization temperature has significant impact on reaction mechanism resulting in various bi-metallic, mono and binary metal sulfides. The diffraction pattern noticed at 500 °C corresponding to (112), (220) and (312) planes confirms the single phase CZTS as evidenced by weak and strong Raman modes at 285, 337 and 352 cm-1. The transmittance and reflectance measurements of optimized CZTS films revealed that the films have an energy band gap of ~1.56 eV. The optimized films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached with EDS to know the morphological features and elemental quantification. The single phase CZTS films have exhibited p-type conductivity with sheet resistance ~6.8×103 Ω/sq., carrier concentration ~9.1×1017 cm-3 and hole mobility ~16.6 cm2V-1 s-1.

  8. SEVERIDAD DE CURVULARIA EN 67 LÍNEAS AUTOFECUNDADAS S4 DE MAÍZ AMARRILLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los principales problemas que afectan la producción del cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L., podemos citar a las enfermedades, causadas por diferentes patógenos, entre ellos la mancha foliar de curvularia causada por Curvularia spp. El control más barato, viable y que no causa daños al medio ambiente contra casi cualquier patógeno, es a través de la resistencia genética de la planta hospedante es decir, mediante el mejoramiento genético y utilización de variedades resistentes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la severidad de curvularia en líneas promisorias autofecundadas S4 de maíz amarillo, obtenidos a partir de materiales comerciales. En la primera población (LM1 se encontraron valores máximos de 5.6 y menores de 1.4 lesiones cm-2, mientras que en la segunda población (LM2 los promedios máximos y mínimos fueron de 8.0 y 1.5 lesiones cm-2, respectivamente. Se constató diferencia entre las líneas evaluadas en función de la severidad de mancha de curvularia, en los dos experimentos. Con la información obtenida se torna importante considerar los valores de severidad obtenidos en estos experimentos, para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos híbridos de maíz con caracteres contrastantes en el comportamiento de la planta a determinadas enfermedades, asegurando el éxito de un programa de mejoramiento genético. Por otro lado, para futuros trabajos similares se recomienda realizar más de una evaluación y en diferentes estadios fenológicos del cultivo.

  9. Aerosol volatility in a boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, S. A. K.; ńijälä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and health effects of atmospheric aerosols are determined by their properties such as their chemical composition. Aerosol chemical composition can be studied indirectly by measuring volatility of aerosol particles. The volatility of submicron aerosol particles (20-500 nm) was studied in a boreal forest site at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II) station (Vesala et al., 1998) in Hyytiälä, Finland, during 01/2008-05/2010. The instrument used for the measurements was VDMPS (Volatility Differential Mobility Particle Sizer), which consists of two separate instruments: DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, Aalto et al., 2001) and TD (Thermodenuder, Wehner et al., 2002). Aerosol evaporation was examined by heating the aerosol and comparing the total aerosol mass before and after heating. In the VDMPS system ambient aerosol sample was heated up to temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 280 °C. The higher the heating temperature was the more aerosol material was evaporated. There was a non-volatile residual present in aerosol particles when heated up to 280 °C. This residual explained (20±8)% of the total aerosol mass. Aerosol non-volatile mass fraction was highest during winter and smallest during summer months. The role of black carbon in the observed non-volatile residual was determined. Black carbon explained 40 to 90% of the non-volatile mass. Especially during colder seasons noticeable amount of non-volatile material, something else than black carbon, was observed. According to Kalberer et al. (2004) some atmospheric organic species can form polymers that have high evaporation temperatures. Also low-volatile organic salts may contribute to the non-volatile aerosol (Smith et al., 2010). Aerosol mass composition measured directly with AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Jayne et al., 2000) was analyzed in order to examine the properties of the non-volatile material (other than black carbon). The AMS measurements were performed

  10. Modelling aerosol behavior in reactor cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the areas of concern in using computer codes to model fission-product aerosol behavior in the reactor cooling system (RCS) of a water-cooled nuclear reactor during a loss-of-coolant accident. The basic physical processes that require modelling include: fission product release and aerosol formation in the reactor core, aerosol transport and deposition in the reactor core and throughout the rest of the RCS, and the interaction between aerosol transport processes and the thermalhydraulics. In addition to these basic physical processes, chemical reactions can have a large influence on the nature of the aerosol and its behavior in the RCS. The focus is on the physics and the implications of numerical methods used in the computer codes to model aerosol behavior in the RCS

  11. Aerosol Optical Depth Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liji Mary; Ravishankara, A. R.; Kodros, John K.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Chaliyakunnel, Sreelekha; Millet, Dylan B.

    2018-04-01

    Tropospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) over India was simulated by Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem, a global 3-D chemical-transport model, using SMOG (Speciated Multi-pOllutant Generator from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) and GEOS-Chem (GC) (current inventories used in the GEOS-Chem model) inventories for 2012. The simulated AODs were 80% (SMOG) and 60% (GC) of those measured by the satellites (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer). There is no strong seasonal variation in AOD over India. The peak AOD values are observed/simulated during summer. The simulated AOD using SMOG inventory has particulate black and organic carbon AOD higher by a factor 5 and 3, respectively, compared to GC inventory. The model underpredicted coarse-mode AOD but agreed for fine-mode AOD with Aerosol Robotic Network data. It captured dust only over Western India, which is a desert, and not elsewhere, probably due to inaccurate dust transport and/or noninclusion of other dust sources. The calculated AOD, after dust correction, showed the general features in its observed spatial variation. Highest AOD values were observed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain followed by Central and Southern India with lowest values in Northern India. Transport of aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central India into Eastern India, where emissions are low, is significant. The major contributors to total AOD over India are inorganic aerosol (41-64%), organic carbon (14-26%), and dust (7-32%). AOD over most regions of India is a factor of 5 or higher than over the United States.

  12. Aerosol climate time series from ESA Aerosol_cci (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer-Popp, T.

    2013-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) the Aerosol_cci project (mid 2010 - mid 2013, phase 2 proposed 2014-2016) has conducted intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors AATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. Global datasets for 2008 were produced and validated versus independent ground-based data and other satellite data sets (MODIS, MISR). An additional 17-year dataset is currently generated using ATSR-2/AATSR data. During the three years of the project, intensive collaborative efforts were made to improve the retrieval algorithms focusing on the most critical modules. The team agreed on the use of a common definition for the aerosol optical properties. Cloud masking was evaluated, but a rigorous analysis with a pre-scribed cloud mask did not lead to improvement for all algorithms. Better results were obtained using a post-processing step in which sudden transitions, indicative of possible occurrence of cloud contamination, were removed. Surface parameterization, which is most critical for the nadir only algorithms (MERIS and synergetic AATSR / SCIAMACHY) was studied to a limited extent. The retrieval results for AOD, Ångström exponent (AE) and uncertainties were evaluated by comparison with data from AERONET (and a limited amount of MAN) sun photometer and with satellite data available from MODIS and MISR. Both level2 and level3 (gridded daily) datasets were validated. Several validation metrics were used (standard statistical quantities such as bias, rmse, Pearson correlation, linear regression, as well as scoring approaches to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal correlations against AERONET), and in some cases

  13. Lung delivery of aerosolized dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, W H; Lange, C F; King, M; Speert, D P

    2000-01-01

    The ability of nebulizers to deliver dextran (nominal molecular mass, 4,000 g/mol) to the lung as an inhaled aerosol is evaluated by in vitro experimental methods and mathematical models. Dextran in isotonic saline was aerosolized by four nebulizer types (Pari LC STAR, Hudson T-Updraft II, Acorn II, and Sonix 2000) at dextran concentrations phase Doppler anemometry, filter collection, osmometry, and gravimetry. Mathematical models were used to estimate amounts of the characterized aerosols depositing in the different regions of lung models, and mathematical models of mucous thickness were then developed to estimate initial concentrations of the depositing dextran in the mucus of each conducting airway generation. Models of three subjects (4 yr old, 8 yr old, and adult) were used. The high viscosity of the dextran solutions tested (up to seven times that of water) negatively impacts nebulization, and results in poor performance with most delivery systems tested. Our results suggest that airway mucosal dextran concentrations associated with efficacy in previous animal and in vitro models are achievable with reasonable delivery times (

  14. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between ∼0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m 3 /s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m 3 /s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  16. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. Aan de Brugh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension. We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95% and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%. We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match, while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  17. Characterization of a monodispersed aerosol exposure system for beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, W.C.; Herring, J.P.; Craig, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    A monodispersed aerosol exposure system for dogs is described and data are presented on aerosol depositions in the exposure system which could affect the aerosol presented to the animals by reducing the concentration and changing the particle size distribution

  18. Estimation of Uncertainty in Aerosol Concentration Measured by Aerosol Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chan; Song, Yong Jae; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Gyu Tae; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    FNC Technology Co., Ltd has been developed test facilities for the aerosol generation, mixing, sampling and measurement under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The aerosol generation system is connected to the aerosol mixing system which injects SiO{sub 2}/ethanol mixture. In the sampling system, glass fiber membrane filter has been used to measure average mass concentration. Based on the experimental results using main carrier gas of steam and air mixture, the uncertainty estimation of the sampled aerosol concentration was performed by applying Gaussian error propagation law. FNC Technology Co., Ltd. has been developed the experimental facilities for the aerosol measurement under high pressure and high temperature. The purpose of the tests is to develop commercial test module for aerosol generation, mixing and sampling system applicable to environmental industry and safety related system in nuclear power plant. For the uncertainty calculation of aerosol concentration, the value of the sampled aerosol concentration is not measured directly, but must be calculated from other quantities. The uncertainty of the sampled aerosol concentration is a function of flow rates of air and steam, sampled mass, sampling time, condensed steam mass and its absolute errors. These variables propagate to the combination of variables in the function. Using operating parameters and its single errors from the aerosol test cases performed at FNC, the uncertainty of aerosol concentration evaluated by Gaussian error propagation law is less than 1%. The results of uncertainty estimation in the aerosol sampling system will be utilized for the system performance data.

  19. Nuclear aerosol behavior during reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Some early reactor accidents are recalled together with their associated environmental consequences. One such consequence is the generation of radioactive aerosol. We described the various physical processes that such an aerosol cloud undergoes within the secondary containment building. These physical processes are then brought together quantitatively in a balance equation for the aerosol size spectrum as a function of position and time. Methods for solving this equation are discussed and illustrated by the method of moments based upon log-normal and modified gamma distributions. Current problems are outlined and directions for future work into aerosol behavior are suggested. (author)

  20. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1972-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  1. Impact of aerosols on ice crystal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Gu, Yu; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Li, Qinbin; Fu, Rong; Huang, Lei; Liu, Xiaohong; Shi, Xiangjun; Su, Hui; He, Cenlin

    2018-01-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. In particular, the impact of aerosols on ice crystal effective radius (Rei), which is a key parameter determining ice clouds' net radiative effect, is highly uncertain due to limited and conflicting observational evidence. Here we investigate the effects of aerosols on Rei under different meteorological conditions using 9-year satellite observations. We find that the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters. While there is a significant negative correlation between Rei and aerosol loading in moist conditions, consistent with the "Twomey effect" for liquid clouds, a strong positive correlation between the two occurs in dry conditions. Simulations based on a cloud parcel model suggest that water vapor modulates the relative importance of different ice nucleation modes, leading to the opposite aerosol impacts between moist and dry conditions. When ice clouds are decomposed into those generated from deep convection and formed in situ, the water vapor modulation remains in effect for both ice cloud types, although the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols differ noticeably between them due to distinct formation mechanisms. The water vapor modulation can largely explain the difference in the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings in various seasons. A proper representation of the water vapor modulation is essential for an accurate estimate of aerosol-cloud radiative forcing produced by ice clouds.

  2. The fifth Finnish national aerosol symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkanen, P.; Haemeri, K.; Kauppinen, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Fifth Finnish Aerosol Symposium was held June 1-3, 1993. Symposium is jointly organized by FAAR, Aerosol Technology Group of Technical Research Centre of Finland and Helsinki University, Department of Physics. Aerosols, the suspensions of solid and liquid particles and gases, are receiving increasing importance in many areas of science and technology. These include industrial hygiene, ambient and indoor air pollution, pollution control technologies, cloud physics, nuclear safety engineering, combustion science and engineering, clean manufacturing technologies and material processing. The importance of aerosol issues during the development of advanced fuel conversion and material processing technologies can be realized when looking at the numerous papers presented on these topics at the Symposium

  3. Global indirect aerosol effects: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lohmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.

  4. Glyoxal contribution to aerosols over Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have indicated that glyoxal (chemical formula OCHCHO), an atmospheric oxidation product of isoprene and aromatic compounds, may contribute to secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere, which can block sunlight and affect atmospheric chemistry. Some aerosols are primary aerosols, emitted directly into the atmosphere, while others are secondary, formed through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Washenfelder et al. describe in situ glyoxal measurements from Pasadena, Calif., near Los Angeles, made during summer 2010. They used three different methods to calculate the contribution of glyoxal to secondary atmospheric aerosol and found that it is responsible for 0-0.2 microgram per cubic meter, or 0-4%, of the secondary organic aerosol mass. The researchers also compared their results to those of a previous study that calculated the glyoxal contribution to aerosol for Mexico City. Mexico City had higher levels of organic aerosol mass from glyoxal. They suggest that the lower contribution of glyoxal to aerosol concentrations for Los Angeles may be due to differences in the composition or water content of the aerosols above the two cities. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2011JD016314, 2011)

  5. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide, normally insoluble in biological fluids, becomes much more soluble when mixed with sodium as the aerosol is formed. Sodium-fuel aerosols are approximately 20 times less soluble in simulated lung fluid than in distilled water. Solubility of sodium-fuel aerosols increases when Na 2 CO 3 are added to the distilled-water dissolution fluid. Mixed-oxide fuel aerosols without sodium present are relatively insoluble in distilled water, simulated lung fluid, and distilled water with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 added

  6. The boiling point of stratospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    A photoelectric particle counter was used for the measurement of aerosol boiling points. The operational principle involves raising the temperature of the aerosol by vigorously heating a portion of the intake tube. At or above the boiling point, the particles disintegrate rather quickly, and a noticeable effect on the size distribution and concentration is observed. Stratospheric aerosols appear to have the same volatility as a solution of 75% sulfuric acid. Chemical analysis of the aerosols indicates that there are other substances present, but that the sulfate radical is apparently the major constituent.

  7. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  8. Prediction study of structural, electronic and optical properties of XIn2S4 (X = Hg, Zn) thiospinels under pressure effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, Masood; Inam, F.; Khenata, R.; Murtaza, G.; Isa, A.R.M.; Saeed, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pressure effect is employed for the first time on HgIn 2 S 4 and ZnIn 2 S 4 thiospinels. • A number of physical parameters are calculated and equations are developed. • FP-LAPW+lo method is coupled with different approximations (GGA+U and mBJ-GGA). • Relationships between pressure and parameters are in accordance with the theory. • Computed band gap values have good agreement with the experimental values. -- Abstract: First principle calculations are carried out to study the effect of pressure (up to 30 GPa) on physical properties of HgIn 2 S 4 and ZnIn 2 S 4 thiospinels. A number of structural, electronic and optical parameters are calculated, and equations are developed for their prediction at different pressures. Highly effective all electron FP-LAPW+lo method coupled with two different approximations (GGA+U and mBJ-GGA) provides very accurate results. All relationships developed between pressure and structural parameters are in full accordance with the established theory thus validating the approach used in the current study. Computed In–S bond length for ZnIn 2 S 4 matches closely with the experimental value. The band gap values of 0.920 eV (1.851 eV) and 1.68 eV (2.733 eV) are obtained with GGA+U (mBJ-GGA) at 0 GPa for HgIn 2 S 4 and ZnIn 2 S 4 , respectively. Additionally, we have calculated the optical properties, namely, the complex dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity, optical conductivity, absorption coefficient and electron energy loss function under pressure effect for radiation up to 30.0 eV. The first critical point also known as optical’s absorption edge calculated with GGA+U (mBJ-GGA) appears at 0.939 eV (1.891 eV) and 1.701 eV (2.981 eV) for HgIn 2 S 4 and ZnIn 2 S 4 , respectively. Variation of the absorption spectrum indicates the prospective use of both compounds for device applications, which can be operated on a wide range of the energy scale. The entire work gives useful

  9. Potential climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueschel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Aerosols act as part of the climate system through their influence on solar and terrestrial radiation. The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on the reduction of visibility is explored in this chapter. Elemental carbon has been identified as the most effective visibility-reducing species. Most of the visibility reduction is due to particles with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm. Studies indicate that sulfate is also a very important aerosol species that results in low visibility and high turbidity. Radiative properties such as aerosol single-scattering albedo values and absorption-to-backscatter ratios purported to produce warming or cooling effects of aerosols are discussed. It is concluded that aerosol clouds have a tendency to cool when they are over a low-albedo surface and have a tendency to warm when they are over high-albedo surfaces such as snow. Anthropogenic aerosols have a tendency to warm the earth's atmospheric system, based on calculations and assumed aerosol optical properties. However, this effect is somewhat offset by the absorption and re-emission into space of infrared terrestrial radiation. The net effect depends on the ratio of the absorption coefficients in the visible and infrared and also on the surface albedo. The effects on infrared radiation are documented for two anthropogenic aerosol sources in the United States, the Denver metropolitan area and power plant plumes in New Mexico, through calculations and measurements. Measured cooling rates within an aerosol plume are not sufficient to offset the warming rate due to absorption of short-wave radiation. Research indicates that anthropogenic aerosols can possibly cause local-scale warming of the atmosphere, but global-scale climatic effects remain an open question

  10. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  11. Interface band gap narrowing behind open circuit voltage losses in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Palsgaard, Mattias Lau Nøhr; Gunst, Tue

    2017-01-01

    We present evidence that bandgap narrowing at the heterointerface may be a major cause of the large open circuit voltage deficit of Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS solar cells. Bandgap narrowing is caused by surface states that extend the Cu2ZnSnS4valence band into the forbidden gap. Those surface states...... are consistently found in Cu2ZnSnS4, but not in Cu2ZnSnSe4, by first-principles calculations. They do not simply arise from defects at surfaces but are an intrinsic feature of Cu2ZnSnS4 surfaces. By including those states in a device model, the outcome of previously published temperature-dependent open circuit...... voltage measurements on Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells can be reproduced quantitatively without necessarily assuming a cliff-like conduction band offset with the CdS buffer layer. Our first-principles calculations indicate that Zn-based alternative buffer layers are advantageous due to the ability of...

  12. Shape-controlled synthesis of NiCo2S4 and their charge storage characteristics in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufei; Ma, Mingze; Yang, Jun; Sun, Chencheng; Su, Haiquan; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a facile hydrothermal approach for the shape-controlled synthesis of NiCo2S4 architectures is reported. Four different morphologies, urchin-, tube-, flower-, and cubic-like NiCo2S4 microstructures, have been successfully synthesized by employing various solvents. The obtained precursors and products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is revealed that the supersaturation of nucleation and crystal growth is determined by the solvent polarity and solubility, which can precisely control the morphology of NiCo2S4 microstructures. The detailed electrochemical performances of the various NiCo2S4 microstructures are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The results indicate that the tube-like NiCo2S4 exhibits promising capacitive properties with high capacitance and excellent retention. Its specific capacitance can reach 1048 F g-1 at the current density of 3.0 A g-1 and 75.9% of its initial capacitance is maintained at the current density of 10.0 A g-1 after 5000 charge-discharge cycles.

  13. Luminescence properties of Eu2+- and Ce3+-doped CaAl2S4 and application in white LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ruijin; Wang Jing; Zhang Jianhui; Yuan Haibin; Su Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The Eu 2+ - and Ce 3+ -doped CaAl 2 S 4 phosphors were comparatively synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction and the evacuated sealed quartz ampoule. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that the sample with better crystalline quality was prepared by the evacuated sealed quartz ampoule, resulting in the enhancement of the emission intensity of Eu 2+ ion by a factor of 1.7. The intensive green LEDs were also fabricated by combining CaAl 2 S 4 :Eu 2+ with near-ultraviolet InGaN chips (λ em =395 nm). The dependence of as-fabricated green LEDs on forward-bias currents shows that it presents good chromaticity stability and luminance saturation, indicating that CaAl 2 S 4 :Eu 2+ is a promising green-emitting phosphor for a near-UV InGaN-based LED. In addition, the optical properties of CaAl 2 S 4 :Ce 3+ were systematically investigated by means of diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence excitation and emission, concentrating quenching and the decay curve. - Graphical abstract: The Eu 2+ - and Ce 3+ -doped CaAl 2 S 4 phosphors were comparatively synthesized by two methods. The emission intensity of Eu 2+ ion in sample synthesized by the evacuated sealed quartz ampoule method is by a factor of 1.7 as strong as that of Eu 2+ ion in sample prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method

  14. Reactivity of Cubane-Type [(OC)(3)MFe(3)S(4)(SR)(3)](3-) Clusters (M = Mo, W): Interconversion with Cuboidal [Fe(3)S(4)](0) Clusters and Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raebiger, James W.; Crawford, Charles A.; Zhou, Jian; Holm, R. H.

    1997-03-12

    The title clusters, several examples of which have been reported earlier, have been prepared by two different methods and subjected to structural and reactivity studies. The compounds (Et(4)N)(3)[(OC)(3)MFe(3)S(4)(Smes)(3)].MeCN (M = Mo/W) are isomorphous and crystallize in monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 13.412(1)/13.297(1) Å, b = 19.0380(1)/18.9376(3) Å, c = 26.4210(1)/26.2949(1) Å, beta = 97.87(1)/97.549(1) degrees, and Z = 4. The clusters contain long M-S (2.62/2.59 Å) and M-Fe (3.22/3.19 Å) bonds, consistent with the reported structure of [(OC)(3)MoFe(3)S(4)(SEt)(3)](3-) (3). Reaction of [(OC)(3)MoFe(3)S(4)(LS(3))](3-) (7) with CO in the presence of NaPF(6) affords cuboidal [Fe(3)S(4)(LS(3))](3-) (9), also prepared in this laboratory by another route as a synthetic analogue of protein-bound [Fe(3)S(4)](0) clusters. The clusters [Fe(3)S(4)(SR)(3)](3-) (R = mes, Et), of limited stability, were generated by the same reaction. Treatment of 9 with [M(CO)(3)(MeCN)(3)] affords 7 and its M = W analogue. The clusters [(OC)(3)MFe(3)S(4)(SR)(3)](3-) form a four-member electron transfer series in which the 3- cluster can be once reduced (4-) and twice oxidized (2-, 1-) to afford clusters of the indicated charges. The correct assignment of redox couple to potential in the redox series of six clusters is presented, correcting an earlier misassignment of the redox series of 3. Carbonyl stretching frequencies are shown to be sensitive to cluster oxidation state, showing that the M sites and Fe(3)S(4) fragments are electronically coupled despite the long bond distances. (LS(3) = 1,3,5-tris((4,6-dimethyl-3-mercaptophenyl)thio)-2,4,6-tris(p-tolylthio)benzenate(3-); mes = mesityl.)

  15. Aerosol retrieval algorithm for the characterization of local aerosol using MODIS L1B data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, A M; Sarker, M L R

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol plays an important role in radiation budget, climate change, hydrology and visibility. However, it has immense effect on the air quality, especially in densely populated areas where high concentration of aerosol is associated with premature death and the decrease of life expectancy. Therefore, an accurate estimation of aerosol with spatial distribution is essential, and satellite data has increasingly been used to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD). Aerosol product (AOD) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data is available at global scale but problems arise due to low spatial resolution, time-lag availability of AOD product as well as the use of generalized aerosol models in retrieval algorithm instead of local aerosol models. This study focuses on the aerosol retrieval algorithm for the characterization of local aerosol in Hong Kong for a long period of time (2006-2011) using high spatial resolution MODIS level 1B data (500 m resolution) and taking into account the local aerosol models. Two methods (dark dense vegetation and MODIS land surface reflectance product) were used for the estimation of the surface reflectance over land and Santa Barbara DISORT Radiative Transfer (SBDART) code was used to construct LUTs for calculating the aerosol reflectance as a function of AOD. Results indicate that AOD can be estimated at the local scale from high resolution MODIS data, and the obtained accuracy (ca. 87%) is very much comparable with the accuracy obtained from other studies (80%-95%) for AOD estimation

  16. An empirical model of L-band scintillation S4 index constructed by using FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Ping; Bilitza, Dieter; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Caton, Ronald; Chang, Loren C.; Yeh, Wen-Hao

    2017-09-01

    Modern society relies heavily on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology for applications such as satellite communication, navigation, and positioning on the ground and/or aviation in the troposphere/stratosphere. However, ionospheric scintillations can severely impact GNSS systems and their related applications. In this study, a global empirical ionospheric scintillation model is constructed with S4-index data obtained by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) satellites during 2007-2014 (hereafter referred to as the F3CGS4 model). This model describes the S4-index as a function of local time, day of year, dip-latitude, and solar activity using the index PF10.7. The model reproduces the F3/C S4-index observations well, and yields good agreement with ground-based reception of satellite signals. This confirms that the constructed model can be used to forecast global L-band scintillations on the ground and in the near surface atmosphere.

