Sample records for schrank acarina glycyphagidae

  1. Ascaridiasis in peafowl Pavo cristatus (Phasianidae) due to Ascaridia galli Schrank, 1788. (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Catenacci, Lilian Silva; de Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes Azevedo; Sato, Marilia de Carvalho Brasil


    Twelve white peafowl (Pavo cristatus) affected by an outbreak of an intestinal disease were referred for more detailed examination at the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz-BA, Brazil. During the course of the disease, peachicks were severely affected, with enteric signs such as diarrhea plus dehydration, decreased feed intake and progressive weight loss. After examination, 8 of 12 samples (66.6%) presented single or mixed nematode infection and Ascarid eggs were the most frequent finding on fecal examination. Adult peafowl did not present clinical signs even when positive after fecal exam. Morphological analysis, clinical signs, fecal and gross examinations resulted in a diagnosis of ascaridiasis caused by Ascaridia galli Schrank (1788).

  2. Importance of phoresy in the transmission of Acarina. (United States)

    Macchioni, F


    Dispersal capacity plays a central role in the radiation of animals, facilitating the exploitation of habitats variously distributed in space or in time or both. Many living species are unable to leave a host, crawl around, and find a new host, so they must rely on external factors to be transmitted. Biotical factors may be important in passive transport and the process, by means of which an animal is passively transported by a selected carrier of different species, is known as "phoresy". Phoresy is a phenomenon in which one animal (the phoretic) seeks out and attaches to an animal of another species, with which it does not share any phase of the life cycle, for dispersal, during which time the phoretic animal becomes quiescent, stopping feeding and development. Activity starts again beginning with detachment, induced by stimuli originating from its carrier or the microhabitat. The adaptive traits of phoresy may be categorized as follow: host surface, quiescence, recognition of signals to abandon the carrier and, if needed, synchronization with the host life cycle. Phoresy is exploited by many Arthropods. In Acarina, there are basically four main types of phoresy. First, there is a type in which adult females are the only forms becoming phoretic and attachment is by means of chelicerae, palpal hooks and ambulacral claws, which grasp a seta or a fold of the integument of carrier-host. The second type is represented by mites, in which deutonymphs are phoretic; there is generally no cheliceral or sucker attachment in this group, mites instead hanging on by their ambulacral claws. The third type is similar to the second in that deutonymphs are phoretic; however, in this case, attachment to the host is by means of an anal pedicel formed by a substance, extruded through the anus, which hardens upon coming in contact with air and literally glues the mite to its host. In the fourth type there is a very highly modified deutonymph stage, called hypope, which only occurs at

  3. Sampling methods to detect and estimate populations of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) infesting dry-cured hams (United States)

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of pest populations is an important aspect of effective pest management. However, absolute sampling of some pest populations such as the ham mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae), a serious pest of dry-cured ham, can be difficult. Sampling ...

  4. Histochemical investigation of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank) Pilg. leaves and chemical composition of its essential oil. (United States)

    Inácio, Marielle Cascaes; Paz, Tiago Antunes; Bertoni, Bianca Waléria; Vieira, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares


    Essential oil from Cochlospermum regium (Schrank) Pilg. leaves (CR-EO) has been extracted by hydrodistillation; we analysed the CR-EO by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We also conducted histochemical analysis on cross-sections of the central vein of young and adult leaves. A total of 32 compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed, which represented 94.87% of the total CR-EO oil content. The CR-EO basically consisted of sesquiterpenes (96.87%); its main component was β-copaen-4-α-ol (18.73%), followed by viridiflorol (12.67%). The histochemical analyses identified the main classes of compounds present in both young and adult leaves.

  5. Elaboration of a method for internal labelling of migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taimr, L.


    The average value of the effective half-life of 32 P in migrates alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) was 3.794 days during 11 days following termination of feeding NaH 2 32 PO 4 in 20% sucrose solution on 'Parafilm' membranes under the given experimental conditions (temperature 20 +- 4 0 C, imposed limitation of movement). During the first three days and partly also during 5 further days the aphids excreted non-assimilated 32 P, while assimilated 32 P was excreted during a further period of three days. Mainly birth-rate (34% losses of the incipient 32 P-activity of the females) determining the length of the effective and biological 32 P half-lives of the mothers is responsible for the reduction of radioactivity in the alate females. Excretion of radioactive phosphorus in the honeydew (5% losses of the incipient 32 P-activity of the females) proceeds more rapidly as follows from the effective half-life. The 32 P-activity level of the migrantes alatae used (453 to 7979 counts per min) did not adversely affect fertility which amounted to 19.7 nymphs on the average during 11 days. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Elaboration of a method for internal labelling of migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank)

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    Taimr, L.


    The average value of the effective half-life of /sup 32/P in migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) was 3.794 days during 11 days following termination of feeding NaH/sub 2//sup 32/PO/sub 4/ in 20% sucrose solution on 'Parafilm' membranes under the given experimental conditions (temperature 20 +- 4/sup 0/C, imposed limitation of movement). During the first three days and partly also during 5 further days the aphids excreted non-assimilated /sup 32/P, while assimilated /sup 32/P was excreted during a further period of three days. Mainly birth-rate (34% losses of the incipient /sup 32/P-activity of the females) determining the length of the effective and biological /sup 32/P half-lives of the mothers is responsible for the reduction of radioactivity in the alate females. Excretion of radioactive phosphorus in the honeydew (5% losses of the incipient /sup 32/P-activity of the females) proceeds more rapidly as follows from the effective half-life. The /sup 32/P-activity level of the migrantes alatae used (453 to 7979 counts per min) did not adversely affect fertility which amounted to 19.7 nymphs on the average during 11 days.

  7. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae). (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang


    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely.

  8. Pengaruh Minyak Atsiri Asal Kulit Jeruk Manis dan Besar terhadap Perkembangan Tungau Panonychus citri (Acarina: Tetranychidae

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    Mizu lstianto


    Full Text Available P. citri (Acarina: Tetranychidae is one of the economically important citrus pests in Indonesia. However, the association of this pest with its host is not well understood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of essential oil extracted from sweet orange and pumello fruit peels on the development of P. citri. The research was conducted in the laboratory of IP2TP Tlekung Malang, using a complete random design consisted of six treatments. Fifteen mites were used for each treatment. The treatments were concentrations 10, 20, 40, and 80 ppm of essential oil. Parafin was used as a positive control because it was a diluting solution for the essential oil. The control received no application. The result showed that the main content of essential oil extracted from sweet orange and pumello was limonene. The essential oils prolonged the life cycle and reduced the fecundity of P. citri. The effects of essential oil extracted from pumello were found to be more pronounced than were from sweet orange. These differences might be due to the differences in the composition of the volatile compounds other than limonene.

  9. Mortality of tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) females exposed to a high ratio of gamma-irradiated males as an index of radiation impact on sexual vigor of males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.


    A 40 or 60 krad dose of gamma radiation reduce slightly sexual activity of the males but male activity is greatly reduced as the radiation dose increases from 60 to 120 krad. Females of the mold mite, Tyrophagus, putrescentiae (Schrank), molested by males present at a 3:1 or 5:1 ratio live shorter than females kept with one male. The SAG test can be applied to compare sexual activity of males treated with different dosage of gamma irradiation

  10. A Comparison of ectoparasite infestation by chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) on resident and migratory birds in Chiapas, Mexico illustrating a rapid visual assessment protocol (United States)

    Thomas V. Dietsch


    This study presents a protocol developed to rapidly assess ectoparasite prevalence and intensity. Using this protocol during a mist-netting project in two different coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico, data were collected on ectoparasitic chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) found on resident and migratory birds. Surprisingly high infestation rates were...

  11. Population dynamics and integrated control of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank on hops in Spain

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    A. Lorenzana


    Full Text Available The hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a serious pest in most areas where hops are grown. A field trial was performed on a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in León (Spain in order to analyse the population development of Phorodon humuli and its natural enemies, as well as to determine the most effective integrated program of insecticide treatments. The basic population development pattern of P. humuli was similar in the three years: the population peaked between mid to late June, and then decreased in late June/early July, rising again and reaching another peak in mid-July, after which it began to decline, rising once more in late August; this last rise is characteristic of Spain and has not been recorded in the rest of Europe. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy found on the leaves was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. The multiple regression analysis showed that aphids are positively related with the presence of beetle eggs and mean daily temperatures and negatively related with maximum daily temperature integral above 27ºC in plots without insecticide treatment. The most effective program of insecticide (imidacloprid treatments consisted of an initial treatment in June and a second treatment in the second half of July or at the beginning of August. However, a single treatment in June would be sufficient when in this last period the maximum daily temperatures were higher than 27ºC for at least 15 days, avoiding in this way the harmful effects of imidacloprid on predators.

  12. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for spider mites (Acarina: tetranychidae) in horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Banasik-Solgala, K.


    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.), and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are closely related species of tetranychid mites (Acarina, Tetranychidae) that respond to gamma irradiation in a similar way. Eggs of both species exposed to gamma radiation early in embryonic development were considerably more susceptible to irradiation than older eggs. The tolerance of eggs to gamma radiation increased in 3-4-day-old eggs, when eye-spots were formed. Nymphs were more resistant to gamma radiation than eggs and larvae. Deteriorative effects of irradiation treatment were reflected in the immatures by their mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A positive relationship between dosage and the percent egg mortality or the mortality of subsequent stages was usually found when the immature stages were irradiated. The sex ratio of adults developed from irradiated eggs, larvae, and nymphs was affected by the irradiation treatment; the ratio was usually skewed towards males. Irradiation of females resulted in increased mortality, lowered fecundity, reduced egg viability, and sex ratio distortion in their progeny. Two-day-old females of the carmine spider mite and the two-spotted spider mite irradiated with 200 or 300 Gy lived as long as the controls. Mortality occurred after 3 weeks. The number of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites was considerably lower than in the control, and it decreased as the absorbed dose increased. The higher the dose of gamma radiation applied to adults of the spider mites (the parental generation, P), the higher the mortality of the F1 mites during their embryonic development. Viability of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites mated with irradiated males was significantly reduced. Young females treated with a dose of 0.2 kGy produced 40-50% nonviable eggs, while control mites produced only 6.0-6.6% nonviable eggs. A dose of 0.3 kGy caused high mortality of eggs; 88% and 97% nonviable

  13. O gênero Ceratium Schrank (Dinophyta na plataforma continental e águas oceânicas do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genus Ceratium Schrank (Dinophyta from coastal and oceanic waters of Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Maria Luise Koening


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as espécies e distribuição do gênero Ceratium no Estado de Pernambuco. As amostras foram coletadas pelo navio de pesquisas Victor Hensen durante a prospecção do JOPS II-5 no período de 25/fevereiro a 3/março/1995. Foram analisados sete perfis perpendiculares à costa, de 50 milhas de distância cada, totalizando 34 estações, distantes 10 milhas umas das outras, sendo 14 estações na região nerítica e 20 na oceânica. As amostras foram coletadas com rede tipo bongo, com abertura de malha de 64 mm e fixadas com formol neutro a 4%. Foram identificadas 27 espécies, 24 variedades, quatro subespécies e três formas, totalizando 58 táxons. As espécies consideradas muito freqüentes foram C. contortum var. karstenii (97%, C. macroceros var. macroceros (82%, C. teres e C. euarcuatum (79%, e Ceratium tripos subsp. tripos (73%, sendo esta última a única subespécie abundante na área. Cerca de 56% dos táxons ocorreu tanto na região nerítica como oceânica, mas a região oceânica apresentou maior riqueza de espécies por amostra analisada, sendo 42% dos táxons encontrados nesta região.This work presents the species and the distribution of the Ceratium Schrank (Pyrrophyta from coastal and oceanic waters of Pernambuco State. Sampling were performed aboard the Research Vessel Victor Hensen, during the JOPS II Project, Leg 5, from February 25 to March 3, 1995. Collections were carried out in 34 stations, distributed in 7 profiles perpendicular to the coast, with 14 stations located at the neritic region and 20 at the oceanic one. Samples were collected with a bongo net, 64 mm and fixed with 4% neutralized formaldehyde. Fifty eight specific and underspecific taxa were identified, outranking as the most frequentC. contortum var. karstenii (97%, C. macroceros var. macroceros (82%, C. teres, C. euarcuatum (79%, and Ceratium tripos subsp. tripos (73% the last one being the only abundant subspecies. 56% of the taxa

  14. Within-field distribution of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and natural enemies on hops in Spain

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    Lorenzana, A.; Hermoso de Mendoza, A.; Seco, V.; Campelo, P.; Casquero, P.A.


    A field trial was performed in a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in order to determine the within-field distribution of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemies. The distribution of P. humuli was directly affected by the position of the hop plants in the garden, with significantly higher concentrations of aphids (p=0.0122 in 2002 and p=0.0006 in 2003) observed along the edge. However, in 2004 the plants located on the marginal plots had similar populations to those on the more inner plots. This can be explained by a higher wind speed which made it more difficult to land on edge plants first. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), whose population was greatest where the aphids were most abundant with a significantly greater number of eggs (p=0.0230) and adults (p=0.0245) in 2003. Lacewing eggs were also frequently observed, with a significantly higher population (p=0.0221 in 2003 and p=0.0046 in 2004) where the aphid numbers were high. The number of winged aphids was greatest towards the margins of the garden in 2003. It is argued that the spatial distribution of the hop aphid and its natural enemies could be used to plan a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in integrated pest management programs.

  15. Within-field distribution of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and natural enemies on hops in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzana, A.; Hermoso de Mendoza, A.; Seco, V.; Campelo, P.; Casquero, P.A.


    A field trial was performed in a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in order to determine the within-field distribution of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemies. The distribution of P. humuli was directly affected by the position of the hop plants in the garden, with significantly higher concentrations of aphids (p=0.0122 in 2002 and p=0.0006 in 2003) observed along the edge. However, in 2004 the plants located on the marginal plots had similar populations to those on the more inner plots. This can be explained by a higher wind speed which made it more difficult to land on edge plants first. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), whose population was greatest where the aphids were most abundant with a significantly greater number of eggs (p=0.0230) and adults (p=0.0245) in 2003. Lacewing eggs were also frequently observed, with a significantly higher population (p=0.0221 in 2003 and p=0.0046 in 2004) where the aphid numbers were high. The number of winged aphids was greatest towards the margins of the garden in 2003. It is argued that the spatial distribution of the hop aphid and its natural enemies could be used to plan a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in integrated pest management programs.

  16. Seasonal variation of infestation by ectoparasitic chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) on resident and migratory birds in coffee agroecosystems of Chiapas, Mexico. (United States)

    Dietsch, Thomas V


    Parasitism is not well documented for birds found in tropical habitats. Long-distance migratory birds may face additional risks to an already hazardous journey when infected. This study explores the ecology of an ectoparasite infestation in Chiapas, Mexico. During a mist-netting project in 2 different coffee management systems, chigger mites (Acarina: Trombiculidae), ectoparasitic during the larval stage, were found on both resident and migratory birds. Using a rapid assessment protocol, it was observed that 17 of 26 species of long-distance migrants and 33 of 71 resident species had at least 1 infested individual. Infestation prevalences were unexpectedly high on some long-distance migrants, as high as 0.73 for Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), a value on par with heavily infested resident species. Prevalence was highest during winter sampling: 0.18 overall, 0.16 of migrants, and 0.23 of residents. Prevalence was 0.14 for resident birds during the summer breeding season. Mean abundance and mean intensity of infestation are reported for 97 species captured and inspected during the course of this study. In this region, chigger mite larvae are relatively common on birds and their abundance varies seasonally. High prevalence for some migratory birds suggests that more research and monitoring of ectoparasites are needed, especially in light of emerging diseases.