  17. Optical Response of Cu1-xZnxIr2S4 Due to Metal--Insulator Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Matsunami, M.; Nanba, T.; Cao, G.; Suzuki, H.; Isobe, M.; Matsumoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    The mother material CuIr 2 S 4 of the thiospinel system Cu 1-x Zn x Ir 2 S 4 undergoes a temperature-induced metal--insulator (Mi) transition. We report the temperature dependence of the optical reflection spectra of Cu 1-x Zn x Ir 2 S 4 (x ≤ 0.5) at the temperatures of 8-300 K in the energy regions of 0.005--30 eV in order to study the change in the electronic structure due to the Zn substitution for Cu. Zn substitution induced mainly the splitting of the hybridization band between the Ir-5d(t 2g ) and S-3 p states crossing the E F . Obtained optical conductivity (σ ) spectrum is discussed in relation to the change in the electronic structure close to the E F . (author)

  18. Developments in the Aerosol Layer Height Retrieval Algorithm for the Copernicus Sentinel-4/UVN Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Swadhin; Sanders, Abram; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2016-04-01

    thickness. We will present the development work around the ALH retrieval algorithm in the framework of the Sentinel-4/UVN instrument. The main challenges are highlighted and retrieval simulation results are provided. Also, an outlook towards application of the S4 bread board algorithm to Sentinel-5 Precursor data later this year will be discussed.

  19. Impact of aerosols on ice crystal size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. In particular, the impact of aerosols on ice crystal effective radius (Rei, which is a key parameter determining ice clouds' net radiative effect, is highly uncertain due to limited and conflicting observational evidence. Here we investigate the effects of aerosols on Rei under different meteorological conditions using 9-year satellite observations. We find that the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters. While there is a significant negative correlation between Rei and aerosol loading in moist conditions, consistent with the "Twomey effect" for liquid clouds, a strong positive correlation between the two occurs in dry conditions. Simulations based on a cloud parcel model suggest that water vapor modulates the relative importance of different ice nucleation modes, leading to the opposite aerosol impacts between moist and dry conditions. When ice clouds are decomposed into those generated from deep convection and formed in situ, the water vapor modulation remains in effect for both ice cloud types, although the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols differ noticeably between them due to distinct formation mechanisms. The water vapor modulation can largely explain the difference in the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings in various seasons. A proper representation of the water vapor modulation is essential for an accurate estimate of aerosol–cloud radiative forcing produced by ice clouds.

  20. Physical properties of aerosols at Maitri, Antarctica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements of the submicron aerosol size distribution made at the Indian Antarctic station, Maitri (70° 45′S, 11° 44′E) from January 10th to February 24th, 1997, are reported. Total aerosol concentrations normally range from 800 to 1200 particles cm-3 which are typical values for the coastal stations at Antarctica in ...

  1. Radioactive content in aerosols and rainwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Perestelo, N.; Lopez Perez, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Duarte, X.; Catalan, A.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. C.; Hernandez, J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental radiological characterization of a place requires knowledge of the radioactive contents of its components, such as air (aerosol), rain, soil, etc ... Inhalation of radioactive aerosols in the air remains the main component of the total dose to the world population. This work focuses on its determination. (Author)

  2. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  3. Characterization of urban aerosol in Cork city (Ireland) using aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Martin, D.; Healy, R. M.; O'Connor, I. P.; Kourtchev, I.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.; O'Dowd, C.

    2013-05-01

    Ambient wintertime background urban aerosol in Cork city, Ireland, was characterized using aerosol mass spectrometry. During the three-week measurement study in 2009, 93% of the ca. 1 350 000 single particles characterized by an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TSI ATOFMS) were classified into five organic-rich particle types, internally mixed to different proportions with elemental carbon (EC), sulphate and nitrate, while the remaining 7% was predominantly inorganic in nature. Non-refractory PM1 aerosol was characterized using a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS) and was also found to comprise organic aerosol as the most abundant species (62%), followed by nitrate (15%), sulphate (9%) and ammonium (9%), and chloride (5%). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the HR-ToF-AMS organic matrix, and a five-factor solution was found to describe the variance in the data well. Specifically, "hydrocarbon-like" organic aerosol (HOA) comprised 20% of the mass, "low-volatility" oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) comprised 18%, "biomass burning" organic aerosol (BBOA) comprised 23%, non-wood solid-fuel combustion "peat and coal" organic aerosol (PCOA) comprised 21%, and finally a species type characterized by primary {m/z} peaks at 41 and 55, similar to previously reported "cooking" organic aerosol (COA), but possessing different diurnal variations to what would be expected for cooking activities, contributed 18%. Correlations between the different particle types obtained by the two aerosol mass spectrometers are also discussed. Despite wood, coal and peat being minor fuel types used for domestic space heating in urban areas, their relatively low combustion efficiencies result in a significant contribution to PM1 aerosol mass (44% and 28% of the total organic aerosol mass and non-refractory total PM1, respectively).

  4. Characterization of urban aerosol in Cork city (Ireland using aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient wintertime background urban aerosol in Cork city, Ireland, was characterized using aerosol mass spectrometry. During the three-week measurement study in 2009, 93% of the ca. 1 350 000 single particles characterized by an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TSI ATOFMS were classified into five organic-rich particle types, internally mixed to different proportions with elemental carbon (EC, sulphate and nitrate, while the remaining 7% was predominantly inorganic in nature. Non-refractory PM1 aerosol was characterized using a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS and was also found to comprise organic aerosol as the most abundant species (62%, followed by nitrate (15%, sulphate (9% and ammonium (9%, and chloride (5%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the HR-ToF-AMS organic matrix, and a five-factor solution was found to describe the variance in the data well. Specifically, "hydrocarbon-like" organic aerosol (HOA comprised 20% of the mass, "low-volatility" oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA comprised 18%, "biomass burning" organic aerosol (BBOA comprised 23%, non-wood solid-fuel combustion "peat and coal" organic aerosol (PCOA comprised 21%, and finally a species type characterized by primary extit{m/z}~peaks at 41 and 55, similar to previously reported "cooking" organic aerosol (COA, but possessing different diurnal variations to what would be expected for cooking activities, contributed 18%. Correlations between the different particle types obtained by the two aerosol mass spectrometers are also discussed. Despite wood, coal and peat being minor fuel types used for domestic space heating in urban areas, their relatively low combustion efficiencies result in a significant contribution to PM1 aerosol mass (44% and 28% of the total organic aerosol mass and non-refractory total PM1, respectively.

  5. Estimating marine aerosol particle volume and number from Maritime Aerosol Network data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sayer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As well as spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD, aerosol composition and concentration (number, volume, or mass are of interest for a variety of applications. However, remote sensing of these quantities is more difficult than for AOD, as it is more sensitive to assumptions relating to aerosol composition. This study uses spectral AOD measured on Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN cruises, with the additional constraint of a microphysical model for unpolluted maritime aerosol based on analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET inversions, to estimate these quantities over open ocean. When the MAN data are subset to those likely to be comprised of maritime aerosol, number and volume concentrations obtained are physically reasonable. Attempts to estimate surface concentration from columnar abundance, however, are shown to be limited by uncertainties in vertical distribution. Columnar AOD at 550 nm and aerosol number for unpolluted maritime cases are also compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, for both the present Collection 5.1 and forthcoming Collection 6. MODIS provides a best-fitting retrieval solution, as well as the average for several different solutions, with different aerosol microphysical models. The "average solution" MODIS dataset agrees more closely with MAN than the "best solution" dataset. Terra tends to retrieve lower aerosol number than MAN, and Aqua higher, linked with differences in the aerosol models commonly chosen. Collection 6 AOD is likely to agree more closely with MAN over open ocean than Collection 5.1. In situations where spectral AOD is measured accurately, and aerosol microphysical properties are reasonably well-constrained, estimates of aerosol number and volume using MAN or similar data would provide for a greater variety of potential comparisons with aerosol properties derived from satellite or chemistry transport model data. However, without accurate AOD data and prior knowledge of

  6. The S4-S5 linker acts as a signal integrator for HERG K+ channel activation and deactivation gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Ann Ng

    Full Text Available Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG K(+ channels have unusual gating kinetics. Characterised by slow activation/deactivation but rapid inactivation/recovery from inactivation, the unique gating kinetics underlie the central role hERG channels play in cardiac repolarisation. The slow activation and deactivation kinetics are regulated in part by the S4-S5 linker, which couples movement of the voltage sensor domain to opening of the activation gate at the distal end of the inner helix of the pore domain. It has also been suggested that cytosolic domains may interact with the S4-S5 linker to regulate activation and deactivation kinetics. Here, we show that the solution structure of a peptide corresponding to the S4-S5 linker of hERG contains an amphipathic helix. The effects of mutations at the majority of residues in the S4-S5 linker of hERG were consistent with the previously identified role in coupling voltage sensor movement to the activation gate. However, mutations to Ser543, Tyr545, Gly546 and Ala548 had more complex phenotypes indicating that these residues are involved in additional interactions. We propose a model in which the S4-S5 linker, in addition to coupling VSD movement to the activation gate, also contributes to interactions that stabilise the closed state and a separate set of interactions that stabilise the open state. The S4-S5 linker therefore acts as a signal integrator and plays a crucial role in the slow deactivation kinetics of the channel.

  7. Effectiveness of micronic aerosol generators and their aerosol characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinet, T.; Collignon, M.-A.; Dusser, D.; Barritault, L.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of various aerosol-generating systems. Taplin's settling method and Venticis generators has a lower efficiency (37.3 +- 3.8% and 51.8 +- 9.6%, respectively) than the Syntevent (88.8 +- 6.9%, p<0.001), Cadema (89.8 +- 9.9%, p<0.001) and Mefar (85.3 +- 19.4%, p<0.001) generators. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of the particles produced by the Mefar nebulizer (2.05 +- 0.27 μm) was larger than that of any other generators (p<0.001). The Syntevent (0.54 +- 0.09 μm) generator produced smaller particles than the Mefar, Taplin (0.89 +- 0.10 μm, p<0.01) and Venticis (0.79 +- 0.06 μm, p<0.02) generators. Particles produced by the Cadema system (0.69 +- 0.06 μm) were smaller than those generated by the Taplin system(p<0.05). We conclude: 1) that the Syntevent, Mefar and Cadema aerosol generators are more efficient than the others, and 2) that all the generators tested except the Mefar may be used for studies that depend on the peripheral deposition of small particles within the lungs. (author)

  8. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  9. Highly Resolved Paleoclimatic Aerosol Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Ernesto

    soluble aerosols can be analysed for concentration changes only, insoluble aeolian dust can reveal additional information on its atmospheric residence time via changes in the mean grain sizes. Volumes of particulate matter in ice cores are most reliably determined with Coulter counters, but since...... a Coulter counter performs measurements on discrete samples, it cannot be connected to a CFA system. Attenuation sensors, on the other hand, can be integrated into a CFA set-up, but are known to yield poor dust size records. The dilemma between high quality sizing and high depth resolution was found...

  10. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-08-01

    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  11. Radiative Importance of Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol particles are input into the troposphere by biomass burning, among other sources. These aerosol palls cover large expanses of the earth's surface. Aerosols may directly scatter solar radiation back to space, thus increasing the earth's albedo and act to cool the earth's surface and atmosphere. Aerosols also contribute to the earth's energy balance indirectly. Hygroscopic aerosol act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus affects cloud properties. In 1977, Twomey theorized that additional available CCN would create smaller but more numerous cloud droplets in a cloud with a given amount of liquid water. This in turn would increase the cloud albedo which would scatter additional radiation back to space and create a similar cooling pattern as the direct aerosol effect. Estimates of the magnitude of the aerosol indirect effect on a global scale range from 0.0 to -4.8 W/sq m. Thus the indirect effect can be of comparable magnitude and opposite in sign to the estimates of global greenhouse gas forcing Aerosol-cloud interaction is not a one-way process. Just as aerosols have an influence on clouds through the cloud microphysics, clouds have an influence on aerosols. Cloud droplets are solutions of liquid water and CCN, now dissolved. When the cloud droplet evaporates it leaves behind an aerosol particle. This new particle does not have to have the same properties as the original CCN. In fact, studies show that aerosol particles that result from cloud processing are larger in size than the original CCN. Optical properties of aerosol particles are dependent on the size of the particles. Larger particles have a smaller backscattering fraction, and thus less incoming solar radiation will be backscattered to space if the aerosol particles are larger. Therefore, we see that aerosols and clouds modify each other to influence the radiative balance of the earth. Understanding and quantifying the spatial and seasonal patterns of the aerosol indirect forcing may have

  12. Thin film electroluminescent cells on the basis of Ce-doped CaGa2S4 and SrGa2S4 prepared by flash evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarov, E.; Bayramov, A.; Kato, A.; Iida, S.

    2006-01-01

    Ce-doped CaGa 2 S 4 and SrGa 2 S 4 thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices were prepared for the first time on the basis of films deposited by flash evaporation method. Significant crystallization, stoichiometry improvement of the films and increase of photoluminescence intensity were found after annealing in H 2 S and O 2 gas stream. EL spectra of the cells exhibited the characteristic double-band emission similar to that seen for Ce 3+ activated CaGa 2 S 4 and SrGa 2 S 4 films under photon excitation. Applied voltage and frequency dependences of the electroluminescence were studied. Low voltage operation as low as 20 V was observed for these cells. Luminance of about 4 cd/m 2 at 100 V operating voltage with 2.5 kHz frequency was achieved for the TFEL cell with films annealed in O 2 gas stream. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Contribution of S4 segments and S4-S5 linkers to the low-voltage activation properties of T-type CaV3.3 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Sanchez-Sandoval

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels contain four highly conserved transmembrane helices known as S4 segments that exhibit a positively charged residue every third position, and play the role of voltage sensing. Nonetheless, the activation range between high-voltage (HVA and low-voltage (LVA activated calcium channels is around 30-40 mV apart, despite the high level of amino acid similarity within their S4 segments. To investigate the contribution of S4 voltage sensors for the low-voltage activation characteristics of CaV3.3 channels we constructed chimeras by swapping S4 segments between this LVA channel and the HVA CaV1.2 channel. The substitution of S4 segment of Domain II in CaV3.3 by that of CaV1.2 (chimera IIS4C induced a ~35 mV shift in the voltage-dependence of activation towards positive potentials, showing an I-V curve that almost overlaps with that of CaV1.2 channel. This HVA behavior induced by IIS4C chimera was accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in the voltage-dependence of channel gating. The IVS4 segment had also a strong effect in the voltage sensing of activation, while substitution of segments IS4 and IIIS4 moved the activation curve of CaV3.3 to more negative potentials. Swapping of IIS4 voltage sensor influenced additional properties of this channel such as steady-state inactivation, current decay, and deactivation. Notably, Domain I voltage sensor played a major role in preventing CaV3.3 channels to inactivate from closed states at extreme hyperpolarized potentials. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis in the CaV3.3 channel revealed a partial contribution of the S4-S5 linker of Domain II to LVA behavior, with synergic effects observed in double and triple mutations. These findings indicate that IIS4 and, to a lesser degree IVS4, voltage sensors are crucial in determining the LVA properties of CaV3.3 channels, although the accomplishment of this function involves the participation of other structural elements like S4-S5 linkers.

  14. Contribution of S4 segments and S4-S5 linkers to the low-voltage activation properties of T-type CaV3.3 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Herrera Carrillo, Zazil; Díaz Velásquez, Clara Estela; Delgadillo, Dulce María; Rivera, Heriberto Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels contain four highly conserved transmembrane helices known as S4 segments that exhibit a positively charged residue every third position, and play the role of voltage sensing. Nonetheless, the activation range between high-voltage (HVA) and low-voltage (LVA) activated calcium channels is around 30–40 mV apart, despite the high level of amino acid similarity within their S4 segments. To investigate the contribution of S4 voltage sensors for the low-voltage activation characteristics of CaV3.3 channels we constructed chimeras by swapping S4 segments between this LVA channel and the HVA CaV1.2 channel. The substitution of S4 segment of Domain II in CaV3.3 by that of CaV1.2 (chimera IIS4C) induced a ~35 mV shift in the voltage-dependence of activation towards positive potentials, showing an I-V curve that almost overlaps with that of CaV1.2 channel. This HVA behavior induced by IIS4C chimera was accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in the voltage-dependence of channel gating. The IVS4 segment had also a strong effect in the voltage sensing of activation, while substitution of segments IS4 and IIIS4 moved the activation curve of CaV3.3 to more negative potentials. Swapping of IIS4 voltage sensor influenced additional properties of this channel such as steady-state inactivation, current decay, and deactivation. Notably, Domain I voltage sensor played a major role in preventing CaV3.3 channels to inactivate from closed states at extreme hyperpolarized potentials. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis in the CaV3.3 channel revealed a partial contribution of the S4-S5 linker of Domain II to LVA behavior, with synergic effects observed in double and triple mutations. These findings indicate that IIS4 and, to a lesser degree IVS4, voltage sensors are crucial in determining the LVA properties of CaV3.3 channels, although the accomplishment of this function involves the participation of other structural elements like S4-S5 linkers. PMID:29474447

  15. Contribution of S4 segments and S4-S5 linkers to the low-voltage activation properties of T-type CaV3.3 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Herrera Carrillo, Zazil; Díaz Velásquez, Clara Estela; Delgadillo, Dulce María; Rivera, Heriberto Manuel; Gomora, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels contain four highly conserved transmembrane helices known as S4 segments that exhibit a positively charged residue every third position, and play the role of voltage sensing. Nonetheless, the activation range between high-voltage (HVA) and low-voltage (LVA) activated calcium channels is around 30-40 mV apart, despite the high level of amino acid similarity within their S4 segments. To investigate the contribution of S4 voltage sensors for the low-voltage activation characteristics of CaV3.3 channels we constructed chimeras by swapping S4 segments between this LVA channel and the HVA CaV1.2 channel. The substitution of S4 segment of Domain II in CaV3.3 by that of CaV1.2 (chimera IIS4C) induced a ~35 mV shift in the voltage-dependence of activation towards positive potentials, showing an I-V curve that almost overlaps with that of CaV1.2 channel. This HVA behavior induced by IIS4C chimera was accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in the voltage-dependence of channel gating. The IVS4 segment had also a strong effect in the voltage sensing of activation, while substitution of segments IS4 and IIIS4 moved the activation curve of CaV3.3 to more negative potentials. Swapping of IIS4 voltage sensor influenced additional properties of this channel such as steady-state inactivation, current decay, and deactivation. Notably, Domain I voltage sensor played a major role in preventing CaV3.3 channels to inactivate from closed states at extreme hyperpolarized potentials. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis in the CaV3.3 channel revealed a partial contribution of the S4-S5 linker of Domain II to LVA behavior, with synergic effects observed in double and triple mutations. These findings indicate that IIS4 and, to a lesser degree IVS4, voltage sensors are crucial in determining the LVA properties of CaV3.3 channels, although the accomplishment of this function involves the participation of other structural elements like S4-S5 linkers.

  16. Intercomparison test of various aerosol measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Hassa, C.; Jordan, S.

    1984-01-01

    At the suggestion of the CONT group (Containment Loading and Response), which is a subgroup of the Safety Working Group of the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee, a group of experts undertook a comparison of the techniques of sodium aerosol measurement used in various laboratories in the EC. The following laboratories took part in the exercise: CEN-Mol (Belgium), CEA-Cadarache (France), CEA-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France), KfK-Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany), ENEA-Bologna (Italy), and UKAEA-Winfrith (United Kingdom). The objective of the aerosol measurement workshop was to assess the applicability and reliability of specific aerosol measuring instruments. Measurements performed with equipment from the participating laboratories were evaluated using a standard procedure. This enabled an estimate of the accuracy of the experimental data to be provided for the verification of aerosol codes. Thus these results can be used as input for the physical modelling of aerosol behaviour, and the work reported here is a contribution to the definition of the radioactive source term for severe accidents in LMFBRs. The aerosol experts participating in the exercise agreed to concentrate on the techniques of measuring aerosol particle size distributions. The tests were performed at the FAUNA test facility using the aerosol loop. A sodium spray fire, which provides a continuous aerosol source of variable concentration, was produced under open-loop conditions in this facility. Although the primary objective of the workshop was to determine the particle size distributions of the aerosols, measurements of the sodium mass concentration were also made

  17. Aerosol microphysics of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    To provide an improved description for the deposition of charge on ultrafine aerosol particles, we have introduced for the first time into aerosol studies the ''jellium'' model potential to quantitatively describe the interaction energy at long range between a conducting particle and an ion (here modeled as a point charge). The benefit of utilizing this potential, in its linearized approximation, is that it accounts for the response of the particle's conduction electrons to the field of the ion rather than relying upon a macroscopic picture whose validity is nuclear for sufficiently small particles. In the limit of large separations or of larger particles, the jellium and image potentials converge rapidly implying that no inconsistency exists between the generally-accepted approach for larger particles and our contribution. As a part of our work, we have given an accurate fit to the experimental data in the literature on the charging rate of neutral particles in the 4--50 nm range of radii without the need for assumptions other than of the charging ion properties. The results of this work will contribute to the ability to model charged radon daughter cluster ion attachment to high-diffusivity particles and conversely to the ability to model charge attachment on high-diffusivity uncharged particles containing a radon daughter

  18. Filter-based Aerosol Measurement Experiments using Spherical Aerosol Particles under High Temperature and High Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chan; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Doo Young [FNC TECH., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Optical Particle Counter (OPC) is used to provide real-time measurement of aerosol concentration and size distribution. Glass fiber membrane filter also be used to measure average mass concentration. Three tests (MTA-1, 2 and 3) have been conducted to study thermal-hydraulic effect, a filtering tendency at given SiO{sub 2} particles. Based on the experimental results, the experiment will be carried out further with a main carrier gas of steam and different aerosol size. The test results will provide representative behavior of the aerosols under various conditions. The aim of the tests, MTA 1, 2 and 3, are to be able to 1) establish the test manuals for aerosol generation, mixing, sampling and measurement system, which defines aerosol preparation, calibration, operating and evaluation method under high pressure and high temperature 2) develop commercial aerosol test modules applicable to the thermal power plant, environmental industry, automobile exhaust gas, chemical plant, HVAC system including nuclear power plant. Based on the test results, sampled aerosol particles in the filter indicate that important parameters affecting aerosol behavior aerosols are 1) system temperature to keep above a evaporation temperature of ethanol and 2) aerosol losses due to the settling by ethanol liquid droplet.

  19. Aerosol counterflow two-jets unit for continuous measurement of the soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuska, Pavel; Vecera, Zbynek

    2005-09-01

    A new type of aerosol collector employing a liquid at laboratory temperature for continuous sampling of atmospheric particles is described. The collector operates on the principle of a Venturi scrubber. Sampled air flows at high linear velocity through two Venturi nozzles "atomizing" the liquid to form two jets of a polydisperse aerosol of fine droplets situated against each other. Counterflow jets of droplets collide, and within this process, the aerosol particles are captured into dispersed liquid. Under optimum conditions (air flow rate of 5 L/min and water flow rate of 2 mL/min), aerosol particles down to 0.3 microm in diameter are quantitatively collected in the collector into deionized water while the collection efficiency of smaller particles decreases. There is very little loss of fine aerosol within the aerosol counterflow two-jets unit (ACTJU). Coupling of the aerosol collector with an annular diffusion denuder located upstream of the collector ensures an artifact-free sampling of atmospheric aerosols. Operation of the ACTJU in combination with on-line detection devices allows in situ automated analysis of water-soluble aerosol species (e.g., NO2-, NO3-)with high time resolution (as high as 1 s). Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection for particulate nitrite and nitrate is 28 and 77 ng/m(3), respectively. The instrument is sufficiently rugged for its application at routine monitoring of aerosol composition in the real time.