  17. Gamasoidosis caused by the special lineage L1 of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae): A case of heavy infestation in a public place in Italy. (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Leis, Marilena; Chicca, Milvia; Roy, Lise


    Among Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata) mites, some dermanyssoid species are known to cause gamasoidosis, a human dermatitis characterized by papulosquamous eruptions and urticarian lesions. We describe a case of mite infestation which occurred in public conference halls in Ferrara (Italy), affecting four people who attended the place and showed signs of gamasoidosis. The mites were collected and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and mitochondrial DNA sequencing (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial CDS). Based on morphological and molecular data, the species responsible for the infestation was identified as the special lineage L1 of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acarina: Dermanissydae), a cryptic species known to be associated with pigeons. Rock doves, Columba livia Gmelin (Columbiformes: Columbidae) were roosting on the top of the public building, thus the mites probably gained access to the halls through small window openings. The present case report is the first one providing morpho-molecular identification of a D. gallinae cryptic species responsible of gamasoidosis in Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Egg morphology of the predatory mite, Cheyletus malaccensis (Acarina: Cheyletidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Z.; Hromádková, Jiřina


    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2009), s. 35-40 ISSN 0171-8177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903 * biocontrol * eggshell surface structure Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2009

  19. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

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    Moisés Gallas


    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.


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    Full Text Available We studied life cycle of stone crayfish for 18 months in three streams on Medvednica Mountain, located above city of Zagreb. Sampling of animals was carried out with baited traps twice a month and various physiological functions were recorded. Sex ratio of trapped crayfish was 1:1, but it fluctuated during the year. Animals were active from early spring until the beginning of November when their activities significantly decreased. In this period we noticed three peaks of higher activity. The first one after winter starvation in March, the second one after egg hatching (June/July and the third one during mating period (end of September - beginning of November. The maximal recorded weight for female was 38 g while the heaviest male was 55 g. The longest female was 9.28 cm and male 10.30 cm. Development of glair glands started from the end of July, mating occurred at the end of October and the juveniles hatched until mid-June. Freshly moulted animals were found from mid-May until mid-October. Main injuries were claw and limb loss. We noticed the presence of burn spot disease and Branchiobdella parasita Henle within studied populations. Correlation with five different physico-chemical parameters of water showed that animals’ activity is positively correlated to water temperature, conductivity, pH and hardness and negatively to oxygen concentration.

  1. Functional food: role of gamma irradiation in the improvement of Triticum dicoccum (schrank)) schulb

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    Vikas, V.K.; Sivasamy, M.; Kumar, Jagdish


    Importance of Triticum dicoccum as functional/therapeutic food is on rise because of the low glycemic value, slow digestability, high satiety value coupled with resistant starch, high protein and fibre. These quality attributes are considered vital for the dietary management of diabetes and cardiovascular risks. Most of the dicoccum cultivars in India are either tall local land races/traditional varieties with high quality but low yield or modern semi dwarf cultivars with low quality but high yield. Most of the semi dwarf dicoccum cultivars derived their dwarfing genes from Triticum durum and it has strong linkage drag in altering the quality traits. Further the scope of exploiting genetic diversity/variability in dicoccum wheat, largely created using T. durum is limited. This necessitates the need to search for new sources to create variability among the dicoccum gene pool wherein mutation provides a helping hand. One thousand fresh, dry and healthy matured seeds of tall traditional variety, NP201 were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gy doses of gamma rays using Cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) gamma source (Dose rate : ∼ 50 Gy/min; GC5000 irradiator) at BARC, Mumbai. Semi-dwarf line with high yield and stable in performance (HW 1098) were selected at M5 generation in the treatment dose of 200 Gy. The stable line was evaluated in multi location trials in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamilnadu through All India Coordinated Wheat and Barley Improvement Project (AICW and BIP) for yield, quality and rust disease reaction for three years (2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12). Radiomutant genotype, HW1098 recorded an overall yield advantage of +14.9% and +8.3% over dicoccum checks, DDK1009 and MACS2971 respectively along with resistance to stem and leaf rusts. HW1098 produced bold grain (46.5 g) with par values for protein content (16.8%) and beta carotene (3.39 ppm) compared to parent variety NP201. HW1098 was released for cultivation for the farmers of dicoccum cultivating areas of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. (author)

  2. On the abundance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897) (Pyroglyphidae: Acarina) in house dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Schoonen, J.M.C.P.; Berlie, M.A.F.; Lukoschus, F.S.


    The dominance of the Pyroglyphidae in house dust has been influenced by a number of factors. The humidity in houses dropped recently to such an extent that only Pyroglyphidae can survive. When temperature and relative humidity are favorable for Acarus siro and Glycyphagus destructor as well as

  3. Ticks (Acarina: Ixodida) infesting five reptile species in Sri Lanka with sixteen new host records. (United States)

    Liyanaarachchi, Dilrukshi R; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Dikkumbura, Anil W; De Silva, Anslem; Rajapakse, R P V Jayantha


    The first study on ticks on reptiles of Sri Lanka dates back to Seneviratna (1965) who reported ticks from five reptiles. Later studies were either limited to one reptile (Fernando & Fernando 2012), or captive animals in zoos (Fernando & Randeniaya 2009) and household pets (Nathanael et al. 2004). According to the current classification (Guglielmone et al. 2010), all the tick species previously recorded on reptiles belong to five species of Amblyomma: A. clypeolatum Neumann, A. gervaisi (Lucas), A. pattoni (Neumann), A. trimaculatum (Lucas) and A. varanense (Supino). Some of the species listed by Seneviratna (1965) were either synonyms or invalid in respect to the present classification. For example Amblyomma laeve sensu Warburton (1910) is a junior synonym of A. pattoni and A. gervaisii var. lucasi is considered a junior synonym of A. varanense (Guglielmone et al. 2010; D. Apanaskevich pers. comm.).

  4. Molecular study on three morphotypes of Demodex mites (Acarina: Demodicidae) from dogs. (United States)

    de Rojas, Manuel; Riazzo, Cristina; Callejón, Rocío; Guevara, Diego; Cutillas, Cristina


    Canine demodicosis is a severe and highly prevalent dermatologic disease in dogs. Pet dogs can be affected by three recognized Demodex species that can produce clinical effects. In this paper, three morphological types of Demodex mites have been isolated from Spanish dogs. A complete morphobiometrical study of each one has been carried out. Morphological and biometrical studies revealed three closely related populations with some distinctive characteristics and could be identified as Demodex canis, Demodex injai, and Demodex sp. "cornei." Furthermore, one population of D. canis from China, different populations of Demodex folliculorum from human skin (Spain and China), D. folliculorum from human eyelashes (Spain), and Demodex brevis from human skin (China) were considered to find out the level of variation between different species and geographical origin. The aim of the present study is to assess the usefulness of mitochondrial DNA molecular markers in establishing phylogenetic relationships and resolve taxonomic questions in Demodex mites. Molecular studies based on the amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes did not show clear differences between the three morphotypes considered. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites were analyzed. The resulting phylogenetic trees show that Demodex species from dogs were gathered together, and populations of D. folliculorum from humans appear together in a different branch; however, D. brevis from humans seemed to be more distant. Our results show that cytochrome oxidase I region is a useful tool to solve different taxonomic questions at the species and population level and to infer phylogenetic relationships in Demodex species. However, 16S mitochondrial rDNA seems a good marker for comparisons at an interspecies level, but not at a population level in this group of mites. Furthermore, from genetic distance and divergence data, we would suggest that D. canis, D. injai, and Demodex sp. cornei are polymorphisms of the same species.

  5. Species of the genus Amblyseius Berlese, 1914, from Tamatave, East Madagascar (Acarina: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers, Leo


    Seven new species of the genus Amblyseius are described: Amblyseius (Proprioseiopsis) parasundi, A. (A.) tamatavensis, A. (A.) passiflorae, A. (A.) reptans, A. (A.) ivoloinae, A. (A.) ovaloides, A. (A.) aequidens. All species were collected on fruit trees except A. passiflorae. A. parasundi is a

  6. Chigger (Acarina:Trombiculidae) surveys of the west coast beaches of Sabah and Sarawak. (United States)

    Dohany, A L; Phang, O W; Rapmund, G


    Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) arenicola Traub, a vector of scrub typhus, had previously been found to occur in the coastal vegetation behind the edge of open sand along the beaches of Peninsular Malaysia. Surveys of the west coast beaches of Sabah and Sarawak were conducted to determine if this species occurs in similar habitat in East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Leptotrombidium (L.) arenicola was not collected from the eighteen sites studied. Of the 11,982 mite larvae collected, 55 per cent were L.(L.) deliense (Walch), a well-known, widespread vector of scrub typhus.

  7. The effect of temperature and relative humidity on survival of unfed hyalomma impeltatum (acarina: ixodidae)


    Hagras, Ahmed E. E. [احمد الوزير هجرس; Babiker, A. A.; Khalil, G. M.


    This work investigates survival of unfed Hyalomma impeltatum in which 8089 larvae, 3946 nymphs, 2058 males and 2304 females held at different combinations of temperature (21, 25, 29 and 34°C) and relative humidity (RH) (32, 52, 75 and 97%) levels. Survival was significantly improved with rise in RH and fall in temperature in all stages. The magnitude of the effect of RH and temperature on survival varied significantly between stages. Changes in RH and temperature had a stronger impact on surv...

  8. Larvae of trombiculid mites (Acarina: Trombiculidae) in wild birds in Slovak and Polish Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Honza, Marcel; Pinowska, B.; Haman, A.


    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2001), s. 479-483 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 161700001 Keywords : Passerines * parasites * Trombiculidae Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001

  9. Selection of entomopathogenic fungi against the red spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai (Kishida (Tetranychidae: Acarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya


    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungal species to Tetranychus kanzawai was investigated. Seven isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae, six isolates of Beauveria bassiana, and an isolate of Paecilomyces lilacinus from the Philippines and Indonesia were evaluated. The following studies were undertaken: (1 screening of M. anisoplae, B. bassiana and P. lilicanus pathogenic to T. kanzawai, and (2 bioefficacy studies of the selected entomopathogenic fungi under greenhouse conditions. Conidia of each isolate were mass-produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA at 26+-1 oC and a 12-hour photophase for a maximum of 21 days. Preliminary screening for the most pathogenic isolate within the same species was determined using suspension with 104 to 108 conidia ml-1. At 4 days after treatment (DAT, the pathogenicity within M. anisopliae isolates in decreasing order was Ma5>Ma6>Ma4>Ma2>Ma1>Ma3>Ma7 while for B. bassiana, was Bb6>Bb5>Bb4>Bb3>Bb1>Bb2. The top three most pathogenic isolates within the two species were subjected to further studies to determine the most virulent isolate against T. kanzawai. At 5 DAT, the LC50 values of M. anisopliae isolates ranged from 5.0 x102 to 1.4x103 while for B. bassiana ranged from 1.2 x 103 to 2.4x 103 conidia ml-1. Based on LC50, the virulence of the fungal isolates within the species in decreasing order was Ma6>Ma5>Ma4 and Bb6>Bb5>Bb4. However, the LC50 values are not significantly different from each other. Green house trials showed that the epizootic of entomopathogenic fungus can regulate the population of mites. The fungal isolates used in the study, although not originally isolated from mites were virulent to T. kanzawai, indicating their wide host range.

  10. Conservação in vitro de Cochlospermum regium (Schrank pilg.- cochlospermaceae sob regime de crescimento mínimo In vitro conservation of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank pilg.- cochlospermaceae under minimal growth storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Camillo


    Full Text Available Cochlospermum regium é uma planta de áreas de cerrado, caatinga e pantanal. Na medicina popular é conhecida por "algodão-do-campo" e suas raízes são utilizadas para o tratamento de infecções uterinas, intestinais, gastrite, úlceras e artrite. Atualmente, o extrativismo e a destruição dos habitats naturais colocaram o algodão-do-campo na lista de espécies medicinais nativas prioritárias para conservação ex situ. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia para a conservação in vitro do algodão-do-campo e fornecer subsídios para estudos de micropropagação da espécie. Sementes de algodão-do-campo foram testadas quanto à germinação in vitro pela escarificação ou não das sementes em ácido sulfúrico e inoculação em meio de cultura MS. Para a conservação in vitro, segmentos nodais retirados das plântulas germinadas in vitro foram avaliados por 90 dias sob três regimes de temperatura (10, 20, e 25ºC e em três concentrações de meio WPM (½, ¾ e pleno. Verificou-se que sementes escarificadas apresentaram percentual de germinação in vitro de 93,3% aos 30 dias, valor significativamente superior aos 13,3% observados nas sementes não escarificadas. A conservação da espécie in vitro mostrou-se viável, desde que as culturas sejam mantidas em câmara de crescimento a 20ºC em meio de cultivo ½WPM. Sob estas condições os explantes mantiveram um crescimento mínimo e percentual de sobrevivência de 100%, após três meses de avaliação.Cochlospermum regium is a plant from cerrado, caatinga and pantanal areas. In popular medicine, it is known as "algodão-do-campo" and its roots are used to treat uterine and intestinal infections, gastritis, ulcers and arthritis. Nowadays, extraction activities and the destruction of natural habitats has made "algodão-do-campo" one of the major native medicinal species for ex situ conservation. The aim of this work was to develop a methodology for the in vitro conservation of "algodão-do-campo", contributing to studies on the micropropagation of this species. In vitro germination was evaluated in "algodão-do-campo" seeds subjected to scarification or not with sulfuric acid and inoculation in MS medium. For in vitro conservation, nodal segments from in vitro-germinated seedlings were evaluated for 90 days at three temperatures (10, 20 and 25ºC and three WPM medium concentrations (½, ¾ and full-strength. Scarified seeds presented 93.3% in vitro germination at 30 days of cultivation, a significantly higher value than the 13.3% observed for non-scarified seeds. The in vitro conservation of "algodão-do-campo" showed to be viable once cultures are kept in a growth chamber at 20ºC in ½ WPM medium. Under such conditions, the explants presented a minimal growth and 100% survival after three evaluation months.

  11. In Vitro Control of Uropathogenic Microorganisms with the Ethanolic Extract from the Leaves of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank Pilger

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    Danny Ellen Meireles Leme


    Full Text Available The roots of Cochlospermum regium, popularly known as “algodãozinho-do-cerrado,” are used for the treatment of genitourinary infections. However, the removal of their subterranean structures results in the death of the plant, and the use of the leaves becomes a viable alternative. Therefore, the antimicrobial activity of Cochlospermum regium leaf’s ethanolic extract and its action on the biofilm formation of microorganisms associated with urinary infection were evaluated. The total phenolic compounds, flavoids, and tannins were quantified using the reagents Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride, and vanillin, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method and the effect of the extract in the biofilm treatment was measured by the drop plate method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the method based on the reduction of MTS and the mutagenicity by the Ames test. The ethanolic extract of C. regium leaves presented 87.4 mg/EQ of flavonoids, 167.2 mg/EAG of total phenolic compounds, and 21.7 mg/ECA of condensed tannins. It presented reduction of the biofilm formation for E. coli and C. tropicalis and antimicrobial action of 1 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The extract showed no cytotoxicity and mutagenicity at the concentrations tested. This study demonstrated that C. regium leaves are a viable option for the treatment of genitourinary infections and for the species preservation.

  12. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn on soil Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida (Collembola), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acarina) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, X.; Krogh, P. H.

    The effects of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (corn variety Cascade Bt MON810 and DeKalb variety 618 Bt) were studied on survival and reproduction of the soil collembolan Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida, the collembolan predator mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and enchytraeids....... There was a weak significant reduction by 30% on the reproduction of F. fimetaria fed Bt corn in Petri dishes for 21 days. Likewise there was a weak significant reduction by 40% of the reproduction of H. aculeifer by Bt corn in amounts corresponding to 20 g plant material kg-1 soil in the two species soil......-litter microcosm systems. There were no effects of Bt corn materials on the reproduction of F. fimetaria and E. crypticus in the single species soil-litter microcosms. No effects of Bt corn materials on mortality of all the 4 species were observed in all treatments. The tendency of effects of the Bt corn...

  13. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R., E-mail: [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)


    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  14. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnett, Danielle; Hutchings, Tony R.; Hodson, Mark E.


    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  15. The taxonomy, life cycle and pathology of Sarcoptes scabiei and Notoedres cati (Acarina, Sarcoptidae: A review in a Fennoscandian wildlife perspective

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    Morten Kraabøl


    Full Text Available Mites constitute an old cosmopolitan group, abundant in various terrestrial and aquatic habitats of considerable environmental variations. The majority of mites are free-living, whereas some have evolved parasitic relationships with a variety of animals either as endo- or ectoparasites. The ectoparasitic and skin burrowing Sarcoptes scabiei and Notoedres cati, cause sarcoptic and notoedric mange among a variety of mammalian species, including humans. In a non-adequate host these mites lead to pseudo-scabies which is often self-curable. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent knowledge on the taxonomy, life cycles and pathology of these two mites, which are of relevance to Fennoscandian wildlife, by considering knowledge on transmission vectors, host immunology, and some documented outbreaks. These mites affect the health and survival of mammals in four ways; 1 skin tissue damages, 2 loss of body fluids, 3 allergic reactions and 4 secondary bacterial infections. A short-term effect of outbreaks is usually high mortality, and long-term effects vary from extinction to biased population structure to no effect at all. Red foxes are generalist predators that are important end-hosts for mites that develop disease depending on their immunity status, and transmit mites to other hosts. Outbreaks of mange may possibly have ecological consequences on a wider scale. In an endangered species, like the arctic fox or Eurasian lynx, loss of only a few individuals can be critical. It might be wise for management authorities to develop emergency plans to minimize consequences of outbreaks of sarcoptic or notoedric mange in threatened species such as the arctic fox and the lynx.

  16. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment of apples infested with diapausing eggs of the European red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acarina: Tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.


    Viable eggs of the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), on apples have been the concern of several importing countries and exports require preshipment, phytosanitary treatment to reduce or eliminate live eggs. Because fumigation is often detrimental to the commodity appearance and shelf-life, resulting in a loss of commercial value, there is a need for alternatives for chemical pest control as a quarantine treatment, and irradiation could be a new strategy method. The data obtained indicate that a dose of gamma radiation equal to or higher than 0.15 kGy seems to be adequate to prevent post-diapause hatching of wintering eggs of the European red mite. Thus, this dose is suggested for quarantine treatment of apples infested with wintering eggs of the European red mite. (author)

  17. Improved methods for measuring radioactive tracer accumulation and excretion by microarthropods, with applications for a mite species, Tyrophagus longior (Acarina, Acaridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.T.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.


    Radioisotope retention measurements of 85 Sr and 51 Cr in Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) were fit to 2 and 1 component models. Biological half-life for the rapid component of both radioisotopes was about 10 hours, with assimilation of 85 Sr being 62%. The identification of 51 Cr turnover as gut clearance must remain tentative. An inexpensive disposable culture chamber for measuring radioisotope retention in microarthropods is described along with details of methodology

  18. Acute Oral Mammalian Toxicity and Effect of Solvents on Efficacy of Maerua edulis (Gilg. & Ben. De Wolf against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus Koch, 1844 (Acarina: Ixodidae, Tick Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel T. Nyahangare


    Full Text Available Efficacy and toxicity of aqueous and organic solvents extracts of Maerua edulis against ticks and mice, respectively, were determined. Ground leaves were extracted separately using cold water, cold water plus surfactant (1% v/v liquid soap, hot water plus surfactant, hexane, or methanol to make 25% w/v stock solutions from which serial dilutions of 5, 10, 20, and 25% were made. For each concentration, 20 Rhipicephalus decoloratus tick larvae were put in filter papers impregnated with extracts and incubated for 48 h at 27°C and 85–90% RH for mortality observation after 24 h and 48 h. In the toxicity experiment, hot water plus surfactant treatments of 5, 10, 20, and 25% (w/v M. edulis were administered in suspension per os to sexually mature Balb/C mice and observed for clinical signs and mortality for 72 h. Larvae mortality was highest (>98% in methanol-extracted M. edulis treatments (20 and 25%, which was not different from the amitraz-based control (Tickbuster®. Mortality was also higher in the hot water than in cold water plus surfactant treatments (P<0.05. No postadministration adverse health effects were observed in the mice. These results suggest that M. edulis is an effective tick remedy best extracted using methanol or hot water plus surfactant.

  19. A rapid and non-destructive method to assess leaf injury caused by the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acarina: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta


    . The difference in photosynthetically active area that arises between uninjured and injured plants over a period of time provides a measure of spider mite injury that can be related to growth and yield. The method integrates the injury inflicted over a period of time, allows successive observations of the same...

  20. A new mite species of the genus Lasioseius (Acarina: Gamasina,Blattisociidae) associated with the flowers of Englerina lecardii and Chalcomitra senegalensis (Aves: Nectariniidae) in Senegal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalúz, S.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Konečný, Adam; Koubek, Petr


    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2011), s. 511-524 ISSN 0164-7954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acari * Gamasina * Lasioseius * Senegal * sunbird Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2011

  1. Mating competitiveness and the effect of X-rays and aging on males of Tetranychus urticae (Acarina, Tetranychidae) in relation to genetic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.


    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch were irradiated with X-ray doses of 4, 8, 24 and 32 krad (which were applied to 0-1 day-old adult virgin males) and tested in mating competition with one-day-old non-irradiated males. A non-significant excess of parental females were mated to the unirradiated males. This consistent trend in favour of females, mated with unirradiated males was highly significant, when the results of all the experiments were bulked. This indicated that radiation impaired the mating competitiveness of males of T. urticae. Aging of irradiated males resulted in a significant decrease of male-mating competitiveness at least within 2 days after irradiation. When 24 krad X-rays irradiated males were tested in mating competition at different ages, with unirradiated males of equal age, it was demonstrated that the reduction in mating competitiveness of aging irradiated males is caused by accelerated aging due to the irradiation treatment

  2. Introduction of Astigmatina and Oribatida Mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes associated with Stored Food Products in Mashhad county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Khaleghabadian


    infested materials by using Berlese-Tullgreen funnel. The specimens were cleared using either pure Lactic acid or Nesbitt’s mixture and then mounted in Hoyer's medium as microscopic slides. Using relevant references, mites were identified and then sent to the third and fourth authors for confirmation. Type specimens are held in the Acarological laboratory, Department of Plant Protection, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Results and Discussion: Among the identified species, Histiostoma sapromyzarum (Dufour has reported from Iran for the first time. New records for the study area are indicated by an asterisk. The list of identifying species is as below: I- Astigmatina- 1- Family Acaridae: Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau*, Caloglyphus berlesie Michael, Acarus siro Linnaeus, Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze & Robin*, R. robini Clapared, Tyrophagus longior Gervais*, T.putrescentiae (Schrank, 2- Family Chortoglyphidae: Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau*, 3- Family Glycyphagidae: Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank*, 4- Histiostomatidae: Histiostoma feroniarum (Dufour*, H. sapromyzarum (Dufour, 5- Suidasiidae: Suidasia nesbitti Hughes*. II- Oribatida- 1- Family Aphelacaridae: Aphelacarus acarinus (Berlese*, 2- Family Cosmochthoniidae: Cosmochthonius sp.*, 3- Family Ctenacaridae: Ctenacarus araneola (Grandjean*, 4- Family Galumnidae: Galumnadis cifera Balogh*, Galumnakarajica Mahunka & Akrami*, 5- Family Haplozetidae: Haplozetes sp.*, 6- Family Mesoplophoridae: Mesoplophora sp.*, 7- Family Oppiidae: Lasiobelba sp.*, 8- Family Oribatulidae: Oribatula (Oribatula sp.*, O. (Zygoribatula sp.*, O.(Zygoribatula connexa Berlese*, O. (Zygoribatula exarata Berlese*, 9- Family Scheloribatidae: Scheloribates fimbriatus Thor*. Conclusion: In this study, 12 species of Astigmatina belonging to 9 genera of 5 families and 13 species of oribatid mites were collected and identified. Among them, one species, namely Histiosomas apromyzarum (Dufour is a new record for the fauna of Iran. Twenty

  3. Integration of the WJ IV, WISC-V, WISC-V Integrated, and WIAT-III into a School Neuropsychological Assessment Model (United States)

    Miller, Daniel C.


    The Woodcock-Johnson-Fourth edition (WJ IV; Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014a) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014) are two of the major tests of cognitive abilities used in school psychology. The complete WJ IV battery includes the Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (Schrank,…

  4. Sensitization to 10 mites in a tropic area. Der p and Der f are important risk factor for sensitization to other mites from Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, Chortoglyphidae, and Glyciphagidae families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez


    Full Text Available Background: Much is known about the frequency of sensitization to Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, although less is known about sensitization to other species and their possible interactions. Objective: In patients with allergic manifestations, to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to 10 species of mites in a tropical area and their possible interactions. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Sensitization was evaluated by skin tests. A generalized linear Poisson regression model with robust variance was used. Based on the sensitization probability reasons and social networking analysis, explorations of relationship for 10 mites were performed. Results: 147 patients were included. The highest sensitization was found to mites' family Pyroglyphidae (> 70 % and less frequently was the Glycyphagidae family (< 50 %. Sensitization to any mites significantly increased the likelihood of sensitization to others. Sensitization to Der f or Der p increased, more than 20 times the likelihood of sensitization to other mites of the Pyroglyphidae family and more than 10 times to mites from other families. Sensitization to mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae family also increased the risk of sensitization to other mites but less than 5 times. Conclusion: Sensitization to mites is frequent in tropical area. Pyroglyphidae sensitization is the main risk factor for polysensitization with other mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae. These results must be considered at diagnosis and treatment of allergy diseases.

  5. Kisaran Inang Hama Krepes

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    Suryanti Suryanti


    Full Text Available Krepes is an acarina which caused damaged to Auricularia sp. cultivation. The fungi attacked by acarina will be dead and decayed. The host range test were done by inoculating krepes on several edible mushroom and on several stages of cultivated Auricularia sp. The research show that krepes attacks only Auricularia sp., and attack all stages of cultivated Auricularia sp.,

  6. Evaluation of skin sensitivity in dogs bearing allergic dermatitis to standardized allergenic extract of house dust and storage mites Avaliação da sensibilidade de cães com dermatite alérgica a extratos padronizados de ácaros da poeira domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E.S. Cunha


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate whether allergenic extracts of five house dust and storage mite species standardized for humans might be used for the diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD. Extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Pyroglyphidae, D. farinae (Pyroglyphidae, Blomia tropicalis (Glycyphagidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Glycyphagidae and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae were evaluated by intradermal testing in 20 healthy dogs (control and 25 dogs with allergic dermatitis. A significant difference in the response was observed between the two groups (pO presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar se extratos alergênicos de cinco espécies de ácaros da poeira domiciliar e produtos armazenados, padronizados para humanos, podem ser utilizados no diagnóstico da dermatite atópica canina. Extratos de Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Pyroglyphidae, D. farinae (Pyroglyphidae, Blomia tropicalis (Glycyphagidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Glycyphagidae e Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae foram avaliados através de testes intradérmicos em 45 cães, dos quais 20 normais e 25 com dermatite alérgica. Uma diferença significativa foi observada no padrão de respostas obtidas dos dois grupos (p<0.05. Apenas um animal (5% do grupo controle reagiu ao teste cutâneo, enquanto que no grupo dos alérgicos 14 cães (56% apresentaram pelo menos uma reação positiva (odds ratio = 24.2. As maiores freqüências de reações positivas observadas no grupo dos alérgicos foram aos extratos de T. putres-centiae ou L. destructor, cada um induzindo reações em 10(40% cães. Os extratos de D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus e B. tropicalis foram responsáveis por reações positivas em 7(28%, 3(12% e 3(12% cães, respectivamente. Os extratos padronizados para humanos avaliados no presente estudo podem ser utilizados como complemento no diagnóstico da doença, assim como na seleção de alérgenos para a imunoterapia alérgeno-específica.

  7. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America (United States)

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe four new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis:...

  8. Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo sobre a diversidade de animais da fauna edáfica, por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Na análise canônica discriminante, os preparos conservacionistas com sucessão de culturas foram separados em relação aos tratamentos com rotação de culturas. Os grupos Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda e Collembola, e o índice de Shannon (H foram os atributos que mais contribuíram para separar os tratamentos. A análise de correspondência mostrou forte associação dos grupos Acarina e Hymenoptera com o tratamento semeadura direta com sucessão de culturas, e do grupo Collembola com o preparo convencional.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage and crop management systems on soil fauna groups, by means of multivariate analysis. In the canonical discriminant analysis the conservation soil management systems with crop succession were discriminated in relation to other treatments with crop rotation. The groups Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, and Collembola, and the Shannon index (H showed the highest contribution for the discrimination between treatments. The correspondence analysis showed a strong association between Acarina and Hymenoptera groups with the treatment no-tillage with crop succession, and between Collembola group with the conventional tillage system.

  9. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  10. First Record of Dicheilonema Ciconiae (Nematoda, Diplotriaenoidea From Ciconia Nigra (Aves, Ciconiidae in Ukraine

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    Syrota Ya. Yu.


    Full Text Available Five specimens of a parasitic nematode Dicheilonema ciconiae (Schrank, 1788 were collected from black stork, Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, in Kyiv Zoological Park. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by morphological examination of the specimens collected. The ornamentation of the body cuticle in caudal region of males (area rugosa is first described in D. ciconiae.

  11. Prey preference of the phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus pyri. 1. Response to volatile kairomones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.


    Using a Y-tube olfactometer, a study has been made of the response of females of the predatory miteTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) to volatile kairomones of three prey species: the European red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)), the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae

  12. Biological and ecological characterization of two mites (Tetranychus Urticae and Phytoseiulus Persimilis) occurring in some agro-ecosystems; Caratterizzazione biologica ed ecologica di due acari (Tetranichus Urticae e Phytoseiulus Persimilis) interagenti in alcuni ecosistemi agrari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvitti, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dip. Innovazione


    This work is a brief review of the actual knowledge about biological and ecological characteristics of two species of mites: Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina Tetranychidae) (two-spotted spider mite) and the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias Henriot (Acarina Phytoseiidae). Success obtained in biological control of spider mite, by mass release of P. persimilis, has increased the interest in biological and ecological study of these mites. Particularly, the following biological and ecological aspects of both P. persimilis and T. urticae are hereby discussed: reproductive biology; population dynamics (spider mites outbreaks) and natural regulation of the trophic interaction; feeding behaviour; biological control of two-spotted spider mite by P. persimilis. In this report experimental data obtained in laboratory have been integrated with bibliographic information concerning studies produced in natural conditions.

  13. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases


    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.


    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis c...

  14. An annotated synopsis of the powder post beetles of Iran (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea: Bostrichidae

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    Lan-Yu Liu


    Full Text Available An annotated synopsis of Iranian Bostrichidae (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea is provided as a basis for future studies, with notes on distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In total, 31 species from 18 genera and 4 subfamilies (Bostrichinae, Dinoderinae, Lyctinae and Psoinae are listed from Iran. Sinoxylon anale Lesne, 1897, Sinoxylon perforans (Schrank, 1789, Stephanopachys linearis (Kugelann, 1792 and Xylopertha retusa (Olivier, 1790 are new records for Iran.