  20. Aerosol Chemical Composition and its Effects on Cloud-Aerosol Interactions during the 2007 CHAPS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Alexander, L.; Newburn, M.; Jayne, J.; Hubbe, J.; Springston, S.; Senum, G.; Andrews, B.; Ogren, J.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.

    2007-12-01

    Chemical composition of submicron aerosol particles was determined using an Aerodyne Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) outfitted on the DOE G-1 aircraft during the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) conducted in Oklahoma City area in June 2007. The primary objective of CHAPS was to investigate the effects of urban emissions on cloud aerosol interactions as a function of processing of the emissions. Aerosol composition was typically determined at three different altitudes: below, in, and above cloud, in both upwind and downwind regions of the urban area. Aerosols were sampled from an isokinetic inlet with an upper size cut-off of ~1.5 micrometer. During cloud passages, the AMS also sampled particles that were dried from cloud droplets collected using a counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) sampler. The aerosol mass concentrations were typically below 10 microgram per cubic meter, and were dominated by organics and sulfate. Ammonium was often less than required for complete neutralization of sulfate. Aerosol nitrate levels were very low. We noted that nitrate levels were significantly enhanced in cloud droplets compared to aerosols, most likely resulting from dissolution of gaseous nitric acid. Organic to sulfate ratios appeared to be lower in cloud droplets than in aerosols, suggesting cloud condensation nuclei properties of aerosol particles might be affected by loading and nature of the organic components in aerosols. In-cloud formation of sulfate was considered unimportant because of the very low SO2 concentration in the region. A detailed examination of the sources of the aerosol organic components (based on hydrocarbons determined using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer) and their effects on cloud formation as a function of atmospheric processing (based on the degree of oxidation of the organic components) will be presented.

  1. Three's company: co-crystallization of a self-assembled S(4) metallacyclophane with two diastereomeric metallacycle intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Nathan R; Carter, Timothy G; Cangelosi, Virginia M; Zakharov, Lev N; Johnson, Darren W

    2010-05-28

    Three discrete supramolecular self-assembled arsenic(iii) complexes including an unusual S(4)-symmetric tetranuclear [As(4)L(2)Cl(4)] metallacyclophane and two diastereomeric cis/trans-[As(2)LCl(2)] metallacycle intermediates co-crystallize within a single crystal lattice.

  2. Hyperfine structure in 5s4d [sup 3]D-5snf transitions of [sup 87]Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushaw, B.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Kluge, H.J. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik); Lantzsch, J. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik); Schwalbach, R. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik); Stenner, J. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik); Stevens, H. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik); Wendt, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik); Zimmer, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik)

    1993-12-01

    The hyperfine spectra of the 5s4d[sup 3]D[sub 1]-5s20f, 5s4d[sup 3]D[sub 2]-5s23f, and 5s4d[sup 3]D[sub 3]-5s32f transitions of [sup 87]Sr (I=9/2) have been measured by collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy. The structure in the upper configurations is highly perturbed by fine structure splitting that is of comparable size to the hyperfine interaction energy. These perturbations can be adequately treated with conventional matrix diagonalization methods, using the 5s-electron magnetic dipole interaction term a[sub 5s] and the unperturbed fine structure splittings as input parameters. Additionally, hyperfine constants for the lower 5s4d[sup 3]D configurations, including the A- and B-factors and a separation of the individual s- and d-electron contributions to these factors, are derived. (orig.)

  3. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films grown by flash evaporation and subsequent annealing in Ar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, R.; Izquierdo-Roca, V.; Merino, J.M.; Friedrich, E.J.; Climent-Font, A.; Saucedo, E.; 2UB, Departament d'Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adriá del Besòs, E-08930 Barcelona (Spain); IN2UB, Departament d'Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; León, M.

    2013-01-01

    A study of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin films grown by flash evaporation and subsequently annealed in Ar atmosphere has been carried out. Prior to thin film deposition, Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 bulk compounds with stoichiometric and Zn-rich compositions were synthesized as evaporation sources. The characteristics of the bulk compounds and thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and elastic back scattering. Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 deposited films contain lower concentrations of Zn than the bulk compounds used as evaporation sources, which is related to a preferential Zn re-evaporation during the deposition process. The desired kesterite composition for solar cell applications was achieved by using a Zn-rich compound as the evaporation source plus a thermal treatment at 620 °C in Ar atmosphere. - Highlights: ► Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films by flash evaporation + annealing in Ar atmosphere ► Difficulty of growing a single phase kesterite material ► X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy to identify the different phases ► Importance of the starting film composition to get the desired CZTS material ► Annealing treatment to obtain the optimum material to be used for CZTS solar cells

  4. 17 CFR 239.25 - Form S-4, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form S-4, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions. 239.25 Section 239.25 Commodity and... business combination transactions. This form may be used for registration under the Securities Act of 1933...

  5. Mineralogical data on angelaite, Cu2AgPbBiS4, from the Los Manantiales District, Chubut, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, D.; Paar, W.H.; Putz, H.

    2010-01-01

    Angelaite, ideally Cu2AgPbBiS4, occurs as a hypogene mineral in polymetallic ores at the Ángela groups of veins in the mining district of Los Manantiales, in the province of Chubut, Argentina. The new mineral species is predominantly associated with pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, hematite...

  6. 10 CFR 51.52 - Environmental effects of transportation of fuel and waste-Table S-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects of transportation of fuel and waste... Environmental effects of transportation of fuel and waste—Table S-4. Under § 51.50, every environmental report... detailed analysis of the environmental effects of transportation of fuel and wastes to and from the reactor...

  7. Liquid phase assisted grain growth in Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films by alkali element incorporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    The effect of adding LiCl, NaCl, and KCl to Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticle thin-film samples annealed in a nitrogen and sulfur atmosphere is reported. We demonstrate that the organic ligand-free nanoparticles previously developed can be used to produce an absorber layer of high quality. The films...

  8. Monsoon sensitivity to aerosol direct radiative forcing in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the total, scattering aerosols and black carbon aerosols. ... acts as an internal damping mechanism spinning down the regional hydrological cycle and leading to sig- ... tion and emission of longwave radiation. ... effect of aerosols over India, where the emission of .... that aerosol effects on monsoon water cycle dynam-.

  9. Preparation, properties and anticancer effects of mixed As4S4/ZnS nanoparticles capped by Poloxamer 407

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujňáková, Z.; Baláž, M.; Zdurienčíková, M.; Sedlák, J.; Čaplovičová, M.; Čaplovič, Ľ.; Dutková, E.; Zorkovská, A.; Turianicová, E.; Baláž, P.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic sulfide compounds have a long history of application in a traditional medicine. In recent years, realgar has been studied as a promising drug in cancer treatment. In this study, the arsenic sulfide (As 4 S 4 ) nanoparticles combined with zinc sulfide (ZnS) ones in different molar ratio have been prepared by a simple mechanochemical route in a planetary mill. The successful synthesis and structural properties were confirmed and followed via X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. The morphology of the particles was studied via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy methods and the presence of nanocrystallites was verified. For biological tests, the prepared As 4 S 4 /ZnS nanoparticles were further milled in a circulation mill in a water solution of Poloxamer 407 (0.5 wt%), in order to cover the particles with this biocompatible copolymer and to obtain stable nanosuspensions with unimodal distribution. The average size of the particles in the nanosuspensions (~ 120 nm) was determined by photon cross-correlation spectroscopy method. Stability of the nanosuspensions was determined via particle size distribution and zeta potential measurements, confirming no physico-chemical changes for several months. Interestingly, with the increasing amount of ZnS in the sample, the stability was improved. The anti-cancer effects were tested on two melanoma cell lines, A375 and Bowes, with promising results, confirming increased efficiency of the samples containing both As 4 S 4 and ZnS nanocrystals. - Highlights: • Mixed As 4 S 4 /ZnS nanoparticles were prepared by dry milling in the first stage • Stable nanosuspensions of As 4 S 4 /ZnS nanoparticles capped by Poloxamer 407 were prepared by wet milling in the second stage • ZnS in the samples is beneficial: higher values of S A , stability, solubility and anticancer activity were improved

  10. Impact of Aerosol Processing on Orographic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousse-Nottelmann, Sara; Zubler, Elias M.; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol particles undergo significant modifications during their residence time in the atmosphere. Physical processes like coagulation, coating and water uptake, and aqueous surface chemistry alter the aerosol size distribution and composition. At this, clouds play a primary role as physical and chemical processing inside cloud droplets contributes considerably to the changes in aerosol particles. A previous study estimates that on global average atmospheric particles are cycled three times through a cloud before being removed from the atmosphere [1]. An explicit and detailed treatment of cloud-borne particles has been implemented in the regional weather forecast and climate model COSMO-CLM. The employed model version includes a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme [2] that has been coupled to the aerosol microphysical scheme M7 [3] as described by Muhlbauer and Lohmann, 2008 [4]. So far, the formation, transfer and removal of cloud-borne aerosol number and mass were not considered in the model. Following the parameterization for cloud-borne particles developed by Hoose et al., 2008 [5], distinction between in-droplet and in-crystal particles is made to more physically account for processes in mixed-phase clouds, such as the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process and contact and immersion freezing. In our model, this approach has been extended to allow for aerosol particles in five different hydrometeors: cloud droplets, rain drops, ice crystals, snow flakes and graupel. We account for nucleation scavenging, freezing and melting processes, autoconversion, accretion, aggregation, riming and selfcollection, collisions between interstitial aerosol particles and hydrometeors, ice multiplication, sedimentation, evaporation and sublimation. The new scheme allows an evaluation of the cloud cycling of aerosol particles by tracking the particles even when scavenged into hydrometeors. Global simulations of aerosol processing in clouds have recently been conducted by Hoose et al

  11. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  12. Solubility of plutonium dioxide aerosols, in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Kanapilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of plutonium aerosols is an important parameter in establishing risk estimates for industrial workers who might accidentally inhale these materials and in evaluating environmental health impacts associated with Pu. In vitro solubility of industrial plutonium aerosols in a simulated lung fluid is compared to similar studies with ultrafine aerosols from laser ignition of delta phase plutonium metal and laboratory-produced spherical particles of 238 PuO 2 and 239 PuO 2 . Although relatively insoluble, industrial plutonium-mixed oxide aerosols were much more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium dioxide particles. Chain agglomerate aerosols from laser ignition of metallic Pu indicated in vitro dissolution half-times of 10 and 50 days for activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 0.7 and 2.3 μm, respectively. Plutonium-containing mixed oxide aerosols indicated dissolution half-times of 40 to 500 days for particles formed by industrial powder comminution and blending. Centerless grinding of fuel pellets yielded plutonium-containing aerosols with dissolution half-times of 1200 to 8000 days. All mixed oxide particles were in the size range 1.0 μm to 2.5 μm AMAD

  13. Measurements of Aerosol Characteristics in Skocjan Caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration and radon progeny concentration (attached and unattached) have been performed in Skocjan caves. In the same time also aerosol concentration (PM 10 ), aerosol size distribution with ten stage Hauke impactor and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer - SMPS have been performed. The idea was to find impact of outer air and visitors to the aerosol characteristics of cave air. Measurements with impactor have been implemented in summer and winter period, with SMPS only in summer period. Radon concentrations ranged in winter period in region from 500 to 1000 Bq/m 3 , equilibrium factor was about 55 %. In summer period radon concentration increased up to 10 kBq/m 3 , equilibrium factor was about 45 %, and unattached fraction went up to 20 %. Measurements of aerosol size distribution show lower aerosol sizes in winter season (around 1 μm) and bigger aerosol sizes in summer season (around 3 - 6 μm). We could not find good correlation between unattached fraction and aerosol size distribution. Also we could not find clear impact of visitors to the air characteristics in cave. Probably our measuring location was too close to the entrance and the impact of outer air was too high. We will repeat measurements deeper in cave to find better results.(author)

  14. Steam condensation modelling in aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this study is the modelling of the condensation of steam into and evaporation of water from aerosol particles. These processes introduce a new type of term into the equation for the development of the aerosol particle size distribution. This new term faces the code developer with three major problems: the physical modelling of the condensation/evaporation process, the discretisation of the new term and the separate accounting for the masses of the water and of the other components. This study has considered four codes which model the condensation of steam into and its evaporation from aerosol particles: AEROSYM-M (UK), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), NAUA (Federal Republic of Germany) and CONTAIN (USA). The modelling in the codes has been addressed under three headings. These are the physical modelling of condensation, the mathematics of the discretisation of the equations, and the methods for modelling the separate behaviour of different chemical components of the aerosol. The codes are least advanced in area of solute effect modelling. At present only AEROSOLS/B1 includes the effect. The effect is greater for more concentrated solutions. Codes without the effect will be more in error (underestimating the total airborne mass) the less condensation they predict. Data are needed on the water vapour pressure above concentrated solutions of the substances of interest (especially CsOH and CsI) if the extent to which aerosols retain water under superheated conditions is to be modelled. 15 refs

  15. Development of α and/or β activity aerosol instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhengyong; Li Aiwu; Gou Quanlu

    1996-01-01

    A radioactive aerosol instrumentation is developed recently for measuring the α and/or β activity of artificial radioactivity aerosols which are produced in nuclear facilities. The instrumentation has the function discriminating natural radioactivity aerosols resulted from radon and thoron daughters, and it is enabled in time and without delay to measure α and β artificial activity collected with a filter by pumping aerosols through this filter. The energy discrimination and compensation method is used for eliminating the influence of natural αradioactivity aerosols. To minimize the influence of natural β-radioactivity aerosols, the method measuring the ratio α/β of natural aerosols is also used in the instrument. The improved methods eliminating the influence of natural background α and β aerosols are used so that both α and β artificial activities in aerosol filter samples can be monitored simultaneously. The instrumentation is appropriate for monitoring α and/or β artificial radioactive aerosols

  16. How thermodynamic environments control stratocumulus microphysics and interactions with aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Hendrik; Cermak, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol–cloud interactions are central to climate system changes and depend on meteorological conditions. This study identifies distinct thermodynamic regimes and proposes a conceptual framework for interpreting aerosol effects. In the analysis, ten years (2003–2012) of daily satellite-derived aerosol and cloud products are combined with reanalysis data to identify factors controlling Southeast Atlantic stratocumulus microphysics. Considering the seasonal influence of aerosol input from biomass burning, thermodynamic environments that feature contrasting microphysical cloud properties and aerosol–cloud relations are classified. While aerosol impact is stronger in unstable environments, it is mostly confined to situations with low aerosol loading (aerosol index AI ≲ 0.15), implying a saturation of aerosol effects. Situations with high aerosol loading are associated with weaker, seasonally contrasting aerosol-droplet size relationships, likely caused by thermodynamically induced processes and aerosol swelling. (letter)

  17. Size distributions of aerosols produced from substitute materials by the Laskin cold DOP aerosol generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, W.; Macher, J.; First, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    Test aerosols of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DOP) produced by Laskin nozzle aerosol generators are widely used for in-place filter testing and respirator fit testing. Concern for the health effects of this material has led to a search for substitute materials for test aerosols. Aerosols were generated with a Laskin generator and diluted 6000-fold with clean air. Size distributions were measured for DOP, di(2-ethylhexyl)sebecate, polyethylene glycol, mineral oil, and corn oil aerosols with a PMS ASAS-X optical particle counter. Distributions were slightly bimodal with count median diameters from 0.22 to 0.30 μm. Size distributions varied little with aerosol material, operating pressure, or liquid level. Mineral oil and corn oil gave the best agreement with the DOP size distribution

  18. Secondary organic aerosols: Formation potential and ambient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Organic aerosols comprise a significant fraction of the total atmospheric particle loading and are associated with radiative forcing and health impacts. Ambient organic aerosol concentrations contain both a primary and secondary component. Herein, fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used...... in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to predict the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Lower Fraser Valley (LEV) of British Columbia. The predicted concentrations of SOA show reasonable accord with ambient aerosol measurements and indicate considerable...

  19. Papers of the 14. french congress on aerosols CFA 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1998. It was presented in four main themes: the aerosols in the environment; the bio-aerosols, filtering and purifying; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols physic and application. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in nuclear industry. Eight other ones are analyzed in ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  20. Correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, R.; Brogniez, C.; Herman, M.; Diallo, S.; Ackerman, M.

    1992-12-01

    Joint experiments were organized or available during stratospheric flights of a photopolarimeter, referred to as RADIBAL (radiometer balloon). In May 1984, RADIBAL flew simultaneously with another balloonborne experiment conducted by the Institut d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique (IASB), which provides multiwavelength vertical profiles of the aerosol scattering coefficient. At this time, the El Chichon layer was observable quite directly from mountain sites. A ground-based station set up at Pic du Midi allowed an extensive description of the aerosol optical properties. The IASB and the Pic du Midi observations are consistent with the aerosol properties derived from the RADIBAL measurement analysis.

  1. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-05-07

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is sampling flowrate (m(3)/min), and t is the sampling

  2. Aerosol transport in severe reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fynbo, P.; Haeggblom, H.; Jokiniemi, J.

    1990-03-01

    Computer codes with different aerosol models were used for calculation of fission product transport and the results are compared. Experimental results from LACE, DEMONA and Marviken-V are compared with the calculations. The theory of aerosol nucleation and its influence on the fission product transport is discussed. The behaviour of hygroscopic aerosols is studied. The pool scrubbing models in the codes SPARC and SUPRA are reviewed and some calculational results are reported. The present status of knowledge in this field is assessed on the background of an international review. (orig./HP)

  3. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  4. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  5. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  6. An aerosole generator for production of radioactive aerosoles by evaporating uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    In the Institut for Biology of the Austrian Research Center at Seibersdorf an experiment is running to study the behaviour of radioactive aerosoles in the organism of miniature swines after inhalation. In the work under discussion the aerosole generator of the equipment used for this inhalation experiments is described by means of which the aerosole-air mixtures are produced. The main part of this generator is a gas burner for evaporating irradiated UO 2 -pellets. (orig.) [de

  7. NiCo2S4 nanowires array as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for full water splitting with superior activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danni; Lu, Qun; Luo, Yonglan; Sun, Xuping; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2015-09-01

    The present communication reports the topotactic conversion of NiCo2O4 nanowires array on carbon cloth (NiCo2O4 NA/CC) into NiCo2S4 NA/CC, which is used as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting with good durability and superior activity in 1.0 M KOH. This NiCo2S4 NA/CC electrode produces 100 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 305 mV for hydrogen evolution and 100 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 340 mV for oxygen evolution. To afford a 10 mA cm-2 water-splitting current, the alkaline water electrolyzer made from NiCo2S4 NA/CC needs a cell voltage of 1.68 V, which is 300 mV less than that for NiCo2O4 NA/CC, and has good stability.The present communication reports the topotactic conversion of NiCo2O4 nanowires array on carbon cloth (NiCo2O4 NA/CC) into NiCo2S4 NA/CC, which is used as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting with good durability and superior activity in 1.0 M KOH. This NiCo2S4 NA/CC electrode produces 100 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 305 mV for hydrogen evolution and 100 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 340 mV for oxygen evolution. To afford a 10 mA cm-2 water-splitting current, the alkaline water electrolyzer made from NiCo2S4 NA/CC needs a cell voltage of 1.68 V, which is 300 mV less than that for NiCo2O4 NA/CC, and has good stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and ESI Figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04064g

  8. Influences of oxygen incorporation on the structural and optoelectronic properties of Cu_2ZnSnS_4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ruei-Sung; Hung, Ta-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxygen incorporation in Cu_2ZnSnS_4 changes the energy band structure. • The material has a comparatively high-absorptive capacity for short wavelength. • Absorption coefficients of the film increase from 10"4 to 10"5 cm"−"1. • The oxygen-containing CZTS film has a mixture of crystallite and crystalline states. • The material could be a candidate as an absorber layer in multi-junction solar cells. - Abstract: This study used the sol–gel method to prepare Cu_2ZnSnS_4 thin films containing oxygen and explored the composition, structural, and optoelectronic properties of the films. The non-vacuum process enabled the oxygen content of the Cu_2ZnSnS_4 films to be 8.89 at% and 10.30 at% for two different annealing conditions. In the crystal structure, oxygen was substituted at the positions of sulfur and appeared in the interstitial sites of the lattice. The compositions of the thin films deviated from the stoichiometric ratio. Both films had kesterite structures with no secondary phase structure. The kesterite CZTS film possessed a composite microstructure of crystallite and crystalline states. The microstructure of the Cu_2ZnSnS_4 film with higher oxygen content was denser and the average grain size was smaller. Incorporating oxygen atoms into crystalline Cu_2ZnSnS_4 changed the energy band structure: the direct energy band gaps were, respectively, 2.75 eV and 2.84 eV; the thin films mainly adsorbed photons with wavelengths less than 500 nm; and the absorption coefficients increased from 10"4 cm"−"1 to 10"5 cm"−"1. The films had a comparatively high absorptive capacity for photons less than 350 nm. Increasing the oxygen content of the film lowered the resistivity. Thus, the oxygen-containing Cu_2ZnSnS_4 thin film could be a candidate for the p-type absorber layer material required in multi-junction solar cells.

  9. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    an experiment in order to investigate the underlying microphysical processes. The results of this experiment will help to understand whether ionization from cosmic rays, and by implication the related processes in the universe, has a direct influence on Earth’s atmosphere and climate. Since any physical...... mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...

  10. Characterization of aerosols containing radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Santos, Maristela Souza

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the main lines of action of the Laboratorio de Caracterizacao de Aerossois (LCA /IRD) in the study of aerosols, the techniques available and the capability of these techniques as a tool in the biokinetics behavior study of radiopharmaceuticals and evaluating the particle exposed individuals containing these molecules. The LCA provides the following analytical techniques: spectrometry alpha, gamma and alpha counting and gross beta; PIXE (Particle Induced X rays Emission) and mass spectrometry-based flight time measurement of molecular ions ( 252 Cf-PDMS - 252 Cf-Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry). This technique is used to identify compounds mass to 10 000 a.m.u. The combination of these techniques has been applied to the study in vitro of the toxicology of the metals and radionuclides both in the respiratory tract as in the gastrointestinal

  11. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I—Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, Kathleen; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail; Rogers, Ray R.; Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere between and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. In addition, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  12. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, K.; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rogers, Ray; Russell, P.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Art; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-08

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which was conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique field study that was designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere at a number of altitudes, from near the surface to as high as 8 km, within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. TCAP included the yearlong deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) that was located at the base of the Cape Cod column, as well as summer and winter aircraft intensive observation periods of the ARM Aerial Facility. One important finding from TCAP is the relatively common occurrence (on four of six nearly cloud-free flights) of elevated aerosol layers in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed in the column. Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning aerosol and nitrate compared to the aerosol found near the surface.

  13. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere be tween and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2).These layer s contributed up to 60 of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. In addition, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  14. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  15. The Impact of Aerosol Particle Mixing State on the Hygroscopicity of Sea Spray Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Steven R; Collins, Douglas B; Lee, Christopher; Morris, Holly S; Novak, Gordon A; Prather, Kimberly A; Quinn, Patricia K; Sultana, Camille M; Tivanski, Alexei V; Zimmermann, Kathryn; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2015-06-24

    Aerosol particles influence global climate by determining cloud droplet number concentrations, brightness, and lifetime. Primary aerosol particles, such as those produced from breaking waves in the ocean, display large particle-particle variability in chemical composition, morphology, and physical phase state, all of which affect the ability of individual particles to accommodate water and grow into cloud droplets. Despite such diversity in molecular composition, there is a paucity of methods available to assess how particle-particle variability in chemistry translates to corresponding differences in aerosol hygroscopicity. Here, an approach has been developed that allows for characterization of the distribution of aerosol hygroscopicity within a chemically complex population of atmospheric particles. This methodology, when applied to the interpretation of nascent sea spray aerosol, provides a quantitative framework for connecting results obtained using molecular mimics generated in the laboratory with chemically complex ambient aerosol. We show that nascent sea spray aerosol, generated in situ in the Atlantic Ocean, displays a broad distribution of particle hygroscopicities, indicative of a correspondingly broad distribution of particle chemical compositions. Molecular mimics of sea spray aerosol organic material were used in the laboratory to assess the volume fractions and molecular functionality required to suppress sea spray aerosol hygroscopicity to the extent indicated by field observations. We show that proper accounting for the distribution and diversity in particle hygroscopicity and composition are important to the assessment of particle impacts on clouds and global climate.

  16. Impact of cloud-borne aerosol representation on aerosol direct and indirect effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Ghan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles attached to cloud droplets are much more likely to be removed from the atmosphere and are much less efficient at scattering sunlight than if unattached. Models used to estimate direct and indirect effects of aerosols employ a variety of representations of such cloud-borne particles. Here we use a global aerosol model with a relatively complete treatment of cloud-borne particles to estimate the sensitivity of simulated aerosol, cloud and radiation fields to various approximations to the representation of cloud-borne particles. We find that neglecting transport of cloud-borne particles introduces little error, but that diagnosing cloud-borne particles produces global mean biases of 20% and local errors of up to 40% for aerosol, droplet number, and direct and indirect radiative forcing. Aerosol number, aerosol optical depth and droplet number are significantly underestimated in regions and seasons where and when wet removal is primarily by stratiform rather than convective clouds (polar regions during winter, but direct and indirect effects are less biased because of the limited sunlight there and then. A treatment that predicts the total mass concentration of cloud-borne particles for each mode yields smaller errors and runs 20% faster than the complete treatment. The errors are much smaller than current estimates of uncertainty in direct and indirect effects of aerosols, which suggests that the treatment of cloud-borne aerosol is not a significant source of uncertainty in estimates of direct and indirect effects.

  17. Papers of the 14. french congress on aerosols CFA 98; Actes du 14. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1998. It was presented in four main themes: the aerosols in the environment; the bio-aerosols, filtering and purifying; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols physic and application. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in nuclear industry. Eight other ones are analyzed in ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  18. Magnetic Fe3S4 nanoparticles with peroxidase-like activity, and their use in a photometric enzymatic glucose assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Caiping; Yan, Yinghan; Zhang, Cuiling; Xian, Yuezhong; Xiang, Dongshan

    2016-01-01

    Greigite magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 S 4 -MNPs) were prepared and reveal a peroxidase-like activity. Kinetic studies revealed a pseudo-enzymatic activity that is much higher than that of other magnetic nanomaterial-based enzyme mimetics. This finding was exploited to design a photometric enzymatic glucose assay based on the formation of H 2 O 2 during enzymatic oxidation of glucose by glucose oxidase, and the formation of a blue product from an enzyme substrate that is catalytically oxidized by H 2 O 2 in the presence of Fe 3 S 4 -MNPs. Glucose can be detected in the 2 to 100 μM concentration range, and the low detection limit is 0.16 μM. The method was applied to quantify glucose in human serum. In our perception, this enzyme mimetic has a large potential in that it may be used in other oxidase based assays, but also in ELISAs. (author)

  19. Cube-like Cu2MoS4 photocatalysts for visible light-driven degradation of methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cube-like Cu2MoS4 nanoparticles with low-index facets and high crystallinity were fabricated via a hydrothermal method. The as-obtained nanocubes with an average size of 40-60 nm are composed of stacking-Cu2MoS4 layers separated by a weak Van der Waals gap of 0.5 nm. A strong absorption at visible light region is observed in the nanocube aqueous solution, indicating its optical-band gap of 1.78 eV. The photocatalytic measurements reveal that the nanocubes can thoroughly induce the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation with good structural stability. Our finding may provide a way in design and fabrication of transition metal dichalcogenide nanostructures for practical applications.

  20. Bar Frequency & Galaxy Host Properties using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kartik; Mizusawa, T.; Kim, T.; Munoz-Mateos, J.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gadotti, D.; S4G Team

    2011-01-01

    Using the volume limited sample of 2,331 nearby galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), we have classified the frequency of barred spiral galaxies. The literature abounds with frequency ranges from as low as 20% to as high as 80% but these variations are driven by the quality of the data, the sample size and the methodology of the studies. Using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron IRAC images from S4G, we are able to make a definitive measurement of the local bar fraction as a function of the galaxy host and environment. We present the results from this survey and discuss how the current bar fraction compares to the declining frequency of bars from the present day to z 1.

  1. A requiem for AdS4×C P3 fermionic self-T duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Colgáin, E.; Pittelli, A.

    2016-11-01

    Strong evidence for dual superconformal symmetry in N =6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory has fueled expectations that the AdS /CFT dual geometry AdS4×C P3 is self-dual under T duality. We revisit the problem to identify commuting bosonic and fermionic isometries in a systematic fashion and show that fermionic T duality, a symmetry originally proposed by Berkovits and Maldacena, inevitably leads to a singularity in the dilaton transformation. We show that TsT deformations commute with fermionic T duality and comment on T duality in the corresponding sigma model. Our results rule out self-duality based on fermionic T duality for AdS4×C P3 or its TsT deformations but leave the door open for new possibilities.

  2. Voltage dependence of a stochastic model of activation of an alpha helical S4 sensor in a K channel membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, S. R.

    2011-09-01

    The voltage dependence of the ionic and gating currents of a K channel is dependent on the activation barriers of a voltage sensor with a potential function which may be derived from the principal electrostatic forces on an S4 segment in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium. By variation of the parameters of a voltage-sensing domain model, consistent with x-ray structures and biophysical data, the lowest frequency of the survival probability of each stationary state derived from a solution of the Smoluchowski equation provides a good fit to the voltage dependence of the slowest time constant of the ionic current in a depolarized membrane, and the gating current exhibits a rising phase that precedes an exponential relaxation. For each depolarizing potential, the calculated time dependence of the survival probabilities of the closed states of an alpha helical S4 sensor are in accord with an empirical model of the ionic and gating currents recorded during the activation process.

  3. Quantum electrodynamics effects in the 4s-4p transitions in Cu-like and Zn-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.; Wagner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock energies are compared with experiment for the 4s-4p transitions in Cu-like ions and the 4s 2 1 S 0 --4s4p 1 P 1 transition in Zn-like ions for Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U. The Coulomb, Breit, and QED contributions to these transitions are tabulated for selected ions in the range Z = 50--92. Results show that the agreement between theory and experiment is good enough to show the importance of QED corrections in the spectra of these highly stripped ions. Contrary to earlier findings by Seely et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2924 (1986)] we find no significant differences between the observed and calculated transition energies after finite-nuclear-size corrections are included

  4. Red electroluminescent process excited by hot holes in SrGa2S4:Ce, Mn thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Katsu; Okamoto, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the first observation of red electroluminescence (EL) in SrGa 2 S 4 :Ce, Mn thin film. The EL spectrum consists of single broad emission band having a peak wavelength of 665 nm. The dominant EL decay time was 31 μs. The relationship between the applied voltage and the EL waveform was measured in single insulating thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices. An asymmetric EL waveform was observed in SrGa 2 S 4 :Ce, Mn TFEL devices under a rectangular applied voltage. The polarity of the EL waveform in these devices was different from the waveform in manganese-activated zinc sulfide ZnS:Mn devices. This indicates that hot holes excite the Mn 2+ ions to cause the red EL.

  5. Adler Function, Bjorken Sum Rule, and the Crewther Relation to Order αs4 in a General Gauge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikov, P. A.; Chetyrkin, K. G.; Kuehn, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    We compute, for the first time, the order α s 4 contributions to the Bjorken sum rule for polarized electron-nucleon scattering and to the (nonsinglet) Adler function for the case of a generic color gauge group. We confirm at the same order a (generalized) Crewther relation which provides a strong test of the correctness of our previously obtained results: the QCD Adler function and the five-loop β function in quenched QED. In particular, the appearance of an irrational contribution proportional to ζ 3 in the latter quantity is confirmed. We obtain the commensurate scale equation relating the effective strong coupling constants as inferred from the Bjorken sum rule and from the Adler function at order α s 4 .

  6. Adler function, sum rules and Crewther relation of order O(αs4): The singlet case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikov, P.A.; Chetyrkin, K.G.; Kühn, J.H.; Rittinger, J.

    2012-01-01

    The analytic result for the singlet part of the Adler function of the vector current in a general gauge theory is presented in five-loop approximation. Comparing this result with the corresponding singlet part of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule (Baikov et al., 2010 ), we successfully demonstrate the validity of the generalized Crewther relation for the singlet part. This provides a non-trivial test of both our calculations and the generalized Crewther relation. Combining the result with the already available non-singlet part of the Adler function (Baikov et al., 2008 , Baikov et al., 2010 ) we arrive at the complete O(α s 4 ) expression for the Adler function and, as a direct consequence, at the complete O(α s 4 ) correction to the e + e - annihilation into hadrons in a general gauge theory.

  7. Retrieving global aerosol sources from satellites using inverse modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Dubovik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding aerosol effects on global climate requires knowing the global distribution of tropospheric aerosols. By accounting for aerosol sources, transports, and removal processes, chemical transport models simulate the global aerosol distribution using archived meteorological fields. We develop an algorithm for retrieving global aerosol sources from satellite observations of aerosol distribution by inverting the GOCART aerosol transport model.

    The inversion is based on a generalized, multi-term least-squares-type fitting, allowing flexible selection and refinement of a priori algorithm constraints. For example, limitations can be placed on retrieved quantity partial derivatives, to constrain global aerosol emission space and time variability in the results. Similarities and differences between commonly used inverse modeling and remote sensing techniques are analyzed. To retain the high space and time resolution of long-period, global observational records, the algorithm is expressed using adjoint operators.

    Successful global aerosol emission retrievals at 2°×2.5 resolution were obtained by inverting GOCART aerosol transport model output, assuming constant emissions over the diurnal cycle, and neglecting aerosol compositional differences. In addition, fine and coarse mode aerosol emission sources were inverted separately from MODIS fine and coarse mode aerosol optical thickness data, respectively. These assumptions are justified, based on observational coverage and accuracy limitations, producing valuable aerosol source locations and emission strengths. From two weeks of daily MODIS observations during August 2000, the global placement of fine mode aerosol sources agreed with available independent knowledge, even though the inverse method did not use any a priori information about aerosol sources, and was initialized with a "zero aerosol emission" assumption. Retrieving coarse mode aerosol emissions was less successful

  8. Membranes from monopole operators in ABJM theory: Large angular momentum and M-theoretic AdS4/CFT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Stefano; Sato, Yuki; Shimada, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    We study the duality between M-theory in AdS 4 ×S 7 /ℤ k and the ABJM N=6 Chern–Simons-matter theory with gauge group U(N)×U(N) and level k, taking N large and k of order 1. In this M-theoretic regime the lack of an explicit formulation of M-theory in AdS 4 ×S 7 /ℤ k makes the gravity side difficult, while the CFT is strongly coupled and the planar approximation is not applicable. We focus on states on the gravity side with large angular momentum J≫1 associated with a single plane of rotation in S 7 and identify their dual operators in the CFT. We show that natural approximation schemes arise on both sides thanks to the presence of the small parameter 1/J. On the AdS side, we use the matrix model of M-theory on the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background with matrices of size J/k. A perturbative treatment of this matrix model provides a good approximation to M-theory in AdS 4 ×S 7 /ℤ k when N 1/3 ≪J≪N 1/2 . On the CFT side, we study the theory on S 2 ×ℝ with magnetic flux J/k. A Born–Oppenheimer-type expansion arises naturally for large J in spite of the theory being strongly coupled. The energy spectra on the two sides agree at leading order. This provides a non-trivial test of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence including near-BPS observables associated with membrane degrees of freedom, thus verifying the duality beyond the previously studied sectors corresponding to either BPS observables or the type IIA string regime

  9. Enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity of Aca s 4, an alpha-amylase allergen from the storage mite Acarus siro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pytelková, Jana; Lepšík, Martin; Šanda, Miloslav; Talacko, Pavel; Marešová, Lucie; Mareš, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2012), s. 1-8 ISSN 1471-2091 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP525/09/P600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Aca s 4 * Acarus siro * alpha - amylase s Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.776, year: 2012 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2091/13/3

  10. On the compactification of the moduli space of branched minimal immersions of S2 into S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.

    1992-01-01

    We study the natural compactification of the moduli space of branched minimal immersions of S 2 into S 4 . We prove that the (compactified) moduli space M d is a connected projective variety of dimension 2d+4. It is irreducible when d=1,2, and it has two irreducible components when d ≥ 3. We discuss the bubbling phenomenon at the boundary of the moduli space. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs

  11. Foreign gas pressure broadening and shifts of the 2S-4S two-photon transition in lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGraffenreid, W; Campbell, Sarah C; Sansonetti, Craig J

    2003-01-01

    We have observed broadening and shift of the 2S-4S Doppler-free two-photon transition of atomic Li by collisions with neon and argon buffer gases in a heat-pipe oven. Measured broadening and shift rates are presented and compared with theoretical predictions calculated in the impact approximation using three different interaction potentials. A superposition of polarization and modified Fermi potentials gives good agreement with the experimental data

  12. Predicting Thermal Behavior of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume concentrations of steady-state secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were measured in 139 steadystate single precursor hydrocarbon oxidation experiments after passing through a temperature controlled inlet tube. Higher temperatures resulted in greater loss of particle volume, wi...

  13. Filtration of sodium-fire aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexas, A.; Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1979-01-01

    Different filter devices have been developed and tested with respect to their use in the off-gas system of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to prevent the escape of sodium-fire aerosols that might be formed in case of an accident. The testing results have shown that the use of a multilayer sand bed filter is still the best method to filter limited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time. Efficiencies on the order of 99.98 and 98.8% were reached for loading capacities of 500 and 1000 g/m 2 , respectively. Unlimited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols can be filtered by wet scrubbers with an efficiency of 70% per scrubber stage. Fiberglas filters connot be used for the filtration of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time because the filter material can be destroyed after several days of operating

  14. Predicting Thermal Behavior of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Volume concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are measured in 139 steady-state, single precursor hydrocarbon oxidation experiments after passing through a...

  15. Surface aerosol measurements at Barrow during AGASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhaine, B.A.; Dutton, E.G.; DeLuisi, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Surface aerosol measurements were made at the Barrow GMCC Observatory during the AGASP flight series in March 1983. The condensation nucleus, scattering extinction coefficient, size distribution, and total aerosol optical depth measurements all clearly show conditions of background Arctic haze for March 9-11, a series of haze episodes during March 12-16, and a return to background haze for March 17-18. Angstrom exponents calculated from scattering coefficient data were low during March 9-11, relatively higher during March 12-14, and highest during March 15-18. Surface aerosol data and aerosol optical depth data are in good qualitative agreement for the 10-day period studied. Background haze was present when trajectories circled the Arctic basin, and haze episodes occurred when trajectories originated in western Asia and Europe

  16. Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Kahn, Ralph A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Yu, Hongbin; Rind, David; Feingold, Graham; Quinn, Patricia K.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Streets, David G.; DeCola, Phillip; hide

    2009-01-01

    This report critically reviews current knowledge about global distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosols, as they relate to aerosol impacts on climate. It assesses possible next steps aimed at substantially reducing uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Current measurement techniques and modeling approaches are summarized, providing context. As a part of the Synthesis and Assessment Product in the Climate Change Science Program, this assessment builds upon recent related assessments, including the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4, 2007) and other Climate Change Science Program reports. The objectives of this report are (1) to promote a consensus about the knowledge base for climate change decision support, and (2) to provide a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the climate-relevant impacts of anthropogenic aerosols for policy makers, policy analysts, and general public, both within and outside the U.S government and worldwide.

  17. Interaction of radon progeny with atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawska, Lidia

    1994-01-01

    The radiological health hazard due to the airborne radon progeny depends on three factors (i) radon concentration in the air, (ii) radon progeny concentration, and (iii) active particle size distribution. Conclusions as to the health hazard cannot be drawn without full understanding of the interaction mechanisms between radon progeny and atmospheric aerosols. The aim of this work was to study the interaction mechanisms between radon progeny, natural environmental aerosols and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The experiments were performed under controlled laboratory conditions of radon concentration (1.85 and 3.70 Bq m -3 ), relative humidity (35, 50, 75 and 95%) and ETS generation. The size distribution of radioactivity carrying aerosols was measured using a wire screen diffusion battery system and size distribution of all airborne aerosols using a differential mobility particle sizer. The paper presents and discusses the results of activity size distribution and radon progeny concentration measurements for different environmental conditions. 7 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Spatially Refined Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is an important metric for assessing potential climate impacts of future emissions changes. However, the radiative consequences of emissions perturbations are not readily quantified nor well understood at the level of detail necessary...

  19. Atmospheric aerosol characteristics retrieved using ground based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    negative in summer due to enhanced tourists' arrival and also in autumn months due to the month- long International .... ces due to socio-economic activities, population growth ...... in aerosol optical properties over China; Atmos. Chem. Phys.

  20. Direct impact aerosol sampling by electrostatic precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Jason D.; Harter, Andrew G.; Stinson, Brad J.; Sullivan, Nicholas M.

    2016-02-02

    The present disclosure provides apparatuses for collecting aerosol samples by ionizing an air sample at different degrees. An air flow is generated through a cavity in which at least one corona wire is disposed and electrically charged to form a corona therearound. At least one grounded sample collection plate is provided downstream of the at least one corona wire so that aerosol ions generated within the corona are deposited on the at least one grounded sample collection plate. A plurality of aerosol samples ionized to different degrees can be generated. The at least one corona wire may be perpendicular to the direction of the flow, or may be parallel to the direction of the flow. The apparatus can include a serial connection of a plurality of stages such that each stage is capable of generating at least one aerosol sample, and the air flow passes through the plurality of stages serially.

  1. Aerosol transport in severe reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fynbo, P.; Haeggblom, H.; Jokiniemi, J.

    1990-01-01

    Aerosol behaviour in the reactor containment was studied in the case of severe reactor accidents. The study was performed in a Nordic group during the years 1985 to 1988. Computer codes with different aerosol models were used for calculation of fission product transport and the results are compared. Experimental results from LACE, DEMONA and Marviken-V are compared with the calculations. The theory of aerosol nucleation and its influence on the fission product transport is discussed. The behaviour of hygroscopic aerosols is studied. The pool scrubbing models in the codes SPARC and SUPRA are reviewed and some knowledge in this field is assessed on the background of an international rewiew. (author) 60 refs

  2. Patient's Guide to Aerosol Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these 3 different bad effects (or symptoms ) will bet- ter prepare you to understand the 5 categories ... in many ways that impact aerosol drug delivery. Thinking ability (under- standing how and when to use ...

  3. Antiferroquadrupolar ordering and anisotropic magnetic phase diagram of dysprosium palladium bronze, DyPd3S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Eiichi; Tayama, Takashi; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Hiroi, Zenji; Takeda, Naoya; Ishikawa, Masayasu; Shirakawa, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    From the measurements of magnetization and specific heat, we constructed B-T phase diagrams of single-crystalline DyPd 3 S 4 which is known to exhibit antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering at low temperatures. The phase diagrams are found to be highly anisotropic and re-entrant, which are typical of rare-earth compounds exhibiting multipolar ordering. The crystalline electric field (CEF) scheme of Dy 3+ in DyPd 3S4 was deduced from the specific heat and magnetization measurements of the Y-diluted compounds Dy 1-x Y x Pd 3 S 4 (0.1≤x≤0.9) and discussed in detail. The CEF ground state was determined to be the orbitally-degenerated quartet Γ 67 (1) , and the overall splitting width was estimated to be about 104 K. No correlation was found between the anisotropy of T Q and that of the Zeeman splitting width of the ground quartet Γ 67 (1) . (author)

  4. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of High-Quality Cu7 S4 Nanocrystals for Efficient Light-Induced Water Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changbo; Yan, Cong; Xue, Zhenjie; Yu, Wei; Xie, Yinde; Wang, Tie

    2016-10-01

    Copper sulfides (Cu 2-x S), are a novel kind of photothermal material exhibiting significant photothermal conversion efficiency, making them very attractive in various energy conversion related devices. Preparing high quality uniform Cu 2-x S nanocrystals (NCs) is a top priority for further energy-and sustainability relevant nanodevices. Here, a shape-controlled high quality Cu 7 S 4 NCs synthesis strategy is reported using sulfur in 1-octadecene as precursor by varying the heating temperature, as well as its forming mechanism. The performance of the Cu 7 S 4 NCs is further explored for light-driven water evaporation without the need of heating the bulk liquid to the boiling point, and the results suggest that as-synthesized highly monodisperse NCs perform higher evaporation rate than polydisperse NCs under the identical morphology. Furthermore, disk-like NCs exhibit higher water evaporation rate than spherical NCs. The water evaporation rate can be further enhanced by assembling the organic phase Cu 7 S 4 NCs into a dense film on the aqueous solution surface. The maximum photothermal conversion efficiency is as high as 77.1%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Influence of complexing agent (Na2EDTA on chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of thin film is influenced by the presence of complexing agents such as Na2EDTA. The Cu4SnS4 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The XRD data showed that the films have a polycrystalline and orthorhombic structure. It also indicated that the most intense peak at 2 θ = 30.2° which belongs to (221 plane of Cu4 SnS4. The film deposited with 0.05 M Na2 EDTA showed good uniformity, good surface coverage with bigger grains and produced higher absorbance value. The band gap energy varies with the variation of Na2EDTA concentration which ranging from 1.56-1.60 eV. Deposition at concentration of 0.05 M Na2EDTA proved to offer a reasonably good Cu4SnS4 thin film.

  6. Optical properties and surface characterization of pulsed laser-deposited Cu2ZnSnS4 by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Cazzaniga, Andrea; Ettlinger, Rebecca B.; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures are characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The focus is on confirming results from direct measurement techniques, by finding appropriate models of the surface overlayer for data fitting, and extracting the dielectric function of the films. It is found that the surface overlayer changes with film thickness and deposition temperature. Adopting different ellipsometry measurements and modeling strategies for each film, dielectric functions are extracted and compared. As the deposition temperature is increased, the dielectric functions exhibit additional critical points related to optical transitions in the material other than absorption across the fundamental band gap. In the case of a thin film < 200 nm thick, surface features observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are accurately reproduced by ellipsometry data fitting. - Highlights: • Inhomogeneous Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition. • The film surface includes secondary phases and topographic structures. • We model a film surface layer that fits ellipsometry data. • Ellipsometry data fits confirm results from direct measurement techniques. • We obtain the dielectric function of inhomogeneous Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 films

  7. Characterization of methyl parathion degradation by a Burkholderia zhejiangensis strain, CEIB S4-3, isolated from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoca-Ursino, Elida C; Martínez-Ocampo, Fernando; Dantán-González, Edgar; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura

    2017-12-01

    Through the use of an enrichment technique, we isolated from the agricultural soils of Morelos in central México a strain of Burkholderia zhejiangensis identified as CEIB S4-3, it's could use the pesticide methyl parathion (MP) as the only source of carbon and degrade completely p-nitrophenol (PNP). For more efficient MP and PNP degradation by the CEIB S4-3 strain, the absence of an extra carbon source, a large inoculum and an MP concentration up to 50 mg/l are required. Sequence and annotation analysis of the draft genome, showed presence of mpd functional gene, which was expressed and its activity on the MP was confirmed. Additionally, the genes coding for enzymes in the benzoquinone pathway (conducted by Gram-negative bacteria) and the benzenotriol pathway (conducted by Gram-positive bacteria) were found, which was corroborated by identification of intermediary metabolites by HPLC. Thus, we propose that B. zhejiangensis CEIB S4-3 uses both degradation pathways.