  15. Records of ectoparasites on humans and sheep from Viking-age deposits in the former western settlement of Greenland. (United States)

    Sadler, J P


    During recent archaeological excavations in Viking Greenland, specimens of the human flea, Pulex irritans L., and the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., were recovered from several farmsteads. Bovicola ovis (Schrank) and the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus (L.), also were found in associated deposits. The specimens were dated from about AD 990 to AD 1350. These finds raise questions about the levels of hygiene of the Viking farmers and open some interesting medical and biogeographical conundrums.

  16. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Rocco, Annamaria; Maisto, Giulia


    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  17. Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems


    Dilmar Baretta; Álvaro Luiz Mafra; Julio Cesar Pires Santos; Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante; Ildegardis Bertol


    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo sobre a diversidade de animais da fauna edáfica, por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Na análise canônica discriminante, os preparos conservacionistas com sucessão de culturas foram separados em relação aos tratamentos com rotação de culturas. Os grupos Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda e Collembola, e o índice de Shannon (H) foram os atributos que mais contribuíram para separar os tratamentos. A anál...

  18. Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier – Del 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning Bang; Calabuig, Isabel


    This paper presents Part 3 of a checklist for the taxa of bees occurring in Denmark, dealing with the families Melittidae and Megachilidae, and covering 53 species. The remaining two families (Halictidae and Apidae) will be dealt with in future papers. The following two species are hereby recorded...... as belonging to the Danish bee fauna: Melitta tricincta Kirby, 1802 and Hoplosmia spinulosa (Kirby, 1802). Megachile pyrenaea Pérez, 1890 and Osmia bicolor (Schrank, 1781) are excluded from the Danish checklist. Species that have the potential to occur in Denmark are discussed briefly....

  19. The Impact of Geomorphology and Human Disturbances on the Faunal Distributions in Tiquara and Angico Caves of Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil

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    André Vieira de Araujo


    Full Text Available Characterization of fauna is important for the understanding of communities and ecosystems, enabling the design of actions for conservation. In the present piece of work, we identified total 45 morphospecies belonging to the order Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Dictyoptera, Araneida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, Zygentoma, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Psocoptera from two distinct types of caves of Campo Formoso, state of Bahia in Brazil. It was made to provide subsidies for conservation studies. The targeted caves were Tiquara Cave suffered for many years from saltpeter extraction and Angico Cave less visited cave having high tourist potential. Though the conservation status is much better in Angico cave, but we found comparatively more morphospecies in Tiquara cave.

  20. Maternal exposure to Cochlospermum regium: a toxicological evaluation

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    Andréa Luiza Cunha-Laura


    Full Text Available Cochlospermum regium (Schrank Pilg., Bixaceae, is a Brazilian plant widely used as a folk medicine in the southwestern of the Brazil to treat inflammation and infection diseases. However, the effects of C. regium hydroethanolic extract on pregnant rats have not been assessed. To evaluate the effects of the C. regium on pregnant rats during the organogenic period, the hydroethanolic extract was administered via gavage at a dose of 11.5 mg/kg/day to rats from 6th to 15th day of pregnancy. No clinical signs of maternal toxicity were observed. The placenta's and fetuses' weight were similar in control and treated animals. The term fetuses dis not present malformations or anomalies although the number of live fetuses and birth rate were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the C. regium hydroethanolic extract is nontoxicant to the pregnant rat although it would be likely to interfere in the progress of the embryofetal development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI


    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  2. Biological impacts of alcohol fuel emission on selected pollinator, predatory and nutrient-cycling insects and arachnids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Eliscu, P.N.


    Physiological and behavioral effects of methanol, ethanol, indolene, and formaldehyde emissions on selected arthropods are related to different relative organismic activities, metabolic rates, and respiratory demands. Various species of important pollinators, predators, and nutrient-cycling insects and arachnids respond differently to tailpipe and elevated levels of emissions. A gradient of responses is related to metabolism and trophic niche. Orders tested included various Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Collembola, Thysanura, Araneae, Acarina, and Opiliones. Responses included narcosis, spatial disorientation, cardiac arrhythmia, flight muscle and walking leg dysfunction, decreased feeding efficiency and prey capture success ratios, and increased positive thigmotaxis. Tolerance appears to be inversely related to oxygen demand of the arthropods tested, with active fliers most susceptible, weak fliers midscale, and non-fliers most tolerant. Electronic monitoring of heart, brain, and muscle characteristics suggests neuronal and neurosynaps disruptions from alcohols and formaldehyde, and neuromuscular effects from indolene in most arthropods tested.

  3. Ocorrência de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae Occurrence of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae on leaves of I. cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana M. de A. Maia


    Full Text Available A ocorrência de três espécies acarinas fitófagas é relatada pela primeira vez sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica. As espécies Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, foram coletadas sobre folhas de I. cairica nas imediações da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, em 20 de janeiro de 2005.The first occurrence of three phytophagus mites on Ipomoea cairica, is reported. The species Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks were caught on leaves of I. cairica, around Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, in January 20th, 2005.

  4. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

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    Favas P. J. C.


    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  5. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

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    Domínguez G.


    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  6. Mites and fungi in heavily infested stores in the Czech Republic. (United States)

    Hubert, J; Stejskal, V; Munzbergová, Z; Kubátová, A; Vánová, M; Zd'árková, E


    Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., Acarus siro L., 1758, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (Zachvatkin, 1973), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank, 1781), Tyrophagus putrescentnae (Schrank, 1781) and Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903) separately. Multivariate analysis of fungi complex composition showed that the frequency of fungal was species significantly influenced by the kind of seed. Fungal frequencies differed between mites gut and exoskeleton surface and between the surfaces of mites and seeds. Three groups of fungal species were recognized: 1) mite surface-associated fungi: Penicillium brevicompactum, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus versicolor; 2) mite surface- and seed-associated fungi: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus flavus; and 3) seed-associated fungi: Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor dimorphosporus f. dimorphosporus, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Eurotium repens. Mite-carried species of microfungi are known to produce serious mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A, and nephrotoxic glycopeptides) as well as allergen producers (e.g., A. alternata and P. brevicompactum). Storage mites may play an important role in the spread of some medically hazardous micromycetes. In addition, these mite-fungi associations may heighten the risk of occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed stuffs and cause mixed contamination by fungal and mite allergens.

  7. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. (United States)

    Nicetic; Watson, D M; Beattie, G A; Meats, A; Zheng, J


    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest management program. The results showed that 0.5% PSO applied fortnightly to roses gave excellent protection from T urticae infestation when the mite population was not already established. However, PSO applied after roses were infested with T. urticae above the economic threshold only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold. Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of PSO at 7-day intervals, and application of PSO to the upper canopy was as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P persimilis as spraying the entire plant. Combining PSO with P. persimilis gave better control of T. urticae than using P. persimilis alone. The most cost-effective use of PSO in the presence of P. persimilis is, therefore, to apply spray only to the upper canopy. This will not affect control of powdery mildew with PSO. Comparison of a control program for T urticae based on the monitored use of synthetic miticides with that based on calendar application of PSO revealed that both gave equally effective control. The benefits of combining PSO and P. persimilis in an integrated pest management program for T. urticae on roses over a program based on synthetic fungicides are discussed.

  8. [Community traits of soil fauna in forestlands converted from cultivated lands in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province of China]. (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yuan-Qiug; Guo, Sheng-Mao; Ke, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Zhao; Xiao, Xu-Bao; Liu, Wu


    This paper studied the variations of the community composition and individuals' number of soil fauna in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province after six years of converting cultivated lands into forestlands. Three converted forestlands, including the lands of mixed multiple-species forest, bamboo-broadleaved forest, and tree-seedling integration, were selected as test objects, with cultivated lands as the comparison. A total of 34 orders, 17 classes, and 6 phyla of soil fauna were observed in the converted forestlands. The dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 86.7% of the total, whereas Acarina, Enchytraeidae, and Collembola were the common groups. In the cultivated lands, soil fauna had 21 orders, 10 classes, and 5 phyla. The dominant group was also Nematoda, accounting 86.7% of the total, and Acarina and Enchytraeidae were the common groups. In the converted forestlands, the group number of rare species was greater than that in the cultivated lands (30 vs. 18), and, except in winter, the group number and average density were significantly higher than those in the cultivated lands (P soil fauna in the soil profiles showed an obvious surface accumulation, which was more apparent in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and the individuals' number had significant differences between the surface (0-5 cm) layer and the 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm layers (P soil fauna in the converted forestlands had a seasonal variation ranked in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter, and there was a significant difference between summer-autumn and spring-winter. The average density of the soil fauna also had a seasonal variation but ranked as autumn > summer > spring > winter, and the differences among the seasons were significant (P soil fauna was significantly higher in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and was the highest in mixed multiple-species forestland and the least in tree-seedling integration land.

  9. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania. (United States)

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V


    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  10. Seasonal abundance of soil arthropods in relation to meteorological and edaphic factors in the agroecosystems of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. (United States)

    Shakir, Muhammad Mussadiq; Ahmed, Sohail


    Soil arthropods are an important component of agroecosystems, contributing significantly to their biodiversity and functioning. However, seasonal patterns, population dynamics, and significant roles of these soil arthropods in improvement of soil structures and functions are influenced by many factors. The objective of the current study was to investigate soil arthropod abundance in relation to a blend of meteorological and edaphic factors and to find out the difference in abundance among various crops (sugarcane, cotton, wheat, alfalfa fodder, and citrus orchards). The arthropod sampling was done by pitfall traps and Tullgren extractions on fortnightly intervals. Soil temperature and relative humidity were noted on the field sites while analysis for soil pH, organic matter, and soil moisture contents were done in the laboratory. The rainfall data was obtained from an observatory. Results showed that significant differences were found in soil arthropod abundance across different sampling months and crops. Out of total 13,673 soil arthropods sampled, 38 % belonged to Collembola, followed by 15 % Hymenoptera, 15 % Acarina, 11 % Myriapods, 6 % Coleoptera, 5 % Orthoptera, and 5 % Araneae. Mean abundance per sample was highest in summer months as compared to winter. Overall abundance per sample was significantly different between all crops (p arthropods according to abundance, i.e., highly abundant (Collembola, Acarina, Myripoda, Hymenoptera), moderately abundant (Orthoptera, Aranae, Coleoptera), least abundant (Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Diptera), and rare (Blattaria, Isoptera, Diplura, Lepidoptera). Soil temperature and soil organic matter showed significant positive correlation with abundance, while relative humidity was significantly negatively correlated. Soil moisture and soil pH showed no significant correlations while no correlation was found with total rainfall. PCA analysis revealed that soil surface arthropods were the major contributors of variation in overall

  11. The benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of highland streams in southern Brazil: composition, diversity and structure Fauna de macro-invertebrados bentônicos de rios de montanha no sul do Brasil: composição, diversidade e estrutura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Buckup


    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrate in four rivers, three in the Pelotas River basin (Divisa, Marco and Silveira rivers, in the headwaters of the Uruguai River and one in the Taquari-Antas system (Antas River, a tributary in the Guaíba basin, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, were identified. Two samples were collected in summer, autumn and spring, with one replicate in each river. The total of 28,961 specimens included members of Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Acarina, Insecta, Crustacea and Mollusca. The Silveira and Marco rivers showed significant differences in the indices of Shannon-Weaver (H’, Simpson’s Reciprocal (1/D, Margalef (DMg and Equitability (E. The Silveira River showed the highest means of diversity and the EPT index (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera. Comparison among the diversity indices, considered individually, were insufficient to show differences in community structure, for the purpose of ecological characterization of the rivers. The EPT values characterized the Divisa River as having the highest abundance (73%, followed by the Marco (71%, Antas (48% and Silveira (36%. These results suggest that the Silveira River is subject to moderate environmental stress, from human impact, although it showed the highest diversity of the major macrobenthic groups.Os macro-invertebrados bentônicos que ocorrem em quatro rios, três pertencentes à bacia do Rio Pelotas (Rios Divisa, Marco e Silveira nas cabeceiras do Rio Uruguai e um ao sistema Taquari-Antas (Rio Antas, tributário da bacia do Guaíba, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, foram identificados. Duas amostras foram coletadas no verão, outono e primavera, com uma réplica em cada rio. Foram coletados 28961 espécimes de macro-invertebrados compreendendo Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Acarina, Insecta, Crustacea e Mollusca. Na comparação entre os rios, Silveira e Marco mostraram diferenças significativas nos índices de Shannon-Weaver (H’, no Recíproco de Simpson (1/D, de

  12. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.


    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  13. Genotypic diversity of an invasive plant species promotes litter decomposition and associated processes. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Miao, Yuan; Yu, Shuo; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Schmid, Bernhard


    Following studies that showed negative effects of species loss on ecosystem functioning, newer studies have started to investigate if similar consequences could result from reductions of genetic diversity within species. We tested the influence of genotypic richness and dissimilarity (plots containing one, three, six or 12 genotypes) in stands of the invasive plant Solidago canadensis in China on the decomposition of its leaf litter and associated soil animals over five monthly time intervals. We found that the logarithm of genotypic richness was positively linearly related to mass loss of C, N and P from the litter and to richness and abundance of soil animals on the litter samples. The mixing proportion of litter from two sites, but not genotypic dissimilarity of mixtures, had additional effects on measured variables. The litter diversity effects on soil animals were particularly strong under the most stressful conditions of hot weather in July: at this time richness and abundance of soil animals were higher in 12-genotype litter mixtures than even in the highest corresponding one-genotype litter. The litter diversity effects on decomposition were in part mediated by soil animals: the abundance of Acarina, when used as covariate in the analysis, fully explained the litter diversity effects on mass loss of N and P. Overall, our study shows that high genotypic richness of S. canadensis leaf litter positively affects richness and abundance of soil animals, which in turn accelerate litter decomposition and P release from litter.

  14. Mite fauna and fungal flora in house dust from homes of asthmatic children. (United States)

    Ishii, A; Takaoka, M; Ichinoe, M; Kabasawa, Y; Ouchi, T


    Mite fauna and fungal flora in the house dust from homes of asthmatic children with positive and negative skin test to house dust allergen and non-asthmatic controls were examined. There was no conspicuous difference in mite species distribution among the three groups. Pyroglyphid mites dominate the mite fauna in house dust more than half of which being Dermatophagoides: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. There was no statistically significant difference in numbers between the two species and either species could dominate depending on the conditions of the individual houses. The average number of acarina in 0.5 g of fine dust did not differ statistically among the three groups; however, mite number per square meter floor differed between patients with positive skin test and negative skin test. The results suggest that house-cleaning might influence the possible sensitization of children. The genetic distribution of mould fungi in house dust was largely similar to that of airborne fungi. The average number of fungal colonies detected in 0.5 g of dust did not differ statistically among the three groups. Wallemia with its minute spores may cause sensitization but has so far been insufficiently investigated.