  8. Degradation of organic dyes by a new heterogeneous Fenton reagent - Fe2GeS4 nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoguo; Tian, Ang; You, Junhua; Yang, He; Wang, Yuzheng; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-07-05

    The heterogeneous Fenton system has become the hotspot in the decontamination field due to its effective degradation performance with a wide pH range. Based on the unstable chemical properties of pyrite, in this article, Fe 2 GeS 4 nanoparticles with better thermodynamic stability were prepared by vacuum sintering and high energy ball milling and its potential as Fenton reagent was investigated for the first time. Three determinants of the heterogeneous Fenton system including the iron source, hydrogen peroxide, pH and the degradation mechanism were investigated. The catalyst dosage of 0.3 g/L, initial H 2 O 2 concentration in the Fenton system of 50 m mol/L and pH of 7 were chosen as the best operational conditions. An almost complete degradation was achieved within 5 min for methylene blue and rhodamine b while 10 min for methyl orange. The total organic carbon removal efficiencies of Fe 2 GeS 4 heterogeneous Fenton system for methylene blue, methyl orange and rhodamine b in 10 min were 56.3%, 66.2% and 74.2%, respectively. It's found that the degradation ability could be attributed to a heterogeneous catalysis occurring at the Fe 2 GeS 4 surface together with a homogeneous catalysis in the aqueous phase by the dissolved iron ions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes

    OpenAIRE

    Bothe, Melanie; Donahue, Neil McPherson

    2010-01-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In rep...

  10. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  11. Aerosol modelling and validation during ESCOMPTE 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, F.; Liousse, C.; Cachier, H.; Bessagnet, B.; Guillaume, B.; Rosset, R.

    The ESCOMPTE 2001 programme (Atmospheric Research. 69(3-4) (2004) 241) has resulted in an exhaustive set of dynamical, radiative, gas and aerosol observations (surface and aircraft measurements). A previous paper (Atmospheric Research. (2004) in press) has dealt with dynamics and gas-phase chemistry. The present paper is an extension to aerosol formation, transport and evolution. To account for important loadings of primary and secondary aerosols and their transformation processes in the ESCOMPTE domain, the ORISAM aerosol module (Atmospheric Environment. 35 (2001) 4751) was implemented on-line in the air-quality Meso-NH-C model. Additional developments have been introduced in ORganic and Inorganic Spectral Aerosol Module (ORISAM) to improve the comparison between simulations and experimental surface and aircraft field data. This paper discusses this comparison for a simulation performed during one selected day, 24 June 2001, during the Intensive Observation Period IOP2b. Our work relies on BC and OCp emission inventories specifically developed for ESCOMPTE. This study confirms the need for a fine resolution aerosol inventory with spectral chemical speciation. BC levels are satisfactorily reproduced, thus validating our emission inventory and its processing through Meso-NH-C. However, comparisons for reactive species generally denote an underestimation of concentrations. Organic aerosol levels are rather well simulated though with a trend to underestimation in the afternoon. Inorganic aerosol species are underestimated for several reasons, some of them have been identified. For sulphates, primary emissions were introduced. Improvement was obtained too for modelled nitrate and ammonium levels after introducing heterogeneous chemistry. However, no modelling of terrigeneous particles is probably a major cause for nitrates and ammonium underestimations. Particle numbers and size distributions are well reproduced, but only in the submicrometer range. Our work points out

  12. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  13. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aged organic aerosol (OA was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008, which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1, and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with source region, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm−3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  14. Data assimilation of CALIPSO aerosol observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Sekiyama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an advanced data assimilation system for a global aerosol model with a four-dimensional ensemble Kalman filter in which the Level 1B data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO were successfully assimilated for the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge. A one-month data assimilation cycle experiment for dust, sulfate, and sea-salt aerosols was performed in May 2007. The results were validated via two independent observations: 1 the ground-based lidar network in East Asia, managed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan, and 2 weather reports of aeolian dust events in Japan. Detailed four-dimensional structures of aerosol outflows from source regions over oceans and continents for various particle types and sizes were well reproduced. The intensity of dust emission at each grid point was also corrected by this data assimilation system. These results are valuable for the comprehensive analysis of aerosol behavior as well as aerosol forecasting.

  15. Aerosols, clouds and their climatic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulmala, M; Laaksonen, A; Korhonen, P [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane may drive a significant warming of the earth`s climate. However, a topic of more recent attention is the possibility that increased atmospheric concentrations of aerosol particles might drive a cooling of the planet. There are two distinct cooling mechanisms related to the enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles: the increase in the direct reflection of solar radiation (the direct effect), and the increase in cloud reflectivity caused by greater numbers of cloud condensation nuclei available (the indirect effect). Aerosols and clouds play a major role in the scattering and absorption of radiation in the Earth`s atmosphere. Locally the net effect can vary because of different kinds of surfaces. But according to measurements, the global net effect of clouds (and aerosols) on the atmosphere is net cooling and thus in opposition to the effect of greenhouse gases. The prediction of the future evolution of the climate involves substantial uncertainties. Clouds have a major effect on the radiation balance of the Earth and the prediction of amount and radiative properties of clouds is very difficult. Also the formation mechanisms and residence times of aerosol particles in the atmosphere involve large uncertainties. Thus the most serious difficulties arise in the area of the physics of clouds and aerosols

  16. Nonurban aerosol composition near Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, J.W.; Darzi, M.; Leslie, A.C.D.; Wang, M.; Ren, L.; Lue, W.; Hansson, H.C.; Lannefors, H.

    1981-01-01

    The urban aerosol plume of Beijing has been sampled as a function of particle size and time at a site 110 km NE of the city, 9-16 March 1980, during the season for space heating by coal combustion. A fine particle mode, contained mostly in the 0.5-2 μm aerodynamic diameter range, could be distinguished from a coarse mode of dust having terrestrial composition by reference to the size distribution of Ca. Elemental composition determined by PIXE analysis for 17 elements, including S and heavy metals, indicates fine mode concentrations higher than background aerosol but with a similarity to cleaner air with respect to both relative elemental abundances and elemental particle size distributions. The results indicate that elements contained in aged coal combustion aerosol occur mainly in 0.5-2 μMAD particles, not smaller, and the aerosol is not substantially different from background aerosol except in overall concentrations. This result may simplify the prediction of the impact of coal combustion on air quality. The results also hint that the background aerosol in more remote continental areas may also be combustion derived. (orig.)

  17. Can Aerosol Offset Urban Heat Island Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, M. S.; Shepherd, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) refers to urban skin or air temperature exceeding the temperatures in surrounding non-urban regions. In a warming climate, the UHI may intensify extreme heat waves and consequently cause significant health and energy problems. Aerosols reduce surface insolation via the direct effect, namely, scattering and absorbing sunlight in the atmosphere. Combining the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) observations over large cities together with Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) simulations, we find that the aerosol direct reduction of surface insolation range from 40-100 Wm-2, depending on seasonality and aerosol loads. As a result, surface skin temperature can be reduced by 1-2C while 2-m surface air temperature by 0.5-1C. This study suggests that the aerosol direct effect is a competing mechanism for the urban heat island effect (UHI). More importantly, both aerosol and urban land cover effects must be adequately represented in meteorological and climate modeling systems in order to properly characterize urban surface energy budgets and UHI.

  18. Operational aerosol and dust storm forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, D L; Curtis, C A; Liu, M; Walker, A L

    2009-01-01

    The U. S. Navy now conducts operational forecasting of aerosols and dust storms on global and regional scales. The Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) is run four times per day and produces 6-day forecasts of sulfate, smoke, dust and sea salt aerosol concentrations and visibility for the entire globe. The Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS (registered) ) is run twice daily for Southwest Asia and produces 3-day forecasts of dust, smoke, and visibility. The graphical output from these models is available on the Internet (www.nrlmry.navy.mil/aerosol/). The aerosol optical properties are calculated for each specie for each forecast output time and used for sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval corrections, regional electro-optical (EO) propagation assessments, and the development of satellite algorithms. NAAPS daily aerosol optical depth (AOD) values are compared with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD values. Visibility forecasts are compared quantitatively with surface synoptic reports.

  19. Investigation on aerosol transport in containment cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parozzi, F.; Chatzidakis, S.; Housiadas, C.; Gelain, T.; Nahas, G.; Plumecocq, W.; Vendel, J.; Herranz, L.E.; Hinis, E.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Malgarida, E.

    2005-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions, the containment leak-tightness could be threatened by energetic phenomena that could yield a release to the environment of nuclear aerosols through penetrating concrete cracks. As few data are presently available to quantify this aerosol leakage, a specific action was launched in the framework of the Santar Project of the European 6 th Framework Programme. In this context, both theoretical and experimental investigations have been managed to develop a model that can readily be applied within a code like Aster (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). Particle diffusion, settling, turbulent deposition, diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis have been considered as deposition mechanisms inside the crack path. They have been encapsulated in numerical models set up to reproduce experiments with small tubes and capillaries and simulate the plug formation. Then, an original lagrangian approach has been used to evaluate the crack retention under typical PWR accident conditions, comparing its predictions with those given by the eulerian approach implemented in the ECART code. On the experimental side, the paper illustrates an aerosol production and measurement system developed to validate aerosol deposition models into cracks and the results that can be obtained: a series of tests were performed with monodispersed fluorescein aerosols injected into a cracked concrete sample. A key result that should be further explored refers to the high enhancement of aerosol retention that could be due to steam condensation. Recommendations concerning future experimentation are also given in the paper. (author)

  20. Study of photolytic aerosols at stratospheric pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, Patrick.

    1975-07-01

    An experimental study of photolytic aerosol formation at stratospheric pressure (60 Torr) and laboratory temperature, was carried out previous to the exact simulation of photolytic aerosol formation in real stratospheric conditions. An experimental simulation device, techniques of generation of known mixtures of inert gases with SO 2 and NOsub(x) traces at low concentration (below 1 ppm volume) and H 2 O traces (a few ppm), and techniques for the determination and counting of aerosol particles at low pressures were perfected. The following results were achieved: the rate of vapor condensation on nuclei was reduced when total pressure decreased. At low pressure the working of condensation nuclei counters and the formation of photolytic aerosols is influenced by this phenomenon. An explanation is proposed, as well as means to avoid this unpleasant effect on the working of nuclei counters at low pressure. No photolytic aerosol production was ascertained at 60 Torr when water concentration was below 100 ppm whatever the concentration of SO 2 or NOsub(x) traces. With water concentration below 1200ppm and SO 2 trace concentration below 1ppm, the aerosol particles produced could not consist of sulfuric acid drops but probably of nitrosyl sulfate acide crystals [fr

  1. Characterisation of a uranium fire aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuscher, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium swarf, which can burn spontaneously in air, creates an aerosol which is chemically toxic and radiotoxic. The uptake of uranium oxide in the respiratory system is determined to a large extent by the characteristics of the aerosol. A study has been made of the methods by which aerosols can be characterised. The different measured and defined characteristics of particles are given. The normal and lognormal particle size distributions are discussed. Shape factors interrelating characteristics are explained. Experimental techniques for the characterisation of an aerosol are discussed, as well as the instruments that have been used in this study; namely the Andersen impactor, point-to-plane electrostatic precipitator and the Pollak counter. Uranium swarf was made to burn with a heated filament, and the resulting aerosol was measured. Optical and electron microscopy have been used for the determination of the projected area diameters, and the aerodynamic diameters have been determined with the impactor. The uranium fire aerosol can be represented by a bimodal, or monomodal, lognormal particle size distribution depending on the way in which the swarf burns. The determined activity median aerodynamic diameter of the two peaks were 0,49μm and 6,0μm respectively [af

  2. Aerosols, clouds and their climatic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A.; Korhonen, P. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    The increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane may drive a significant warming of the earth`s climate. However, a topic of more recent attention is the possibility that increased atmospheric concentrations of aerosol particles might drive a cooling of the planet. There are two distinct cooling mechanisms related to the enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles: the increase in the direct reflection of solar radiation (the direct effect), and the increase in cloud reflectivity caused by greater numbers of cloud condensation nuclei available (the indirect effect). Aerosols and clouds play a major role in the scattering and absorption of radiation in the Earth`s atmosphere. Locally the net effect can vary because of different kinds of surfaces. But according to measurements, the global net effect of clouds (and aerosols) on the atmosphere is net cooling and thus in opposition to the effect of greenhouse gases. The prediction of the future evolution of the climate involves substantial uncertainties. Clouds have a major effect on the radiation balance of the Earth and the prediction of amount and radiative properties of clouds is very difficult. Also the formation mechanisms and residence times of aerosol particles in the atmosphere involve large uncertainties. Thus the most serious difficulties arise in the area of the physics of clouds and aerosols

  3. Behavior of aerosols in a steam-air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment is being studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) which is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program plan for the NSPP aerosol project provides for the study of the behavior, within containment, of simulated LWR accident aerosols emanating from fuel, reactor core structural materials, and from concrete-molten core materials interactions. The aerodynamic behavior of each of these aerosols was studied individually to establish its characteristics; current experiments involve mixtures of these aerosols to establish their interaction and collective behavior within containment. Tests have been conducted with U 3 O 8 aerosols, Fe 2 O 3 aerosols, and concrete aerosols in an environment of either dry air [relative humidity (RH) less than 20%] or steam-air [relative humidity (RH) approximately 100%] with aerosol mass concentration being the primary experimental variable

  4. Fluorescence-tracking of activation gating in human ERG channels reveals rapid S4 movement and slow pore opening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Es-Salah-Lamoureux

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available hERG channels are physiologically important ion channels which mediate cardiac repolarization as a result of their unusual gating properties. These are very slow activation compared with other mammalian voltage-gated potassium channels, and extremely rapid inactivation. The mechanism of slow activation is not well understood and is investigated here using fluorescence as a direct measure of S4 movement and pore opening.Tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (TMRM fluorescence at E519 has been used to track S4 voltage sensor movement, and channel opening and closing in hERG channels. Endogenous cysteines (C445 and C449 in the S1-S2 linker bound TMRM, which caused a 10 mV hyperpolarization of the V((1/2 of activation to -27.5+/-2.0 mV, and showed voltage-dependent fluorescence signals. Substitution of S1-S2 linker cysteines with valines allowed unobstructed recording of S3-S4 linker E519C and L520C emission signals. Depolarization of E519C channels caused rapid initial fluorescence quenching, fit with a double Boltzmann relationship, F-V(ON, with V((1/2 (,1 = -37.8+/-1.7 mV, and V((1/2 (,2 = 43.5+/-7.9 mV. The first phase, V((1/2 (,1, was approximately 20 mV negative to the conductance-voltage relationship measured from ionic tail currents (G-V((1/2 = -18.3+/-1.2 mV, and relatively unchanged in a non-inactivating E519C:S620T mutant (V((1/2 = -34.4+/-1.5 mV, suggesting the fast initial fluorescence quenching tracked S4 voltage sensor movement. The second phase of rapid quenching was absent in the S620T mutant. The E519C fluorescence upon repolarization (V((1/2 = -20.6+/-1.2, k = 11.4 mV and L520C quenching during depolarization (V((1/2 = -26.8+/-1.0, k = 13.3 mV matched the respective voltage dependencies of hERG ionic tails, and deactivation time constants from -40 to -110 mV, suggesting they detected pore-S4 rearrangements related to ionic current flow during pore opening and closing.THE DATA INDICATE: 1 that rapid environmental changes occur at the

  5. Landscape fires dominate terrestrial natural aerosol - climate feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.; Arnold, S.; Monks, S. A.; Asmi, A.; Paasonen, P.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is an important source of natural aerosol including landscape fire emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Atmospheric aerosol alters the Earth's climate by absorbing and scattering radiation (direct radiative effect; DRE) and by perturbing the properties of clouds (aerosol indirect effect; AIE). Natural aerosol sources are strongly controlled by, and can influence, climate; giving rise to potential natural aerosol-climate feedbacks. Earth System Models (ESMs) include a description of some of these natural aerosol-climate feedbacks, predicting substantial changes in natural aerosol over the coming century with associated radiative perturbations. Despite this, the sensitivity of natural aerosols simulated by ESMs to changes in climate or emissions has not been robustly tested against observations. Here we combine long-term observations of aerosol number and a global aerosol microphysics model to assess terrestrial natural aerosol-climate feedbacks. We find a strong positive relationship between the summertime anomaly in observed concentration of particles greater than 100 nm diameter and the anomaly in local air temperature. This relationship is reproduced by the model and driven by variability in dynamics and meteorology, as well as natural sources of aerosol. We use an offline radiative transfer model to determine radiative effects due to changes in two natural aerosol sources: landscape fire and biogenic SOA. We find that interannual variability in the simulated global natural aerosol radiative effect (RE) is negatively related to the global temperature anomaly. The magnitude of global aerosol-climate feedback (sum of DRE and AIE) is estimated to be -0.15 Wm-2 K-1 for landscape fire aerosol and -0.06 Wm-2 K-1 for biogenic SOA. These feedbacks are comparable in magnitude, but opposite in sign to the snow albedo feedback, highlighting the need for natural aerosol feedbacks to

  6. Review of recent research on the climatic effect of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlock, T.P.; Kondratyev, K.; Prokofyev, M.

    1993-01-01

    A review of relatively recent research on the climatic effects of aerosols is presented. Most of the inferences of the climatic effects of aerosols have been obtained through assuming a certain aerosol model in conjunction with a particular climate model. The following radiative effects of aerosols are identified: The planetary albedo is generally increased due to the backscatter of solar radiation by aerosols, with the exception of aerosols situated above a highly reflecting surface. Solar radiation absorption by some aerosols can offset the cooling due to aerosol backscatter. Although aerosol effects dominate for short-wave radiation, absorption and emission of terrestrial radiation by aerosols produces a warming effect. Various climate models are used to assess the impact of aerosols on climate. A two-stream approximation to the radiation transfer equation is adequate for optically thin layers where single scattering is applicable. Improved models to include aerosol terrestrial radiation effects, important feedback mechanisms, and the prediction of globally and seasonally averaged surface and atmospheric temperatures are provided by the so-called radiative-convective models (RCM's). The basic structure of the RCM's, which is regarded as adequate for many aerosol climate applications, is described. The general circulation model (GCM) is also described briefly. A full-scale GCM incorporating realistic aerosol inputs is yet to be formulated to include regional variability of the aerosol. Moreover, detailed computer modeling associated with GCM climate models can often confuse the basic physics. Because volcanic aerosols injected into the stratosphere have long residence times, they provide a good case study of the climate response to a change in the atmospheric aerosol. The chapter gives a critique of modeling work done to establish climatic effects of stratospheric aerosols

  7. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  8. Radioactive content in aerosols and rainwater; Contenido radiactivo en aerosoles y agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perestelo, N.; Lopez Perez, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Duarte, X.; Catalan, A.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. C.; Hernandez, J.

    2013-07-01

    The environmental radiological characterization of a place requires knowledge of the radioactive contents of its components, such as air (aerosol), rain, soil, etc ... Inhalation of radioactive aerosols in the air remains the main component of the total dose to the world population. This work focuses on its determination. (Author)

  9. Characterization of urban aerosol using aerosol mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, M. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Griffin, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Anderson, C. H.; Lefer, B.; Rappenglück, B.

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter was measured during August and September of 2006 in Houston as part of the Texas Air Quality Study II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project. Aerosol size and composition were determined using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer. Aerosol was dominated by sulfate (4.1 ± 2.6 μg m-3) and organic material (5.5 ± 4.0 μg m-3), with contributions of organic material from both primary (˜32%) and secondary (˜68%) sources. Secondary organic aerosol appears to be formed locally. In addition, 29 aerosol filter samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine relative concentrations of organic functional groups. Houston aerosols are less oxidized than those observed elsewhere, with smaller relative contributions of carbon-oxygen double bonds. These particles do not fit 1H NMR source apportionment fingerprints for identification of secondary, marine, and biomass burning organic aerosol, suggesting that a new fingerprint for highly urbanized and industrially influenced locations be established.

  10. The DRAGON aerosol research facility to study aerosol behaviour for reactor safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckow, Detlef; Guentay, Salih

    2008-01-01

    During a severe accident in a nuclear power plant fission products are expected to be released in form of aerosol particles and droplets. To study the behaviour of safety relevant reactor components under aerosol loads and prototypical severe accident conditions the multi-purpose aerosol generation facility DRAGON is used since 1994 for several projects. DRAGON can generate aerosol particles by the evaporation-condensation technique using a plasma torch system, fluidized bed and atomization of particles suspended in a liquid. Soluble, hygroscopic aerosol (i.e. CsOH) and insoluble aerosol particles (i.e. SnO 2 , TiO 2 ) or mixtures of them can be used. DRAGON uses state-of-the-art thermal-hydraulic, data acquisition and aerosol measurement techniques and is mainly composed of a mixing chamber, the plasma torch system, a steam generator, nitrogen gas and compressed air delivery systems, several aerosol delivery piping, gas heaters and several auxiliary systems to provide vacuum, coolant and off-gas treatment. The facility can be operated at system pressure of 5 bars, temperatures of 300 deg. C, flow rates of non-condensable gas of 900 kg/h and steam of 270 kg/h, respectively. A test section under investigation is attached to DRAGON. The paper summarizes and demonstrates with the help of two project examples the capabilities of DRAGON for reactor safety studies. (authors)

  11. S:4 )~W:<.. ~ ---1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. He who rules rhe sea controls rhe commerce of rhe world, and rhus rhe riches of rhe world, and finallv rhe world ... comprehend rhe ocean and ro use ir for irs own ... We will bury YOU.'4 ... nessed, since the Second World War, a phenome- ... the British geographer, Sir Halford Mackinder, at .... naval construction prog ram.

  12. Where and What Is Pristine Marine Aerosol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. M.; Frossard, A. A.; Long, M. S.; Burrows, S. M.; Elliott, S.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

    2014-12-01

    The sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles have been measured by functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) to identify the organic composition of the pristine primary marine (ocean-derived) particles as 65% hydroxyl, 21% alkane, 6% amine, and 7% carboxylic acid functional groups [Frossard et al., 2014a,b]. Pristine but non-primary components from photochemical reactions (likely from biogenic marine vapor emissions) add carboxylic acid groups. Non-pristine contributions include shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions, which add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. The pristine primary marine (ocean-derived) organic aerosol composition is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater, indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the generated primary marine aerosol particles remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll-a concentrations, the generated primary marine aerosol particle alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations. In addition, the generated primary marine aerosol particles have a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. References Cited Frossard, Amanda A., Lynn M. Russell, Paola Massoli, Timothy S. Bates, and Patricia K. Quinn, "Side-by-Side Comparison of Four Techniques Explains the Apparent Differences in the Organic Composition of Generated and Ambient Marine Aerosol Particles," Aerosol Science and Technology - Aerosol Research Letter

  13. MAEROS, Multicomponent Aerosol Time Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MAEROS calculates aerosol composition and mass concentration as a function of particle size and time. The processes that may be considered are coagulation due to Brownian motion, gravity, and turbulence; particle deposition due to gravitational settling, diffusion, and thermophoresis; particle growth due to condensation of a gas, typically water vapor, and time-varying sources of particles of different sizes and chemical compositions. 2 - Method of solution: The numerical technique used is based upon dividing the particle size domain into m sections and imposing the condition of mass conservation for each chemical component for the processes considered. Aerosol mass concentrations are grouped into sections (i.e., size classes) for which an average composition is determined. For m sections, a set of 2m(m+2) sectional coefficients must be calculated before integrating in time. These coefficients are determined from the basic coagulation, condensation, and deposition coefficients. Since the sectional coefficients depend on the physical properties of the containment chamber (e.g., temperature, pressure, chamber volume, and deposition surface area), they will generally need to be recalculated for a particular application. However, for a given containment chamber, the sectional coefficients will probably vary only with temperature and pressure. Consequently, the code has been developed so that sectional coefficients are stored at a user-specified upper and lower bound for both temperature and pressure, and linear interpolation is used to determine the appropriate sectional coefficients for a given temperature and pressure. A Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is used to integrate in time. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 20 sections, 8 components, 50 rows for plotting, 101 columns for plotting. MAEROS is limited to geometrically spaced sections in particle mass (i.e., v(m+1).GE.2v(m) is the largest particle

  14. Primary aerosol and secondary inorganic aerosol budget over the Mediterranean Basin during 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Jonathan; Marécal, Virginie; Josse, Béatrice; Arteta, Joaquim; Hamer, Paul

    2018-04-01

    In the frame of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx), we analyse the budget of primary aerosols and secondary inorganic aerosols over the Mediterranean Basin during the years 2012 and 2013. To do this, we use two year-long numerical simulations with the chemistry-transport model MOCAGE validated against satellite- and ground-based measurements. The budget is presented on an annual and a monthly basis on a domain covering 29 to 47° N latitude and 10° W to 38° E longitude. The years 2012 and 2013 show similar seasonal variations. The desert dust is the main contributor to the annual aerosol burden in the Mediterranean region with a peak in spring, and sea salt being the second most important contributor. The secondary inorganic aerosols, taken as a whole, contribute a similar level to sea salt. The results show that all of the considered aerosol types, except for sea salt aerosols, experience net export out of our Mediterranean Basin model domain, and thus this area should be considered as a source region for aerosols globally. Our study showed that 11 % of the desert dust, 22.8 to 39.5 % of the carbonaceous aerosols, 35 % of the sulfate and 9 % of the ammonium emitted or produced into the study domain are exported. The main sources of variability for aerosols between 2012 and 2013 are weather-related variations, acting on emissions processes, and the episodic import of aerosols from North American fires. In order to assess the importance of the anthropogenic emissions of the marine and the coastal areas which are central for the economy of the Mediterranean Basin, we made a sensitivity test simulation. This simulation is similar to the reference simulation but with the removal of the international shipping emissions and the anthropogenic emissions over a 50 km wide band inland along the coast. We showed that around 30 % of the emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and 35 to 60 % of the exported carbonaceous aerosols originates from the marine and

  15. Rare Earth Chalcogels NaLnSnS4 (Ln = Y, Gd, Tb) for Selective Adsorption of Volatile Hydrocarbons and Gases

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah

    2017-06-28

    The synthesis and characterization of the rare earth chalcogenide aerogels NaYSnS4, NaGdSnS4, and NaTbSnS4 is reported. Rare earth metal ions like Y3+, Gd3+, and Tb3+ react with the chalcogenide clusters [SnS4]4– in aqueous formamide solution forming extended polymeric networks by gelation. Aerogels obtained after supercritical drying have BET surface areas of 649 m2·g–1 (NaYSnS4), 479 m2·g–1 (NaGdSnS4), and 354 m2·g–1 (NaTbSnS4). Electron microscopy and physisorption studies reveal that the new materials have pores in the macro (above 50 nm) and meso (2–50 nm) regions. These aerogels show higher adsorption of toluene vapor over cyclohexane vapor and CO2 over CH4 or H2. The notable adsorption capacity for toluene (NaYSnS4: 1108 mg·g–1; NaGdSnS4: 921 mg·g–1; and NaTbSnS4: 645 mg·g–1) and high selectivity for gases (CO2/H2: 172 and CO2/CH4: 50 for NaYSnS4, CO2/H2: 155 and CO2/CH4: 37 for NaGdSnS4, and CO2/H2: 75 and CO2/CH4: 28 for NaTbSnS4) indicate potential future use of chalcogels in adsorption-based gas or hydrocarbon separation processes.