  15. Tropical veterinary parasites at Harvard University's Museum of Comparative Zoology. (United States)

    Conn, David Bruce


    Tropical veterinary parasites have been maintained by the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) at Harvard University since the mid 1800s. Most of these are maintained by the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, but many vectors and intermediate hosts are maintained by the Departments of Entomology and Malacology. The largest collections are of avian and mammalian ticks (Acarina) that are important as both parasites and vectors. Nematodes are second in numbers, followed by cestodes, trematodes, and several minor helminth groups, crustacean parasites of fish, and protozoan parasites of various hosts. The MCZ directed or participated in several major expeditions to tropical areas around the globe in the early 1900s. Many of these expeditions focused on human parasites, but hundreds of veterinary and zoonotic parasites were also collected from these and numerous, smaller, tropical expeditions. Host sources include companion animals, livestock, laboratory species, domestic fowl, reptiles, amphibians, exotics/zoo animals, commercially important fishes, and other wildlife. Specimens are curated, either fixed whole in vials or mounted on slides as whole mounts or histopathological sections. The primary emphasis of MCZ's current work with tropical veterinary parasites is on voucher specimens from epidemiological, experimental, and clinical research.

  16. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea

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    Valiente Moro C.


    Full Text Available Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses. Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus, it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses.


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    Stanislav Milošević


    Full Text Available Presence of harmful insects and mites is almost inevitable in mercantile wheat stored in warehouses. They cause significant damages and therefore it is necessary to perform pest control and chemical treatment. Study of harmful and destructive entomophauna impacts on quality of mercantile wheat and flour has been presented. Mercantile wheat stored in silos has been used in the study. Testing of quality of rheological properties and presence of harmful entomophauna were done in the labs within the silos «Žitoprerada d.o.o. Valpovo « and Department of Plant Protection on Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek. Presence of harmful entomophauna, quality of mercantile wheat stored in a warehouse and rheological flour properties were determined. The following harmful entomophauna were found: mites (Acarinae, primary pests of order Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, secondary pests of order Coleoptera and other insects found belong to Coleoptera, Psocoptera and useful insects of Hymenoptera orders. Influence of harmful entomophauna on quality of mercantile wheat is manifested by reduced quality of stored wheat due to decrease of water content and hectoliter mass. Lower quality of flour obtained by milling of infected wheat is manifested by change in rheological properties: dough stability, water absorption, growth, resistance, energy, extensibility, maximum resistance, start of puffing up, and viscosity.


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    Rafael Francisco Santos


    Full Text Available This study had the objective of surveying the apicultural potential in the municipality of Petrolina flora (9o9'S; 40o22'W, aiming at identifying the nectariferous or polliniferous species visited by Apis mellifera. The observations were carried out from January 2004 to May 2005, in areas of hyperxerophilous Caatinga native vegetation and of irrigated fruit crops of Embrapa Tropical Semi-Arid. Fifty one species were observed, belonging to 42 genera and 25 botanic families. The families Leguminosae, Anacardiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae and Sterculiaceae were the most visited species by Apis mellifera, including 47.08% of the total visited plants. Among the species visited by Apis mellifera, 41.17% are herbaceous, showing the importance of this stratum as an apicultural source. Regarding the flora resource used as food source by the bees, it was found that A. mellifera made several visits for exclusive nectar extraction to 72.55% of the plants considered nectariferous. Among the remaining plants, it was found that in 19.60% the bee collecte pollen, being these species considered polliniferous, and in 7.85% there was pollen and nectar withdrawal. Among the herbaceous species, Borreria verticillata (L. G.Mey., Diodia teres Walter (Rubiaceae, Waltheria rotundifolia Schrank (Sterculiaceae, Merremia aegyptia (L. Hallier, Jacquemontia confusa Meisn. (Convolvulaceae, Hypenia salzmanni (Benth. Hanley (Lamiaceae distinguished as nectariferous source during the raining season, while the arboreal species Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. and Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão. are considered apicultural source for the dry season.

  19. [Investigation on Cheyletoidea mites breeding in culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and morphologic observation of Eucheyletia reticulate Cunliffe]. (United States)

    Ning, Tao; Wei, Guo; Shao-Sheng, Wang; Chao-Pin, Li


    To investigate the species of Cheyletoidea mites breeding in the culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and to observe the morphology of Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe. The soil samples from an E. sinensis farm in northern Anhui were collected. The mites in the soil samples were separated directly under a microscope and the glass specimens were made to observe the morphological feature of the mites under a light microscope, then the mites species were identified and classified based on the morphological characteristics. In the culture soil of E. sinensis , totally 7 kinds of Cheyletoidea mites were isolated, namely Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe, Cheyletus eruditus Schrank, Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans, Cheyletus troussarti Oudemans, Cheyletus aveisor Rohdendorz, Acaropsis sollers Rohdendorz and Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum Shaw. They belonged to genera Eucheyletia , Cheletomorpha , Acaropsis and Cheyletus of Cheyletidae Leach family. The Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe was firstly found in the culture environment of E. sinensis , and its gnathosoma was large, the pedipalpal femurs were expanding and there were two strips of comb hair and two smooth bristles on the pedipalpal tarsus, and the back of the body was covered with two pieces of tergum, which were decorated with reticular pattern. The body and foot setae were fan-shape. There are various of Cheyletoidea mites found in the breeding environment of E. sinensis . These mites are important species for pest control in the culture environments of E. sinensis . Related measures should be taken to prevent the excessive growth of Cheyletoidea mites, so as to avoid the adverse effects on the quality and quantity of E. sinensis .

  20. Home and Community Language Proficiency in Spanish-English Early Bilingual University Students. (United States)

    Schmidtke, Jens


    This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.

  1. Development and reproductive potential of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) on plant-parasitic nematodes and artificial diets. (United States)

    Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Osman, Mohamed Ali


    This study investigated development, reproduction and life table parameters of the astigmatid mold mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae) feeding on egg-masses or adult females of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita, egg-masses of the nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, ras cheese or yeast at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH in the dark. Immature developmental times were shorter when the mite was fed females of M. incognita followed by yeast. Different prey/diet types had no significant effect on longevity and lifespan of both males and females. Daily oviposition rate (eggs/female/day) was highest for mites fed yeast (20.8 ± 1.8 eggs) and lowest for mites fed females of M. incognita (6.6 ± 0.5). Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) was highest for mites fed yeast compared to other prey/diet; no significant differences in r m were observed among mites fed on non-yeast diets. This result may suggest a role of T. putrescentiae as biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes and the yeast may be used for mite mass-production purposes.


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    Achmad Saim


    Full Text Available A total of 1712 specimens (17 species of parasites were found on 25 specimens (six species small mammals in Tesso-Nilo areas, Riau Province, i.e.: two Amblyomma testudinarium on Maxomys surifer, eight Dermacentor spp. on Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, Sundomys muelleri, three Haemaphysalis sp on Tupaia glis, two Ixodes sp on Maxomys surifer, 81 Demodex sp on Maxomys rajah, Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, 42 Echinolaelaps echidninus on Maxomys rajah, Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, 1.430 Laelaps spp (two species on Maxomys rajah, Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, S. muelleri, 131  specimens (two species trombiculids on Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, S. muelleri, T. glis, one louse of Polyplax sp. on Maxomys surifer, four fleas (two Ceratophyllus sp on T. glis and Xenopsylla cheopis on Maxomys whiteheadi; two batflies of Nycteribiidae on Balionycteris maculata, two Hydatigera taeniaeformis in Maxomys rajah, two Hymenolepis sp on S. muelleri, and two Moniliformis sp in Maxomys rajah. It was found that  25 hosts were infected out of 26 collected hosts (96.15%, the pattern of endo and ectoparasites were 1-5 species ectoparasites or 1-2 species endoparasites in each host, while Shannon Wiener Index was 1.92 for ectoparasites and 1.58 for endoparasites. Other hosts, distribution and  potency in ecosystem of each species were discussed.  Keywords: Acarina, Insecta, Helminthes, Rodentia, Scandentia, Chiroptera, Parasites.

  3. Impact of acidification and eutrophication on macrophyte communities in soft waters in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, J G.M.


    During the last decades a strong decline has been noticed in the number of waters dominated by Littorellion species, mostly isoetids such as Lobelia dortmanna L., Isoetes lacustris L. and Littorella uniflora (L.) Aschers. Sixty-eight waters, which were known to be dominated by L. uniflora after 1950 were investigated. In 1980, L. uniflora appeared to be absent or to have strongly decreased in 53 (78%) of the waters. In 41 of them, Littorella had been replaced by submerged Juncus bulbosus L. and/or Sphagnum spp. These changes seem to have been caused by changed inorganic carbon budgets as a consequence of acidification. In the remaining 12 waters, eutrophication of the water and/or sediment seems to be responsible for the changes in the plant communities. Enrichment with phosphate of the mineral sediment alone, leads to luxurious growth of submerged, rooted macrophyte species such as Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC and Ranunculus peltatus Schrank, whereas phosphate-enrichment of both sediment and water leads to luxurious growth of pleustophytes such as Riccia fluitans L. and Lemna minor L. in small, shallow waters, and to plankton bloom and luxurious growth of epiphytes in larger, deeper waters. In these cases light limitation seems to be responsible for the disappearance or decline of the Littorellion species. 41 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  4. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging. (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado


    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.


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    Giraldo-Cañas Diego


    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio taxonómico de las especies de Sporobolus para el noroeste de Sudamérica. Se reconocen once especies para el área de estudio. Se incluyen las claves para determinar las especies así como las descripciones morfológicas y sus ilustraciones. Se discuten para cada una de las especies sus relaciones morfológicas, su distribución geográfica y sus preferencias ecológicas; adicionalmente, se relacionan sus usos y sus nombres comunes. Asimismo, se propone la lectotipificación para Sporobolus lasiophyllus Pilg. Por otra parte, se registran tres especies por primera vez para Colombia [Sporobolus pilifer (Trin. Kunth, Sporobolus tenuissimus (Mart. ex Schrank Kuntze y Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth]. Se excluyen de este tratamiento a Sporobolus brasiliensis (Raddi Hack. (=Eragrostis airoides Nees y Sporobolus domingensis (Trin. Kunth. Adicionalmente, se propone la adopción y la unificación de algunos términos morfológicos en agrostología, tales como caña, panoja, espiguilla, lema, antecio y cariopsis, en lugar de culmo, panícula, espícula, lemma, flósculo y cariopse-cariópside, respectivamente.

  6. Stone crayfish in the Czech Republic: how does its population density depend on basic chemical and physical properties of water?

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    Vlach P.


    Full Text Available The stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium Schrank is one of the two native crayfish species in the Czech Republic. The populations as well as physical and chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, undissolved particles, NH3, NH4+, NO2−, NO3−, phosphorus, Ca2+ and SO42 −  of 33 streams were examined to find the ecological plasticity of this crayfish and some relations between these parameters and population densities. The mentioned parameters often significantly varied at the sites. Two approaches were applied to find relations between these parameters and observed abundance. At first, the observed streams were compared using RDA (streams  ×  physical-chemical parameters. No significance was found while testing relationship between the streams grouped along the 1st axis of model and the observed abundances of stone crayfish. However, some correlations between abundance and conductivity, calcium, nitrates and sulphates were found using polynomial regression. These relationships are explicable in terms of mutual correlations, underlying geology and other factors which affect abundances. In conclusion, A. torrentium is able to inhabit waters with a large range of physical and chemical parameters of the water without any fundamental influence on population densities. Water properties play an indisputable role as limiting ecological factors at uncommon concentrations, but population densities are probably influenced much more by the types of habitats, habitat features, predation and other ecological factors.

  7. The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Xiaoli; Wu, Donghui


    Abstract To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p0.05). The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), Pielou eveness index (J), and Simpson dominance index (D). All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:25061351

  8. Lepidoptera family-group names proposed by Thaddeus William Harris in 1841

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    Donald Lafontaine


    Full Text Available In 1841, T. W. Harris published “A Report on the Insects of Massachusetts, Injurious to Vegetation,” a seminal work in North American Entomology and one of the first New World publications to describe Lepidoptera species. Although appearing in several subsequent editions, the eight family-group names proposed by Harris were largely overlooked. In summarizing Harris’ family-group names, we show that authorship for two Noctuidae names in current usage require changes: Acronictinae Harris, 1841 (originally as Acronyctadae has priority over Heinemann, 1859, and Agrotini Harris, 1841 (as Agrotitidae has priority over Rambur, 1848. Mamestradae Harris, 1841 is also a senior synonym of Mamestrinae Hampson, 1902 (Type genus: Mamestra Ochsenheimer, 1816, an available name that is currently a junior subjective synonym of Noctuidae: Noctuinae: Hadenini Guenée, 1837 (Type genus: Hadena Schrank, 1802. Geometridae: Ennominae: Hyberniini Harris, 1841 (as Hyberniadae, based on Erranis Hübner, [1825] (= Hybernia Berthold, 1827, has precedence over two family-group names with long-standing usage, Bistonini Stephens, 1850 and Boarmiini Duponchel, 1845, and a reversal of precedence for the latter two names over Hyberniini is proposed under ICZN guidelines.

  9. Life table and male mating competitiveness of wild type and of a chromosome mutation strain of Tetranychus urticae in relation to genetic pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.


    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) from a strain, homozygous for a structural chromosome mutation (T) were competed against males from a standard (wild-type) strain for mating of wild-type fermales. The T-males exhibited only a slight reduction in male mating competitiveness. The debilitating influence of ageing on male mating competitiveness was equal for males of both strains. Life-table studies on both strains showed that the net reproductive rate (R 0 ) of the T-strain was 53.3, which was higher than the R 0 -value of the standard strain (43.3). This difference was caused by the higher rate of age-dependent mortality of adult females of the standard strain. Also differences between both strains in the total sex-ratio were observed; the T-strain produced significantly fewer males and more females than the standard strain. The mean generation time of both strains was almost equal (14 days). The values of the intrinsic rate of increase (rsub(m)) for the T-strain and the standard strain were 0.286 and 0.273, respectively. The life-table data correspond well with those published elsewhere on Tetranychus urticae. The feasibility of T-strains for application in genetic pest control considering the use of structural chromosome mutations as a 'transport mechanism' for conditional lethals is discussed. (orig.)

  10. A survey of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of southern Iran, with description of a new species. (United States)

    Ameri, Ali; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Beyarslan, Ahmet; Kamali, Karim


    A faunistic survey of Euphorinae (Hym., Braconidae) in southern Iran, as well as an updated checklist of the genera and species in Iran, are presented. Sampling was performed using Malaise traps at different locations of Hormozgan province and Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf during 2011-2013. In total, 38 species belonging to 10 genera are listed from Iran. The recorded species belong to the following genera: Allurus Forster, 1862 (two species), Chrysopophthorus Goidanich 1948 (one species), Dinocampus Forster, 1862 (one species), Ecclitura Kokujev, 1902 (one species), Leiophron Nees von Esenbeck, 1819 (10 species), Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (12 species), Perilitus Nees von Esenbeck, 1819 (five species), Syntretus Forster 1862 (three species), Wesmaelia Foerster, 1862 (one species) and Zele Curtis, 1832 (two species). Allurus lituratus (Haliday 1835), Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802), Leiophron (Peristenus) grandiceps (Thomson 1892), Meteorus rubens (Nees, 1811) and Wesmaelia petiolata (Wollaston, 1858) are new records for Hormozgan province and Leiophron (Peristenus) grandiceps (Thomson 1892) is recorded for the first time from Iran. In addition, Meteorus breviterebratus Ameri, Talebi & Beyarslan sp. n. is newly described and illustrated. 