  16. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging

  17. Containment aerosol behaviour simulation studies in the BARC nuclear aerosol test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y.S.; Sapra, B.K.; Khan, Arshad; Sunny, Faby; Nair, R.N.; Raghunath, Radha; Tripathi, R.M.; Markandeya, S.G.; Puranik, V.D.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Shreekumar, K.P.; Padmanabhan, P.V.A.; Murthy, P.S.S.; Venlataramani, N.

    2005-02-01

    A Nuclear Aerosol Test Facility (NATF) has been built and commissioned at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre to carry out simulation studies on the behaviour of aerosols released into the reactor containment under accident conditions. This report also discusses some new experimental techniques for estimation of density of metallic aggregates. The experimental studies have shown that the dynamic densities of aerosol aggregates are far lower than their material densities as expected by the well-known fractal theory of aggregates. In the context of codes, this has significant bearing in providing a mechanistic basis for the input density parameter used in estimating the aerosol evolution characteristics. The data generated under the quiescent and turbulent conditions and the information on aggregate densities are now being subjected to the validation of the aerosol behaviour codes. (author)

  18. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B. [Radiation Impact Assessment Section, Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  19. Estimation of aerosol water and chemical composition from AERONET Sun-sky radiometer measurements at Cabauw, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beelen, A. J.; Roelofs, G. J H; Hasekamp, O. P.; Henzing, J. S.; Röckmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of aerosols provides important information on atmospheric aerosol abundance. However, due to the hygroscopic nature of aerosol particles observed aerosol optical properties are influenced by atmospheric humidity, and the measurements do not unambiguously characterize the aerosol dry

  20. Aerosol Deposition and Solar Panel Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, W. P.; Rollings, A.; Taylor, S. J.; Parks, J.; Barnard, J.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Passive and active solar collector farms are often located in relatively dry desert regions where cloudiness impacts are minimized. These farms may be susceptible to reduced performance due to routine or episodic aerosol deposition on collector surfaces. Intense episodes of wind blown dust deposition may negatively impact farm performance, and trigger need to clean collector surfaces. Aerosol deposition rate depends on size, morphology, and local meteorological conditions. We have developed a system for solar panel performance testing under real world conditions. Two identical 0.74 square meter solar panels are deployed, with one kept clean while the other receives various doses of aerosol deposition or other treatments. A variable load is used with automation to record solar panel maximum output power every 10 minutes. A collocated sonic anemometer measures wind at 10 Hz, allowing for both steady and turbulent characterization to establish a link between wind patterns and particle distribution on the cells. Multispectral photoacoustic instruments measure aerosol light scattering and absorption. An MFRSR quantifies incoming solar radiation. Solar panel albedo is measured along with the transmission spectra of particles collected on the panel surface. Key questions are: At what concentration does aerosol deposition become a problem for solar panel performance? What are the meteorological conditions that most strongly favor aerosol deposition, and are these predictable from current models? Is it feasible to use the outflow from an unmanned aerial vehicle hovering over solar panels to adequately clean their surface? Does aerosol deposition from episodes of nearby forest fires impact performance? The outlook of this research is to build a model that describes environmental effects on solar panel performance. Measurements from summer and fall 2015 will be presented along with insights gleaned from them.

  1. Coarse mode aerosols in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; Saha, A.; Duck, T. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fine mode (submicron) aerosols in the Arctic have received a fair amount of scientific attention in terms of smoke intrusions during the polar summer and Arctic haze pollution during the polar winter. Relatively little is known about coarse mode (supermicron) aerosols, notably dust, volcanic ash and sea salt. Asian dust is a regular springtime event whose optical and radiative forcing effects have been fairly well documented at the lower latitudes over North America but rarely reported for the Arctic. Volcanic ash, whose socio-economic importance has grown dramatically since the fear of its effects on aircraft engines resulted in the virtual shutdown of European civil aviation in the spring of 2010 has rarely been reported in the Arctic in spite of the likely probability that ash from Iceland and the Aleutian Islands makes its way into the Arctic and possibly the high Arctic. Little is known about Arctic sea salt aerosols and we are not aware of any literature on the optical measurement of these aerosols. In this work we present preliminary results of the combined sunphotometry-lidar analysis at two High Arctic stations in North America: PEARL (80°N, 86°W) for 2007-2011 and Barrow (71°N,156°W) for 2011-2014. The multi-years datasets were analyzed to single out potential coarse mode incursions and study their optical characteristics. In particular, CIMEL sunphotometers provided coarse mode optical depths as well as information on particle size and refractive index. Lidar measurements from High Spectral Resolution lidars (AHSRL at PEARL and NSHSRL at Barrow) yielded vertically resolved aerosol profiles and gave an indication of particle shape and size from the depolarization ratio and color ratio profiles. Additionally, we employed supplementary analyses of HYSPLIT backtrajectories, OMI aerosol index, and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) outputs to study the spatial context of given events.

  2. S4S8-RPA phosphorylation as an indicator of cancer progression in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Jeff; Kapil, Sasha; Treude, Kelly J; Kumm, Phyllis; Glanzer, Jason G; Byrne, Brendan M; Liu, Shengqin; Smith, Lynette M; DiMaio, Dominick J; Giannini, Peter; Smith, Russell B; Oakley, Greg G

    2017-02-07

    Oral cancers are easily accessible compared to many other cancers. Nevertheless, oral cancer is often diagnosed late, resulting in a poor prognosis. Most oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that predominantly develop from cell hyperplasias and dysplasias. DNA damage is induced in these tissues directly or indirectly in response to oncogene-induced deregulation of cellular proliferation. Consequently, a DNA Damage response (DDR) and a cell cycle checkpoint is activated. As dysplasia transitions to cancer, proteins involved in DNA damage and checkpoint signaling are mutated or silenced decreasing cell death while increasing genomic instability and allowing continued tumor progression. Hyperphosphorylation of Replication Protein A (RPA), including phosphorylation of Ser4 and Ser8 of RPA2, is a well-known indicator of DNA damage and checkpoint activation. In this study, we utilize S4S8-RPA phosphorylation as a marker for cancer development and progression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). S4S8-RPA phosphorylation was observed to be low in normal cells, high in dysplasias, moderate in early grade tumors, and low in late stage tumors, essentially supporting the model of the DDR as an early barrier to tumorigenesis in certain types of cancers. In contrast, overall RPA expression was not correlative to DDR activation or tumor progression. Utilizing S4S8-RPA phosphorylation to indicate competent DDR activation in the future may have clinical significance in OSCC treatment decisions, by predicting the susceptibility of cancer cells to first-line platinum-based therapies for locally advanced, metastatic and recurrent OSCC.

  3. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by simple replacement reaction route for solar photovoltaic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Devendra; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.; Ray, Arabinda; Tiwari, Krishan Dutt

    2014-01-01

    A process for deposition of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) films using replacement of Zn 2+ in ZnS is demonstrated. X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectroscopy confirm the formation of pure CZTS. Atomic force microscopy shows the films to be homogeneous and compact with root mean squared roughness of 6 nm. The direct band gap of CZTS films as elucidated by UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy is 1.45 eV. The CZTS films exhibit p-type conduction with electrical conductivity of 4.6 S/cm. The hole concentration and hole mobility is determined to be 3.6 × 10 17 cm −3 and 1.4 cm 2 V −1 s −1 respectively. Solar cells with structure: graphite/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/SnO 2 :In/Soda lime glass are also fabricated, gave photo-conversion efficiency of 6.17% with open circuit voltage and short circuit current density of 521 mV and 19.13 mA/cm 2 , respectively and a high fill factor of 0.62. The external quantum efficiency of the solar cell lies above 60% in the visible region. - Highlights: • Pure kesterite Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin films deposited by replacement reaction route • Energy band gap of films is 1.45 eV. • p-type films with conductivity of 4.6 S/cm and mobility of 1.4 cm 2 S −1 V −1 • Fabrication of Graphite/Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 /CdS/ZnO/SnO 2 :In/Glass solar cell • Solar cell delivered efficiency of 6.17% with high fill factor of 0.62

  4. Preparation, properties and anticancer effects of mixed As4S4/ZnS nanoparticles capped by Poloxamer 407.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujňáková, Z; Baláž, M; Zdurienčíková, M; Sedlák, J; Čaplovičová, M; Čaplovič, Ľ; Dutková, E; Zorkovská, A; Turianicová, E; Baláž, P; Shpotyuk, O; Andrejko, S

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic sulfide compounds have a long history of application in a traditional medicine. In recent years, realgar has been studied as a promising drug in cancer treatment. In this study, the arsenic sulfide (As 4 S 4 ) nanoparticles combined with zinc sulfide (ZnS) ones in different molar ratio have been prepared by a simple mechanochemical route in a planetary mill. The successful synthesis and structural properties were confirmed and followed via X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. The morphology of the particles was studied via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy methods and the presence of nanocrystallites was verified. For biological tests, the prepared As 4 S 4 /ZnS nanoparticles were further milled in a circulation mill in a water solution of Poloxamer 407 (0.5wt%), in order to cover the particles with this biocompatible copolymer and to obtain stable nanosuspensions with unimodal distribution. The average size of the particles in the nanosuspensions (~120nm) was determined by photon cross-correlation spectroscopy method. Stability of the nanosuspensions was determined via particle size distribution and zeta potential measurements, confirming no physico-chemical changes for several months. Interestingly, with the increasing amount of ZnS in the sample, the stability was improved. The anti-cancer effects were tested on two melanoma cell lines, A375 and Bowes, with promising results, confirming increased efficiency of the samples containing both As 4 S 4 and ZnS nanocrystals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S4G): MULTI-COMPONENT DECOMPOSITION STRATEGIES AND DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sebastien; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun; Buta, Ron; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis; Knapen, Johan; Cisternas, Mauricio; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Laine, Seppo; Regan, Michael; De Paz, Armando Gil; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S 4 G) is a deep 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 2352 nearby (<40 Mpc) galaxies. We describe the S 4 G data analysis pipeline 4, which is dedicated to two-dimensional structural surface brightness decompositions of 3.6 μm images, using GALFIT3.0. Besides automatic 1-component Sérsic fits, and 2-component Sérsic bulge + exponential disk fits, we present human-supervised multi-component decompositions, which include, when judged appropriate, a central point source, bulge, disk, and bar components. Comparison of the fitted parameters indicates that multi-component models are needed to obtain reliable estimates for the bulge Sérsic index and bulge-to-total light ratio (B/T), confirming earlier results. Here, we describe the preparations of input data done for decompositions, give examples of our decomposition strategy, and describe the data products released via IRSA and via our web page (www.oulu.fi/astronomy/S4G-PIPELINE4/MAIN). These products include all the input data and decomposition files in electronic form, making it easy to extend the decompositions to suit specific science purposes. We also provide our IDL-based visualization tools (GALFIDL) developed for displaying/running GALFIT-decompositions, as well as our mask editing procedure (MASK-EDIT) used in data preparation. A detailed analysis of the bulge, disk, and bar parameters derived from multi-component decompositions will be published separately

  6. Aerosol generation from Kerosene fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1981-01-01

    The course of solvent surface fires is dependent on the surface area on fire; depth of pool and solvent composition do not influence the fire rate. But the fire rate increases rapidly with the burning area. The residual oxygen concentration after a fire in a closed container is dependent on the violence of the fire, i.e. on the burning surface. Moreover the ending of the fire is influenced by the TBP-concentration of the solvent. With sufficient supply of solvent the TBP-concentration changes only slightly during the fire, so that a fire at 14% O 2 -concentration is extinguished within the container. With the TBP-concentration changing considerably, i.e. little mass, a fire with a similar burning surface is already extinguished at an O 2 -content of 18%. The aerosol generation depends on the fire rate, and so it is higher in free atmosphere than in closed containers. The soot production in the mixture fire (kerosene /TBP 70/30) is higher by a factor 7 than in the pure kerosene fire. Primary soot-particles have a diameter of approximately 0,05 μm and agglomerate rapidly into aggregates of 0,2-0,4 μm. (orig.) [de

  7. Neumann and Neumann-Rosochatius integrable systems from membranes on AdS4 x S7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhilov, Plamen

    2007-01-01

    It is known that large class of classical string solutions in the type IIB AdS 5 x S 5 background is related to the Neumann and Neumann-Rosochatius integrable systems, including spiky strings and giant magnons. It is also interesting if these integrable systems can be associated with some membrane configurations in M-theory. We show here that this is indeed the case by presenting explicitly several types of membrane embedding in AdS 4 x S 7 with the searched properties

  8. Characterisation of the antiferromagnetic transition of Cu2FeSnS4, the synthetic analogue of stannite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneschi, A.; Cipriani, C.; di Benedetto, F.; Sessoli, R.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetisation measurements between 260 and 1.9K were performed on the synthetic analogue of stannite, Cu_2FeSnS_4, tetragonal Ioverline{4}2m. Fe(II) ions, in the high spin S=2 configuration for tetrahedral coordination, are responsible for the high temperature paramagnetism. In agreement with Bernardini et al. (2000), an antiferromagnetic transition was observed, lowering temperature below 8K. Refined measurements evidenced a T_N=6.1K for the Néel temperature. In spite of a small difference, observed in the behaviour between the zero-field cooled and the field cooled curves, which suggests the possible presence of a spin-glass phase, the AC measurements did not provide evidence of dependence of the magnetic susceptibility on frequency, as expected in spin-glass systems. On the basis of the experimental data, in agreement with the existent literature (Fries et al., 1997), a collinear antiferromagnetic structure should be preferred. The Fe ions, in fact, are distributed in two sublattices obtained by magnetic differentiation of the symmetry equivalent (0,0,0) and (frac{1}{2}frac{1}{2}frac{1}{2}) Fe positions (wyckoff: 2a). The low value for the Nèel temperature, as compared e.g. to the room-temperature antiferromagnet chalcopyrite (CuFeS_2), very close in composition and structure to stannite, is to be related to the increased distance between the Fe ions (˜6.6Å). This weak interaction is not detected in natural samples, where diamagnetic Zn(II) replace paramagnetic Fe(II), thus increasing the mean Fe-Fe distance. Fries, T., Shapira, Y., Palacio, F., Moròn, M.C., McIntyre, G.J., Kershaw, R., Wold, A. and McNiff, E.J. Jr. (1997): Mangetic ordering of the antiferromagnet Cu_2MnSnS_4 from magnetisation and neutron-scattering measurements. Phys. Rev. B, 6(9), 5424-5431 Bernardini, G.P., Borrini, D., Caneschi, A. Di Benedetto, F., Gatteschi, D., Ristori, S. and Romanelli, M. (2000): EPR and SQUID magnetometry study of Cu_2FeSnS_4 (stannite) and Cu_2ZnSnS_4 (kesterite

  9. Evaluation of Cu2ZnSnS4 Absorber Films Sputtered from a Single, Quaternary Target

    OpenAIRE

    Carlhamn Rasmussen, Liv

    2013-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising absorber material for thin-film solar cells since it contains no rare or toxic elements, has a high absorption coefficient and a near ideal bandgap energy. It does, however, present some challenges due to the limited single-phase region of the desired kesterite phase and its instability towards decomposition. Sputtering of CZTS from quaternary, compound targets using RF magnetron sputtering is known. In this thesis work CZTS absorbers were made using pulsed DC ...

  10. Graviton localization and Newton law for a dS4 brane in a 5D bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, A; Tamvakis, K

    2002-01-01

    We consider a dS 4 brane embedded in a five-dimensional bulk with a positive, vanishing or negative bulk cosmological constant and derive the localized graviton spectrum that consists of a normalizable zero mode separated by a gap from a continuum of massive states. We estimate the massive sector contribution to the static potential at short distances and find that only in the case of a negative bulk cosmological constant is there a range, determined by the effective four-dimensional and bulk cosmological constants, where the conventional Newton law is valid. (letter to the editor)

  11. Spray-coated Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films for large-scale photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Murthy, Swathi; Mariño, Simón López

    2017-01-01

    The kesterite material, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), has in the preceding ten years been investigated and developed as a new Earth-abundant material for solar cells. The interest in this inorganic semiconductor originates in its optimal energy band gap of approx. 1.5 eV, high absorption coefficient...... that alkali metal chloride salts can also be dissolved in controllable amounts, which we have found enhances grain growth in the films during the subsequent annealing step. A Sono-tek spray-coating system with ultrasonic atomization is used. We investigate the effect of ink concentration, and spray...

  12. Finite size giant magnons in the SU(2) x SU(2) sector of AdS4 x CP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukowski, Tomasz; Sax, Olof Ohlsson

    2008-01-01

    We use the algebraic curve and Luescher's μ-term to calculate the leading order finite size corrections to the dispersion relation of giant magnons in the SU(2) x SU(2) sector of AdS 4 x CP 3 . We consider a single magnon as well as one magnon in each SU(2). In addition the algebraic curve computation is generalized to give the leading order correction for an arbitrary multi-magnon state in the SU(2) x SU(2) sector.

  13. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of green emitting SrGa2{S}4 : Eu2+ thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Céline; Benalloul, Paul; Barthou, Charles; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Mueller, Gerd O.; Mueller-Mach, Regina; Trottier, Troy

    2002-02-01

    Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of SrGa2S4 : Eu2+ thin films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering are investigated. Luminescence performances of the phosphor in the thin film form are compared to those of powder samples: the brightness efficiency of thin films is found to be about 30% of the efficiency of powder at low current density. A ratio higher than 40% is expected at higher current density. Thin film screens for FEDs will become a positive alternative to powder screens provided that film quality and light extraction could be improved by optimization of thickness and deposition parameters.

  14. Recent activities in the Aerosol Generation and Transport Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    General statements may be made on the behavior of single-component and multi-component aerosols in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant vessel. The removal processes for U 3 O 8 , Fe 2 O 3 , and U 3 O 8 + Fe 2 O 3 aerosols are enhanced in a steam-air atmosphere. Steam-air seems to have little effect on removal of concrete aerosol from the vessel atmosphere. A steam-air environment causes a change in aerosol shape from chain-agglomerate to basically spherical for U 3 O 8 , Fe 2 O 3 , and U 3 O 8 + Fe 2 O 3 aerosol; for concrete the change in aerosol shape is from chain-agglomerate to partially spherical. The mass ratio of the individual components of a multi-component aerosol seems to have an observable influence on the resultant behavior of these aerosols in steam. The enhanced rate of removal of the U 3 O 8 , the Fe 2 O 3 , and the mixed U 3 O 8 + Fe 2 O 3 aerosols from the atmosphere of the NSPP vessel by steam-air is probably caused by the change in aerosol shape and the condensation of steam on the aerosol surfaces combining to increase the effect of gravitational settling. The apparent lack of an effect by steam-air on the removal rate of concrete aerosol could result from a differing physical/chemical response of the surfaces of this aerosol to condensing steam

  15. Onshore Wind Speed Modulates Microbial Aerosols along an Urban Waterfront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elias Dueker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind blowing over aquatic and terrestrial surfaces produces aerosols, which include microbial aerosols. We studied the effect of onshore wind speeds on aerosol concentrations as well as total and culturable microbial aerosols (bacterial and viral at an urban waterfront (New York, NY, United States of America. We used two distinct methods to characterize microbial aerosol responses to wind speed: A culture-based exposure-plate method measuring viable bacterial deposition near-shore (CFU accumulation rate; and a culture-independent aerosol sampler-based method measuring total bacterial and viral aerosols (cells m−3 air. While ambient coarse (>2 µm and fine (0.3–2 µm aerosol particle number concentrations (regulated indicators of air quality decreased with increasing onshore wind speeds, total and depositing culturable bacterial aerosols and total viral aerosols increased. Taxonomic identification of the 16S rDNA of bacterial aerosol isolates suggested both terrestrial and aquatic sources. Wind appears to increase microbial aerosol number concentrations in the near-shore environment by onshore transport at low wind speeds (<4 m s−1, and increased local production and transport of new microbial aerosols from adjacent water surfaces at higher wind speeds (>4 m s−1. This study demonstrates a wind-modulated microbial connection between water and air in the coastal urban environment, with implications for public health management and urban microbial ecology.

  16. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. In the third quarter of the third year, F344 rats vaccinated with adjuvanted NLP formulations were challenged with F. tularensis SCHU S4 at Battelle. Preliminary data indicate that up to 65% of females vaccinated intranasally with an NLP-based formulation survived this challenge, compared to only 20% survival of naïve animals. In addition, NLPs were successfully formulated with Burkholderia protein antigens. IACUC approval for immunological assessments in BALB/c mice was received and we anticipate that these assessments will begin by March 2015, pending ACURO approval.