  11. Búsqueda y reconocimiento de los enemigos naturales y hospedantes alternos de las principales plagas. En flores bajo invernadero en la sabana de Bogotá

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    Martha E. Andrade


    Full Text Available Las plagas que atacan cultivos de llores bajo invernadero son cada vez más importantes por la gravedad de su daño y por la alta densidad con que suelen presentarse. Para su control se ha acudido principalmente a la utilización de productos químicos, lo cual conduce a un aumento en los costos de producción, a contaminar el medio ambiente, a afectar la salud humana y a crear resistencia de los insectos a los insecticidas. Debido a esto, es necesario incluír dentro de los programas de control a los reguladores naturales de las plagas: parasitoides, depredadores y microorganismos entornógenos. En el presente trabajo se registran los enemigos naturales más importantes de las principales plagas en llores bajo invernadero (crisantemo, rosa y clavel: Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard, L. trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agrornyzídae; Myzuz persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae; Tetranychus urticae Koch y T. cinnabarinus Boísduval (Acarina: Tetranychidae; también se señalan las plantas hospedantes alternas presentes en las localidades donde se realizó la investigación.

  12. Adverse effects on flora and fauna from the use of organochlorine pesticides on the African continent: The Nigerian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeh, E.D.N.; Egwuatu, R.I.; Nwakeze, E.N.; Amulu, P.E.


    Lindane was found to reduce stem borer damage significantly in both rice and maize plots in most years. However, a significant difference in yield was recorded only for maize in 1993 and 1995. There was a slight but steady decrease in the yield of maize over the years in the lindane treated plots although yields in these plots remained higher than in the control plots. Significant differences in the mean dry weight of retrieved leaf discs were recorded in the maize plots in 1994 and 1995. Neither insects nor spiders, were caught from plants in the treatment plots 1 day after lindane application, although almost equal numbers of insects and spiders were recovered from D-vac groun samples of treatment and control plots on the same day. Data from pitfall traps showed that lindane significantly affected the population of Aranae, Formicidae, Collembola and Acarina for up to 6 weeks after application. Its effect on Carabidae was inconsistent. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Comunidade microbiana e mesofauna edáficas em solo sob caatinga no semi-árido da Paraíba Soil microbial community and mesofauna under dry forest vegetation in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Patrícia Carneiro Souto


    Full Text Available A atividade biológica do solo é responsável por inúmeras transformações físicas e químicas dos resíduos orgânicos que são depositados, mantendo, assim, a sustentabilidade do ambiente. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a distribuição da comunidade microbiana e da mesofauna edáfica no semi-árido da Paraíba. Para determinação da população de microrganismos, foram coletadas amostras de solo na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A contagem total de fungos e de bactérias foi realizada em meios de cultura específicos. A extração da mesofauna foi feita pelo método de Berlese-Tullgren modificado. Oscilações no conteúdo de água do solo e na temperatura promoveram variações na população microbiana. A população de fungos foi superior à de bactérias nos dois anos de observação, provavelmente devido ao pH do solo da área de estudo, que é ligeiramente ácido. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H e o de Pielou (e variaram de acordo com a época de coleta. Os grupos mais freqüentes da mesofauna do solo foram Diptera (42,5 %, Acarinae (40,3 % e Collembola (8,8 %, indicando que esses organismos possuem papel importante na ciclagem de nutrientes em área de Caatinga.The biological soil activity is responsible for several physical and chemical transformations of deposited organic residues, therefore maintaining the environmental sustainability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the soil microbial community and mesofauna in a dry forest (Caatinga in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. To determine the microorganism population soil samples from the 0-15 cm soil layer were evaluated. Total counts of fungi and bacteria were evaluated in specific culture media. The Berleusse-Tüllgren modified method was used to extract the soil mesofauna. Oscillations in the soil water content and high temperatures promoted variations in the microbial population. The fungi population was larger than that of

  14. Under the lash (United States)

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.


    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3–0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2–0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases. PMID:20664811

  15. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases. (United States)

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G


    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  16. Cultivo de las microalgas dulceacuícolas Kirchneriella obesa, Scenedesmus quadricauda y Chlorococcum infusorium empleando tres medios de cultivo

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    A. A. Ortega-Salas


    Full Text Available Se cultivaron las microalgas dulceacuícolas Kirchneriella obesa (G. S. West Schmidle 1893, Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chodat, Turpin Bréb 1835 y Chlorococcum infusorium (Schrank Meneghini 1842, con el propósito comparar las tasas de crecimiento y su rendimiento en tres medios de cultivo, el F/2 de Guillard, Fert I y Fert II. El agua utilizada se pasó en filtros de cinco, uno y 0.45 mm, y se trató con luz ultravioleta. La temperatura varió de 24 a 25°C. Se cultivaron en un sistema de volumen creciente a partir de recipientes de 62.5 mL, duplicando el medio de cultivo cada 24 h, con el fin de completar 32 L en nueve días. Cada 24 h se obtuvieron tres muestras de 1 a 10 mL del cultivo, se preservaron en una solución de lugol y se calculó la concentración de las microalgas cada 24 h. El número total de células de las tres especies aumentó de manera exponencial hasta el final de los experimentos en los medios de cultivo F/2 y Fert I; esto no fue así con el medio Fert II, en el cual la tasa de duplicación y el número total de divisiones fueron más bajas. El medio F/2 y el Fert I ofrecieron mejores resultados que el Fert II. Los medios Fert I y Fert II tienen un valor económico más bajo que el medio F/2. El crecimiento y el rendimiento fueron mejores con el medio F/2, seguido por FI y FII.

  17. [Distribution pattern of meso-micro soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation]. (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wanqin


    In this paper, meso-micro soil fauna were extracted and collected by Baermann's and Tullgren' s method, and their distribution pattern in the Eucalyptus grandis plantation of Hongya County, Sichuan Province was studied. A total of 13 550 specimens were collected, belonging to 6 phyla, 13 classes, and 26 orders. Acarina, Nematoda, Collembola were the dominant groups, and Enchytraeidae was the frequent one. The group and individual numbers of meso-micro soil fauna varied with seasons, being the maximum in autumn or winter, fewer in summer, and the minimum in spring. The density of meso-micro soil fauna in soil profile decreased rapidly with increasing soil depth, but a converse distribution was observed from time to time in 5 - 10 cm and 10 - 15 cm soil layers. The meso-micro soil fauna collected by Baermann's and Tullgren's method had a density of 3. 333 x 10(3) - 2. 533 x 10(5) ind x m(-2) and 1.670 x 10(2) - 2.393 x 10(5) ind x m(-2), respectively, and the decreasing rate of the density with the increase of soil depth was higher for those collected by Tullgren's method. The density-group index of meso-micro soil fauna in the E. grandis plantation was the lowest in spring, but the highest in autumn or summer. There were no significant differences in the density of meso-micro soil fauna and in the density-group index between E. grandis plantation and Quercus acutissima secondary forest.

  18. Field trials to evaluate effects of continuously planted transgenic insect-resistant cottons on soil invertebrates. (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao; Wang, Xingxiang; Han, Zhengmin; Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu


    Impacts on soil invertebrates are an important aspect of environmental risk assessment and post-release monitoring of transgenic insect-resistant plants. The purpose of this study was to research and survey the effects of transgenic insect-resistant cottons that had been planted over 10 years on the abundance and community structure of soil invertebrates under field conditions. During 3 consecutive years (2006-2008), eight common taxa (orders) of soil invertebrates belonging to the phylum Arthropoda were investigated in two different transgenic cotton fields and one non-transgenic cotton field (control). Each year, soil samples were taken at four different growth stages of cotton (seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening). Animals were extracted from the samples using the improved Tullgren method, counted and determined to the order level. The diversity of the soil fauna communities in the different fields was compared using the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. The results showed a significant sampling time variation in the abundance of soil invertebrates monitored in the different fields. However, no difference in soil invertebrate abundance was found between the transgenic cotton fields and the control field. Both sampling time and cotton treatment had a significant effect on the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. They were higher in the transgenic fields than the control field at the growth stages of cotton. Long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cottons had no significant effect on the abundance of soil invertebrates. Collembola, Acarina and Araneae could act as the indicators of soil invertebrate in this region to monitor the environmental impacts of transgenic plants in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012


    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H


    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  20. [Litter decomposition and soil faunal diversity of two understory plant debris in the alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan in a snow cover season]. (United States)

    He, Run-lian; Chen, Ya-mei; Deng, Chang-chun; Yan, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yang


    In order to understand the relationship between litter decomposition and soil fauna diversity during snow cover season, litterbags with plant debris of Actinothuidium hookeri, Cystopteris montana, two representative understory plants in the alpine timberline ecotone, and their mixed litter were incubated in the dark coniferous forest, timberline and alpine meadow, respectively. After a snow cover season, the mass loss and soil fauna in litterbags were investigated. After decomposition with a snow cover season, alpine meadow showed the highest mass loss of plant debris in comparison with coniferous forest and timberline, and the mass loss of A. hookeri was more significant. The mixture of two plants debris accelerated the mass loss, especially in the timberline. A total of 968 soil invertebrates, which belonged to 5 classes, 10 orders and 35 families, were captured in litterbags. Acarina and Collembola were the dominant groups in plant debris. The numbers of individuals and groups of soil faunal communities in litter of timberline were higher than those of alpine meadow and dark coniferous forest. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that the groups of soil animals were related closely with the average temperature, and endemic species such as Isoptera and Geophilomorpha were observed only in coniferous forest, while Hemiptera and Psocoptera only in.the alpine meadow. The diversity of soil faunal community was more affected by plant debris varieties in the timberline than in the coniferous forest and alpine meadow. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the average temperature and snow depth explained 30.8% of the variation of litter mass loss rate, soil animals explained 8.3%, and altogether explained 34.1%. Snow was one of the most critical factors impacting the decomposition of A. hookeri and C. montana debris in the alpine timberline ecotone.

  1. Revisions of the Afrotropical genera of Argidae and species of Pampsilota Konow, 1899 (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinoidea

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    Andrew D. Liston


    Full Text Available The Afrotropical fauna contains five genera of Argidae. These are keyed. New subjective synonyms, followed by the valid name in brackets, are Calarge Enslin, 1911 [Arge Schrank, 1802], Calarge africana Enslin, 1911 [Arge congrua Konow, 1907], Clyparge Pasteels, 1963 [Scobina Lepeletier & Serville, 1828], Clyparge terminalis Pasteels, 1963 [Scobina poecila (Klug, 1834], and Sterictophora [sic] afra Pasteels, 1963 [Sphacophilus afer comb. n., species inquirenda near S. monjarasi Smith & Morales-Reyes, 2015]. The type material of both C. terminalis and S. afra was probably collected in the New World, but labelled with the wrong locality “Kamerun”. An introduction of both species to Africa, not followed by long-term establishment, seems less likely. The removal of these taxa from the faunal list of the region is recommended. The nine known Afrotropical species of Pampsilota are revised, and an illustrated dichotomous identification key presented, with distribution maps for all species. Four species are here described as new to science: P. dahomeyanus Goergen, Koch & Liston, sp. n., P. nigeriae Liston & Koch, sp. n., P. tsavoensis Liston & Koch, sp. n., and P. zebra Liston & Koch, sp. n. Lectotypes are designated for Pampsilota afer Konow, 1899, and Cipdele africana Mocsáry, 1909. The immature stages and host plant of only one species are known: P. dahomeyanus on Lannea nigritana (Anacardiaceae. Its larval morphology strongly resembles that of European and North American species of Arge. We provisionally retain Pampsilota as a valid genus, although it could justifiably be treated as comprising merely a species group, or groups, within Arge.

  2. Seasonal abundance of soil arthropods in relation to meteorological and edaphic factors in the agroecosystems of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan (United States)

    Shakir, Muhammad Mussadiq; Ahmed, Sohail


    Soil arthropods are an important component of agroecosystems, contributing significantly to their biodiversity and functioning. However, seasonal patterns, population dynamics, and significant roles of these soil arthropods in improvement of soil structures and functions are influenced by many factors. The objective of the current study was to investigate soil arthropod abundance in relation to a blend of meteorological and edaphic factors and to find out the difference in abundance among various crops (sugarcane, cotton, wheat, alfalfa fodder, and citrus orchards). The arthropod sampling was done by pitfall traps and Tullgren extractions on fortnightly intervals. Soil temperature and relative humidity were noted on the field sites while analysis for soil pH, organic matter, and soil moisture contents were done in the laboratory. The rainfall data was obtained from an observatory. Results showed that significant differences were found in soil arthropod abundance across different sampling months and crops. Out of total 13,673 soil arthropods sampled, 38 % belonged to Collembola, followed by 15 % Hymenoptera, 15 % Acarina, 11 % Myriapods, 6 % Coleoptera, 5 % Orthoptera, and 5 % Araneae. Mean abundance per sample was highest in summer months as compared to winter. Overall abundance per sample was significantly different between all crops ( p Aranae, Coleoptera), least abundant (Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Diptera), and rare (Blattaria, Isoptera, Diplura, Lepidoptera). Soil temperature and soil organic matter showed significant positive correlation with abundance, while relative humidity was significantly negatively correlated. Soil moisture and soil pH showed no significant correlations while no correlation was found with total rainfall. PCA analysis revealed that soil surface arthropods were the major contributors of variation in overall abundance in extreme temperature months while microarthropods in low-temperature months. CCA analysis revealed the occurrence of

  3. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal. (United States)

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João


    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  4. Phylogeographic Structure in Penguin Ticks across an Ocean Basin Indicates Allopatric Divergence and Rare Trans-Oceanic Dispersal. (United States)

    Moon, Katherine L; Banks, Sam C; Fraser, Ceridwen I


    The association of ticks (Acarina) and seabirds provides an intriguing system for assessing the influence of long-distance dispersal on the evolution of parasitic species. Recent research has focused on host-parasite evolutionary relationships and dispersal capacity of ticks parasitising flighted seabirds. Evolutionary research on the ticks of non-flighted seabirds is, in contrast, scarce. We conducted the first phylogeographic investigation of a hard tick species (Ixodes eudyptidis) that parasitises the Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor). Using one nuclear (28S) and two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) markers, we assessed genetic diversity among several populations in Australia and a single population on the South Island of New Zealand. Our results reveal two deeply divergent lineages, possibly representing different species: one comprising all New Zealand samples and some from Australia, and the other representing all other samples from Australian sites. No significant population differentiation was observed among any Australian sites from within each major clade, even those separated by hundreds of kilometres of coastline. In contrast, the New Zealand population was significantly different to all samples from Australia. Our phylogenetic results suggest that the New Zealand and Australian populations are effectively isolated from each other; although rare long-distance dispersal events must occur, these are insufficient to maintain trans-Tasman gene flow. Despite the evidence for limited dispersal of penguin ticks between Australia and New Zealand, we found no evidence to suggest that ticks are unable to disperse shorter distances at sea with their hosts, with no pattern of population differentiation found among Australian sites. Our results suggest that terrestrial seabird parasites may be quite capable of short-distance movements, but only sporadic longer-distance (trans-oceanic) dispersal.

  5. Prevalence of Toxocara cati and other parasites in cats' faeces collected from the open spaces of public institutions: Buenos Aires, Argentina. (United States)

    Sommerfelt, I E; Cardillo, N; López, C; Ribicich, M; Gallo, C; Franco, A


    Toxocarosis is a worldwide parasitic infection that affects both cats and dogs. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) syn. Toxocara mystax (Zeder, 1800) prevalence was studied in faeces from stray cats collected from the open spaces of public institutions of Buenos Aires city, both building and surrounding open spaces are fenced off. Of the 465 samples obtained from March to June of 2005, 58.3% were found to have parasite eggs. The following parasites were identified from the 271 positive samples: T. cati (61.2%), Cystoisospora spp. (20.3%), Trichuris spp. (17.0%), Toxascaris leonina (15.1%), Ancylostoma spp. (14%) and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (2.6%). T. cati prevalence was 35.7% (95% confidence interval: 31.2-40.1), with a 42.2% single isolations. The most frequent combination was T. cati and Cystoisospora spp. (9%). More than half the areas studied showed over 40% prevalence. Seventy-one percent of the collected samples were fresh with a variable moist consistency and 29% were older with a dry consistency. A statistically significant association was found between sample consistency and presence of parasites (chi2 = 10.81; p = 0.001) as also between sample consistency and presence of T. cati (chi2 = 11.27; p = 0.0007). Moist consistencies were significantly different from the rest: consistency (wet or dry) versus parasites (z = 1.95; p = 0.02) (95% confidence interval: 0.004-0.203); consistency (wet or dry) versus T. cati (z = 3.25; p = 0.0006) (95% confidence interval: 0.075-0.254). The cat population that inhabits these public green spaces contaminates the environment, thus transforming them into dangerous spaces with a variable rate for the human population that spends time in these places.