  17. Retrieving aerosol in a cloudy environment: aerosol product availability as a function of spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Remer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of using satellite observations to retrieve aerosol properties in a cloudy environment is to prevent contamination of the aerosol signal from clouds, while maintaining sufficient aerosol product yield to satisfy specific applications. We investigate aerosol retrieval availability at different instrument pixel resolutions using the standard MODIS aerosol cloud mask applied to MODIS data and supplemented with a new GOES-R cloud mask applied to GOES data for a domain covering North America and surrounding oceans. Aerosol product availability is not the same as the cloud free fraction and takes into account the techniques used in the MODIS algorithm to avoid clouds, reduce noise and maintain sufficient numbers of aerosol retrievals. The inherent spatial resolution of each instrument, 0.5×0.5 km for MODIS and 1×1 km for GOES, is systematically degraded to 1×1, 2×2, 1×4, 4×4 and 8×8 km resolutions and then analyzed as to how that degradation would affect the availability of an aerosol retrieval, assuming an aerosol product resolution at 8×8 km. The analysis is repeated, separately, for near-nadir pixels and those at larger view angles to investigate the effect of pixel growth at oblique angles on aerosol retrieval availability. The results show that as nominal pixel size increases, availability decreases until at 8×8 km 70% to 85% of the retrievals available at 0.5 km, nadir, have been lost. The effect at oblique angles is to further decrease availability over land but increase availability over ocean, because sun glint is found at near-nadir view angles. Finer resolution sensors (i.e., 1×1, 2×2 or even 1×4 km will retrieve aerosols in partly cloudy scenes significantly more often than sensors with nadir views of 4×4 km or coarser. Large differences in the results of the two cloud masks designed for MODIS aerosol and GOES cloud products strongly reinforce that cloud masks must be developed with specific purposes in mind and

  18. BCG strain S4-Jena: An early BCG strain is capable to reduce the proliferation of bladder cancer cells by induction of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Inge-Marie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravesical immunotherapy with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin has been established as the most effective adjuvant treatment for high risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. We investigated the differences between the S4-Jena BCG strain and commercially available BCG strains. We tested the genotypic varieties between S4-Jena and other BCG strains and analysed the effect of the BCG strains TICE and S4-Jena on two bladder cancer cell lines. Results In contrast to commercially available BCG strains the S4-Jena strain shows genotypic differences. Spoligotyping verifies the S4-Jena strain as a BCG strain. Infection with viable S4-Jena or TICE decreased proliferation in the T24 cell line. Additionally, hallmarks of apoptosis were detectable. In contrast, Cal29 cells showed only a slightly decreased proliferation with TICE. Cal29 cells infected with S4-Jena, though, showed a significantly decreased proliferation in contrast to TICE. Concordantly with these results, infection with TICE had no effect on the morphology and hallmarks of apoptosis of Cal29 cells. However, S4-Jena strain led to clearly visible morphological changes and caspases 3/7 activation and PS flip. Conclusions S4-Jena strain has a direct influence on bladder cancer cell lines as shown by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. The data implicate that the T24 cells are responder for S4-Jena and TICE BCG. However, the Cal29 cells are only responder for S4-Jena and they are non-responder for TICE BCG. S4-Jena strain may represent an effective therapeutic agent for NMIBC.

  19. Aerosolization and Atmospheric Transformation of Engineered Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Andrea J.

    While research on the environmental impacts of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing, the potential for them to be chemically transformed in the atmosphere has been largely ignored. The overall objective of this work was to assess the atmospheric transformation of carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNPs). The research focuses on C60 fullerene because it is an important member of the carbonaceous nanoparticle (CNP) family and is used in a wide variety of applications. The first specific objective was to review the potential of atmospheric transformations to alter the environmental impacts of CNPs. We described atmospheric processes that were likely to physically or chemically alter aerosolized CNPs and demonstrated their relevance to CNP behavior and toxicity in the aqueous and terrestrial environment. In order to investigate the transformations of CNP aerosols under controlled conditions, we developed an aerosolization technique that produces nano-scale aerosols without using solvents, which can alter the surface chemistry of the aerosols. We demonstrated the technique with carbonaceous (C60) and metal oxide (TiO2, CeO2) nanoparticle powders. All resulting aerosols exhibited unimodal size distributions and mode particle diameters below 100 nm. We used the new aerosolization technique to investigate the reaction between aerosolized C60 and atmospherically realistic levels of ozone (O3) in terms of reaction products, reaction rate, and oxidative stress potential. We identified C60O, C60O2, and C60O3 as products of the C60-O3 reaction. We demonstrated that the oxidative stress potential of C 60 may be enhanced by exposure to O3. We found the pseudo-first order reaction rate to be 9 x 10-6 to 2 x 10 -5 s-1, which is several orders of magnitude lower than the rate for several PAH species under comparable conditions. This research has demonstrated that a thorough understanding of atmospheric chemistry of ENPs is critical for accurate prediction of their environmental

  20. Atmospheric Residence Times of Continental Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkanski, Yves Jacques

    The global atmospheric distributions of ^{222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA GISS^1>=neral circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas ^ {222}Rn (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead -210 is produced by decay of ^{222} Rn and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the ^{222} Rn distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of ^ {222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for ^{222} Rn are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantartic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of ^{210}Pb focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale. The globally averaged residence time for ^{210 }Pb-containing aerosols in the troposphere is 7 days. The average increase in residence time

  1. Intercomparison of aerosol instruments: number concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Sinclair, D.; Tu, K.W.; Hinchliffe, L.; Franklin, H.

    1982-05-01

    An intercomparison of aerosol instruments conducted February 23-27, 1981, at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) focused on five instruments: the Pollak and TSI condensation nucleus counters; the Active Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer (ASAS-X); and two aerosol electrometers. Test aerosols of sodium chloride and ammonium fluorescein generated by nebulization/electrostatic classification were used to obtain 195 lines of comparison data. Concentrations measured by the ASAS-X and the TSI aerosol electrometer averaged respectively 1.388 and 1.581 times that measured by the Pollak. These ratios were very stable during the week and there was little effect of particle size or material. Most other comparisons were equally stable. However, a review of past work at EML and elsewhere led to the disturbing conclusion that these ratios may change from year to year, or from season to season. A filter sample was taken from microscopy, concurrent with readings from the ASAS-X and the TSI condensation nucleus counters. In this sample, the two instruments differed by 20%. Within its 20% uncertainty, the filter result matched both the TSI and ASAS-X readings

  2. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Osamu; Shimazu, Hideki

    1985-03-01

    We previously reported basic and clinical evaluation of aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-millimicrosphere albumin (milli MISA) and concluded aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-milli MISA was useful for routine examination. But central airway deposit of aerosol particles was found in not only the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but also normal subjects. So we performed aerosol inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects and evaluated their scintigrams. The subjects had normal values of FEVsub(1.0)% (more than 70%) in lung function tests, no abnormal findings in chest X-ray films and no symptoms and signs. The findings of aerosol inhalation scintigrams in them were classified into 3 patterns; type I: homogeneous distribution without central airway deposit, type II: homogeneous distribution with central airway deposit, type III: inhomogeneous distribution. These patterns were compared with lung function tests. There was no significant correlation between type I and type II in lung function tests. Type III was different from type I and type II in inhomogeneous distribution. This finding showed no correlation with %VC, FEVsub(1.0)%, MMF, V radical50 and V radical50/V radical25, but good correlation with V radical25 in a maximum forced expiratory flow-volume curve. Flow-volume curve is one of the sensitive methods in early detection of COPD, so inhomogeneous distribution of type III is considered to be due to small airway dysfunction.

  3. Black carbon in aerosol during BIBLE B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liley, J. Ben; Baumgardner, D.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Koike, M.; Machida, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (BIBLE) A and B campaigns over the tropical western Pacific during springtime deployed a Gulfstream-II aircraft with systems to measure ozone and numerous precursor species. Aerosol measuring systems included a MASP optical particle counter, a condensation nucleus (CN) counter, and an absorption spectrometer for black carbon. Aerosol volume was very low in the middle and upper troposphere during both campaigns, and during BIBLE A, there was little aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer away from urban areas. In BIBLE B, there was marked aerosol enhancement in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere. Mixing ratios of CN in cloud-free conditions in the upper troposphere were in general higher than in the boundary layer, indicating new particle formation from gaseous precursors. High concentrations of black carbon were observed during BIBLE B, with mass loadings up to 40 μg m-3 representing as much as one quarter of total aerosol mass. Strong correlations with hydrocarbon enhancement allow the determination of a black carbon emission ratio for the fires at that time. Expressed as elemental carbon, it is about 0.5% of carbon dioxide and 6% of carbon monoxide emissions from the same fires, comparable to methane production, and greater than that of other hydrocarbons.

  4. Aerosol delivery in intubated, mechanically ventilated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIntyre, N.R.; Silver, R.M.; Miller, C.W.; Schuler, F.; Coleman, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    To study the effects of respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation on aerosol delivery to the lungs, nuclear scans were performed after aerosolization of 5 to 9 mCi of Tc-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid in seven stable, intubated, and mechanically ventilated patients. The radioactivity reaching the lungs was 2.9 +/- .7% (mean +/- SD) of the administered dose, an amount significantly less than that in three healthy nonintubated subjects and also less than what would be expected in nonintubated subjects from other published reports. A subsequent study was performed in 15 additional mechanically ventilated patients who were receiving aerosolized bronchodilators through their endotracheal tube. In these patients, heart rate and lung mechanical function values before and after treatment were not significantly different. It is concluded from these studies that aerosol delivery in mechanically ventilated patients is significantly reduced and that this is probably due to a combination of suboptimal breathing pattern, intrinsic airway disease, and the endotracheal tube functioning as both a site for aerosol deposition through impaction as well as a barrier to gastrointestinal absorption

  5. Photochemical organonitrate formation in wet aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yong Bin; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2016-10-01

    Water is the most abundant component of atmospheric fine aerosol. However, despite rapid progress, multiphase chemistry involving wet aerosols is still poorly understood. In this work, we report results from smog chamber photooxidation of glyoxal- and OH-containing ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the presence of NOx and O3 at high and low relative humidity. Particles were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). During the 3 h irradiation, OH oxidation products of glyoxal that are also produced in dilute aqueous solutions (e.g., oxalic acids and tartaric acids) were formed in both ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols and sulfuric acid (SA) aerosols. However, the major products were organonitrogens (CHNO), organosulfates (CHOS), and organonitrogen sulfates (CHNOS). These were also the dominant products formed in the dark chamber, indicating non-radical formation. In the humid chamber (> 70 % relative humidity, RH), two main products for both AS and SA aerosols were organonitrates, which appeared at m / z- 147 and 226. They were formed in the aqueous phase via non-radical reactions of glyoxal and nitric acid, and their formation was enhanced by photochemistry because of the photochemical formation of nitric acid via reactions of peroxy radicals, NOx and OH during the irradiation.

  6. Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, M.P.; Hamill, P.; Pepin, T.J.; Chu, W.P.; Swissler, T.J.; McMaster, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    The potential climatological and environmental importance of the stratospheric aerosol layer has prompted great interest in measuring the properties of this aerosol. In this paper we report on two recently deployed NASA satellite systems (SAM II and SAGE) that are monitoring the stratospheric aerosol. The satellite orbits are such that nearly global coverage is obtained. The instruments mounted in the spacecraft are sun photometers that measure solar intensity at specific wavelengths as it is moderated by atmospheric particulates and gases during each sunrise and sunset encountered by the satellites. The data obtained are ''inverted'' to yield vertical aerosol and gaseous (primarily ozone) extinction profiles with 1 km vertical resolution. Thus, latitudinal, longitudinal, and temporal variations in the aerosol layer can be evaluated. The satellite systems are being validated by a series of ground truth experiments using airborne and ground lidar, balloon-borne dustsondes, aircraft-mounted impactors, and other correlative sensors. We describe the SAM II and SAGE satellite systems, instrument characteristics, and mode of operation; outline the methodology of the experiments; and describe the ground truth experiments. We present preliminary results from these measurements

  7. Aerosols radioactivity in the Bratislava atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, I.; Chudy, M.; Durana, L.; Holy, K.; Meresova, J.

    2001-01-01

    In our laboratory we measured temporal variation of 7 Be concentration in the atmosphere in period 1977 -1994 years. The aerosols were collected through every month at Hydrometeorological Institute in Bratislava-Koliba, latitude 48 grad 10' and altitude 286 m above sea level. Since end of year 2000 we have started to continue monitoring radioactivity of atmosphere aerosols in new locality in Bratislava-Mlynska dolina. Beside 7 Be we measured also 210 Pb radionuclide aerosols concentration. For measured values 7 Be concentrations are considered corrections for decay radionuclide during the time of filters collection, time between end of collection and measurement and decay during the time of measurement. Obtained results for 7 Be concentrations in aerosols shows seasonal summer maximum, but for 210 Pb concentration in aerosols the seasonal variations are not evident. The temporal variations of this radionuclide which is originated in ground-level atmosphere are more sensitive on meteorological factors and can be also influenced by the industrial activity. For better understanding is needed long term monitoring. (authors)

  8. Reduction of aerosols produced by ultrasonic scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrel, S K; Barnes, J B; Rivera-Hidalgo, F

    1996-01-01

    There is concern with decreased air quality and potential aerosol contamination in the dental operatory. This problem has been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recommends that all sources of blood-contaminated splatter and aerosols be minimized. One of the major sources of potential aerosol contamination in the dental setting is the ultrasonic scaler. This study looks at the use of a high volume evacuator attachment for the ultrasonic scaler handpiece. Artificial teeth were mock-scaled for 1 minute with and without the evacuator attachment. The mock scaling was performed within a plastic enclosure that had a 1 cm grid laid out on 4 sides. Scaling was performed 10 times each by 2 operators. An erythrosin solution was used for the ultrasonic scaler coolant with a coolant volume of 17.5 ml/min. The number of squares containing a red erythrosin spot were counted and considered to represent aerosol contamination. The high volume evacuator attachment produced a 93% reduction in the number of contaminated squares (chi squared significant at P < 0.05). There was no increase in heat transfer to a tooth analogue when the high volume evacuator attachment was used with the ultrasonic scaler as compared to the scaler without the evacuator attachment. It is felt that the high volume evacuator attachment is capable of significantly reducing the amount of aerosol contamination produced within the test system without increased heat transfer to the tooth.

  9. Facile synthesis of CoNi2S4/Co9S8 composites as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fenglin; Huang, Wanxia; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Dengmei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a facile chemical bath deposition method was utilized to synthesize three-dimensional nanostructured CoNi2S4/Co9S8 (CNSCS) composites as advanced electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors. CNSCS composites showed remarkable electrochemical performance owing to the high porosity, appropriate pore size distribution, novel architecture and synergistic effect of Ni/Co ions. The electrochemical tests revealed that CNSCS composites exhibited high specific capacitance (1183.3 Fg-1 at the current density of 2 Ag-1), excellent rate performance (74.9% retention with tenfold current density increase) and outstanding cycle life stability. Moreover, the effect of temperature on electrochemical performance of CNSCS composites was investigated and the results indicated the specific capacitance of CoNi2S4/Co9S8 can keep relatively stable in a wide temperature from 0 °C to 50 °C. These results indicated that the synthesized CNSCS composites can be a promising electrode materials candidate for supercapacitors and chemical bath deposition is a promising processing route for CNSCS composites production.

  10. Structural and optical high-pressure study of spinel-type MnIn2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjon, F.J.; Segura, A.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Sanchez-Royo, J.F.; Amboage, M.; Itie, J.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Polian, A.; Ursaki, V.V.; Tiginyanu, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    We report a combined study of the structural and electronic properties of the spinel-type semiconductor MnIn 2 S 4 under high pressures by means of X-ray diffraction (ADXRD), X-ray absorption (XAS), and optical absorption measurements. The three techniques evidence a reversible structural phase transition near 7 GPa, that according to ADXRD measurements is to a double-NaCl structure. XAS measurements evidence predominant tetrahedral coordination for Mn in the spinel phase that does not noticeably change with increasing pressure up to the phase transition. XAS measurements indicate that the static disorder increases considerably when the sample reverts from the double-NaCl phase to the spinel phase. Optical absorption measurements show that the direct gap of MnIn 2 S 4 exhibits a nonlinear behaviour with a positive pressure coefficient at pressures below 2.5 GPa and a negative pressure coefficient between 2.5 and 7 GPa. The pressure behavior of the bandgap seems to be affected by the defect concentration. The double-NaCl phase also exhibits a bandgap with a negative pressure coefficient. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nano-crystalline powder by mechano-chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezazadeh, Farzaneh; Sheibani, Saeed; Rashchi, Fereshteh

    2018-01-01

    Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, CZTS) is one of the most promising ceramic materials as an absorber layer in solar cells due to its suitable band gap, high absorption coefficient and non-toxic and environmental friendly constituent elements. In this work, nano-crystalline CZTS powder was synthesized by mechanical milling. Elemental powders of Cu, Zn, Sn and were mixed in atomic ratio of 2:1:1:4 according to the stoichiometry of Cu2ZnSnS4 and then milled in a planetary high energy ball mill under argon atmosphere. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). XRD results confirm the formation of single-phase CZTS with kesterite structure after 20 h of milling. Also, the mean crystallite size was about 35 nm. SEM results show that after 20 h of milling, the product has a relatively uniform particle size distribution. Optical properties of the product indicate that the band gap of prepared CZTS is 1.6 eV which is near to the optimum value for photovoltaic solar cells showing as a light absorber material in solar energy applications.

  12. Photothermal-enhanced catalysis in core-shell plasmonic hierarchical Cu7S4 microsphere@zeolitic imidazole framework-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Huang, Yanjie; Chai, Zhigang; Zeng, Min; Li, Qi; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Dongsheng

    2016-12-01

    Conventional semiconductor photocatalysis based on band-edge absorption remains inefficient due to the limited harvesting of solar irradiation and the complicated surface/interface chemistry. Herein, novel photothermal-enhanced catalysis was achieved in a core-shell hierarchical Cu 7 S 4 nano-heater@ZIF-8 heterostructures via near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonance. Our results demonstrated that both the high surface temperature of the photothermal Cu 7 S 4 core and the close-adjacency of catalytic ZIF-8 shell contributed to the extremely enhanced catalytic activity. Under laser irradiation (1450 nm, 500 mW), the cyclocondensation reaction rate increased 4.5-5.4 fold compared to that of the process at room temperature, in which the 1.6-1.8 fold enhancement was due to the localized heating effect. The simulated sunlight experiments showed a photothermal activation efficiency (PTAE) of 0.07%, further indicating the validity of photothermal catalysis based on the plasmonic semiconductor nanomaterials. More generally, this approach provides a platform to improve reaction activity with efficient utilization of solar energy, which can be readily extended to other green-chemistry processes.

  13. Influence of deposition parameters and annealing on Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films grown by SILAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Kinjal; Shah, Dimple V.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimisation of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin film deposition using SILAR method. • Study on effects of annealing at different temperature under two different ambients, viz. sulphur and tin sulphide. • Formation of CZTS thin films with good crystalline quality confirmed by XRD and Raman spectra. - Abstract: Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique at the room-temperature. The deposition parameters such as concentration of precursors and number of cycles were optimised for the deposition of uniform CZTS thin films. Effects of annealing at different temperature under two different ambient, viz. sulphur and tin sulphide have also been investigated. The structural and optical properties of the films were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible spectra in light with the deposition parameters and annealing conditions. It is observed that a good quality CZTS film can be obtained by SILAR at room temperature followed by annealing at 500 °C in presence of sulphur

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: S4 1030+61 VLBA observations, 2009-2014 (Kravchenko+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, E. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Hovatta, T.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2018-02-01

    The source S4 1030+61 was observed (code S2087E) with the VLBA of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) during four sessions: 2010-05-24, 2010-07-09, 2010-08-28 and 2010-10-18 (noted as 'epochs' below). We supplemented our analysis with the data obtained within the MOJAVE programme. Observations are done at 15.4GHz with VLBA at 10 epochs: 2009-06-25, 2009-12-26, 2010-12-24, 2011-04-11, 2011-05-26, 2011-07-15, 2012-01-02, 2012-03-27, 2012-11-11 and 2013-07-08. Public data (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/ovroblazars/) of S4 1030+61 observations within the OVRO 40-m Telescope monitoring programme were used in the analysis. Observations are done at 15GHz in a 3GHz bandwidth from 2008-06-20 to 2014-01-21 about twice per week. The γ-ray fluxes in the range 0.1-200GeV were obtained with the LAT onboard the space Fermi γ-ray observatory from 2008-08-04 to 2014-02-23. (3 data files).

  15. Reactive pulsed laser deposition of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films in H2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgina, G.D.; Zenkevich, A.V.; Sipaylo, I.P.; Nevolin, V.N.; Drube, W.; Teterin, P.E.; Minnekaev, M.N.

    2013-01-01

    Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films have been grown by reactive pulsed laser deposition in H 2 S atmosphere, combining the alternate ablation from the metallic (Cu) and alloyed (Zn x Sn) targets at room temperature. The morphological, structural and optical properties of as grown CZTS thin films with varying compositions as well as upon annealing in N 2 atmosphere are investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry. The chemical bonding in the “bulk” of the CZTS films is elucidated via hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements. The formation of the good quality stoichiometric polycrystalline CZTS films is demonstrated upon optimization of the growth parameters. - Highlights: ► The new method of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films growth in H 2 S was realized. ► CZTS films were grown by pulsed laser deposition from Cu and alloyed Zn–Sn targets. ► The effect of the processing parameters on the CZTS properties was investigated. ► The chemical bonding in the “bulk” of CZTS films was studied

  16. Effect of the oxygen isoelectronic substitution in Cu2ZnSnS4 and its photovoltaic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tablero, C.

    2012-01-01

    The optoelectronic properties of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 and environmental considerations have attracted significant interest for photovoltaics. Using first-principles, we analyze the possible improvement of this material as a photovoltaic absorber via the isoelectronic substitution of S with O atoms. The evolution of the acceptor level is analyzed with respect to the atomic position of the nearest neighbors of the O atom. We estimate the maximum efficiency of this compound when used as a light absorber. The presence of the sub-band gap level below the conduction band could increases the solar-energy conversion with respect to the host. - Highlights: ► Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 is a promising material for low cost thin film solar cell technology. ► Its optoelectronic properties could be improved by states in the band gap. ► The oxygen to give rise to deep traps. ► Maximum efficiency can be larger than the host semiconductor.

  17. Computational modeling of the structure and the ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte materials Li3AsS4 and its Ge substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qawasmeh, Ahmad; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (G. Sahu et al.) reported that the substitution of Ge into Li3AsS4 leads to the composition Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4 with impressively high ionic conductivity . We use ab initio calculations to examine the structural relationships and the ionic conductivity mechanisms for pure Li3AsS4, Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4, and other compositions of these electrolytes. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1105485 and 1507942 and WFU's DEAC cluster.

  18. Atmospheric Aerosol Analysis using Lightweight Mini GC, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The major components of manmade aerosols are created by the burning of coal and oil. Aerosols are recognized to significantly impact the climate through their...

  19. Attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Koichi; Tanaka, Toru; Nitta, Shinnosuke; Itosu, Satoshi; Sekimoto, Shun; Oki, Yuichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Various characteristics such as size distribution, chemical component and radioactivity have been analyzed for radioactive aerosols released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Measured results for radioactive aerosols suggest that the potential transport medium for radioactive cesium was non-sea-salt sulfate. This result indicates that cesium isotopes would preferentially attach with sulfate compounds. In the present work the attachment behavior of fission products to aqueous solution aerosols of sodium salts has been studied using a generation system of solution aerosols and spontaneous fission source of {sup 248}Cm. Attachment ratios of fission products to the solution aerosols were compared among the aerosols generated by different solutions of sodium salt. A significant difference according as a solute of solution aerosols was found in the attachment behavior. The present results suggest the existence of chemical effects in the attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosols.

  20. GRIP DOPPLER AEROSOL WIND LIDAR (DAWN) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Doppler Aerosol WiNd Lidar (DAWN) Dataset was collected by the Doppler Aerosol WiNd (DAWN), a pulsed lidar, which operated aboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft...

  1. PRN 94-2: Recycling Empty Aerosol Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice offers registrants use of an optional label statement permitting recycling as an alternative to instructions to dispose of aerosol pesticide containers. Registrants may add a label reference to recycling the empty aerosol pesticide container.

  2. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  3. Miniature Sensor for Aerosol Mass Measurements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project seeks to develop a miniature sensor for mass measurement of size-classified aerosols. A cascade impactor will be used to classify aerosol sample...

  4. Ben Macdhui High Altitude Trace Gas and Aerosol Transport Experiment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Piketh, SJ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ben Macdhui High Altitude Aerosol and Trace Gas Transport Experiment (BHATTEX) was started to characterize the nature and magnitude of atmospheric, aerosol and trace gas transport paths recirculation over and exiting from southern Africa...

  5. Latitudinal and longitudinal variation in aerosol characteristics from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical and chemical properties of aerosols are strong ... Keywords. Aerosol optical characteristics; latitudinal and longitudinal variations; Bay of Bengal; Arabian Sea; pre- ...... of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the ...

  6. 3-color DPAS Aerosol Absorption Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a highly sensitive and compact RGB DPAS aerosol absorption monitor for NASA's Airborne Measurement Program. It will measure aerosol light...

  7. Simulated Field Trials Using an Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  8. Simulated Field Trials Using An Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  9. The background aerosol in the lower stratosphere and the tropospheric aerosol in the Alps. Final report; Das Hintergrundaerosol der unteren Stratosphaere und das troposphaerische Aerosol der Alpen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.; Trickl, T.

    2001-06-04

    As a contribution to the German Aerosol-Lidar Network lidar backscatter measurements have been carried out at Garmisch-Partenkirchen in a wide range of the atmosphere from next to the ground to altitudes beyond 30 km. The investigations, on one hand, were devoted to establishing a climatology of the aerosol extinction coefficient for the northern Alps and to prolonging the long-term measurement series of the stratospheric aerosol. On the other hand, aerosol was used as a tracer of polluted air masses in atmospheric transport studies (orographically induced vertical transport, advection of Saharan dust, as well as aerosol advection from the North american boundary layer and from large-scale wild fire in the United States and Canada). These transport processes given the seasonal cycle of the aerosol throughout the troposphere. In the free troposphere a pronounced spring-time aerosol maximum was found. The stratospheric aerosol concentration had decayed to a background-type level during the reporting period. As a consequence, the influence of smaller aerosol contributions could be distinguished such as the eruption of the volcano Shishaldin (Alaska) and aircraft emissions. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des deutschen Aerosollidarnetzes wurden in Garmisch-Partenkirchen Lidar-Rueckstreumessungen in einem weiten Bereich der Atmosphaere von Bodennaehe bis in ueber 30 km Hoehe durchgefuehrt. Die Arbeiten dienten zum einen der Erstellung einer Klimatologie des Aerosol-Extinktionskoeffizienten fuer die Nordalpen sowie der Verlaengerung der seit 1976 erstellten Langzeitmessreihe des stratosphaerischen Aerosols. Zum anderen fanden atmosphaerische Transportstudien statt, bei denen das Aerosol als 'Tracer' fuer Luftverschmutzung verwendet wurde (orographisch induzierter Vertikaltransport, Advektion von Saharastaub und Aerosoladvektion aus der nordamerikanischen Genzschicht und von grossflaechigen Waldbraenden in den U.S.A. und Kanada). Diese Transportprozesse bestimmen den

  10. A study of the attachment of thoron decay products to aerosols using an aerosol centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, V.B.; Kotrappa, P.; Bhanti, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    An aerosol centrifuge is used for the study of the attachment of thoron decay products to aerosol particles under dynamic flow conditions. The number concentration of aerosols was kept high (10 5 to 10 6 particles cm -3 ) as compared to the number of decay product atoms (10 2 to 10 3 cm -3 ) as is usually the case in a mine atmosphere. The polydispersed aerosols flow in and out of a chamber containing a steady source of thoron and the aerosols tagged with the decay products were separated into different size groups by an aerosol centrifuge (Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator). The average activity per particle was fitted as a power function of the radius in the form of Asub(p) = aRsup(b). The average value of b was found to be 1.08 +- 0.054 for particles in the radii range 0.25 to 1.35 μm and 1.34 +- 0.12 for particles in the radii range 0.1 to 0.33 μm. (author)

  11. A characterization of Arctic aerosols on the basis of aerosol optical depth and black carbon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Stone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aerosols, transported from distant source regions, influence the Arctic surface radiation budget. When deposited on snow and ice, carbonaceous particles can reduce the surface albedo, which accelerates melting, leading to a temperature-albedo feedback that amplifies Arctic warming. Black carbon (BC, in particular, has been implicated as a major warming agent at high latitudes. BC and co-emitted aerosols in the atmosphere, however, attenuate sunlight and radiatively cool the surface. Warming by soot deposition and cooling by atmospheric aerosols are referred to as “darkening” and “dimming” effects, respectively. In this study, climatologies of spectral aerosol optical depth AOD (2001–2011 and Equivalent BC (EBC (1989–2011 from three Arctic observatories and from a number of aircraft campaigns are used to characterize Arctic aerosols. Since the 1980s, concentrations of BC in the Arctic have decreased by more than 50% at ground stations where in situ observations are made. AOD has increased slightly during the past decade, with variations attributed to changing emission inventories and source strengths of natural aerosols, including biomass smoke and volcanic aerosol, further influenced by deposition rates and airflow patterns.

  12. MATRIX-VBS Condensing Organic Aerosols in an Aerosol Microphysics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe Y.; Tsigaridis, Konstas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  13. Current status of sodium fire and aerosol research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1989-01-01

    State-of-the-art of the research and development related to sodium fire and aerosol behaviour is presented. This paper covers the Japanese work on sodium leak, leak detector, sodium oxidation and combustion, sodium aerosol release, fire mitigation, reliabilities of the electrical instruments and the reactor components under the sodium aerosols suspended atmosphere, aerosol plugging in a leak path, and the computer codes are presented. (author)

  14. Biomass burning aerosols characterization from ground based and profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cristina; Vasilescu, Jeni; Marmureanu, Luminita; Ene, Dragos; Preda, Liliana; Mihailescu, Mona

    2018-04-01

    The study goal is to assess the chemical and optical properties of aerosols present in the lofted layers and at the ground. The biomass burning aerosols were evaluated in low level layers from multi-wavelength lidar measurements, while chemical composition at ground was assessed using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer. Classification of aerosol type and specific organic markers were used to explore the potential to sense the particles from the same origin at ground base and on profiles.

  15. Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, M I; Cairns, B; Chowdhary, J; Geogdzhayev, I V; Liu, L; Travis, L D

    2005-01-01

    This review paper outlines the rationale for long-term monitoring of the global distribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and clouds with specificity, accuracy, and coverage necessary for a reliable quantification of the direct and indirect aerosol effects on climate. We discuss the hierarchy of passive instruments suitable for aerosol remote sensing and give examples of aerosol retrievals obtained with instruments representing the low and the high end of this hierarchy

  16. Development of an aerosol decontamination factor evaluation method using an aerosol spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Nishi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aerosol DF of each diameter is evaluable by using optical scattering method. • Outlet aerosol concentration shows exponential decay by the submergence. • This decay constant depends on the aerosol diameter. • Aerosol DF at water scrubber is described by simple equation. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear power plant accident, the release of fission products into containment and an increase in containment pressure are assumed to be possible. When the containment is damaged by excess pressure or temperature, radioactive materials are released. Pressure suppression pools, containment spray systems and a filtered containment venting system (FCVS) reduce containment pressure and reduce the radioactive release into the environment. These devices remove radioactive materials via various mechanisms. Pressure suppression pools remove radioactive materials by pool scrubbing. Spray systems remove radioactive materials by droplet−aerosol interaction. FCVS, which is installed in the exhaust system, comprises multi-scrubbers (venturi-scrubber, pool scrubbing, static mixer, metal−fiber filter and molecular sieve). For the particulate radioactive materials, its size affects the removal performance and a number of studies have been performed on the removal effect of radioactive materials. This study has developed a new means of evaluating aerosol removal efficiency. The aerosol number density of each effective diameter (light scattering equivalent diameter) is measured using an optical method, while the decontamination factor (DF) of each effective diameter is evaluated by the inlet outlet number density ratio. While the applicable scope is limited to several conditions (geometry of test section: inner diameter 500 mm × height 8.0 m, nozzle shape and air-water ambient pressure conditions), this study has developed a numerical model which defines aerosol DF as a function of aerosol diameter (d) and submergences (x).

  17. Development of an aerosol decontamination factor evaluation method using an aerosol spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Taizo, E-mail: t-kanai@criepi.denken.or.jp; Furuya, Masahiro, E-mail: furuya@criepi.denken.or.jp; Arai, Takahiro, E-mail: t-arai@criepi.denken.or.jp; Nishi, Yoshihisa, E-mail: y-nishi@criepi.denken.or.jp

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Aerosol DF of each diameter is evaluable by using optical scattering method. • Outlet aerosol concentration shows exponential decay by the submergence. • This decay constant depends on the aerosol diameter. • Aerosol DF at water scrubber is described by simple equation. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear power plant accident, the release of fission products into containment and an increase in containment pressure are assumed to be possible. When the containment is damaged by excess pressure or temperature, radioactive materials are released. Pressure suppression pools, containment spray systems and a filtered containment venting system (FCVS) reduce containment pressure and reduce the radioactive release into the environment. These devices remove radioactive materials via various mechanisms. Pressure suppression pools remove radioactive materials by pool scrubbing. Spray systems remove radioactive materials by droplet−aerosol interaction. FCVS, which is installed in the exhaust system, comprises multi-scrubbers (venturi-scrubber, pool scrubbing, static mixer, metal−fiber filter and molecular sieve). For the particulate radioactive materials, its size affects the removal performance and a number of studies have been performed on the removal effect of radioactive materials. This study has developed a new means of evaluating aerosol removal efficiency. The aerosol number density of each effective diameter (light scattering equivalent diameter) is measured using an optical method, while the decontamination factor (DF) of each effective diameter is evaluated by the inlet outlet number density ratio. While the applicable scope is limited to several conditions (geometry of test section: inner diameter 500 mm × height 8.0 m, nozzle shape and air-water ambient pressure conditions), this study has developed a numerical model which defines aerosol DF as a function of aerosol diameter (d) and submergences (x).

  18. Multi-compartment Aerosol Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Santarpia, Joshua; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Omana, Michael Alexis; Rivera, Danielle; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony

    2017-06-01

    A simple aerosol transport model was developed for a multi-compartmented cleanroom. Each compartment was treated as a well-mixed volume with ventilating supply and return air. Gravitational settling, intercompartment transport, and leakage of exterior air into the system were included in the model. A set of first order, coupled, ordinary differential equations was derived from the conservation equations of aerosol mass and air mass. The system of ODEs was then solved in MATLAB using pre-existing numerical methods. The model was verified against cases of (1) constant inlet-duct concentration, and (2) exponentially decaying inlet-duct concentration. Numerical methods resulted in normalized error of less than 10 -9 when model solutions were compared to analytical solutions. The model was validated against experimental measurements from a single field test and showed good agreement in the shape and magnitude of the aerosol concentration profile with time.

  19. The hygroscopicity of indoor aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.

    1993-07-01

    A system to study the hygroscopic growth of particle was developed by combining a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) with a wetted wall reactor. This system is capable of mimicking the conditions in human respiratory tract, and measuring the particle size change due to the hygroscopic growth. The performance of the system was tested with three kinds of particles of known composition, NaCl, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and (NH 4 )HS0 4 particles. The hygroscopicity of a variety of common indoor aerosol particles was studied including combustion aerosols (cigarette smoking, cooking, incenses and candles) and consumer spray products such as glass cleaner, general purpose cleaner, hair spray, furniture polish spray, disinfectant, and insect killer. Experiments indicate that most of the indoor aerosols show some hygroscopic growth and only a few materials do not. The magnitude of hygroscopic growth ranges from 20% to 300% depending on the particle size and fraction of water soluble components

  20. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  1. Organic aerosol formation during the atmospheric degradation of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, M D; Sokolov, O; Wallington, T J; Takekawa, H; Karasawa, M; Klotz, B; Barnes, I; Becker, K H

    2001-04-01

    Organic aerosol formation during the atmospheric oxidation of toluene was investigated using smog chamber systems. Toluene oxidation was initiated by the UV irradiation of either toluene/air/NOx or toluene/air/CH3ONO/NO mixtures. Aerosol formation was monitored using scanning mobility particle sizers and toluene loss was monitored by in-situ FTIR spectroscopy or GC-FID techniques. The experimental results show that the reaction of OH radicals, NO3 radicals and/or ozone with the first generation products of toluene oxidation are sources of organic aerosol during the atmospheric oxidation of toluene. The aerosol results fall into two groups, aerosol formed in the absence and presence of ozone. An analytical expression for aerosol formation is developed and values are obtained for the yield of the aerosol species. In the absence of ozone the aerosol yield, defined as aerosol formed per unit toluene consumed once a threshold for aerosol formation has been exceeded, is 0.075 +/- 0.004. In the presence of ozone the aerosol yield is 0.108 +/- 0.004. This work provides experimental evidence and a simple theory confirming the formation of aerosol from secondary reactions.

  2. Studies on aerosol properties during ICARB–2006 campaign period ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronous measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Black Carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentration and aerosol particle size distribution were carried out during the campaign period at tropical urban regions of Hyderabad, India. Daily satellite datasets of DMSP-OLS were processed for night-time forest fires over ...

  3. Studies on aerosol properties during ICARB–2006 campaign period ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Continuous and campaign-based aerosol field measurements are essential in understanding funda- ... aerosol mass concentration and aerosol particle size distribution were carried out during the cam- .... the details provided by the supplier, the calibration ..... solar flux at the surface, derived from principal-plane sky.

  4. Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Ghan, Steven; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai

    2017-05-09

    Much of the uncertainty in estimates of the anthropogenic forcing of climate change comes from uncertainties in the instantaneous effect of aerosols on cloud albedo, known as the Twomey effect or the radiative forcing from aerosol-cloud interactions (RFaci), a component of the total or effective radiative forcing. Because aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei can have a strong influence on the cloud droplet number concentration ( N d ), previous studies have used the sensitivity of the N d to aerosol properties as a constraint on the strength of the RFaci. However, recent studies have suggested that relationships between aerosol and cloud properties in the present-day climate may not be suitable for determining the sensitivity of the N d to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations. Using an ensemble of global aerosol-climate models, this study demonstrates how joint histograms between N d and aerosol properties can account for many of the issues raised by previous studies. It shows that if the anthropogenic contribution to the aerosol is known, the RFaci can be diagnosed to within 20% of its actual value. The accuracy of different aerosol proxies for diagnosing the RFaci is investigated, confirming that using the aerosol optical depth significantly underestimates the strength of the aerosol-cloud interactions in satellite data.

  5. The Generation And Properties Of Solid Monodisperse Aerosols Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A monodisperse aerosol generator (MAGE) was used to generate calibration or monodisperse aerosols containing stearic acid and carnauba wax. Some of the factors affecting the size of aerosol particles generated with the MAGE were determined. The factors include: temperature of operation of the MAGE, type and purity ...

  6. Determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Leeuw, G. de

    2009-01-01

    Mostly, aerosol properties are poorly understood because the aerosol properties are very sparse. The first workshop on the determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements is convened in Bremen, Germany. In this workshop, the topics of discussions included a

  7. Aerosol optical depth retrieval over snow using AATSR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Hoyningen-Huene, W. von; Istomina, L.; Leeuw, G. de; Burrows, J.P.; Guang, J.; Jing, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol observations over the Arctic are important because of the effects of aerosols on Arctic climate, such as their direct and indirect effects on the Earth's radiation balance and on snow albedo. Although information on aerosol properties is available from ground-based measurements, passive

  8. Outstanding laser damage threshold in Li2MnGeS4 and tunable optical nonlinearity in diamond-like semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacilynn A; Clark, Daniel J; Kim, Yong Soo; Jang, Joon I; Weiland, Ashley; Aitken, Jennifer A

    2015-03-16

    The new Li2MnGeS4 and Li2CoSnS4 compounds result from employing a rational and simple design strategy that guides the discovery of diamond-like semiconductors (DLSs) with wide regions of optical transparency, high laser damage threshold, and efficient second-order optical nonlinearity. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction was used to solve and refine the crystal structures of Li2MnGeS4 and Li2CoSnS4, which crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric space groups Pna21 and Pn, respectively. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXRPD) was used to assess the phase purity, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy was used to estimate the bandgaps of Li2MnGeS4 (Eg = 3.069(3) eV) and Li2CoSnS4 (Eg = 2.421(3) eV). In comparison with Li2FeGeS4, Li2FeSnS4, and Li2CoSnS4 DLSs, Li2MnGeS4 exhibits the widest region of optical transparency (0.60-25 μm) and phase matchability (≥1.6 μm). All four of the DLSs exhibit second-harmonic generation and are compared with the benchmark NLO material, AgGaSe2. Most remarkably, Li2MnGeS4 does not undergo two- or three-photon absorption upon exposure to a fundamental Nd:YAG beam (λ = 1.064 μm) and exhibits a laser damage threshold > 16 GW/cm(2).

  9. Importance of Raman Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements for Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a UV Raman Lidar for aerosol extinction, and combining Microwave Radiometer derived Liquid Water Path (LWP with Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer derived Cloud Optical depth, to get cloud effective radius (Reff, we observe under certain specialized conditions, clear signatures of the Twomey Aerosol Indirect effect on cloud droplet properties which are consistent with the theoretical bounds. We also show that the measurement is very sensitive to how far the aerosol layer is from the cloud base and demonstrate that surface PM25 is far less useful. Measurements from both the DOE ARM site and new results at CCNY are presented.

  10. TEM investigations of microstructures of combustion aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, A.; Hackfort, H.; Borchardt, J.; Schober, T.; Friedrich, J.

    1992-12-01

    In the incineration of organic material, apart from a series of gaseous pollutants, particulate pollutants or combustion aerosols also arise. The latter frequently consist of particles with a solid core of carbon to which a large number of inorganic and organic compounds are attached. These primarily include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAH), whose mutagenic or carcinogenic effect is known. The invisible particle sizes in the nanometer range, whose retention in the incineration off-gas is not state of the art, are of increasing significance for man and environment. On the one hand, they are deposited almost completely in the human lung. On the other hand, due to their fine dispersity they have along residence time in the atmosphere where they participate in chemical reactions and climatically significant processes. Important insights about the formation process of combustion aerosols are to be expected from the imaging of their microstructures in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The present contribution describes the development and application of a representative sampling procedure for aerosols from a partial flow of flue gas from a fluidized-bed furnace. The method developed consists of electrically charging aerosol particles in situ and subsequently selectively precipitating them onto a microscope slide in an electric field. TEM studies of aerosol microstructures on the microscope slides revealed that in the combustion of petrol and heating oil under different combustion conditions in principle the same particle structures result, whereas in the incineration of used lubricating oil quite different particle structures were found. Results from the literature on aerosol microstructures in exhaust gases from petrol and diesel engines demonstrate agreement with the results of this study in the basic structure of the particles. (orig.) [de

  11. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  12. Dark Targets, Aerosols, Clouds and Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Today if you use the Thomson-Reuters Science Citations Index to search for "aerosol*", across all scientific disciplines and years, with no constraints, and you sort by number of citations, you will find a 2005 paper published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences in the top 20. This is the "The MODIS Aerosol Algorithm, Products and Validation". Although I am the first author, there are in total 12 co-authors who each made a significant intellectual contribution to the paper or to the algorithm, products and validation described. This paper, that algorithm, those people lie at the heart of a lineage of scientists whose collaborations and linked individual pursuits have made a significant contribution to our understanding of radiative transfer and climate, of aerosol properties and the global aerosol system, of cloud physics and aerosol-cloud interaction, and how to measure these parameters and maximize the science that can be obtained from those measurements. The 'lineage' had its origins across the globe, from Soviet Russia to France, from the U.S. to Israel, from the Himalayas, the Sahel, the metropolises of Sao Paulo, Taipei, and the cities of east and south Asia. It came together in the 1990s and 2000s at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, using cultural diversity as a strength to form a common culture of scientific creativity that continues to this day. The original algorithm has spawned daughter algorithms that are being applied to new satellite and airborne sensors. The original MODIS products have been fundamental to analyses as diverse as air quality monitoring and aerosol-cloud forcing. AERONET, designed originally for the need of validation, is now its own thriving institution, and the lineage continues to push forward to provide new technology for the coming generations.

  13. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V M; Hillamo, R; Maekinen, M; Virkkula, A; Maekelae, T; Pakkanen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  14. Preparation and characterization of magnetizable aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Romy; Glöckl, Gunnar; Nagel, Stefan; Weitschies, Werner

    2012-04-11

    Magnetizable aerosols can be used for inhalative magnetic drug targeting in order to enhance the drug concentration at a certain target site within the lung. The aim of the present study was to clarify how a typical ferrofluid can be atomized in a reproducible way. The influence of the atomization principle, the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles within the carrier liquid and the addition of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients on the aerosol droplet size were investigated. Iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles were synthesized by alkaline precipitation of mixtures of iron(II)- and iron(III)-chloride and coated with citric acid. The resulting ferrofluid was characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Two different nebulizers (Pari Boy and eFlow) with different atomization principles were used to generate ferrofluid aerosols. A range of substances that influence the surface tension, viscosity, density or vapor pressure of the ferrofluid were added to investigate their impact on the generated aerosol droplets. The particle size was determined by laser diffraction. A stable ferrofluid with a magnetic core diameter of 10.7 ± 0.45 nm and a hydrodynamic diameter of 124 nm was nebulized by Pari Boy and eFlow. The aerosol droplet size of Pari Boy was approximately 2.5 μm and remained unaffected by the addition of substances that changed the physical properties of the solvent. The droplet size of aerosols generated by eFlow was approximately 5 μm. It was significantly reduced by the addition of Cremophor RH 40, glycerol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethanol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Atmospheric residence times of continental aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkanski, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    The global atmospheric distributions of Rn-222 are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas Rn-222 (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead-210 is produced by decay of Rn-222 and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the Rn-222 distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of Rn-222 and Pb-210 atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for Rn-222 are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantarctic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that the fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of Pb-210 focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale

  16. Detection of the arylpropionamide-derived selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S-4 (Andarine) in a black-market product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Kamber, Matthias; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-08-01

    Non-steroidal and tissue-selective anabolic agents such as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent a promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases such as sarcopenia or cancer cachexia. Advanced compounds of SARMs are based on an arylpropionamide-derived structure and leading drug candidates have successfully completed phase-II-clinical trials. Although none of these therapeutics have been approved, their performance-enhancing qualities and the black-market availability of these products makes them a viable target for misuse in the athletic community. In 2008, SARMs were added to the Prohibited List established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). That SARMs are the subject of misuse even without clinical approval was proved for the first time by the detection of the drug candidate Andarine (also referred to as S-4, S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide), advertised, sold and supplied via the Internet. The oily liquids, declared as green tea extracts and face moisturizer, were assayed using state-of-the-art analytical procedures and S-4 was found at concentrations of approximately 150 mg/mL. The authenticity of the product was demonstrated in comparison to reference material by liquid chromatography, high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry using positive and negative electrospray ionization, and comparison to reference material. Moreover, an impurity resulting from poor product purification was detected, accounting for approximately 10% of S-4. This consisted of 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenylamino)-propionamide. The ease of purchasing non-approved drug candidates that could potentially increase athletic performance demonstrates the need to operate proactively in the continued fight against doping. The early inclusion of emerging drugs into routine sports drug testing procedures is a key

  17. Comparison of Aerosol Classification From Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Sharon P.; Ferrare, Rich A.; Omar, Ali H.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Hostetler, Chris a.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Obland, Michael D.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Cook, Anthony L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of aerosol composition and vertical distribution is crucial for assessing the impact of aerosols on climate. In addition, aerosol classification is a key input to CALIOP aerosol retrievals, since CALIOP requires an inference of the lidar ratio in order to estimate the effects of aerosol extinction and backscattering. In contrast, the NASA airborne HSRL-1 directly measures both aerosol extinction and backscatter, and therefore the lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio). Four aerosol intensive properties from HSRL-1 are combined to infer aerosol type. Aerosol classification results from HSRL-1 are used here to validate the CALIOP aerosol type inferences.

  18. A transuranic aerosol measurement system: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevo, C.T.; Kaifer, R.C.; Rueppel, D.W.; Delvasto, R.M.; Biermann, A.H.; Phelps, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    We have completed the design, fabrication, and assembly of a computer-based prototype system for the measurement of transuranic aerosols in the workplace and environment. This system (called WOTAMS for Workplace Transuranic Aerosol Measurement System) incorporates two detectors: (1) an in-line solid-state alpha detector that sends out an alarm the moment a transuranic release occurs, and (2) an in-vacuum detector that increases off-line-analysis sensitivity. The in-line sensitivity of the system is better than 5.0 MPC-h, and the in-vacuum sensitivity exceeds 0.5 MPC-h. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  19. Neutron activation analysis of atmospheric aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a modern analytical method well suited for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols. Particular steps of the NAA procedure and especially different types of aerosol sampling and sample preparation for analysis are discussed in detail. Several possible NAA techniques are described and the advantages of a purely instrumental technique with short and long irradiation are pointed out. Important performance characteristics of the NAA method such as precision, accuracy, sensitivity and detection limits are also discussed. Different applications of NAA in environmental studies are reviewed. (author)

  20. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Melanie; Donahue, Neil McPherson

    2010-09-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In repeated experiments, we observed rapid and substantial SOA formation after ozone addition; this process must therefore be considered when assessing the risks and benefits of using citronella candle to repel insects.