  6. [Analysis of soil respiration and influence factors in wheat farmland under conservation tillage in southwest hilly region]. (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Long-Chang; Luo, Hai-Xiu; Zhou, Hang-Fei; Ma, Zhong-Lian; Zhang, Cui-Wei


    In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei, Chongqing. The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean. There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching), which were all in triplicates. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) during the reproductive growth stage of wheat. There were significant differences in soil respiration rate among different treatments, which could be ranked as RS > R > TS > T. The soil temperature in the 10cm layer was ranked as T > R > TS > RS. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature fitted well with an exponential function, in which the Q10 values were 1.25, 1.20, 1.31 and 1.26, respectively. The soil moisture in the 5cm layer was ranked as TS > RS > T > R. The best fitting model between soil moisture and soil respiration was a parabolic curve, indicating the presence of soil moisture with the strongest soil respiration. The response threshold of wheat to soil moisture was 14.80%-17.47% during the reproductive stage. The dominant groups of soil animals were Collembola and Acarina, which were correlated with soil respiration to some extent. The correlation was high in the treatments T and R, ranged from 0.669-0.921, whereas there was no remarkable correlation in the other treatments.

  7. A Short History Regarding the Taxonomy and Systematic Researches of Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera

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    O. A. Popovici


    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the most important and best-known works that were the subject of taxonomy or systematics Platygastroidea superfamily. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part of the research surprised the early period can be placed throughout the XIXth century between Latreille and Dalla Torre. Before this period, references about platygastrids and scelionids were made by Linnaeus and Schrank, they are the ones who described the first platygastrid and scelionid respectively. In this the first period work entomologists as: Haliday, Westwood, Walker, Forster, Ashmead, Thomson, Howard, etc., the result of their work being the description of 699 scelionids species which are found quoted in Dalla Torre's catalogue. The second part of the paper is devoted to early 20th century. This vibrant work is marked by the work of two great entomologists: Kieffer and Dodd. In this period one publish the first and only global monograph of platygastrids and scelionids until now. In this monograph are twice the number of species than in Dalla Torre's catalogue which shows the magnitude of the systematic research of those moments. The third part of the paper refers to the late 20th and early 21st century. This period, which continues today, is the period of modern systematics and taxonomy research about platygastrids and scelionids. During this period these two families become a distinct Superfamily which differs by Proctotrupoidea Superfamily. A great contribution in taxonomic and systematic Platygastroidea Superfamily brought Masner and Kozlov, the presentation of their work occupying the largest space of this 3rd party.

  8. Taxocoenosis and distribution of nektonic fauna in the rice fields of Kashmir (J and K) India. (United States)

    Bahaar, S W N; Bhat, G A


    Present study attempts to identify the taxocoenosis and distribution of nektonic fauna harbouring the rice field ecosystems of Kashmir. The main objective of the study was to provide an overview of the nektonic community composition and physicochemical characteristics of flood waters. 6 sites were selected in Kupwara, Bandipora, Budgam, Srinagar, Pulwama and Anantnag districts of valley Kashmir. A total of 26 taxa belonging to 13 different orders were reported during the study which commenced through 2 consecutive crop cycles. The taxocoenosis was dominated by Coleoptera (10 taxa) followed by Hemiptera (3 taxa), Diptera (2 taxa), Diplostraca (2 taxa), Acarina, Anostraca, Anura, Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Odonata and Pulmonata (1 taxa each). Diversity was calculated using Simpsons Index (D), Simpsons Index of Diversity (1-D), Simpsons Reciprocal Index (1/D), Shannon-Weiner Index (H'), Margalef Richness Index (d) and Evenness Index (e). Kupwara (34 degrees 02'N; 74 degrees 16'E) formed the most diverse site registering a total of 2384 individuals belonging to 24 taxa. A perusal of the primary data related to the physicochemical attributes of flood waters exhibited that average water temperature varied between 19-30 degrees C, average air temperature varied between 21 and 33 degrees C. pH depicted a variation between 6.0 and 9.0, Dissolved Oxygen varied between a minimum of 1.0 mg L(-1) and a maximum of 10 mg L(-1). Free CO2 ranged between 0 mg L(-1) and 6.1 mg(-1). The results pressed the need for recognizing and preserving rice fields as potential habitats for organisms that have successfully adapted to the highly manipulated and eutrophic conditions of rice paddies.

  9. Legal consequences emanating from EC directives and agreements of the WTO with respect to irradiation of food with ionizing radiation; Rechtliche Konsequenzen fuer die ionisierende Bestrahlung von Lebensmitteln aus EG-Richtlinien und WTO-Abkommen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederer, H.G. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Oeffentliches Recht


    The author discusses aspects of international harmonization of laws and regulations in this field and describes such activities at the European level and within the EU, and under WTO agreements. (orig./CB) [German] Zur Verwirklichung des Binnenmarktes fuer Lebensmittel kommen nach dem EG-Vertrag Massnahmen der Rechtsangleichung in Betracht (Art. 100a Abs. 1 EGV). Insoweit beruht die Freiheit des Lebensmittelverkehrs im Binnenmarkt auf der gemeinschaftsweiten Harmonisierung der nationalen lebensmittelrechtlichen Regelungen. Ausserhalb dieses harmonisierten Bereichs gewaehrleistet die unmittelbar im EG-Vertrag in Art. 30 verankerte Warenverkehrsfreiheit den freien Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln im gesamten Gebiet der Gemeinschaft. Insoweit folgt aus der Cassis de Dijon-Rechtsprechung des Gerichtshofes der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften (EuGH) das Prinzip der gegenseitigen Anerkennung: Lebensmittel, die in einem anderen Mitgliedstaat rechtmaessig hergestellt oder dort rechtmaessig in Verkehr gebracht worden sind, duerfen grundsaetzlich in jedem anderen Mitgliedsstaat vermarktet werden. Dabei stellt der Schutz der Verbraucher eine vom EuGH bereits in die Gewaehrleistung des freien Warenverkehrs in Art. 30 EGV hineingelesene ('immanente') Schranke dar. Daneben darf der freie Warenverkehr gemaess Art. 36 EGV ausdruecklich auch zum Schutz der menschlichen Gesundheit eingeschraenkt werden. In dem auf der Grundlage des Art. 100a Abs. 1 EGV harmonisierten Bereich des Warenverkehrs soll ein hohes Niveau des Gesundheits- und Verbraucherschutzes verwirklicht werden (vgl. Art. 100a Abs. 3 EGV). Art. 100a EGV wird auch die Kompetenzgrundlage fuer zwei sich ergaenzende EG-Richtlinien ueber die ionisierende Bestrahlung von Lebensmitteln sein, deren Entwuerfe gegenwaertig auf der Ebene der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft beraten werden. (orig.)

  10. Perspectives for mass rearing of Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Fabio A. de


    Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma is an important predator of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) on citrus in Brazil. The suitability of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) as a food source of I. zuluagai in laboratory rearing was investigated at 25.5 ± 0.5 deg C, 88 ± 7% RU and photophase of 12h. Initially, levels of oviposition of the predator fed on eggs were evaluated, as well as the dead or live post-embryonic stages of T. putrescentiae, in a period of 10 days. The daily oviposition rate was 1.3 egg per female when they were fed on eggs on T. putrescentiae, 0.7 egg per female when they were fed on dead post embryonic stages and about 0.3 egg per female when they were fed on live post-embryonic stages. Later, the life table of I. zuluagai was constructed, when eggs of T. putrescentiae were offered to the predators as prey. The immature stages were observed every 8 h, to determine the corresponding durations. In the adult phase, the mites were observed every 24 h, to determine the reproductive parameters. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ) was 0.11 female/ female/day; resulting in a fi nite rate of increase of 1.11 (λ). The net reproductive rate (R 0 ) was 7.1 females/generation, with a mean generation time (T) 18.6 days. The results show that T. putrescentiae is a favorable food source for the development of I. zuluagai. (author)

  11. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards. (United States)

    Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H


    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory.

  12. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea). (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A


    ) (from Attelabus), Nerthopssticticus (Fabricius, 1777) (from Curculio), Piezotracheluscrotalariae (Fabricius, 1802) (from Attelabus), and Poropterusgranulatus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio). The junior homonym Brachycerusuva Fabricius, 1792 (non Sparrman, 1785) is replaced by Brachycerusfabricii nom. n. The following new synonymies are established: Brachycerusobesus (Fabricius, 1775) = Curculioscalaris Fabricius, 1777, syn. n., Brachydereslusitanicus (Fabricius, 1781) = Curculiomoratus Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., Brachypera (Brachypera) crinita (Boheman, 1834) = Curculiostriatus Fabricius, 1787, syn. n., Brachysomuserinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) = Brachysomusvillosulus (Germar, 1824), syn. n., Bronchusabruptecostatus (Gyllenhal, 1833) = Curculiospectrum Fabricius, 1802, syn. n., Bronchusnivosus (Sparrman, 1785) = Curculiorecurvus Fabricius, 1802, syn. n., Camptorhinustibialis (Sparrman, 1785) = Rhynchaenusalienatus Fabricius, 1802, syn. n., Coelocephalapionatrirostre (Fabricius, 1802) = Coelocephalapionluteirostre (Gerstäcker, 1854), syn. n., Cyrtoderescristatus (DeGeer, 1778) (Tenebrionidae) = Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., Desmidophorushebes (Fabricius, 1781) = Curculiotuberculatus Fabricius, 1792, syn. n., Donussalviae (Schrank, 1789) = Curculiodenticornis Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., Exomiasholosericeus (Fabricius, 1802) = Exomiaschevrolati (Boheman, 1842), syn. n., Nerthopssticticus (Fabricius, 1777) = Nerthopsguttatus (Olivier, 1807), syn. n., Phyllobiusoblongus (Linnaeus, 1758) = Curculiomali Fabricius, 1782, syn. n., and Rhinocyllusconicus (Froelich, 1792) = Bruchuspunctatus Fabricius, 1798, syn. n. Bronchussynthesys sp. n. is described to represent the concept of Hipporhinusspectrum sensu Marshall, 1904, a misidentification.

  13. Antalya İlinde Portakal Bahçelerinde Gözlenen Önemli Zararlı ve Yararlı Böcek Popülasyonları

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    Vildan GÖL


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, 2014 yılında, Antalya ilinde bulunan iki portakal bahçesinde önemli zararlı ve yararlı böcek popülasyonları belirlenmiştir. Bahçelerde ağırlıklı olarak portakal bulunması nedeniyle örneklemeler de bu tür üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince zararlılara karşı herhangi bir mücadele yöntemi uygulanmamıştır. Çalışmada örneklerin toplanması için gözle kontrol yöntemi, yaprak, sürgün, meyve örnekleme yöntemi, darbe ve tuzakla yakalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda zararlı türler olarak Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae, Empoasca decipiens (Paoli, Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, Aphis craccivora (Koch (Hem.: Aphididae, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hem.: Margarodidae, Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus, Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock (Hem.: Coccidae, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet, Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock (Hem.: Diaspididae, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hem.: Pseudococcidae, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae ve Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae saptanmıştır. Bunlardan E. decipiens (Paoli, A. decedens (Paoli, A. floccosus (Maskell, A. aurantii (Maskell ve Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock en yaygın türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca 2 takıma bağlı 7 avcı ve asalak tür saptanmıştır. Bu türler: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Rhyzobius lophantae (Blaisdell, Oenopia conglobata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Aphytis melinus DeBach ve Comperiella bifasciata (Coleoptera: Aphelinidae’ dır. Çalışmada ayrıca zararlı iki cicadellid türü ile A. floccosus, A. aurantii, P. pergandii, C. capitata‘nın ve doğal düşmanlardan C. carnea’nın, coccinellidlerin, A. melinus ve E. citrina

  14. Archean and proterozoic continental crust in South America: Main building events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A; Brito Neves, B.B; Pimentel, M.M


    Available geochronological data reveal that the first building blocks of the South American continental crust were set up in the early Paleoarchean, ca. 3.4-3.5 Ga ago, although the presence of components as old as 3.7 Ga is indicated by Nd TDM model ages. The oldest rocks so far recognized are exposed in northeast Brazil and Uruguay. In the Sao Jose do Campestre block, Rio Grande do Norte, 3.45 Ga old tonalite, migmatized and intruded by granitoids between 3.3 and 3.0 Ga, is part of the basement to the Borborema Province (Dantas et al. 1998). In Bahia 3.42 Ga old tonalitic grey gneisses of Sete Voltas, Boa Vista, and Mairi form the basement of the Gaviao block, within the core of the Sao Francisco Craton (Nutman and Cordani, 1993, Martin et al., 1997). The Paleoarchean TTG suites as well as greenstone remnants of unknown age were involved in crust accretion events between 3.1 and 3.3 Ga ago (Teixeira et al. 2000 and references therein), which are also recorded in Campo Belo and Uaua (Teixeira et al., 1998, Oliveira et al., 1999), as attested by TTG intrusions and the ca. 3.1 Ga Pium-hi greenstone belt of W Minas Gerais (Machado and Schrank 1989). Microcontinents then formed were involved in deformation, metamorphism, and migmatization around 2.8-3.0 Ga ago, probably during amalgamation events. Widespread granite-greenstone associations in the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and other areas represent new crust built during the very important Neoarchean Rio das Velhas cycle, ca. 2.7-2.8 Ga ago (Machado and Carneiro 1992, Machado et al. 1992). Layered mafic-ultramafic and granite intrusions ca. 2.5-2.7 Ga old are recorded all over the Sao Francisco Craton, including the high-grade terrain of southern Bahia, formed during the late Archean Jequie Cycle (Teixeira et al. 2000 and references therein). Similar intrusions are recorded in many basement areas within Neoproterozoic fold belts (au)

  15. Micropaleontological and Paleomagnetic Characterization of La Ceiba K/T Boundary Section, Central Mexico (United States)

    Martínez-López, M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    reverse chron 29r that spans the K/T boundary. Micropaleontology analyses permit identification of six biozones. Two biozones (biozone of Rugoglobigerina scootti and Abathomphalus mayaroensis) correspond to the Maastrichtian. Four biozones (Guembelitria cretácea, Parvularogoglobigerina eugubina, Parasubotina pseudobulloides and Acarina trinidadensis) correspond to the Danian.

  16. Effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs on twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), hop aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and their natural enemies in hop yards. (United States)

    Gent, D H; James, D G; Wright, L C; Brooks, D J; Barbour, J D; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; Walton, V M


    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological control strategies for spider mites and hop aphid is the extensive use of fungicides for management of hop powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) U. Braun & S. Takamatsu. Field studies conducted in experimental plots in Oregon and Washington in 2005 and 2006 quantified the effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs (i.e., sulfur, paraffinic oil, and synthetic fungicides) on arthropod pests and natural enemies on hop. Fungicide treatment significantly affected spider mite populations in all four studies. Multiple applications of sulfur fungicides applied before burr development resulted in 1.4-3.3-fold greater spider mite populations during summer. Near the cessation of the sulfur applications, or after a lag of 20-30 d, spider mite populations increased significantly faster on sulfur treated plants compared with water-treated plants in three of four experiments. The effect of paraffinic oil on spider mites was varied, leading to exacerbation of spider mites in Oregon and Washington in 2005, suppression of mites in Oregon in 2006, and no significant effect compared with water in Washington in 2006. Significant relative treatment effects for cone damage due to spider mite feeding were detected in Oregon in 2005 in plots treated with sulfur and paraffinic oil compared with water and synthetic fungicides. Mean populations of hop aphids were similar among treatments in Oregon, although sulfur treatment suppressed hop aphid populations in Washington in 2005 and 2006. Populations of individual predacious insect species and cumulative abundance of macropredators were not consistently suppressed or stimulated by treatments in all trials. However, predatory mite

  17. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, As a Component of Autotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.


    Full Text Available The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae. The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species. The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %, in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 % dominates and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %, Malacostraca (5.3 % and Diplopoda (1.9 %. The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %; the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %, saprophages (18.7 %, and necrophages (15.6 % was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %, followed by zoophages (34 %, saprophages (12 %, and necrophages (3 %. The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443, whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species. In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in

  18. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in neuroradiology; Funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie in der Neuroradiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Metzner, R.; Kaick, G. van [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie


    Bildgebungssequenzen, optimierter Kontrastmittelapplikationen und spezieller Nachverarbeitungsmethoden wurde es moeglich, physiologische und pathophysiologische Prozesse mittels der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zu beobachten. Mit T1- und T2*-gewichteten kontrastmittelunterstuetzten Bildgebungssequenzen koennen Informationen ueber die Gewebeperfusion, Mikrozirkulation und die Permeabilitaet der Blut-Hirn-Schranke unter Anwendung spezieller, z.T. aus der Nuklearmedizin stammender Modelle erfasst werden. Die Eigendiffusion von Wassermolekuelen im Gewebe ist mit diffusiongewichteter MRT, die Markrovaskulatur, zeitlich aufgeloest, mit MR-angiographischen Techniken darstellbar. Auch eine neuronale Aktivitaet einfacher oder komplexer Natur kann mit funktionellen MR-Techniken visualisiert werden. Mit MR-spektroskopischen Untersuchungen koennen metabolische Verteilungen in normalem und pathologischem Gewebe mehrdimensional erfasst und Stoffwechselvorgaenge im Verlauf beobachtet werden. Vorteile der MRT ist die geringe Invasivitaet, die Moeglichkeit einer dreidimensionalen Darstellung der Daten und eine beliebige Wiederholbarkeit der Untersuchung bei fehlender Strahlenbelastung. Die bereits klinisch einsetzbaren funktionellen Methoden werden beschrieben und ihr Einsatz in der Neuroradiologie auch in Bezug auf die Wertigkeit im Vergleich zu nuklearmedizinischen Methoden diskutiert. Perfusions- und Diffusions-MRT liefern wichtige Zusatzinformationen im akuten und chronischen Stadium der zerebralen Ischaemie und werden bereits routinemaessig bei akutem Schlaganfall eingesetzt. Dynamische MR-Angiographien erlauben eine haemodynamische Einstufung von Gefaessmissbildungen. In der Tumordiagnostik liefern die funktionellen MR-Techniken wichtige Zusatzinformationen fuer die Therapiefindung, Therapieplanung und das Therapiemonitoring. Die Untersuchung psychiatrischen Erkrankungen wurden durch die funktionelle MRT revolutioniert, obwohl der klinische Einsatz noch limitiert ist. Erste Untersuchungen

  19. Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa and its compounds against blood-feeding parasites. (United States)

    Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Priya, Kanagaraj Mohana; Saral, Antoneyraj Mary; Khan, Fazlur Rahman Nawaz; Khanna, Venkatesh Gopiesh; Velayutham, Kannaiyaram; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi


    Plant products may be alternative sources of parasitic control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are eco-friendly and nontoxic products. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) extracted by immersion method exhibited adulticidal activity against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae) and the hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and larvicidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of A. squamosa fruit peel aqueous extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent of peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa was identified as 1H- cycloprop[e]azulen-7-ol decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-[1ar-(1aα,4aα, 7β, 7 a, β, 7bα)] (28.55%) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The other major constituents present in the aqueous extract were retinal 9-cis- (12.61%), 3,17-dioxo-4-androsten-11alpha-yl hydrogen succinate (6.86%), 1-naphthalenepentanol decahydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-y,2-bis(methylene)-(1α,4aβ,5α,8aα) (14.83%), 1-naphthalenemethanol decahydro -5-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-pentenyl)- 1,4a-di methyl - 6-methylene -(1S-[1α, 4aα, 5α(E), 8aβ] (4.44%), (-)-spathulenol (20.75%), podocarp-7-en-3-one13β-methyl-13-vinyl- (5.98%), and 1-phenanthrene carboxaldehyde 7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,4a,7-trimethyl-[1R-(1α,4aβ.4bα,7β, 10aα)]-(5.98%). The adult and larval parasitic mortalities observed in fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa were 31, 59, 80, 91, and100%; 27, 42, 66, 87, and 100%; and 33, 45, 68, 92, and 100% at the concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm, respectively, against

  20. Efficacy of plant-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles against hematophagous parasites. (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Rao, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara; Karthik, Loganathan; Raveendran, Sankariah


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity against the larvae of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) and larvae of hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) and against the fourth-instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract from Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae). The color of the extract changed to light brown within an hour, and later it changed to dark brown during the 30-min incubation period. AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum at 426 nm; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of Ag(+) ions to silver nanoparticles are due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrates that the nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis are crystalline in nature and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs with rod in shape and size of 60-150 nm. After reaction, the XRD pattern of AgNPs showed diffraction peaks at 2θ = 34.37°, 38.01°, 44.17°, 66.34° and 77.29° assigned to the (100), (111), (102), (110) and (120) planes, respectively, of a faced centre cubic (fcc) lattice of silver were obtained. For electron microscopic studies, a 25 μl sample was sputter-coated on copper stub, and the images of nanoparticles were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The spot EDX analysis showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. The parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. In the present study, the percent mortality of aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca were 82, 71, 46, 29, 11 and 78, 66, 38, 31and 16 observed in the concentrations of 50, 40, 30, 20, 10 mg

  1. Diversidade de angiospermas e espécies medicinais de uma área de Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. SILVA


    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a diversidade vegetal de uma área de Cerrado em Prudente de Morais, MG, bem como suas indicações medicinais. Foram feitas nove excursões à reserva da Fazenda Experimental Santa Rita da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (FESR/EPAMIG (19°26’20”’ S e 44°09’15”’ W. O material vegetal coletado foi herborizado, identificado e incorporado ao acervo do Herbário PAMG/EPAMIG. O sistema de classificação utilizado foi o APG III. Após a identificação, realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica buscando dados sobre a utilização medicinal das espécies. Coletaram-se 108 espécies pertencentes a 47 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Fabaceae, com 16 espécies, Myrtaceae com sete espécies, Asteraceae e Rubiaceae com seis espécies cada, Malpighiaceae e Solanaceae com cinco espécies cada, Erythroxylaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com quatro espécies cada, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae e Sapindaceae com três espécies cada, Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae e Primulaceae com duas espécies cada. Vinte e nove famílias foram monoespecíficas. Das 108 espécies, 39 são árvores (36%, 43 arbustos (40%, seis subarbustos (5,5%, 14 lianas (13% e seis são ervas (5,5%. Sessenta e seis (61% espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias (83% são utilizadas popularmente, para o tratamento de alguma doença. As famílias com maior número de espécies medicinais foram: Fabaceae com oito espécies; Rubiaceae com cinco espécies e Solanaceae com quatro espécies. As espécies que apresentaram mais finalidades terapêuticas foram: Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae, Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Caryocaraceae, Cochlospermum regium (Mart. ex Schrank Pilg. (Bixaceae, Croton urucurana Bail. (Euphorbiaceae, Gomphrena officinalis Mart. (Amaranthaceae, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae, Lithrea molleoides (Vell. Engl. (Anacardiaceae

  2. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.


    >Curculio communis Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio thoracespinosus Goeze, 1777, Curculio armatus Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio denticulatus Gmelin, 1790 (non Schrank, 1781, nec Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio muricatus Goeze, 1777 (non Drury, 1773, Curculio murinus Geoffroy, 1785 (non Müller, 1764, Curculio fuscipes Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio tesselatus Geoffroy, 1785 (non Fabricius, 1781, Curculio sericeus Goeze, 1777, Curculio villosus Geoffroy, 1785 (non Fabricius, 1781, Curculio sericeus Gmelin, 1790 (non Goeze, 1777, nec Schaller, 1783, nec Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783, Curculio virgo Goeze, 1777, Curculio virgo Geoffroy, 1785 (non Goeze, 1777, Curculio virgo Gmelin, 1790 (non Goeze, 1777, nec Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio punctulatus Geoffroy, 1785.

    El estudio de 131 ejemplares de Curculiónidos, más o menos completos, de la colección Étienne Louis Geoffroy conservados en el Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de París (Entomología ha permitido identificar varias especies nominales que eran consideradas nomina dubia y establecer varias nuevas sinonimias y combinaciones, e incluso, en algunos casos, recuperar la prioridad de acuerdo con el Art. 23.9 del Código, declarando nomina protecta y nomina oblita. Las nuevas sinonimias son (se indica en primer lugar el nombre válido: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii

  3. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants Flutuação populacional de ácaros na cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch e em plantas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger


    January and high predator diversity was observed on associated plants and on peach plants, indicating the existence of species mobility in peach orchard.Apesar da grande importância da cultura do pêssego [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] no Rio Grande do Sul, pouco se conhece sobre a diversidade e a flutuação populacional de ácaros considerados importantes para esta cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi conhecer a flutuação populacional das espécies acarinas associadas às cultivares Premier e Eldorado nos municípios de Roca Sales e Venâncio Aires, Rio Grande do Sul. O estudo foi realizado no período de julho de 2008 a junho de 2009, quando foram amostradas 15 plantas escolhidas ao acaso numa área em cada município. As plantas foram divididas em quadrantes, e de cada quadrante foi escolhido um galho de onde foram retiradas três folhas das regiões apical, mediana e basal, totalizando 180 folhas/área. Foram coletadas, mensalmente, parte de cinco plantas não cultivadas mais abundantes. O período de uma hora sob microscópio estereoscópio foi suficiente para se obter uma amostra representativa. Um total de 1.124 ácaros foi coletado pertencentes a 14 famílias e 28 espécies. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 e Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 foram os ácaros fitófagos mais abundantes, enquanto Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 e Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 os ácaros predadores mais comuns. O esforço amostral foi suficiente. Nos dois pomares avaliados, os índices ecológicos foram baixos, mas um pouco superiores em Premier (H' 0,56; EqJ: 0,43 quando comparados a Eldorado (H' 0,53; EqJ 0,40. Em Premier não foram observadas espécies constantes, apenas acessórias com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni e T. aripo. Maior abundância foi observada em dezembro e janeiro, e maior quantidade em abril. Em Eldorado, T. ludeni e P. ulmi foram constantes. Maior abundância foi observada em novembro e dezembro, e

  4. Lossless quantum data compression and secure direct communication (United States)

    Boström, Kim


    message. Diese Dissertation behandelt die Kodierung und Verschickung von Information durch einen Quantenkanal. Ein Quantenkanal besteht aus einem quantenmechanischen System, welches vom Sender manipuliert und vom Empfänger ausgelesen werden kann. Dabei repräsentiert der individuelle Zustand des Kanals die Nachricht. Die zwei Themen der Dissertation umfassen 1) die Möglichkeit, eine Nachricht in einem Quantenkanal verlustfrei zu komprimieren und 2) die Möglichkeit eine Nachricht von einer Partei zu einer einer anderen direkt und auf sichere Weise zu übermitteln, d.h. ohne dass es einer dritte Partei möglich ist, die Nachricht abzuhören und dabei unerkannt zu bleiben. Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse der Dissertation sind die folgenden. Ein allgemeiner Formalismus für Quantencodes mit variabler Länge wird ausgearbeitet. Diese Codes sind notwendig um verlustfreie Kompression zu ermöglichen. Wegen der Quantennatur des Kanals sind die codierten Nachrichten allgemein in einer Superposition von verschiedenen Längen. Es zeigt sich, daß es unmöglich ist eine Quantennachricht verlustfrei zu komprimieren, wenn diese dem Sender nicht apriori bekannt ist. Im anderen Falle wird die Möglichkeit verlustfreier Quantenkompression gezeigt und eine untere Schranke für die Kompressionsrate abgeleitet. Des weiteren wird ein expliziter Kompressionsalgorithmus konstruiert, der für beliebig vorgegebene Ensembles aus Quantennachrichten funktioniert. Ein quantenkryptografisches Prokoll - das “Ping-Pong Protokoll” - wird vorgestellt, welches die sichere direkte übertragung von klassischen Nachrichten durch einen Quantenkanal ermöglicht. Die Sicherheit des Protokolls gegen beliebige Abhörangriffe wird bewiesen für den Fall eines idealen Quantenkanals. Im Gegensatz zu anderen quantenkryptografischen Verfahren ist das Ping-Pong Protokoll deterministisch und kann somit sowohl für die Übermittlung eines zufälligen Schlüssels als auch einer komponierten Nachricht verwendet werden

  5. Palynology and paleoecology of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Baghak section (east of Kopeh-Dagh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjooneh Keshmiri


    calculated in five purview and then the percent of each palynological elements were acquired. 3- Discussion, Results and Conclusion All of the 50 rock samples prepared have yielded dinofalgellate cysts. The assemblages recorded include such taxa as: Acomosphaera sp., Achomosphaera neptunii, Batioladinium sp., Bourkidinium granulatum, Cauca parva, Circulodinium sp., Circulodinium brevispinosum, Circulodinium distinctum, Cometodinium sp., Coronifera oceanica, Cribroperidinium sp., Cribroperidinium orthoceras, Florentinia sp., Florentinia cooksoniae, Florentinia mantelii, Glaphyrocysta sp., Gonyaulacysta sp., Gonyaulacysta polythyris, Hystrichosphaeridium sp., Kiokansium sp., Kiokansium polypes, Klithrosphaeridium sp., Muderongia sp., Muderongia tabulate, Odontochitina operculata, Oligosphaeridium complex, Oligosphaeridium poculum, Oligosphaeridium porosum, Oligosphaeridium totum, Paleoperidinium cretaceum, Prolixosphaeridium sp., Prolixosphaeridium parvispinium, Pseudoceratium sp., Pseudoceratium retusum, Pterodinium sp., Spiniferites sp., Spiniferites ramosus, Subtilisphaera sp., Systematophora sp., Tanyosphaeridium sp. (Plate 1-2. Based on the presence of the index dinoflagellate cyst, Odontochitina operculata throughout the entire section, it can be concluded that the first appearance of this species is before the first sample of the Sarcheshmeh Formation (sample 398 and therefore the identified dinoflagellate cysts are a part of the Odontochitina operculata Zone. This palynozone originally erected by Wilson (1984 for Aptian strata in New Zealand and Morgan (1980 suggest the age of Aptian for Odontochitina operculata Zone. The presence of species Gonyaulacysta polythyris, Circulodinium brevispinosum and Florentinia mantelii which are recorded from early Aptian strata in different part of the world such as Australia (Backhouse, 1988, France (Stover, 1996, south of Alpine Italia (Torricelli,2000 and south of Tanzania (Schrank & Mahmoud, 2002 in lower formation reveal the age